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Legal Aptitude
Total Time: 90 mins

Practise Exercise no. 1

Directions (Q. Nos. 1 to 50): In each question, there is

a principle of law either real or hypothetical, followed
by certain facts and four probable answers. Identify
the most probable answer that can be reached when
the principle is applied to the facts. Shade the
identified answer.
1. PRINCIPLE: Contractual liability is completely
irrelevant to the existence of liability in tort
(civil wrong).
FACTS: X purchased- a bottle of ginger-beer from
a retailer. As she consumed more than 3/4 of the
contents of the bottle, she found a decomposed
remains of a snail in the bottle. After seeing the
remains of a snail, she fell sick on the thought of
what she consumed. She sued the manufacturer
of the beer for negligence, though there is no
contractual duty on the part of the manufacturer.
a) X cannot site the manufacturer for negligence
in the absence of a contract
b) X can sue the retailer from whom she
purchased the beer
c) X cannot sue the retailer
d) X can sue the manufacturer as he had a duty
to take care to see that bottles did not contain
any other substance than the beer and hence
liable to have broken that duty
2. PRINCIPLE: Any person who has received any
unjust benefit, he/she must return it to the
rightful owner.
FACTS: A and B were staying in the same hostel
room. B's father had sent a parcel to him on his
birthday containing expensive gifts. This parcel
was delivered to A as B had gone out for a movie.
a) A can retain the parcel Without informing B
b) A can keep some gifts from the parcel and
return. the rest to B
c) A has to return the entire contents of the
parcel to B
d) A can inform B about the parcel and need not
return the parcel to B.

Total no. Of Qs: 50

3. PRINCIPLE: A man must not make such use of

unnecessarily to cause inconvenience to his
FACTS: Mr. Z is the owner of a plot measuring 50
feet by 80 feet. He constructed a small house at
one corner and was using the rest of the land as a
cow shed. He had 20 cows and is involved in
selling the milk to the public. The cow dung and
other wastes were openly stored in a small 10 feet
by 8 feet tank. This constantly paved way for bad
smell and breeding .of mosquitoes. Mrs. Y, his
neighbour constantly complained to Mr. Z but in

Y cannot take any other action against Z

Z can do something to prevent the foul smell
Y can complain to the police
Y can sue Z for damages based on the
inconvenience caused by Z.

4. PRINCIPLE: Special damage is the loss of some

material advantage, pecuniary or capable of
being estimated in money which flows directly
and in the ordinary course of things from the
act of the person who is responsible.

FACTS: Raju has been sending his Tourist cars for

repairs, maintenance and service to Lakshmi
Service Centre, who promptly attended to all the
works during the past five years. However, when
Raju sent a new Sumo van for servicing and minor
repairs, he indicated to the Manager of Lakshmi
Service Centre that the vehicle must be delivered,
duly serviced, by 10th August, 2006 at 5 PM as
three foreign tourists had booked the vehicle for a
period of 3 months. The vehicle was not delivered
as required, but was delivered only on 12th
August, 2006. Raju had lost the contract with the
foreign tourist and a loss of revenue to the extent
of Rs. 30,000.
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a) Raju can sue the Lakshmi Service Centre for
damages including exemplary or special
damages to the extent of Rs. 30,000
b) Raju can sue Lakshmi Service Centre only for
ordinary damages for two days delay
c) Raju cannot sue Lakshmi Service Centre for
any damages
d) Raju can sue the Manager of the Service
Centre for damages.
5. PRINCIPLE: The standard to determine
whether a person has been guilty of
negligence is the standard of care which, in
the given circumstances, a reasonable man
could have foreseen.
FACTS: The Agricultural University constructed
200 houses for its employees in its premises. Two
huge bore wells were sunk and motors were
installed. They did not cover the pump rooms
properly. A child, 6 years old, from one of the
quarters was playing near the pump house. On
hearing the noise of the pump, she was curious to
see the motor. She touched the motor that was
not covered properly and three of her fingers
were cut.
a) The parents of the child cannot sue the
University on any grounds
b) Inspite of the child's act, her parents can
successfully sue the University for damages
c) The University can be made liable only to the
extent of the cost of treatment as the child
also contributed to the incident
d) Only the child can sue and not her parents.

