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Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 91

in

Hilbert space theory,

wavelets

and

generalized functions

by

Willi-Hans Steeb

International School for Scientific Computing

at

University of Johannesburg, South Africa

Preface

The purpose of this book is to supply a collection of problems in Hilbert

space theory, wavelets and generalized functions.

Prescribed books for problems.

1) Hilbert Spaces, Wavelets, Generalized Functions and Modern Quantum

Mechanics

by Willi-Hans Steeb

Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998

ISBN 0-7923-5231-9

2) Classical and Quantum Computing with C++ and Java Simulations

by Yorick Hardy and Willi-Hans Steeb

Birkhauser Verlag, Boston, 2002

ISBN 376-436-610-0

3) Problems and Solutions in Quantum Computing and Quantum Information, second edition

by Willi-Hans Steeb and Yorick Hardy

World Scientific, Singapore, 2006

ISBN 981-256-916-2

http://www.worldscibooks.com/physics/6077.html

The International School for Scientific Computing (ISSC) provides certificate courses for this subject. Please contact the author if you want to do

this course or other courses of the ISSC.

e-mail addresses of the author:

steebwilli@gmail.com

steeb_wh@yahoo.com

Home page of the author:

http://issc.uj.ac.za

Contents

Notation

ix

1 General

3 Hilbert Space L2 ()

3.1 Solved Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2 Supplementary Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

19

46

48

5 Fourier Transform

52

6 Wavelets

56

7 Linear Operators

60

8 Generalized Functions

8.1 Solved Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8.2 Supplementary Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

65

79

Bibliography

82

Index

84

vii

Notation

:=

N

Z

Q

R

R+

C

Rn

Cn

H

i

<z

=z

|z|

T S

ST

ST

f (S)

f g

x

xT

0

k.k

x y x y

xy

A, B, C

det(A)

tr(A)

rank(A)

AT

is defined as

belongs to (a set)

does not belong to (a set)

intersection of sets

union of sets

empty set

set of natural numbers

set of integers

set of rational numbers

set of real numbers

set of nonnegative real numbers

set of complex numbers

n-dimensional Euclidean space

space of column vectors with n real components

n-dimensional complex linear space

space of column vectors with n complex components

Hilbert

space

1

real part of the complex number z

imaginary part of the complex number z

modulus of complex number z

|x + iy| = (x2 + y 2 )1/2 , x, y R

subset T of set S

the intersection of the sets S and T

the union of the sets S and T

image of set S under mapping f

composition of two mappings (f g)(x) = f (g(x))

column vector in Cn

transpose of x (row vector)

zero (column) vector

norm

scalar product (inner product) in Cn

vector product in R3

m n matrices

determinant of a square matrix A

trace of a square matrix A

rank of matrix A

transpose of matrix A

ix

A

A

A

A1

In

I

0n

AB

AB

[A, B] := AB BA

[A, B]+ := AB + BA

AB

AB

jk

t

conjugate of matrix A

conjugate transpose of matrix A

conjugate transpose of matrix A

(notation used in physics)

inverse of square matrix A (if it exists)

n n unit matrix

unit operator

n n zero matrix

matrix product of m n matrix A

and n p matrix B

Hadamard product (entry-wise product)

of m n matrices A and B

commutator for square matrices A and B

anticommutator for square matrices A and B

Kronecker product of matrices A and B

Direct sum of matrices A and B

Kronecker delta with jk = 1 for j = k

and jk = 0 for j 6= k

delta function

Heavisides function

eigenvalue

real parameter

time variable

Hamilton operator

Chapter 1

General

Problem 1.

u, v H.

(i) Show that

(ii) Show that

ku + vk kuk + kvk.

Problem 2. Consider a Hilbert space H with scalar product h , i. The

scalar product implies a norm via kf k2 := hf, f i, where f H.

(i) Show that

kf + gk2 + kf gk2 = 2(kf k2 + kgk2 ).

(ii) Assume that hf, gi = 0, where f, g H. Show that

kf + gk2 = kf k2 + kgk2 .

Problem 3.

|hf, gi|2 hf, f ihg, gi = kf k2 kgk2

kf + gk kf k + kgk.

1

Problem 4.

hf |f ihg|gi

1

(hf |gi + hg|f i)2 .

4

c1 , c2 C. An antilinear operator K in this Hilbert space H is characterized

by

K(c1 |1 i + c2 |2 i) = c1 K|1 i + c2 K|2 i.

A comb is an antilinear operator K with zero expectation value for all states

|i of a certain complex Hilbert space H. This means

h|K|i = h|LC|i = h|L| i = 0

for all states |i H, where L is a linear operator and C is the complex

conjugation.

(i) Consider the two-dimensional Hilbert space H = C2 . Find a unitary

2 2 matrix such that

h|U C|i = 0.

(ii) Consider the Pauli spin matrices with 0 = I2 , 1 = x , 2 = y ,

3 = z . Find

3 X

3

X

h| C|ig , h| C|i

=0 =0

Problem 6. Let P be a nonzero projection operator in a Hilbert space

H. Show that kP k = 1.

Problem 7. A family, { j }jJ of vectors in the Hilbert space, H, is

called a frame if for any f H there exist two constants A > 0 and

0 < B < , such that

X

Akf k2

hj |f i|2 Bkf k2 .

jJ

1

1

, 1 =

.

0 =

1

1

Show that we have a tight frame.

General

spaces) X, Y . The null space or kernel of the linear map T , denoted by

kerT , is the subset of X defined by

kerT := { x X : T x = 0 }.

The range of T , denoted by ranT , is the subset of Y defined by

ranT := { y Y : there exists x X such that T x = y }.

Let P be a projection operator in a Hilbert space H. Show that ranP is

closed and

H = ranP kerP

is the orthogonal direct sum of ranP and kerP .

Problem 9. Let H be an arbitrary Hilbert space with scalar product

h , i. Show that if is a bounded linear functional on the Hilbert space H,

then there is a unique vector u H such that

(x) = hu, xi

for all x H.

Problem 10. Let H be an arbitrary Hilbert space. A bounded linear operator A : H H satisfies the Fredholm alternative if one of the following

two alternatives holds:

(i) either Ax = 0, A x = 0 have only the zero solution, and the linear

equations Ax = y, A x = y have a unique solution x H for every y H;

(ii) or Ax = 0, A x = 0 have nontrivial, finite-dimensional solution spaces

of the same dimension, Ax = y has a (nonunique) solution if and only if

y u for every solution u of A u = 0, and A x = y has a (nonunique)

solution if and only if y u for every solution u of Au = 0.

Give an example of a bounded linear operator that satisfies the Fredholm

alternative.

Problem 11. Let (M, d) be a complete metric space (for example a

Hilbert space) and let f : M M be a mapping such that

d(f (m) (x), f (m) (y)) kd(x, y),

x, y M

for some m 1, where 0 k < 1 is a constant. Show that the map f has

a unique fixed point in M .

Problem 12. Let H be a Hilbert space and let f : H H be a monotone

mapping such that for some constant > 0

kf (u) f (v)k ku vk

u, v H.

u + f (u) = w

has a unique solution u.

Problem 13.

hf, gihg, f i = i.

Problem 14.

kf + gk2 + kf gk2 = 2(kf k2 + kgk2 )

where the norm is implied by the scalar product of the Hilbert space.

Problem 15.

Show that

hf, gi =

1

1

kf + gk2 kf gk2

4

4

or

1

1

i

i

kf + gk2 kf gk2 + kf + igk2 kf igk2

4

4

4

4

depending on whether we are dealing with a real and complex Hilbert space.

hf, gi =

The Hilbert space projection theorem states that for every f H, there

exists a unique g G such that

(i) f g G

(ii) kf gk = inf kf hk

hG

is defined by

Show that if g is the minimizer of kf hk over all h G, then it is true

that f g G .

General

H. Then any vector f H can be written as

X

f=

hf, n in .

nZ

Now suppose that { n }nZ is also a basis for H, but it is not orthonormal.

Show that if we can find a so-called dual basis { n }nZ satisfying

hn |m i = (n m)

then for any vector f H, we have

X

f=

hf |n in .

nZ

and 1 otherwise.

Problem 18. Let (X1 , k k1 ) and (X2 , k k2 ) be two normed spaces. Show

that the product vector spaces X = X1 X2 is also a normed vector space

if we define

kxk := max(kx1 k1 , kx2 k2 )

with x = (x1 , x2 ).

Problem 19. Let A be a linear bounded self-adjoint operator in a Hilbert

space H. Let u, v H and C. Consider the equation

Au u = v.

(i) Show that for nonreal (i.e. it has an imaginary part) v cannot vanish

unless u vanishes.

(ii) Show that for nonreal we have

k(A I)1 vk

Problem 20.

1

kvk.

|=|

{ z C : |z| > 1 }

{ z C : |z| = 1 }.

Let H2 (E) be the Hardy spacee of square integrable functions on T, analytic

in the region E. The inner product for f (z), g(z) H2 (E) is defined by

Z

I

1

1

dz

f (ei ) g(ei )d =

hf, gi =

f (1/z )g(z) .

2

2i T

z

Let f (z) = z 2 and g(z) = z + 1. Find the scalar product hf, gi.

Problem 21. Let O = { u1 .u2 , . . . } be an orthonormal set in a infinite

dimensional Hilbert space. Show that if

x=

cj uj

j=1

then

kxk2 =

|cj |2 .

j=1

equivalent if for all > 0, there is a k(epsilon) such that for all j k()

we have d(xj , yj ) < . One writes { xk } { yk }. Obviously, is an

equivalence relationship. Show that equivalent Cauchy sequences have the

same limit.

Problem 23. Consider the sequence { xk }, k = 1, 2, . . . in R defined

by xk = 1/k 2 for all k = 1, 2, . . .. Show that this sequence is a Cauchy

sequence.

Problem 24. Let H be a Hilbert space and S be a sub Hilbert space.

Show that any element u of H can be decomposed uniquely

u=v+w

where v is in S and w is in S .

Problem 25.

v1 + v2

2

2

k2 + kv1 v2 k2 .

2ku v1 k + 2ku v2 k = k2 u

2

Problem 26.

S := {(p, q) : p, q P p q }.

General

Show that

d((p1 , q1 ), (p2 , q2 )) := |p1 q1 p2 q2 |

defines a metric.

Problem 27. Consider the vector space of all continuous functions defined on [a, b]. We define a metric

d(f, g) := max |f (x) g(x)|.

axb

Problem 28.

d(A, B) :=

n X

n

X

|ajk bjk |

j=1 k=1

defines a metric.

Let n 1. Consider the continuous function

0

0 t < 1/2 1/n

1

1/2 + 1/n t 1

Problem 29.

Show that the sequence { fn (t) } is not a Cauchy sequence for the uniform

norm, but with any of the Lp norms (1 p < ) it is a Cauchy sequence.

Problem 30. The sequence space consists of the set of all (bounded or

unbounded) sequences of complex

x = (1 , 2 , . . .)

Thus we have a vector space. Can we define a metric in this vector space

which is implied by a norm?

Problem 31.

hf |f ihg|gi

1

(hf |gi + hg|f i)2 .

