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Overflow situation

Unusually high stage in a


river
River overflow its banks
and inundates the
adjoining area.
Significance: damage in
terms of life, property
and economic loss.
Thousands of crores of
rupees are spent every
year in flood control and
forecasting.

Death Toll
1)2,500,0003,700,000
2)900,000
2,000,000
3)500,000
700,000

Event
China floods

Location

Date

China

1931

China

1887

China

1938

China

1975

China

1935

St. Felix's Flood, storm surge

Netherlands

1530

Hanoi and Red River Delta flood

North Vietnam

1971

Yangtze river flood

China

1911

Yellow River (Huang He) flood

1938 Yellow River (Huang He) flood

4)231,000
Banqiao Dam failure, result of Typhoon Nina.
Approximately 86,000 people died from flooding
and another 145,000 died during subsequent disease.

5)145,000

Yangtze river flood

6)More than
100,000
7)100,000
8)100,000

Heavy rainfall
Huge snow melting
Failures of dams,
barrages etc.,
(koshi)
Landslides causing
blockage of river

Riverine floods
Slow kinds: Runoff from sustained rainfall or rapid
snow melt exceeding the capacity of a river's
channel. Causes include heavy rains from monsoons
, Unexpected drainage obstructions such as
landslides, ice, or debris can cause slow flooding
upstream of the obstruction.
Fast kinds: include Flash floods which are much
more dangerous and flow much faster than regular
floods. Result from tropical storms, dam failures or
excessive rain and snow.
Estuarine floods
Commonly caused by a combination of sea tidal
surges caused by storm-force winds.

Coastal floods
Caused by severe sea storms, or as a result of
another hazard (e.g. tsunami or hurricane).
Catastrophic floods
Caused by a significant and unexpected event e.g.
dam breakage, or as a result of another hazard
(e.g. earthquake or volcanic eruption).
Muddy floods
A muddy flood is generated by run off on crop land.

EFFECTS

The damage due to flood may vary with respect to the


magnitude of the flood.
Thus we can classify the effects as:

Primary effects

Physical damage - Can range anywhere from


bridges,cars, buildings, sewer systems, roadways,
canals and any other type of structure.

Casualties - People and livestock die due to drowning.


It can also lead to epidemics and diseases.
Secondary effects

Water supplies - Contamination of water. Clean drinking


water becomes scarce.

Diseases - Unhygienic conditions. Spread of


water-borne diseases

Crops and food supplies - Shortage of food


crops can be caused due to loss of entire
harvest.
Trees - Non-tolerant species can die from
suffocation
Tertiary/long-term effects
Economic -, rebuilding costs, food
shortage leading to price increase,
temporary decline in tourism etc.

Greater losses due to flood


Need for control, Measures to be taken
No complete control of flood to zero level
So Flood Management rather than Flood
Control
Classification of control measures

Structural measures and 2. Non-structural

measures

Storage Reservoir
Detentio Reservoir
Levees
Floodways
Channel Improvement
Watershed Management
Flood Plain zoning
Flood forecasting and Warning
Evacuation and relocation

STORAGE RESERVOIR:
Most reliable and effective flood control method
Storage reservoir to absorb incoming flood
Release in controlled way so that downstream
channels do not get flooded.
Several reservoirs to be placed in a river for
complete flood control.
Graph Kheichera rakhnu hai

DETENTION RESERVIORS
-Consist of an obstruction to a river
with uncontrolled outlet.
-For small structures and temporary
storage
LEVEES
-Also called dikes or flood
embankments
-Earthen structures parallel to the
course of river.

Height higher than


the design flood
level.
One of the oldest
and common
methods of flood
protection
Considerable care
and maintenance
required since
earthen

FLOODWAYS
-Channels into which part of the flood
will be diverted during high stages.
-Natural or man-made
CHANNEL IMPROVEMENT
-Widening or deepening of channel
-Reduction of channel roughness
(clearance of vegetation)

WATERSHED MANAGEMENT
-Aims at cutting down and delaying the
runoff before it gets into the river.
-Check dams, contour bonding,
terraces etc.
-Improve soil infiltration capacity hence
reduce soil erosion

FLOOD PLAIN ZONING


Identifies the flood prone areas of a river
and regulates the land use to restrict the
damage due to flood.
Development plans are prepared
FLOOD FORECASTING AND WARNING
Enables civil authority to take appropriate
control measures.
Orbiting satellitesPicturesCloud growth
rainfall predictionflood prediction

-historical records of
flooding with study on
the parameters:
season, river channel
topography, soil
conditions, rainfall
intensity and weather.
Study of FLOOD
HYDROGRAPH

Hydrograph: Study of the hydrological characteristics of


a catchment.
Responses of a given catchment to a
rainfall input.
USES
Use in the design of hydraulic structures
Development of flood forecasting and warming systems
based on rainfall
Extension of flood flow records based on rainfall records
(components of hydrograph: \
1.Rising limb 2. Crest segment 3. Recession limb)
Factors affecting flood hydrograph:
Physiographic and climatic factors
Limitations
Precipitation must be from rainfall only
Non uniform pptdoesnt give good results (unit hydrograph)

EVACUATION AND RELOCATION


Evacuation of communities along with
their live stocks and other valuables.
TemporarilyNonstructural measure,
Permanent resettlementStructural
measure
Decrease loss burden

-Flood is on of deadliest
natural disaster.
-Preventive measures
to be taken in time.
-Better engineering
structures to prevent
flood control
-Stringent government
steps.
-Awareness on flood
disaster is required.

Any question?????

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