6. PRINCIPLE: A bailment is a delivery of goods

on condition, express or implied, that they
shall be restored to the bailor (person
delivering the goods) as soon as the purpose
for which the goods have been bailed is
FACTS: Javed, the owner of two cows had to leave
the town for a period of 3 months. He handed
over these two cows to his friend Rahim that he
Would take them back on his return after three
months. After two months, one of the cows gave
birth to a healthy calf. javed returns after three
months and seeks the return of cows from Rahim.

a) Rahim need not return the cows

b) Rahim can return the cows provided laved
pays him some money towards expenses for
maintaining them
c) Rahim need not return the calf, but should
return the two cows
d) Rahim has to return the cows and the calf
without any demand for money.
7. PRINCIPLE: An act of God is an operation of
natural forces so unexpected that no human
foresight or skill could reasonably be expected
to anticipate it.
FACTS: The New Friends Association Was celebrating
its 10th Anniversary and arranged for a concert by 'a
leading musical group. The event was organised in
one of the best auditoriums and all the tickets were
sold out. On the day-of the event, an earthquake
destroyed many buildings including the auditorium.
People who had purchased the tickets asked for
refund from the New Friends Association as the show
could not take place.
a) The New Friends Association must refund the
cost of tickets
b) The management of the auditorium muss
refund the cost of the tickets
c) The New Friends Association or any one else
need not refund the cost of tickets as it is an
act of God
d) The ticket holders can demand the show to be
organised at a- later point of time.

8. PRINCIPLE: A contract entered into by a

minor, who is less than 18 years of age, is a
void contract and cannot be enforced against
the minor in law except for the contract
entered by the minor for his necessities.

FACTS: A, a minor enters into the contract with a

book seller. The book seller supplied the school
books and stationary as required by A. After
receiving the books and stationary, A refuses to
pay dip book seller on the ground that he is a
minor, and as such the contract with the book
seller is not enforceable.
a) Book seller cannot enforce the contract as A is
a minor
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b) Book seller can enforce the contract even
against the minor as the contract was for his
c) Book seller can enforce the contract after A
becomes a major
d) Even after A becomes a major, this contract
cannot be enforced by the .book seller.
9. PRINCIPLE: An agreement is void and
unenforceable if considerations and objects
are unlawful.

FACTS: A enters into an agreement with B for

manufacture of 10 country made pistols and 10
land mines. A promises to pay a sum of Rs.
2,00,000 and advances a sum of Rs. 25,000 to B.
On completing the work and handing over the
materials as required. A refuses to pay the
remaining sum of Rs. 1,75,000 to B.
a) B cannot move any court for enforcement of
this contract
b) B can move the Civil Court for. enforcement of
c) B can move the High Court for enforcement of
d) B can move the Supreme Court directly as his
fundament and legal right is violated.

10. PRINCIPLE: Agreement by way of wager is

void and no suit lies for recovering anything
won by such wager.

FACTS: Mr. X and Mrs. Y enter into a contract with

Raman who is an expert in betting on horse
racing. Both pay a sum of Rs. 2,000 to Raman to
bet on a particular horse. Raman followed the
instructions and he.won a sum of Rs. 20 lakhs.
a) Raman has to pay Rs. 20 lakhs to Mr. X and
Mrs. Y
b) Raman can divide Rs. 20 lakhs into three parts
and share it equally with Mr. X and Mrs. Y
c) Raman can keep Rs. 15 lakhs and give 5 lakhs
to Mr. X and Mrs. Y
d) Raman need not give anything to Mr. X. and
Mrs. Y as this agreement is not enforceable.


11. PRINCIPLE: A master is liable for any tort

committed by his servant in the course of his
FACTS: Martin appointed Gopal. as his driver. One
day Martin sent the driver to fetch some goods
from a nearby shop. On his way, Gopal injured a
pedestrian who was trying to cross the road as per
the traffic signal (lights).
a) The pedestrian cannot sue Gopal
b) Martin can direct Gopal to pay the
c) The pedestrian can sue Gopal as well as
d) The pedestrian cannot sue Martin.