4

Chapter 2

Finite Dimensional

Hilbert Spaces

Problem 1.

Consider the

1

0

,

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

, , .

1

1

0

1

0

0

(ii) Use the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization process to find mutually orthogonal vectors.

Problem 2.

basis)

1

1 0

,

2 0

1

1

1 0

,

0

2

1

0

1 1

,

2 1

0

0

1 1

2 1

0

are linearly independent. Show that they form a orthonormal basis in the

Hilbert space R4 .

Problem 3. Consider the Hilbert space R4 . Find all pairwise orthogonal

vectors (column vectors) x1 , . . . , xp , where the entries of the column vectors

8

p

X

xi xTi

i=1

Problem 4. A sequence { fn } (n N) of elements in a normed space E

is called a Cauchy sequence if, for every > 0, there exists a number M ,

such that kfp fq k < for p, q > M . Consider the Hilbert space R. Show

that

n

X

1

sn =

,

n1

(j 1)!

j=1

is a Cauchy sequence.

Problem 5. Two Cauchy sequences { xk } and { yk } are said to be equivalent if for all > 0, there is a k() such that for all j k() we have

d(xj , yj ) < . One writes { xk } { yk }. Obviously, is an equivalence

relationship. Show that equivalent Cauchy sequences have the same limit.

Problem 6. Consider the sequence { xk }, k = 1, 2, . . . in R defined

by xk = 1/k 2 for all k = 1, 2, . . .. Show that this sequence is a Cauchy

sequence.

Problem 7.

i

1

|0i =

,

|1i =

.

i

1

Problem 8.

kx + yk2 + kx yk2 2(kxk2 + kyk2 ).

Note that

kxk2 := hx, yi.

Problem 9. Let |0i, |1i be an orthonormal basis in the Hilbert space C2 .

Let

|i = cos(/2)|0i + ei sin(/2)|1i

where , R.

(i) Find h|i.

(ii) Find the probability |h0|i|2 . Discuss |h0|i|2 as a function of .

(iii) Assume that

1

0

|0i =

,

|1i =

.

0

1

Find the 2 2 matrix |ih| and calculate the eigenvalues.

Problem 10.

1

1

1

1

,

2 1

2 1

1

1

1

1

,

1

2

2 1

1

1

1

1

,

1

2

2 1

1

1

1

,

1

2 1

1

1

1

1

.

2 1

2 1

1

Show that these four vectors form a basis in R4 . Consider the 4 4 matrix

Q which is constructed from the four vectors given above, i.e. the columns

of the 4 4 matrix are the four vectors. Find QT . Is Q invertible? If so

find the inverse Q1 . What is the use of the matrix Q?

Problem 11. Consider the Hilbert space R4 . Let A be a symmetric 4 4

matrix over R. Assume that the eigenvalues are given by 1 = 0, 2 = 1,

3 = 2 and 4 = 3 with the corresponding normalized eigenfunctions

1

1 0

u1 = ,

2 0

1

1

1 0

u2 =

,

0

2

1

0

1 1

u3 = ,

2 1

0

Problem 12.

1

1

1 0

0 1

A=

, B=

,

2 0 1

2 1 0

1

1

0 i

1 0

C=

, D=

1

2 i 0

2

0

1 1

u4 =

.

2 1

0

11

the complex numbers with the scalar product

hA, Bi := tr(AB ),

A, B H.

1

1 =

2

0

1

1

0

,

1

2 =

2

0

i

1

1

0 =

2 0

1 j ,

2

i

0

0

1

j = 1, 2, 3

1

3 =

2

1

0

0

1

Problem 14. Let A, B be two n n matrices over C. We introduce the

scalar product

1

tr(AB )

= tr(AB ).

hA, Bi :=

trIn

n

This provides us with a Hilbert space.

The Lie group SU (N ) is defined by the complex n n matrices U

SU (N ) := { U : U U = U U = In , det(U ) = 1 }.

The dimension is N 2 1. The Lie algebra su(N ) is defined by the n n

matrices X

su(N ) := { X : X = X , trX = 0 }.

(i) Let U SU (N ). Calculate hU, U i.

(ii) Let A be an arbitrary complex nn matrix. Let U SU (N ). Calculate

hU A, U Ai.

(iii) Consider the Lie algebra su(2). Provide a basis. The elements of the

basis should be orthogonal to each other with respect to the scalar product

given above. Calculate the commutators of these matrices.

Problem 15.

Let H

0 1 0

~

S1 :=

1 0 1

2 0 1 0

where (0) = (1, 1, 1)T / 3.

(ii) Calculate the time evolution of

1

S3 := ~ 0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

spin-1 matrices, where

0 i 0

~

S2 :=

i 0 i .

2 0 i

0

Problem 16.

2 0 0

A = 0 0 1

0 1 0

kAk := sup kAxk

kxk=1

Problem 17.

1

1 0

u1 = ,

2 0

1

1

1 0

u2 =

,

0

2

1

0

1 1

u3 = ,

2 1

0

0

1 1

u4 =

2 1

0

Problem 18. Consider the Hilbert space R3 . Let x R3 , where x is

considered as a column vector. Find the matrix xxT . Show that at least

one eigenvalue is equal to 0.

Problem 19.

1 =

1

(I2 I2 + 1 1 ),

2

2 =

1

(I2 I2 1 1 )

2

13

(iii) Let e1 , e2 , e3 , e4 be the standard basis in C4 . Calculate

1 ej ,

2 ej ,

j = 1, 2, 3, 4

projections.

Problem 20.

2 0 2

A = 1 0 0.

0 0 1

the 3 3 matrices with the scalar product hA, Bi := tr(AB T ). Find the

norm of A with respect to this Hilbert space.

(ii) On the other hand A can be considered as a linear operator in the

Hilbert space R3 . Find die norm

kAk := sup kAxk,

x R3 .

kxk=1

(iii) Find the eigenvalues of A and AAT . Compare the result with (i) and

(ii).

Problem 21. Consider the Hilbert space R3 . Find the spectrum (eigenvalues and normalized eigenvectors) of matrix

1 2 3

A = 1 2 3.

1 2 3

Find kAk := supx=1 kAxk, where k.k denotes the norm and x R3 .

Problem 22. Find the spectrum (eigenvalues and normalized eigenvectors) of the 3 3 matrix

3 3 3

A = 3 3 3.

3 3 3

Find kAk, where k.k denotes the norms

kAk1 := sup kAxk

kxk=1

kAk2 :=

p

tr(AA ).

Problem 23. Consider the Hilbert space M4 (C) of all 4 4 matrices over

C with the scalar product hA, Bi := tr(AB ), where A, B M4 (C). The

-matrices are given by

0 0 0 1

0 0 0 i

0 0 1 0

0 0 i 0

1 =

, 2 =

0 1 0 0

0 i 0

0

1 0 0 0

i 0 0

0

0

0

3 =

i

0

and

0

0

0

i

i 0

0 i

,

0 0

0 0

1

0

4 =

0

0

0

0

5 = 1 2 3 4 =

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

.

0

0

jk :=

i

[j , k ],

2

j<k

(i) Calculate 12 , 13 , 14 , 23 , 24 , 34 .

(ii) Do the 16 matrices

I4 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 5 1 , 5 2 , 5 3 , 5 4 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 23 , 24 , 34

form a basis in the Hilbert space M4 (C)? If so is the basis orthogonal?

Problem 24. Find the spectrum (eigenvalues and normalized eigenvectors) of matrix

1 1 1

A = 1 1 1.

1 1 1

Find kAk, where k.k denotes the norm.

Problem 25. Let A and B be two arbitrary matrices. Give the definition

of the Kronecker product. Let uj (j = 1, 2, . . . , m) be an orthonormal basis

in the Hilbert space Rm . Let vk (k = 1, 2, . . . , n) be an orthonormal basis in

15

is an orthonormal basis in Rm+n .

Problem 26.

1

1

1 0

0 1

A=

, B=

,

2 0 1

2 1 0

1

1

0 i

1 0

, D=

C=

2 i 0

2 0 1

Problem 27. Show that the 2 2 matrices

1 0

1 1

1

A=

, B=

, C=

0 0

0 0

1

1

0

,

D=

1

1

1

1

form a basis in the Hilbert space M 2 (R). Apply the Gram-Schmidt technique to obtain an orthonormal basis.

Problem 28.

2 0 2

A = 1 0 0.

0 0 1

the 3 3 matrices over the real nunbers with the scalar product

hB, Ci := tr(BC T ).

Find the norm of A with respect to this Hilbert space.

(ii) On the other hand the matrix A can be considered as a linear operator

in the Hilbert space R3 . Find the norm

kAk := sup kAxk,

x R3 .

kxk=1

(iii) Find the eigenvalues of A and AT A. Compare the result with (i) and

(ii).

Problem 29. Consider the Hilbert space C2 . The Pauli spin matrices

x , y , z act as linear operators in this Hilbert space. Let

= ~3

H

be a Hamilton operator, where

z =

1

0

0

1

and is the frequency. Calculate the time evolution (intial value problem)

of

0 1

1 =

1 0

i.e.

dx

= [1 , H](t).

dt

The matrices 1 , 2 , 3 are the Pauli matrices, where

0 i

2 =

.

i 0

i~

Problem 30.

operator

0

:= ~ 0

H

0

i

0

0

i

0

0 0

0 0

3 =

i 0

0 i

0

i

0

0

i

0

.

0

0

i 0

0 i

0 0

0 0

i~

d3

= [3 , H](t).

dt

linear operator A is defined by

Ax = (w1 , w2 , . . .)T

where

wj :=

n

X

Mjk xk ,

k=1

wj := xj ,

j>n

j = 1, 2, . . . , n

17

hermitian. Show that A is unitary if M is unitary.

Problem 32. Consider the Hilbert space Cn . Let uj , j = 1, 2, . . . , n, and

vj , j = 1, 2, . . . , n be orthonormal bases in Cn , where uj , vj are considered

as column vectors. Show that

U=

n

X

uj vj

j=1

is a unitary n n matrix.

Consider the Hilbert space R2 . Given the vectors

3/2

3/2

0

, u3 =

.

u1 =

, u2 =

1/2

1/2

1

Problem 33.

The three vectors u1 , u2 , u3 are at 120 degrees of each other and are

normalized, i.e. kuj k = 1 for j = 1, 2, 3. Every given two-dimensional

vector v can be written as

c1 , c2 , c3 R

v = c1 u1 + c2 u2 + c3 u3 ,

1 2

(c + c22 + c23 )

2 1

subject to the two constraints

v c1 u1 c2 u2 c3 u3 = 0.

Problem 34. Let A, H be n n hermitian matrices, where H plays the

role of the Hamilton operator. The Heisenberg equations of motion is given

by

dA(t)

i

= [H, A(t)].

dt

~

with A = A(t = 0) = A(0). Let Ej (j = 1, 2, . . . , n2 ) be an orthonormal

basis in the Hilbert space H of the n n matrices with scalar product

hX, Y i := tr(XY ),

X, Y H.

2

A(t) =

n

X

j=1

cj (t)Ej

and H can be expanded as

2

H=

n

X

hj Ej .

j=1

Find the time evolution for the coefficients cj (t), i.e. dcj /dt, where j =

1, 2, . . . , n2 .

Problem 35. The sequence space consists of the set of all (bounded or

unbounded) sequences of complex numbers

x = (x1 , x2 , . . .)

Thus we have a vector space. Can we define a metric in this vector space

which is not implied by a norm?

Chapter 3

3.1

Solved Problems

Problem 1.

B := e2ixn : n Z .

Let

f (x) =

2x 0 x < 1/2

2(1 x) 1/2 x < 1

Is f L2 [0, 1]? Find the first two expansion coefficients of the Fourier

expansion of f with respect to the basis given above.

Problem 2.

quence

1 if 1 x 1/n

fn (x) = nx if 1/n x 1/n

+1 if 1/n x 1

Cauchy sequence in the norm of L2 [1, 1].

(ii) Show that fn (x) converges in the norm of L2 [1, 1] to

1 if 1 x < 0

sgn(x) =

.

+1 if 0 < x 1

19

(iii) Use this sequence to show that the space C[1, 1] is a subspace of

L2 [1, 1] that is not closed.

Problem 3. Let f L2 (R). Give the definition of the Fourier transform.

Let us call the transformed function f. Is f L2 (R)? What is preserved

under the Fourier transform?

Problem 4. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [a, b], where a, b R and b > a.

Find the condition on a and b such that

hcos(x), sin(x)i = 0

where h , i denotes the scalar product in L2 [a, b].

Hint. Since b > a, we can write b = x + , where > 0.

Problem 5. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, 1]. The Legendre polynomials are defined as

P0 (x) = 1,

Pn (x) =

1 dn 2

(x 1).

2n n! dxn

P0 (x) = 1,

P1 (x) = x,

P2 (x) =

1

(3x2 1),

2

P3 (x) =

1

(5x3 3x).

2

Normalize the four elements. Show that the four elements are pairwise

orthonormal.

Problem 6. Let R be a bounded region in n-dimensional space. Consider

the eigenvalue problem

u = u,

u(q R) = 0

(i) Show that all eigenvalues are real and positive

(ii) Show that the eigenfunctions which belong to different eigenvalues are

orthogonal.

Problem 7.

C[a, b] = { f (x) : f is continuous on x [a, b] }

Z

hf, gi :=

a

f (x)g (x)dx.

Hilbert Space L2 ()

21

Z

hf, f i =

f (x)f (x)dx = kf k2 .

the space C[a, b] which converges to an element which is not in the space

C[a, b].

Problem 8.

1 0<x

0

x=0

f (x) =

1 < 0

1

B := k (x) = exp(ikx) k Z .

2

Find the approximation a0 0 (x) + a1 1 (x) + a1 1 (x), where a0 , a1 , a1

are the Fourier coefficients.

Problem 9. Consider the linear operator A in the Hilbert space L2 [0, 1]

defined by Af (x) := xf (x). Find the matrix elements

hPi , APj i

for i, j = 0, 1, 2, 3, where Pi are the (normalized) Legrende polynomials. Is

the matrix Aij symmetric?

Problem 10.

g(x) = cos(x),

f (x) = x.

p(x) = a3 x3 + a2 x2 + a1 x + a0

such that

hg(x), p(x)i = 0,

hf (x), p(x)i = 0.

Problem 11.

functions

Let b > a. Consider the Hilbert space L2 ([a, b]) and the

xa

, n = 1, 2, . . .

n (x) := sin n

ba

which form an orthonormal basis in L2 ([a, b]). Find

b

Z

hm (x), xn (x)i

m (x)xn (x)dx,

m, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

Problem 12.

functions

Let b > a. Consider the Hilbert space L2 ([a, b]) and the

xa

n (x) := cos n

, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

ba

b

Z

hm (x), xn (x)i

m (x)xn (x)dx,

m, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

Problem 13.

functions

1

, n = 1, 2, . . .

1 + nx2

which are elements in this Hilbert space. Find

fn (x) =

Problem 14. Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R). Give the definition

and an example of an even function in L2 (R). Give the definition and an

example of an odd function in L2 (R). Show that any function f L2 (R)

can be written as a combination of an even and an odd function.

Problem 15. The Chebyshev polynomials Tn (x) of the 1-st kind are

defined for x [1, 1] and given by

Tn (x) = cos(n arccos x),

n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

The Chebyshev polynomials Un (x) of the 2-nd kind are defined for x

[1, 1] and given by

Un (x) =

sin((n + 1) arccos x)

,

1 x2

n = 0, 1, 2, . . . .

dx

H1 = L2 [1, 1],

,

1 x2

H2 = L2

2 1 x2 dx

[1, 1],

Hilbert Space L2 ()

23

which bases are formed by the Chebyshev polynomials of the 1-st and 2-nd

type

(1)

(1)

n 1, 0 = T0 (x) = 1

n (x) = 2Tn (x),

(2)

n (x) = Un (x),

n0

(1)

(2)

Problem 16. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [, ]. Obviously cos(x)

L2 [, ]. Find the norm k cos(x)k. Find nontrivial functions f, g

L2 [, ] such that

hf (x), cos(x)i = 0,

hg(x), cos(x)i = 0

and

hf (x), g(x)i = 0.

Problem 17.

polynomial p

p(x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d

such that

hp, 1i = 0,

Problem 18.

hp, xi = 0,

hp, x2 i = 0.

{ 1, x, x2 , . . . , xn , . . . }.

b

Z

hf, gi =

f (x)g(x)(x)dx,

(x) > 0

(i) a = 1, b = 1, (x) = 1 (Legrendre polynomials)

(ii) a = 1, b = 1, (x) = (1 x2 )1/2 (Chebyshev polynomials)

(iii) a = 0, b = +, (x) = ex (Laguerre polynomials)

2

(iv) a = , b = +, (x) = ex (Hermite polynomials)

Problem 19.

f (x) =

X

1

cos(jx).

2j

j=0

Is f an element of L2 [, ]?

Problem 20. Consider the Hilbert space L2 ([0, 1]). The shifted Legrendre

polynomials , defined on the interval [0, 1], are obtained from the Legrendre polynomial by the transformation y = 2x 1. The shifted Legrendre

polynomials are given by the recurrence formula

Pj (x) =

(2j + 1)(2x 1)

j

Pj (x)

Pj1 (x)

j+1

j+1

j = 1, 2, . . .

L2 ([0, 1]). A function u in the Hilbert space L2 ([0, 1]) can be approximated

in the form of a series with n + 1 terms

u(x) =

n

X

cj Pj (x)

j=0

equation of first kind

Z x

y(t)

dt = f (x),

0tx1

0 (x t)

with 0 < < 1 and f L2 ([0, 1]). Consider the ansatz

yn (x) = a0 x +

n

X

cj Pj (x).

j=0

kind ( = 1/2)

Z x

y(t)

dt = f (x)

xt

0

where

2

f (x) =

x(105 56x2 + 48x3 ).

105

Problem 21. The Fock space F is the Hilbert space of entire functions

with inner product given by

Z

2

1

f (z)g(z)e|z| dxdy,

z = x + iy

hf |gi :=

C

where C denotes the complex numbers. Therefore the growth of functions

in the Hilbert space F is dominated by exp(|z|2 /2). Let f, g F with

Taylor expansions

f (z) =

X

j=0

aj z j ,

g(z) =

X

j=0

bj z j .

Hilbert Space L2 ()

25

(ii) Consider the special that f (z) = sin(z) and g(z) = cos(z). Calculate

hf |gi.

(iii) Let

K(z, w) := ezw ,

z, w C.

Calculate hf (z)|K(z, w)i.

Problem 22. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, ]. Let k k be the norm

induced by the scalar product of L2 [0, ]. Find the constants a, b such that

k sin(x) (ax2 + bx)k

is a minimum.

Problem 23.

fn (x) =

x

,

1 + nx2

n = 1, 2, . . . .

lim kfn (x)k.

(ii) Does the sequence fn (x) converge uniformely on the real line?

Problem 24.

n for n x n + 1/n

fn (x) =

0

otherwise

(i) Calculate the norm kfn fm k implied by the scalar product. Does the

sequence { fn } converge in the L2 [0, ) norm?

(ii) Show that fn (x) converges pointwise in the domain [0, ) and find the

limit. Does the sequence converge pointwise uniformly?

(iii) Show that { fn } (n = 1, 2, . . .) is an orthonormal system. Is it a basis

in the Hilbert space L2 [0, )?

Problem 25.

x for 0 x 1/2

f (x) =

1 x for 1/2 x 1

n

B := 1, 2 cos(nx) :

o

n = 1, 2, . . . .

Find the Fourier expansion of f with respect to this basis. From this

expansion show that

X

2

1

.

=

8

(2k + 1)2

k=0

Problem 26. A particle is enclosed in a rectangular box with impenetrable walls, inside which it can move freely. The Hilbert space is

L2 ([0, a] [0, b] [0, c])

where a, b, c > 0. Find the eigenfunctions and the eigenvalues. What can

be said about the degeneracy, if any, of the eigenfunctions?

Problem 27.

function

f (x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d.

such that

hf (x), xi = 0,

hf (x), x2 i = 0,

hf (x), x3 i = 0

Problem 28. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, 1]. Find a non-trivial

function f such that

hf (x), xi = 0,

hf (x), x2 i = 0,

hf (x), x3 i = 0

Problem 29.

1, x, x2 , x3 , x4 .

Problem 30. Consider the Hilbert space L2 (T). Let f L2 (T). Give an

example of a bounded linear functional.

Problem 31. Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R). Show that the Hilbert

space is the direct sum of the Hilbert space M of even functions and the

Hilbert space N of odd functions. Give an example of such functions in

this Hilbert space.

Hilbert Space L2 ()

Problem 32.

27

Af (x) := xf (x)

kAk := sup kAf k.

kf k=1

Problem 33.

g(x) = cos(x),

f (x) = x.

p(x) = a3 x3 + a2 x2 + a1 x + a0

such that

hg(x), p(x)i = 0,

hf (x), p(x)i = 0.

Problem 34.

f (x) =

1 cos(2x)

.

x

Problem 35. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [1, 1]. The Legendre polynomials are given by

Pj (x) :=

1 dj 2

(x 1)j .

2j j! dxj

hPj (x), Pk (x)i.

Problem 36. Consider the Hilbert space H = L2 (T). This is the vector

space of 2-periodic functions. Then

1

u(x) =

2

is a constant function which is normalized, i.e. kuk = 1. Show that the

projection operator Pu defined by

Pu f := hu, f iu

maps a function f to its mean. This means

Z

Pu f = hf i,

hf i =

f (x)dx.

Problem 37. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [, ] and the vector space

of continiuous real-valued functions C[, ] on the interval [, ]. Let

k > 0 and

0 if x 0

fk (x) = kx if 0 x 1/k

1 if 1/k x

The sequence of functions fk belongs to the vector space C[, ].

(i) Show that fn in the norm of the Hilbert space L2 [, ], where

0 if x 0

(x) :=

1 if 0 < x

so that the sequence { fk } is a Cauchy sequence in the Hilbert space

L2 [, ].