12. PRINCIPLE: A contingent contract is a contract

to do or not to do something, if some event,
collateral to such contract, does or does not
FACTS: A agrees to pay B a sum of Rs. 1 lakh if B
marries C within a period of six months. B marries C
during the seventh month as the marriage hall was
available only during that month. B claims Rs. 1 lakh
from A.
a) B can successfully claim Rs. 1 lakh from A
b) B cannot claim Rs. 1 lakh from A as B married
C after the duration set in the contract
c) B can claim Rs. 1 lakh as well as special
damages from A for having married C
d) C can successfully claim Rs. 1 lakh from A for
having married B.

13. PRINCIPLE: A person is liable for all the

injurious consequences of his careless act.

FACTS: Ram, a snake charmer, was -exhibiting his

talents to a group of people. One of the snakes
escaped and bit a child who had to be hospitalised
for two 'days for treatment.
a) Ram is liable to compensate the
child's family for his careless act
b) Ram is not liable to anything as such
things keep happening
c) Ram is not in a position to
compensate as he is poor
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d) The child should have taken adequate
care from protecting herself from the
snake bite.
14. FACTS: Mr. 'X' delivered a lecture at a local
Rotary Club in favour of an accused who is
prosecuted for assaulting a police officer. He
said that the accused is a victim of prevailing
corruption in the judiciary and he knows that
the accused is going to be punished by the
Court for being honest. Mr. 'X' is charged for
committing contempt of Court.
PRINCIPLE: A person shall not be guilty of
contempt of Court on the ground that he it as
published whether by words, spoken or written,
or by signs, or by visible representations, or
otherwise) any matter which interferes or tends
to interfere with, or obstructs or tends to
obstruct, the course of justice in connection with
any civil or criminal 'proceeding pending at that
time of publication, if at that time he had no
reasonable grounds for believing that the
proceeding was pending.

Mr. 'X' has not committed contempt of Court.

Mr. 'X' has committed contempt of Court:
Mr. 'X' has dishonoured the Court.
Mr. 'X' shall be acquitted because he is an
honest man.

15. FACTS: Amar is a staunch believer of divine

powers of Baba Sarvanand, and believes that
anybody who touches Baba's feet shall be
cured of any disease. He published a news
item in a national daily explaining his
experience and powers of Baba.
PRINCIPLE: Advertisement of magic remedy is a
punishable offence. Magic remedy includes a
talisman, mantra kavacha, and any other charm of
any kind which is alleged to possess miraculous
powers for or in the diagnosis, care, mitigation
treatment or prevention of any disease in _
human beings or animals or for affecting or
influencing in any way the structure or any
organic function of the body of human beings or
animals. Whether Amar has committed the
offence of advertisement of magical remedy?

a) Yes, Amar has committed the offence.

b) Yes, Amar and national daily -both have
committed the offence.
c) No, Amar has not committed any offence.
d) Amar has not but national daily has
committed the offence.
16. FACTS: Amit, while rushing to board a moving
train at a station pushed Anil who was walking
along with a heavy load, containing fire
crackers, the push resulted in slipping of the
load from Anil's hand. The crackers exploded
injuring a boy Sumit standing nearby. Sumit
filed a suit against Amit claiming damages.
PRINCIPLE: Everybody is under a legal obligation
to take reasonable care in order not to injure by
an act or omission his neighbour, which he may
foresee. The neighbour for this purpose is a
person who is likely to be affected by the act or
the omission.
a) Amit is not' liable, because Sumit is not his
b) Amit is not liable, because Anil should not
be carrying load of crackers on a Railway
c) Amit is liable, because he pushed Anil.
d) Amit is liable because he was running.
17. FACTS: Ramesh is working as a lift operator in
a company. One day he was injured while
operating the elevator, which fell off the
pulleys due to excess greasing by engineers of
the company. Whether the company is liable
for the injury sustained by Ramesh?
PRINCIPLE: An employer is liable to maintain in
good and safe condition any way, works,
'machinery or plant connected with or used in his
trade or business, or by reason of any like
omission on the part of any person in the service
of the employer who has been entrusted by the
employer with the duty of .seeing that such way,
works, machinery or plant are in good and safe
condition, any failure in the same shall make
company liable for any loss resulting from such