(ii) Show that k gk > 0 for every g C[, ]. Conclude that C[, ]

is not a Hilbert space.

Problem 38. Let be the unit disk. A Hilbert space of analytic functions

can be defined by

(

)

Z

H :=

|f (z)|2 ds <

a<1

|z|=a

Z

hf, gi := lim

a1

f (z)g(z)ds.

|z|=a

the analytic function f . Find the norm of f .

Problem 39. Let Cn denote the complex Euclidean space. Let z =

(z1 , . . . , zn ) Cn and w = (w1 , . . . , wn ) Cn then the scalar product

(inner product) is given by

z w := zw = zwT

where z = (z 1 , . . . , z n ). Let En denote the set of entire functions in Cn .

Let Fn denote the set of f En such that

Z

1

|f (z)|2 exp(|z|2 )dV

kf k2 := n

Cn

Hilbert Space L2 ()

29

dV =

n

Y

j=1

dxj dyj =

n

Y

rj drj dj

j=1

with zj = rj eij . The norm follows from the scalar product of two functions

f, g Fn

Z

1

f (z)g(z) exp(|z|2 )dV.

hf, gi := n

Cn

Let

zm := z1m1 znmn

Pn

where the multiindex m is defined by m! = m1 ! mn ! and |m| = j=1 mj .

Find the scalar product

hzm , zp i.

Problem 40. Let be a complex-valued differentiable function of in

the interval [0, 2] and (0) = (2), i.e. is an element of the Hilbert

space L2 ([0, 2]). Assume that (normalization condition)

Z 2

()()d = 1.

0

Calculate

Z

d

~ 2

() ()d

=

i 0

d

where = denotes the imaginary part.

Problem 41.

The Legrendre polynomials are defined on the interval

[1, 1] and defined by the recurrence formula

Lj (x) =

2j + 1

j

xLj (x)

Lj1 (x)

j+1

j+1

j = 1, 2, . . .

L2 ([1, 1]). Calculate the scalar product

hLj (x), Lk (x)i

for j, k = 0, 1, . . .. Discuss.

Problem 42.

for 1 x 0

1

fn (x) =

1 nx for 0 x 1/n

0

for 1/n x 1

Show that fn L2 [1, 1]. Show that fn is a Cauchy sequence.

Problem 43. Consider the Hilbert space L2 ([1, 1]). The Chebyshev

polynomials are defined by

Tn (x) := cos(n cos1 x),

n = 0, 1, 2, . . . .

T0 (x) = 1,

T2 (x) = 2x2 1,

T1 (x) = x,

hT0 , T1 i,

hT1 , T2 i,

hT2 , T3 i.

Z

Tm (x)Tn (x)

dx

1 x2

1

for (m, n) = (0, 1), (m, n) = (1, 2), (m, n) = (2, 3).

Problem 44.

(i) Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, 1] with the scalar

product h, i. Let f : [0, 1] [0, 1]

2x if x [0, 1/2)

f (x) :=

2(1 x) if x [1/2, 1]

Thus f L2 [0, 1]. Calculate the moments k , k = 0, 1, 2, . . . defined by

Z 1

k := hf (x), xk i

f (x)xk dx.

0

|k |2 <

|f (x)|2 dx.

k=0

in the class C 1 (i.e., the derivative df /dt exists and is continuous) on the

interval [a, b]. Thus f is also an element of the Hilbert space L2 ([a, b]).

Show that

Z

b

lim

Problem 46.

f (t) sin(t)dt = 0.

a

2

2

SU (1, 1) =

||

||

=

1

.

(1)

Hilbert Space L2 ()

31

The elements of this Lie group act as analytic automorphism of the disk

:= { |z| < 1 }

under

z +

z zg =

z +

Z

Hn := { f (z) analytic in , kf k2 =

|f (z)|2 (1 |z|2 )n2 dxdy < }

and

1

+ )).

f ((

z + )/(z

Un (g)f (z) :=

(z + )n

L2 (, (1 |z|2 )n2 dxdy)

form a closed subspace. Un is a representation, i.e.,

Un (gh) = Un (g)Un (h)

and Un (e) = I, where e is the identity element in SU (1, 1) (2 2 unit

matrix).

Show that

1

dx dy

(1 |z|2 )2

is invariant z zg.

Problem 47. Consider the problem of a particle in a one-dimensional

box. The underlying Hilbert space is L2 (a, a). Solve the Schrodinger

equation

i~

= H

t

as follows: The formal solution is given by

(t) = exp(iHt/~)(0).

The

Expand (0) with respect to the eigenfunctions of the operator H.

Calculate the probability

P = |h, (t)i|2

where

q

1

(q) = sin

a

a

and

q

1

(q, 0) = sin

.

a

a

Problem 48.

Ty f (x) = f (x y),

translation operator

n/2

Ds f (x) = |s|

modulation operator

1

f (s

x),

s R \ {0}

dilation operator

where x k = k1 x1 + + xn kn .

(i) Find kTy f k, kMk k, kDs f k, where k k denotes the norm in L2 (Rn ).

(ii) Find the adjoint operators of these three operators.

Problem 49.

with the norm g H1 (a, b))

kgk1 :=

kgk20 + kg/xk20 .

Consider the Hilbert space L2 (, ) and f (x) = sin(x). Find the norm

kf k1 .

Problem 50.

Z y

f (y) = f (x) +

f 0 (s)ds.

x

(ii) Show that

p

|f (y) f (x)| kf k1 |y x|.

Problem 51. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, ). The Laguerre polynomials are defined by

dn n x

(x e ),

n = 0, 1, 2, . . . .

dxn

The first five Laguerre polynomials are given by

Ln (x) = ex

L0 (x) = 1

L1 (x) = 1 x

L2 (x) = 2 4x + x2

L3 (x) = 6 18x + 9x2 x3

L4 (x) = 24 96x + 72x2 16x3 + x4 .

Hilbert Space L2 ()

33

1 x/2

e

Ln (x)

n!

n (x) =

Problem 52. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [, ]. A basis in this

Hilbert space is given by

1

B = eikx : k Z .

2

Find the Fourier expansion of

f (x) = 1.

Problem 53.

f (x) =

1

,

1 + x2

g(x) =

x

.

1 + x2

Z

hf, gi =

f (x)g(x)dx.

f (t) =

sin(t)

,

t

g(t) =

1 cos(t)

.

t

product

Z

hf, gi =

f (t)g(t)dt.

Problem 54. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, 1]. Let P n be the n + 1dimensional real linear space of all polynomial of maximal degree n in the

variable x, i.e.

P n = span{ 1, x, x2 , . . . , xn }.

The linear space P n can be spanned by various systems of basis functions.

An important basis is formed by the Bernstein polynomials

{B0n (x), B1n (x), . . . , Bnn (x)}

of degree n with

Bin (x) := xi (1 x)ni ,

i = 0, 1, . . . , n.

{D0n (x), D1n (x), . . . , Dnn (x) }

which consists of the n + 1 dual basis functions

Din (x) =

n

X

j=0

hDin (x), Bjn (x)i = ij .

(i) Calculate the scalar product

hBim (x), Bjn (x)i.

(ii) Find the coefficients cij .

Problem 55.

on the disc

D := { z C : |z| 1 }.

cn z n .

n=

f into D. This means

u = 0

and u = f

on D = T

where := 2 /x2 + 2 /y 2 .

Problem 56.

U (1) = { e2i : 0 < 1 }.

The Hilbert space L2 (U (1)) is the space L2 ([0, 1]) consisting of all measureable funcrions f () with period 1 such that

Z 1

|f ()|2 d < .

0

Hilbert Space L2 ()

35

{ e2im : m Z }

form an orthonormal basis for the Hilbert space L2 ([0, 1]). Thus every

f L2 ([0, 1]) can be expressed uniquely as

Z 1

+

X

f () =

cm e2im ,

cm =

f ()e2im d.

0

m=

Calculate

Z

|f ()|2 .

Problem 57. The Hilbert space L2 (R) is the vector space of measurable functions defined almost everywhere on R such that |f |2 is integrable.

H1 (R) is the vector space of functions with first derivatives in L2 (R). Give

two examples of such a function.

Problem 58.

1 inx

e

2

nZ

1

K(x, t) = eitx .

2

For t fixed find the Fourier expansion of this function.

Problem 59. Consider the vector space C([0, 1]) of continouos functions.

We define the triangle function

2x 0 x 1/2

(x) :=

.

2 2x 1/2 < x 1

Let 0 (x) := x and

n (x) := (2j x k)

where j = 0, 1, 2, . . ., n = 2j + k and 0 k < 2j . The functions

{ 1, 0 , 1 , . . . }

are the Schauder basis for the vector space C([0, 1]). Let f C([0, 1]).

Then

X

f (x) = a + bx +

cn n (x).

n=1

(i) Find the Schauder coefficients a, b, cn .

(ii) Consider g : [0, 1] [0, 1]

g(x) = 4x(1 x).

Find the Schauder coefficients for this function.

Problem 60.

0, 1, 2, . . . be

2

hn (x) =

(1)n

dn ex

exp(x2 /2)

.

4

dxn

2n/2 n!

Thus hn for an orthonormal basis in the Hilbert space L2 (R). Consider the

sequence

s

X

1

fs (x) =

ein hn (x)

s + 1 n=0

where s = 0, 1, 2, . . .. Show that the sequence converges weakly but not

strongly to 0.

Problem 61. Let CnN be the vector space of all nN complex matrices.

Let Z CnN . Then Z Z T , where T denotes transpose. One defines a

Gaussian measure on CnN by

d(Z) :=

1

exp(tr(ZZ ))dZ

nN

where dZ denotes the Lebesgue measure on CnN . The Fock space F(CnN )

consists of all entire functions on CnN which are square integrable with

respect to the Gaussian measure d(Z). With the scalar product

Z

f, g F(CnN )

hf |gi :=

f (Z)g(Z)d(Z),

CnN

one has a Hilbert space. Show that this Hilbert space has a reproducing

kernel K. This means a continuous function K(Z, Z 0 ) : CnN CnN C

such that

Z

K(Z, Z 0 )f (Z 0 )d(Z 0 )

f (Z) =

CnN

Problem 62.

L2 [0, )

f (x) = exp(u1/4 ) sin(u1/4 ).

Hilbert Space L2 ()

Find

Z

37

f (x)xn dx,

n = 0, 1, 2, . . . .

Problem 63.

uct

hf1 , f2 i =

2

(ii) Let f1 (z) = z 2 and f2 (z) = sin(z). Find hf1 , f2 i.

Problem 64.

2

where m, n = 0, 1, . . . and N is the normalization factor. Consider the

two-dimensional potential

V (x1 , x2 ) =

a 4

(x + x42 ) + cx1 x2 .

4 1

V (T x) = V (x).

(ii) Show that these 2 2 matrices form a group. Is the group abelian.

(iii) Find the conjugacy classes and the irreducible representations.

(iv) Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R2 ) with the orthogonal basis

2

where m, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .. Find the invariant subspaces from the projection

operators of the irreducible representations.

Problem 65. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [, ]. A basis in this

Hilbert space is given by

1 ikx

B=

e

: kZ .

2

Find the Fourier expansion of

f (x) = 1.

Problem 66. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, 1]. Let P n be the n + 1dimensional real linear space of all polynomial of maximal degree n in the

variable x, i.e.

P n = span{ 1, x, x2 , . . . , xn }.

The linear space P n can be spanned by various systems of basis functions.

An important basis is formed by the Bernstein polynomials {B0n (x), B1n (x), . . . , Bnn (x)}

of degree n with

Bin (x) := xi (1 x)ni ,

i = 0, 1, . . . , n.

(

The Bernstein polynomials have a unique dual basis {D0 x), D1n (x), . . . , Dnn (x) }

which consists of the n + 1 dual basis functions

Din (x)

n

X

j=0

hDin (x), Bjn (x)i = ij .

(i) Find the scalar product

hBim (x), Bjn (x)i.

(ii) Find the coefficients cij .

Problem 67. Let V be a metric vector space. A reproducing kernel

Hilbert space on V is a Hilbert space H of functions on V such that for each

x V , the point evaluation functional

x (f ) := f (x),

f H

reproducing kernel K which is a function on V V characterized by the

properties that for all f H and x V , K(x, ) H and

f (x) = hf, K(x, )iH

where h, iH denotes the inner product on H. The reproducing kernel K

uniquely determines the reproducing kernel Hilbert space H. The reproducing kernel Hilbert space of a reproducing kernel K is denoted by HK .

The Paley-Wiener space is defined by

S := { f C(Rd ) L2 (Rd ) : suppf [, ]d }

Hilbert Space L2 ()

39

is given by

Z

1

f (x)eixk dx,

k Rd

f(k) :=

( 2)2d R2d

where x k = x1 k1 + + xd kd is the inner product in Rd . The norm on the

vector space S inherits from that in L2 (Rd ). Show that the reproducing

kernel for the Paley-Wiener space S is the sinc function

d

Y

sin((xj yj ))

sinc(x, y) :=

,

(xj yj )

j=1

x, y Rd .

space L2 (R) starting from ( > 0)

e|x|/ ,

xe|x|/ ,

x2 e|x|/ ,

x3 e|x|/ , . . . .

Problem 69. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [1, 1]. Normalize the function f (x) = x in this Hilbert space.

Problem 70.

X

zn

Hn (u)Hn (v)

n!

n=0

Problem 71. Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R). Let j, k = 1, 2, . . ..

Consider the functions

fj (x) = xj e|x| ,

fk (x) = xk e|x| .

Z

fj (x)fk (x)dx =

fj (x)fk (x)dx.

Discuss.

Problem 72. Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R) and the one-dimensional

Schr

odinger equation (eigenvalue equation)

d2

2 + V (x) u(x) = Eu(x)

dx

where the potential V is given by

V (x) = x2 +

ax2

1 + bx2

u(x) = ex

/2

v(x)

and find the differential equation for v. Discuss. Make a polynomial ansatz

for v.

Problem 73. Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R). Let g > 0. Consider

the one-dimensional Schr

odinger equation (eigenvalue equation)

x2

d2

2

u(x) = Eu(x).

2 +x +

dx

1 + gx2

Find a solution of the second order differential equation by making the

ansatz

u(x) = A(1 + gx2 ) exp(x2 /2).

Problem 74. (i) Consider the Hilbert space L2 [1/2, 1/2]. Show that

the following sets

B1 := { k (x) = exp(2ikx), k Z }

B2 := { k (x) = 2 sin(2kx), k N }

each form an orthonormal basis in this Hilbert space.

(ii) Expand the step function

1 for x [1/2, 0]

f (x) =

1 for x [0, 1/2]

with respect to the basis B1 and with respect to the basis B2 . Show that

the two expansions are equivalent. Recall that

2 sin(x) sin(y) cos(x y) cos(x + y).

box [a, a]. The underlying Hilbert space is L2 [a, a]. An orthonormal

basis in L2 [a, a] is given by

(+)

()

B = { uk (q), uk (q) : k N }

Hilbert Space L2 ()

41

where

(+)

uk

1

= cos

a

(k 1/2)q

a

()

uk

1

= sin

a

kq

a

.

The formal solution of the initial value problem of the Schrodinger equation

i~

= H

t

is given by

(t) = exp(iHt/~)(0).

Let

1

(q) = sin(q/a).

a

1

(q, 0) = sin(q/a),

a

Find exp(iHt/~)

and P = |h, (t)i|2 .

Problem 76. Let n be a positive integer. Consider the Hilbert space

L2 [0, n] and the function

f (x) = ex .

Find a, b R such that

kf (x) (ax2 + bx)k

is a minimum. The norm in the Hilbert space L2 [0, n] is induced by the

scalar product.

Problem 77.

Z

Z

f (x)dx = 1,

xf (x)dx = 1.

0

Problem 78. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, 2]. The linear operator

Lf (x) := df (x)/dx acts on a dense subset of L2 [0, 2]. Show that this linear

operator is not bounded.

Problem 79.

S 2 = { (x1 , x2 , x3 ) : x21 + x22 + x23 = 1 }.

L2 (R3 , dx) = L2 (R+ , r2 dr) L2 (S 2 , sin()dd).

Let I be the identity operator in the Hilbert space L2 (S 2 , sin()dd). Then

the radial momentum operator

1

Pr := i~

r

r r

is identified with the closure of the operator Pr I defined on D(Pr )

L2 (S 2 , sin()dd) where

1 d

+ 2

+ 2

+

D(Pr ) = f L2 (R , r dr) : f AC(R ),

r0

r dr

and for each f D(Pr )

1 d

(rf (r))

Pr f (r) = i~

r dr

where Pr is maximal symmetric in L2 (R+ , r2 dr). Show that Pr is not selfadjoint.

Problem 80.

f (x) = | sin(x)|

g(x) = | cos(x)|.

kf (x) g(x)k

in this Hilbert space.

Problem 81. Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R). Show that the spectrum

of the position operator x

is the real line denoted by R.

Problem 82.

1

n (x) = p

e2in arctan(x) ,

(1 + x2 )

nZ

Problem 83.

tions

Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, ). Show that the funcn (x) = ex/2 Ln (x),

n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

form an orthonormal basis in L2 [0, ), where Ln are the Laguerre polynomials defined by

n

X

x dn n x

(1)k n k

Ln (x) =

(x

e

)

=

x .

n! dxn

k!

k

k=0

Hilbert Space L2 ()

43

Problem 84. Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R). Show that the functions

n (x) =

2n/2

2

1

Hn (x)ex /2 ,

1/4

n!()

n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

form an orthonormal basis in the Hilbert space L2 (R), where Hn are the

Hermite polynomials

2

Hn (x) = (1)n ex

Problem 85.

L2 [a, b]. Find

dn ex

,

dxn

n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

Z

b

2

sin

a

The functions

r

n (x) =

n(x a)

ba

2

sin

ba

.

n(x a)

ba

Problem 86. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, ) and

r Z

r Z

2

2

f (x) =

g(y) cos(yx)dy,

g(x) =

f (y) cos(yx)dy.

0

0

Let g : R+ R

g(y) = ey

Find f (x).

Problem 87. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [1, 1]. An orthonormal

basis in this Hilbert space is given by

1 ikx

B= e

: |x| , k Z .

2

Consider the function f (x) = eiax in this Hilbert space, where the constant

a is real but not an integer. Apply Parsevals relation

X

1

kf k2 =

|hf, k i|2 , k (x) = eikx

2

kZ

to show that

2

1

.

=

2

2

(a k)

sin (ax)

k=

Problem 88.

f (x) =

x

sinh(x)

X

x

x2

.

=1+2

(1)j 2

sinh(x)

x + (j)2

j=1

Z

nN

nN

H(C

) := f : C

C | f holomorphic

CnN

d(z) =

1

nN

exp(tr(zz )),

dz =

n Y

N

Y

dxjk dyjk .

j=1 k=1

Show that H(CnN is a Hilbert space with respect to the inner product

Z

hf, gi =

f (z)g(z)d(z).

CnN

Problem 90.

x1

R = x2 ,

x3

x01

R0 = x02 .

x03

Z

p

1

exp(|R R0 |/ X

0

=

cos(n(

))

Jn (kr)J(kr0 ) exp( k 2 + 1/2 |x3 x03 |)kdk

n

0

2

|R R |

k + 1/

0

n=0

where n = 1 for n = 0 and n = 2 for n > 0 and Jm (kr) is ordinary Bessel

function of order m.

(ii) Consider the functions

fs,k,n (R) =

k

Jn (kr)ein+isx3

2

Hilbert Space L2 ()

45

Z

Z 2 Z +

dx3

fs,k,n (R)fs0 ,k0 ,n0 (R)rdr = nn0 (s s0 )(k k 0 )

0

Problem 91. Let a > 0. Consider the Hilbert space L2 ([0, a]) and the

function fn L2 ([0, a])

1

fn (x) = e2ixn/a ,

a

n = 1, 2, . . .

Problem 92. Let a > 0. Consider the Hilbert space L2 ([0, a]) and the

linear bounded operator

T f (x) = xf (x),

f L2 ([0, a]).

Find kAk.

Problem 93. Let a > 0. Consider the Hilbert space L2 ([0, a]) and the

functions fn L2 ([0, a])

1

fn (x) = e2ixn/a ,

a

Find kfn (x)k and kdfn (x)/dxk.

n = 1, 2, . . .

3.2

Supplementary Problems

Problem 94. Let 0 r < 1. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, 2] and

f () L2 [0, 2]. Show that

1

2

f ()d +

0

Problem 95.

1

2

f ()

0

2 X

rj f () cos(j( ))d

j=1

1 r2

d.

1 2r cos( ) + r2

f () =

cn ein

n=

where [, ] and

c0 = 1, c1 = c1 = 1, c2 = c2 =

Problem 96.

1

1

, . . . , cn = cn = .

2

n

R = j=

j= Ij ,

interval [j dj1 /2, j+1 + dj+1 /2) such that

j=

X

fj2 (x) = 1

j=

and fj2 (x) = 1 fj2 (2j+1 x) for x near j+1 . Show that the functions

2

fj (x) sin

gj,k (x) = p

2dj

(2k + 1)(x j ) ,

2dj

k = 0, 1, 2, . . .

partition fj .

Problem 97.

Let

S = L2,real (R, dx/(1 + |x|3 ))

Hilbert Space L2 ()

47

L(q) :=

d2

+ q.

dx2

Show that the operator L(q) defines a selfadjoint operator in the Hilbert

space L2 (R, dx).

Problem 98. Let a > 0. Consider the Hilbert space L2 ([0, a] [0, a]

[0, a]). Let nj Z with j = 1, 2, 3. Show that the functions

n1 ,n2 ,n3 (x) =

1

exp(i(n1 x1 + n2 x2 + n3 x3 ))

a3/2

Chapter 4

an element of `2 (N). We define the linear operator A in `2 (N) as

Ax = (x2 , x3 , . . .)T

i.e. x1 is omitted and the n+1st coordinate replaces the nth for n = 1, 2, . . ..

Then for the domain we have D(A) = `2 (N). Find A y and the domain of

A , where y = (y1 , y, . . .). Is A unitary?

Problem 2. Consider the Hilbert space `2 (N) and x = (x1 , x2 , . . .)T . The

linear bounded operator A is defined by

A(x1 , x2 , x3 , . . . , x2n , x2n+1 , . . .)T = (x2 , x4 , x1 , x6 , x3 , x8 , x5 , . . . , x2n+2 , x2n1 , . . .)T .

Show that the operator A is unitary. Show that the point spectrum of A is

empty and the continuous spectrum is the entire unit circle in the -plane.

Problem 3. Consider the Hilbert space `2 (N). Suppose that S and T

are the right and left shift linear operators on this sequence space, defined

by

S(x1 , x2 , . . .) = (0, x1 , x2 , . . .),

Show that T = S .

48

Problem 4.

0

1

0

A=

In other words

Problem 5.

49

1

0

1

0

0

1

0

1

..

.

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

..

.

...

...

....

...

1 if i = j + 1

aij = 1 if i = j 1

0 otherwise

P0 (x) = 1,

P1 (x) = x,

P2 (x) =

1

(3x2 1), . . . .

2

Z

+1

Ajk =

Pj (x)

1

dPk (x)

dx

dx

Hilbert space `2 (N0 ). Is kAk < ?

Problem 6. Let Z be the set of integers. Consider the Hilbert space

`2 (Z2 ). Let (m1 , m2 ) Z2 . Let f (m1 , m2 ) be an element of `2 (Z2 ). Consider the unitary operators

U f (m1 , m2 ) := e2im2 f (m1 +1, m2 ),

They are the so-called magnetic translation operators with phase and ,

respectively. Find the spectrum of U and V . Find the commutator [U, V ].

The so-called Harper operator which is self-adjoint is defined by

:= U + U + V + V .

H

Consider the case , irrational and , rational.

Find the spectrum of H.

of a linear operator H

is defined as the

Problem 7. The spectrum (H)

set of all for which the resolvent

1

R() = (I H)

is self-adjoint, the spectrum is a

does not exist. If the linear operator H

subset of the real axis. The Lebesgue decomposition theorem states that

= pp ac sing

where pp is the countable union of points (the pure point spectrum), ac

is absolutely continuous with respect to Lebesgue measure and sing is

singular with respect to Lebesgue measure, i.e. it is supported on a set of

measure zero. Consider the Hilbert space `2 (Z) and the linear operator

= I2 I2 3 1 3 I2 I2

H

where 1 is at position 0. Find the spectrum of this linear operator.

Problem 8. Let M be any n n matrix. Let x = (x1 , x2 , . . .)T . The

linear operator A is defined by

Ax = (w1 , w2 , . . .)T

where

wj =

n

X

Mjk xk ,

j = 1, 2, . . . , n

k=1

wj = xj ,

j>n

hermitian. Show that A is unitary if M is unitary.

Problem 9. Let be the unit disk. A Hilbert space of analytic functions

can be defined by

(

)

Z

H :=

|f (z)|2 ds <

a<1

|z|=a

Z

hf, gi := lim

a1

f (z)g(z)ds.

|z|=a

the analytic function f . Find the norm of f .

Problem 10. Let |ni be the number states (n = 0, 1, . . .). Let k =

0, 1, . . .. Define the operators

Tk :=

X

n=0

|nih2n + k|.

(i) Show that Tk Tk0 = kk0 I.

k Tk = Pk is a projection operator.

(iv) Is the operator

X

Tk Tk

k=0

unitary?

51

Chapter 5

Fourier Transform

Problem 1. Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R). Find the Fourier transform of the function

if

1 x 0

1

if

x0

f (x) = ex

0 otherwise

Problem 2.

f (x) =

exp(|x|),

2

(ii) Calculate

Z

> 0.

f (x)dx.

Problem 3.

1 |t|

for

1 < t < 1

f (t) =

0 otherwise

Can we conclude that f(k) = f(k)?

52

Fourier Transform

Problem 5.

form of

Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R). Find the Fourier transf (x) = ea|x| ,

Problem 6.

53

a > 0.

1

|x| < a

fa (x) = 2a

0 |x| > a

Calculate

Z

fa (x)dx

R

Problem 7.

1

if

1/2 || 1

()

=

0 otherwise

and

()

= e|| ,

> 0.

and (),

i.e.

Z

1

eit ()

(t) =

2 R

Z

1

eit ().

(t) =

2 R

(ii) Calculate the scalar product h(t)|(t)i by utilizing the identity

2h(t)|(t)i = h()|

()i.

Problem 8.

L2 (R)

f (x) =

1 if |x| < 1

0 if |x| 1

f[

f = ff.

Problem 9.

Let

f() =

(1 2 ) for || 1

0

for || > 1

Find f (t).

Problem 10.

fa : R R

for

a x 0

x/a2 + 1/a

for

0xa

fa (x) = x/a2 + 1/a

0

otherwise

Problem 11.

1

fa (t) = ea|t| .

a

Problem 12. Show that the Fourier transform of the rectangular window

of size N

1

for

0nN 1

wn =

0 otherwise

is

W (ei ) =

e

.

sin(/2)

Problem 13. Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R). Let T > 0. Consider

the function in L2 (R)

A cos(t)

for

T < t < T

f (t) =

0

otherwise

where A is a positive constant. Calculate the Fourier transform.

Problem 14. Let > 0. Show that the Fourier transform of the Gaussian

function

x2

1

g (x) =

exp 2

2

2

is again a Gaussian function

g (k) = e

We have

g (x)dx

2 2

k /2

= 1. Is

Z

gk (k)dk = 1 ?

Fourier Transform

Problem 15.

55

f (x) = sech(x)

is an element of L2 (R) and L1 (R). Find the Fourier transform of the function.

Problem 16.

2fa (x) +

sin(ax)

ax

Problem 17.

21/4

Hn ( 2x) exp(x2 ),

fn (x) =

2n n!

n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

in the Hilbert space L2 (R). Do the Fourier transform of the functions form

an orthonormal basis in the Hilbert space L2 (R).

Problem 18. The Hilbert transform h(t) of the function f (t) is the

principal value of the convolution of f (t) with the kernel function k(t) =

1/(t)

Z

Z

1

h(t) =

f (s)k(t s)ds =

f (s)

ds.

t

Let

G() =

g(t) exp(it)dt

written as

H() = F ()K() = isgn()F ().

Problem 19.

Z

1

f () =

e|0 t| eit dt.

2

Chapter 6

Wavelets

Problem 1. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, 1] and the function f (x) =

x2 in this Hilbert space. Project the function f onto the subspace of L2 [0, 1]

spanned by the functions (x), (x), (2x), (2x 1), where

1

for

0x<1

(x) :=

0 otherwise

for

0 x < 1/2

1

for

1/2 x < 1 .

(x) := 1

0 otherwise

This is related to the Haar wavelet expansion of f . The function is called

the father wavelet and is called the mother wavelet.

Problem 2.

1 0 x 1/2

H(x) = 1 1/2 x 1

0 otherwise

Let

Hmn (x) := 2m/2 H(2m x n)

where m, n Z. Draw a picture of H11 , H21 , H12 , H22 . Show that

hHmn (x), Hkl (x)i = mk nl ,

k, l Z

f (x) = exp(|x|)

56

Wavelets

57

L2 (R).

Problem 3. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, 1] and the Haar scaling

function (father wavelet)

1

if

0x<1

(x) =

0 otherwise

Let n be a positive integer. We define

k = 0, 1, . . . , n 1.

in the Hilbert space L2 [0, 1].

(ii) Let f be a continuous function on the unit interval [0, 1]. Thus f

L2 [0, 1]. Form the projection fn on the subspace Sn of the Hilbert space

L2 [0, 1] spanned by { g0 , g1 , . . . gn1 }, i.e.

fn =

n1

X

hf, gk igk .

k=0

Problem 4.

Z

1 +

tb

W f (a, b) =

dt,

(a, b R, a > 0)

f (t)

a

a

components ((tb)/a). They are obtained from a single analyzing wavelet

applying dilations and translations. Here denotes the complex conjugate of and a is the scale and b the shift parameter. The function has

to be chosen so that it is well localized both in physical and Fourier space.

The signal f (t) can be uniquely recovered by the inverse wavelet transform

Z + Z +

1

t b da

f (t) =

W f (a, b)

db

C 0

a

a

satisfies the admissibility

condition

Z +

|()|2

C =

d < .

0

Consider the analytic function

2

(t) = tet

/2

Does satisfies the admissibility condition?

Problem 5.

1 0 x < 1/2

H(x) = 1 1/2 x 1

0 otherwise

Let

Hmn (x) := 2m/2 H(2m x n)

where m, n Z. Draw a picture of H11 , H21 , H12 , H22 . Show that

hHmn (x), Hkl (x)i = mk nl ,

k, l Z

f (x) = exp(|x|)

with respect to Hmn . The functions Hmn form an orthonormal basis in

L2 (R).

Problem 6. Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R). Let L2 (R) and

assume that satisfies

Z

(t)(t k)dt = 0,k

R

i.e. the integral equals 1 for k = 0 and vanishes for k = 1, 2, . . .. Show that

for any fixed integer j the functions

jk (t) := 2j/2 (2j t k),

k = 0, 1, 2, . . .

Problem 7.

1

for

x [0, 1]

(x) :=

0 otherwise

Z

(x)dx.

The mother wavelet of this set is

1

(sin(2x) sin(x)).

L(x) :=

x

Wavelets

Then

Lmn (x) =

1

2m/2

L(2m wx n),

59

m, n Z

generates an orthonormal basis in the Hilbert space L2 (R). Apply the rule

of LHospital to find L(0).

Problem 9. (i) Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R) and L2 (R). The

basic scaling function (father wavelet) satisfies a scaling relation of the form

(x) =

N

1

X

ak (2x k).

k=0

1

H()(y) =

Z

R

(x)

dx

xy

is a solution of the same scaling relation. Note that the scaling function

may have compact support, the Hilbert transform has support on the real

line and decays as y 1 .

(ii) Show that the Hilbert transform of the related mother wavelet is also

noncompact and decays like y p1 where

Z

xm (x)dx = 0

R

for m = 0, 1, . . . , p 1.

Chapter 7

Linear Operators

Problem 1.

operator.

Problem 2. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [0, 1]. Show that the linear

operator T : L2 [0, 1] L2 [0, 1] defined by

T f (x) = xf (x)

is a bounded self-adjoint linear operator without eigenvalues.

Problem 3. Show that if two bounded self-adjoint linear operators S and

T on a Hilbert space H are positive semi-definite and commute (ST = T S),

then their product ST is positive semi-definite. We have to show that

hST f, f i 0 for all f H.

Problem 4. Let a > 0. Consider the Hilbert space L2 [a, a]. Consider

the Hamilton operator

2

2

= ~ d + V (x)

H

2m dx2

where

V (x) =

0

for

|x| a

otherwise

60

Linear Operators

61

odinger equation, where the initial function (t = 0) = (x)

is given by

x/a2 + 1/a for a x 0

(x) =

x/a2 + 1/a for 0 x a

Normalize . Calculate the probability to find the particle in the state

x

1

(x) = sin

a

a

after time t. A basis in the Hilbert space L2 [a, a] is given by

nx 1

(n 1/2)x

1

sin

, cos

n = 1, 2, . . . .

a

a

a

a

of the bound state is always non-degenerate. Hint. Suppose that the oppsite

is true. Let u1 and u2 be two linearly independent eigenfunctions with the

same energy eigenvalues E, i.e.

d2 u1

2m

+ 2 (E V )u1 = 0,

dx2

~

d2 u2

2m

+ 2 (E V )u2 = 0.

dx2

~

Problem 6. A particle is enclosed in a rectangular box with imprenetrable walls, inside which it can move freely. The Hilbert space is L2 ([0, a]

[0, b] [0, c]). Find the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. What can be said

about the degeneracy, if any, of the eigenfunctions.

Problem 7. Conside the Hilbert space L2 [0, 1] and the linear operator

T : L2 [0, 1] L2 [0, 1] defined by

(T f )(x) := xf (x).

Show that T is self-adjoint and positive definite. Find its positive square

root.

Problem 8.

defined by

T : (x1 , x2 , x3 , . . .) 7 (0, 0, x3 , x4 , . . .).

Problem 9.

L = r p,

T=rF

where T is the torque, F = V (V potential depending only on r) and

dL

= T.

dt

In quantum mechanics with p i~, r r and wave function we

have

Z

L = i~

d3 x (r )

R3

and

d3 x (r V )

T=

R3

i~

i~

Show that

~2 2

=

+V

t

2m

~2 2

=

+ V .

t

2m

dL

= T.

dt

Problem 10. Let H

normalized eigenfunctions j (j I) which form an orthonormal basis in

the underlying Hilbert space. We can write

X

(t) =

cj eiEj t/~ j

jI

where Ej are the eigenvalues of H.

Problem 11.

2

2

= ~ d + D(1 ex )2 + eEx cos(t)

H

2m dx2

where > 0. Find the quantum Liouville equation for this Hamilton

operator.

Problem 12.

1

=

+ V (x)

i~

t

2m

Linear Operators

63

:= ,

v := =

.

Problem 13. Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R). Let f L2 (R) and

R. We define the operator U () as

U ()f (x) := ei/2 f (xei ).

Is the operator U () unitary?

Problem 14. Let a > 0. Consider the Hilbert space L2 ([0, a]) and the

linear bounded operator A defined by

Af (x) := xf (x),

f L2 ([0, a])

Find kAk.

Problem 15. Consider the Hilbert space L2 (R). Let k Z. For k = 0

we define s0 = 0, for k 1 we define

sk := 1 +

1

1 1

+ + +

2 3

k

functions Wk as

1

for

sk < x/ sk+1

Wk (x) :=

0 otherwise

Let u L2 (R). Define the linear operator O as

(Ou)(x) := g(x)u(x)

where

x X

g(x) = +

kZ

sk + sk+1

2

Wk (x).

(ii) Show that the norm of O

kOk = sup kOuk

kuk=1

is given by 1/2.

Problem 16.

p = i

d

dx

on the Hilbert space L2 [0, ).

Problem 17.

p = i

d

dx

on D = {f : f,

df

L2 (R)}.

dx

Chapter 8

Generalized Functions

8.1

Solved Problems

Problem 1.

1 0 x 1/2

H(x) := 1 1/2 x 1

0 otherwise

H can be considered as a regular functional

Z

H(x)(x)dx.

R

Problem 2. Let C m [a, b] be the vector space of m-times differentiable

functions and the m-th derivative is continuous over the interval [a, b] (b >

a). We define an inner product (scalar product) of such two functions f

and g as

Z b

dm f dm g

df dg

+ + m m dx.

hf, gim :=

fg +

dx dx

dx dx

a

Given (Legendre polynomials)

f (x) =

1

(3x2 1),

2

g(x) =

65

1

(5x3 3x)

2

and the interval [1, 1], i.e. a = 1 and b = 1. Show that f and g are

orthogonal with respect to the inner product hf, gi0 . Are they orthogonal

with respect to hf, gi1 ?

Problem 3.

P r := r.

Obviously, P = P 1 . We define

OP u(r) := u(P 1 r) u(r).

The vector r can be expressed in spherical coordinates as

r = r(sin cos , sin sin , cos )

where

0 < 2 0 < .

(i) Calculate P (r, , ).

(ii) Let

(1)l+m

Ylm (, ) =

2l l!

2l + 1 (l m)!

4 (l + m)!

1/2

(sin )m

dl+m

(sin )2l eim

d(cos )l+m

OP Ylm .

Problem 4. In the Hilbert space H = `2 (N0 ) Bose annihilation and

creation operators denoted by b and b are defined as follows: They have a

common domain

X

D(b) = D(b ) = = (x0 , x1 , x2 , . . .)T :

j|xj |2 < .

j=0

Then b is given by

and b is given by

The infinite dimensional vectors

un = (0, 0, . . . , 0, 1, 0, . . .)T

Generalized Functions

67

H = `2 (N0 ). Is

= (1, 1/2, 1/3, . . . , 1/n, . . .)

an element of D(a)?

Problem 5. Given a function (signal) f (t) = f (t1 , t2 , . . . , tn ) L2 (Rn )

of n real variables t = (t1 , t2 , . . . , tn ). We define the symplectic tomogram

associated with the square integrable function f

Z

2

n

n

X

Y

i

iX

1

j 2

j

dt1 dt2 dtn f (t) exp

tj

tj

w(X, , ) =

2|k | Rn

2j

j

j=1

k=1

where (j 6= 0 for j = 1, 2, . . . , n)

X = (X1 , X2 , . . . , Xn ),

= (1 , 2 , . . . , n ),

Z

Z

w(X, , )dX =

Rn

= (1 , 2 , . . . , n ).

|f (t)|2 dt

(1)

Rn

function of the random variable X. This probability distribution function

depends on 2n extra real parameters and .

(ii) The map of the function f (t) onto the tomogram w(X, , ) is invertible. The square integrable function f (t) can be associated to the density

matrix

f (t, t0 ) = f (t)f (t0 ).

This density matrix can be mapped onto the Ville-Wigner function

Z

u

u ipu

W (q, p) =

f q + , q

e

du.

2

2

Rn

Show that this map is invertible.

(iii) How is the tomogram w(X, , ) related to the Ville-Wigner function?

(iv) Show that the Ville-Wigner function can be reconstructed from the

function w(X, , ).

(v) Show that the density matrix f (t)f (t0 ) can be found from w(X, , ).

Problem 6. Starting with the set of polynomials { 1, x, x2 , . . . , xn , . . . }

use the Gram-Schmidt procedure the scalar product (inner product)

Z 1

hf, gi =

(f (x)g(x) + f 0 (x)g 0 (x))dx

1

to find the first five orthogonal polynomials, where f 0 denotes derivative.

Problem 7. Describe the one-dimensional scattering of a particle incident

on a Dirac delta function, i.e.

U (q) = U0 (q)

where u0 > 0. Find the transmission and reflection coefficient.

Problem 8. (i) Give the definition of the current density, transmission

coefficient, and reflection coefficient.

(ii) Calculate the transmission and the reflection coefficients of a particle

having total energy E, at the potential barrier given by

V (x) = a(x),

Problem 9.

a>0

Show that

X

1 X ikx

(x 2k)

e

=

2

k=

k=

Hint. Expand the 2 periodic function

f (x) =

x

1

2 2

Problem 10. (i) Give the definition of a generalized function.

(ii) Calculate the first and second derivative in the sense of generalized

function of

0

x<0

f (x) = 4x(1 x) 0 x 1

0

x>1

(iii) Calculate the Fourier transform of f (x) = 1 in the sense of generalized

functions.

Problem 11.

f (x) = | cos(x)|.

Generalized Functions

Problem 12.

69

cos(x)

for

x [0, 2)

f (x) :=

0 otherwise

Find the first and second derivative of f in the sense of generalized functions.

Problem 13.

f (x) = |x|

Problem 14.

defined by

f (x) = e|x|

Problem 15. The Sobolev space of order m, denoted by H m (), is defined

to be the space consisting of those functions in the Hilbert space L2 () that,

together with all their weak partial derivatives up to and including those

of order m, belong to the Hilbert space L2 (), i.e.

H m () := { u : D u L2 () for all such that || m }.

We consider real-valued functions only, and make H m () an inner product

space by introducing the Sobolev inner product h, iH m defined by

Z X

hu, viH m :=

(D u)(D v)dx for u, v H m ().

||m

Z X

kuk2H m = hu|uiH m =

(D u)2 dx.

||m

X

hu, vi =

hD , D viL2 () .

||m

In other words the Sobolev inner product hu, viH m () is equal to the sum

of the L2 () inner products of D u and D v over all such that || m.

(i) Consider the domain = (0, 2) and the function

x2

0<x1

u(x) =

2

2x 2x + 1 1 < x < 2.

Obviously u L2 (). Find the Sobolev space to which u belongs.

(ii) Find the norm of u.

Problem 16.

~2 d2

+ c (n) (x) = E

2m dx2

Derive the joining conditions on the wave function .

Problem 17. The Morlet wavelet consists of a plane wave modulated by

a Gaussian, i.e.

2

1

() = 1/4 ei e /2

condition is satisfied.

Problem 18.

Let

f0 (x) = exp(x2 /2).

fn (x) =

d

fn1 (x),

dx

n = 1, 2, . . .

fn (x) = xfn1 (x) (n 1)fn2 (x),

Problem 19.

n = 2, 3, . . . .

X

m=

exp(i2m(x + q)/a) a

(x + q ka).

k=

of f , i.e. f (x0 ) = 0. Show that

1

f 00 (x0 )

0

0 (f (x)) = 0

(x

x

)

+

(x

x

)

0

0

(f (x0 ))2

f 0 (x0 )

Generalized Functions

Problem 21.

71

1X

(2` + 1)P` (x)P` (y)

2

`=0

for 1 x +1 and 1 y +1.

Problem 22.

Show that

(x x0 ) =

1X

1

+

(cos(nx) cos(nx0 ) + sin(nx) sin(nx0 )).

2 n=1

Miscellaneous

Problem 23.

Let

= H

t

be the Schr

odinger equation, where

i~

2

= ~ + U (r),

H

2m

:=

2

2

2

+

+

x21

x22

x23

t)(r, t)

(r, t) := (r,

Find j such that

divj +

= 0.

t

Problem 24. A particle is enclosed in a rectangular box with impenetrable walls, inside which in can move freely. The Hilbert space is

L2 ([0, a] [0, b] [0, c])

where a, b, c > 0. Find the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. What can be

said about the degeneracy, if any, of the eigenfunctions?

Problem 25. Show that in one-dimensional problems the energy spectrum of the bound states is always non-degenerate. Hint. Suppose that

the opposite is true. Let u1 , u2 be two linearly independent eigenfunctions

with the same energy eigenvalue E, i.e.

d2 u1

2m

+ 2 (E V )u1 = 0

2

dx

~

d2 u2

2m

+ 2 (E V )u2 = 0.

dx2

~

Problem 26.

discuss the problematic.

Problem 28. Show that in one-dimensional problems the energy spectrum of the bound states is always non-degenerate.

Generalized Functions

73

Let u1 and u2 be two linearly independent eigenfunctions with the same

energy eigenvalues E.

2m

d2 u1

+ 2 (E V )u1 = 0

2

dx

~

d2 u2

2m

+ 2 (E V )u2 = 0

dx2

~

Problem 29.

x/a2 + 1/a for a x 0

fa (x) =

x/a2 + 1/a for 0 x a

the sense of generalized functions.

Problem 30. Consider a one-dimensional lattice (chain) with lattice

constant a. Let k be the sum over the first Brioullin zone we have

Z /a

1 X

a

F ((k))

F ((k))dk = G

N

2 /a

k1.BZ

where

(k) = 0 21 cos(ka).

Using the identity

Z

we can write

a

G=

2

(E (k))dk dE.

F (E)

/a

/a

Calculate

Z

/a

(E (k))dk

g(E) =

/a

Problem 31.

d2

2 + 2(x) u(x, ) = E()u(x, )

dx

with the boundary conditions u(1, ) = 0. Here is the coupling constant and determines the penetrability of the potential barrier. Find the

eigenfunctions and the eigenvalues.

Problem 32.

(x) =

1

1

lim e|x|/

2 0

sin2 (x)

1

lim

(x)2

1

1

|x| |x|/

(x) = lim

1+

e

.

4 0

(x) =

Problem 33.

functions

f (k) = 2

(1)

n=0

Problem 34.

Show that

Z

H(x a) =

Problem 35.

du

d

exp(iu( x)).

2

1

(x2 a2 ) =

((x a) + (x + a)).

2a

Problem 36. (i) Show that the Fourier transform in the sense of generalized function of the Dirac comb

X

(x n)

nZ

(ii) Find the Fourier transform in the sense of generalized functions of

1 + 2(x).

Problem 37.

3u

du

du d2 u

d3 u

=2

+

u

.

dx

dx dx2

dx3

Generalized Functions

75

(ii) Consider the nonlinear partial differential equation

u

3u

3u

u

u 2 u

+

u

.

+

3u

=

2

t

x2 t

x

x x2

x3

Show that u(x, t) = c exp(|x ct|) (peakon) is a solution in the sense of

generalized functions.

Problem 38. Let f be a differentiable function with a simple zero at x =

a such that f (x = a) = 0 and df (x = a)/dx 6= 0. Let g be a differentiable

function with a simple zero at x = b 6= a such that g(x = b) = 0 and

dg(x = b)/dx 6= 0. Show that

(f (x)g(x)) =

1

1

(x a) +

(x b)

|f 0 (a)g(a)|

|f (b)g 0 (b)|

Problem 39. Consider the non-relativistic hydrogen atom, where a0 is

the Bohr radius and a = a0 /Z. The Schrodinger-Coulomb Green function

G(r1 , r2 ; E) corresponding to the energy variable E is the solution of the

partial differential equation

~2

~2 2

1

E G(r1 , r2 ; E) = (r1 r2 )

2m

amr1

with the appropiate boundary conditions. Show that expanding G in terms

of spherical harmonics Y`m

G(r1 , r2 ; E) =

`

X

X

(2 , 2 )

`=0 m=`

1 d

`(` + 1)

2

1

2m (r1 r2 )

2 d

r

g` (r1 , r2 ; ) = 2

1

2

2

2

2

r1 dr1

dr1

r1

ar1

a

~

r1 r2

where 2 a2 := ~2 /(2mE).

Hint. Utilize the identity

(r1 r2 ) =

`

(r1 r2 ) X X

Y`m (1 , 1 )Y`m

(2 , 2 )

r1 r2

`=0 m=`

Problem 40.

Z

1

1

dx = (t s)

2 R (t x)(s x)

where the integral is evaluated in the principal value sense.

Problem 41. Let c > 0. Show that an integral representation of the

delta function is given by

Z c+i

1

(x) =

etx dt

2i ci

where the path of the t-integration can be closed to the right or left.

Problem 42.

Show that

Z

x

1

t

=

eit(tx/c) d.

c

2

Problem 43.

Z +

Z

1

exp(ikx)dx,

(x) =

(x) =

( x)d.

2

0

Problem 44.

(x a)2

1

f (x a) = exp

Problem 45.

Z

p

1

(x)(x) =

kJ0 (k (x2 + y 2 ))dk

2 0

Problem 46.

Problem 47.

Z

1

1

x

P

= cot(/2).

2

1

x

2

0

Show that

3/2

2

(x x0 ) = lim

exp

(x x0 )2 .

2( )

Generalized Functions

Problem 48.

77

(x) =

1 |x|

pe

+ (1 p)(x).

2

Z

(x)dx = 1.

R

Problem 49.

XX

C(x1 , x1 ) :=

(x1 m)(x2 n).

mZ nZ

Problem 50.

n

1 n nt

exp(nt/T )

fn (t) =

n! T T

functions. Find the Laplace transform of fn (t).

Problem 51. What charge distribution (r) does the spherical symmetric

potential

er

V (r) =

r

give? For r 6= 0 Poissons equation in spherical coordinates is given by

V (r) =

1 d2

(rV (r)) + R(, )V (r) = 4(r)

r dr2

Let a1 , a2 , . . . , an 6= 0. Show that

Pn

Z 1

Z 1

(1 j=1 j

1

.

= (n 1)!

d1

dn Pn

a1 a2 an

( j=1 j aj )n

0

0

Problem 52.

Problem 53.

f (y)

df (y)

(x y) f (x) (x y) +

(x y).

y

x

dy

Let S(R). Show that in the sense of generalized

Problem 54.

functions

lim

Problem 55.

sin(x)

(x)dx = (0).

x

Show that

u(x, t) =

1

(x x0 )2

exp

4Dt

4Dt

u

2u

=D 2

t

x

with the initial condition

u(x, 0) = (x x0 ).

Z

Z Z

eA+B =

d1 e1 A (1 1 ) +

d1 d2 e1 A Be2 A (1 1 2 )

0

0

0

Z Z Z

+

e1 A Be2 A Be3 A (1 1 2 3 ) +

0

Problem 57. Consider the Hilbert space L2 ([1, 1]). The Legendre polynomials are given by

P0 = 1,

Pn (x) =

Z +1

Pm (x)Pn (x)dx =

1

1 dn 2

(x 1)n

2n n! dxn

2

m,n ,

2n + 1

Let

(x) =

X

j 0 =0

n, m = 0, 1, 2, . . .

dj 0 Pj 0 (x).

Generalized Functions

8.2

79

Supplementary Problems

written as ( C)

Z

Z

1

1

(2)

2

(z) = 2

d exp( z z ) = 2

d2 exp(i( z + z )).

C

C

Problem 2.

Show that

1

(x x0 ) =

1+2

!

cos(kx) cos(kx0 ) .

k=1

Problem 3. Consider the Hilbert space L2 ([0, )). The Laguerre polynomials are defined as

Ln (x) = ex

dn x n

(e x ),

dxn

n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

B = { ex/2 Ln (x) : n = 0, 1, 2, . . . }.

Let a R. Show that

(x a) = e

(x+a)/2

Lk (x)Lk (a).

k=0

Problem 4.

Show that

X

`

X

Y`,m (1 , 1 )Y`,m

(2 , 2 ).

`=0 m=`

Problem 5.

that

2

e(x +a

(x a) =

Problem 6.

)/2 X

k=0

Hk (x)Hk (a)

2k k!

Show that

1

= (z)

z

where

Problem 7.

z

2

+i

x

y

.

Z +

Ai(s x)Ai(s a)ds

(x a) =

Generalized Functions

81

Bibliography

Davies E. B.

Linear Operators and their Spectra

Cambridge studies in advanced mathematics, Cambridge University Press,

2007

Dunford E. B. and Schwartz J. T.

Linear Operators. Part 1: General Theory

Interscience, New York (1966)

Golub G. H. and Van Loan C. F.

Matrix Computations, Third Edition,

Johns Hopkins University Press (1996)

Jones D. S.

The Theory of Generalized Functions, Cambridge University Press (1982)

Kato T.

Perturbation Theory of Linear Operators

Springer, New York (1966)

Miller W.

Symmetry Groups and Their Applications

Academic Press, New York (1972)

Reddy B. Daya

Introductory Functional Analysis,

Springer, New York (1990)

Schwartz L.

Theorie des distributions, Hermann, 2 vols. (1966)

Steeb W.-H.

Matrix Calculus and Kronecker Product with Applications and C++ Pro82

Bibliography

83

grams

World Scientific Publishing, Singapore (1997)

Steeb W.-H.

Continuous Symmetries, Lie Algebras, Differential Equations and Computer Algebra

World Scientific Publishing, Singapore (1996)

Steeb W.-H.

Hilbert Spaces, Wavelets, Generalized Functions and Quantum Mechanics

Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (1998)

Steeb W.-H.

Problems and Solutions in Theoretical and Mathematical Physics,

Third Edition, Volume I: Introductory Level

World Scientific Publishing, Singapore (2009)

Steeb W.-H.

Problems and Solutions in Theoretical and Mathematical Physics,

Third Edition, Volume II: Advanced Level

World Scientific Publishing, Singapore (2009)

Steeb W.-H., Hardy Y., Hardy A. and Stoop R.

Problems and Solutions in Scientific Computing with C++ and Java Simulations

World Scientific Publishing, Singapore (2004)

Vladimirov V. S.

Equations of Mathematical Physics, Marcel Dekker, New York (1971)

Weidmann J.

Linear Operators in Hilbert Spaces

Springer-Verlag, New York (1980)

Yosida K.

Functional Analysis, Fifth Edition

Springer Verlag (1978)

Index

Admissibility condition, 57

Analysing wavelet, 57

Antilinear operator, 2

Bell basis, 8, 12

Bernstein polynomials, 33, 38

Cauchy sequence, 9

Chebyshev polynomials, 30

Comb, 2

Continuous wavelet transform, 57

Convolution theorem, 53

Dilations, 57

Dirac comb, 74

Fock space, 24, 36

Frame, 2

Fredholm alternative, 3

Laguerre polynomials, 79

Legendre polynomials, 20, 27, 49, 78

Legrendre polynomials, 29

Lie group, 30

Momentum operator, 64

Morlet wavelet, 70

Null space, 3

Paley-Wiener space, 38

Parsevals relation, 43

Peakon, 75

Poisson equation, 77

Position operator, 42

projection theorem, 4

Range, 3

Reproducing kernel, 36

Reproducing kernel Hilbert space, 38

Resolvent, 49

Gaussian function, 54

Gaussian measure, 36

Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization pro- Schauder basis, 35

Shifted Legendre polynomials, 24

cess, 8

Sinc function, 39

Gram-Schmidt technique, 15

Sobolev space, 69

Spectral theorem, 10

Haar scaling function, 57

Spherical harmonics, 66

Hardy space, 6

Symplectic tomogram, 67

Harper operator, 49

Hat function, 52

Translations, 57

Hilbert transform, 59

Triangle function, 35

Inverse wavelet transform, 57

Kernel, 3

Kernel function, 55

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