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a) No, company is not liable to any one
b) Yes, company is liable to Ramesh
c) Yes, company is liable to engineers.
d) None of the above.
18. FACTS: Mr. 'A' in search of job met a quarry
owner and requested him to provide any job
for the time being. The quarry owner allowed
him to work as a labourer and to carry stone
boulders from one place to another in the
quarry. Unaware of working condition and
environment Mr. 'A' tried to remove a huge
stone having live dynamite inside, which blew
up fracturing the leg of Mr. 'A'. Mr. 'A' filed
suit against the quarry owner. Whether 'A'
would succeed?
PRINCIPLE: In any suit for damages, the workman
shall not be deemed to have undertaken any risk
attaching to the employment unless the employer
proves that the risk was fully explained to and
understood by the workman and that the
workman voluntarily undertook the same.
a) NO, he undertook the risk of employment.
b) No, he was aware of the dangers involved in
the job.
c) Yes, he was never explained the hazards of
the given job.
d) None of the above.
19. FACTS: Mr. 'A' saw an unknown man jumping
the boundary wall and entering his house in
the night. He hid himself in a corner carrying a
sword and waiting for the person. The
moment the person entered the house, he hit
the person and cut his head. Whether Mr. 'A'
committed offence of killing a man?
PRINCIPLE: Any act- done in exercise of right of
private defence shall not be an offence. The right
to private defence in no case extends to the
inflicting of more harm that it is necessary to
inflict for the purpose of defence.
a) Yes, because he should allow any person
entering his house.
b) No, he has not committed any offence.
c) No, he has not committed any offence
because he exercised right of private defence.

d) Yes, because he exceeded right of private

20. FACTS: Amar delivered a colour television to
M/s XYZ Courier Servicesa common carrier
at Delhi to be delivered to his parents in
Jaipur in nicely packed condition. Amar paid
Rs. 400 as courier charges. Amar's parents
informed him that the colour television
delivered to them is damaged. Knowing this
Amar filed suit against M/s XYZ Courier
Services for recovery of Rs. 12,000 (twelve
thousand) the price of colour television plus
freight and packaging charges. Would he
PRINCIPLE: No common carrier shall be liable for
the loss of or, damage to property delivered to
him to be carried exceeding in value one hundred
rupees, unless the person delivering such
property to be carried, or some person duly
authorised in that behalf, shall have expressly
declared to such carrier or his agent the value and
description thereof.
a) No, Amar will not succeed.
b) Yes, he would because he has suffered loss.
c) Yes, he will but he would not recover more
than one hundred rupees.
d) Yes, he will recover the cost of television plus
freight and packaging charges that he
21. FACTS: Ashok, a news paper publisher
publishes advertisements sponsored by
individuals and societies. He published in his
news paper an advertisement showing
caricature of a bare woman and a plant
coming out of her womb and a punch line
reading "keep the earth green and be greeted
by the earth". The sponsor of this
advertisement is a society working for
protection of environment. Whether Ashok
has committed any offence?
PRINCIPLE 1: No person shall publish or cause to
be published, or arrange or take part in the
publication or exhibition of, any advertisements

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which contains indecent representation of women
in any form.
PRINCIPLE 2: Any person who contravenes the
provisions of Principle 1 shall commit an offence
punishable with imprisonment of either
description for a term which may extend to two
years, and with fine which may extend to two
thousand rupees.
a) Yes, Ashok has committed an offence.
b) No, Ashok has not committed any offence.
c) Ashok has not committed any offence but
offence is committed by the sponsoring
d) Society has not committed any offence but
Ashok definitely has committed the offence.
22. FACTS: Rohan entered into an agreement with
a Banker and deposited Rs. Five lakh with the
Banker. The terms of the contract provided
that Rohan's son Suresh shall be the
beneficiary of the 'deposited amount only, if
he marries after he attains legally
marriageable age. Is agreement between
Rohan and Banker void?

event shall be considered to become impossible

when such person does anything which renders it
impossible that he should so act within any
definite time, or otherwise than under further
contingencies. If the event becomes impossible,
such agreements become void.
a) No, agreement has become void.
b) Yes, because Baman ultimately marries
c) Yes, because essence of this contract was
marriage between Baman and Chandini.
d) both (b) and (c)
1) On the death of husband, the widow shall
inherit the property of her deceased husbandalong with children equally.
2) A widow can not claim the property of the
deceased if on the date when the question of
succession. opens, she has re-married.
3) A female acquiring property in any way has
the absolute title to the property.
Apply the above three principles and decide the case
of the following fact situation:

PRINCIPLE: Every agreement in restraint of the

marriage of any person, other than a minor, is

FACTS: When Sudhir died, he had 1/ 3rd share of the

family property, which the three brothers Rudhir,
Sudhir and Yasu inherited from their father, B.

a) Yes, since the agreement is restraining

marriage of Suresh.
b) No, agreement is valid and enforceable.
c) Yes, because Suresh has right to marry
once he is eligible to cast his vote.
d) None of the above.

Sudhir died on September 23rd, 2006 without having

any issue. The widow of Sudhir, Ms. Win re-married
on January 1, 2007.

23. FACTS: Ashutosh agrees to pay Baman a sum

of money if Baman marries Chandini anytime
during Ashutosh's life. Chandini marries
Dinesh and soon thereafter Ashutosh dies.
Whether agreement between Ashutosh and
Baman could be enforced, if Dinesh dies after
one year of marriage and Baman marries

Select your decision from the possible decisions given

in list 1 and the appropriate reason from the indicated
reasons given in list II given below:

PRINCIPLE: When a future event on which a

contract is dependent is the way in which a
person will act at an unspecified time, then the

Rudhir and Yasu refused 'Win' the share from Sudhir's

portion when Win claimed the entire property
belonging to Sudhir on January 30, 2007.

List I - Decisions:
a. Win cannot inherit the property of Sudhir.
b. Win can inherit the property of Sudhir.
List II - Reasons:

Win does not belong to the family.

Win was re-married.
Her claim was on the date of Sudhir's death.
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Her claim was submitted after she was remarried.
Your decision and reason
Mark the right decision with reason from the

(a)- (i)
(a)- (ii)
(b)- (iii)
(b)- (iv)

1) If a person commits an act by which death is
caused to another person and the act is done
with the intention of causing death, that
person is liable for murder.
2) A person has a right of self defence to the
extent of causing death to another provided
he apprehends death by the act of the latter.
FACTS: Shuva went to a hardware shop owned by
Anup. Bargaining on some item led to altercation
between the two and Shuva picked up a sharp object
and hit at Anup. When Anil') started bleeding, his wife
Mridula intervened and she was also hit by Shuva and
she became unconscious. Finding himself totally
cornered, Anup delivered a severe blow to Shuva with
a sharp object, Shuva died instantly.
Possible Decisions:
a) Anup murdered Shuva.
b) Anup killed Shuva .with the intention of killing
to save himself and his wife.
c) Anup killed. Shuva without any intention to do
so lust to save himself and his wife.
Probable Reasons kir the decision:

If a person kills another instantly on the spot,

the intention to kill is obvious.
Anup used force apprehending death of
himself and his wife.
Anup used disproportionate force.
There was nothing to show that Shuva wanted
to kill Anup or his wife.
Your decision with the reason

(a)- (i)
(a)- (iii)
(c) -(ii)
(b) -(i)


1) Consumable goods which are not fit for
consumption are not marketable.
2) A consumer shall not suffer on account of
unmarketable goods.
3) A seller is liable for knowingly selling
unmarketable goods.
4) A manufacturer shall be liable for the quality
of his products.
FACTS: Ram bought a Coca Cola bottle from Shama's
shop. Back at home, the server opened the bottle and
poured the drink into the glasses of Ram and his
friend Tom. As Tom started drinking, he felt irritation
in his throat. Immediately, Ram and Tom took the
sample to test and found nitric acid in the content.
Ram filed a suit against Shama, Coca Cola company
and the bottler, Kishen and Co.
Suggested Decisions:
(a) Ram cannot get compensation.
(b) Tom can get compensation.
(c) Both Ram and Tom can get compensation.
Suggested Reasons.

Shama did not know the contents of

sealed bottle.
Rani did not actually suffer though he
bought the bottle.
Tom did not buy the bottle.
Coca Cola company is responsible since it
supplied the concentrate.
Kishen & Co, is responsible since it added
water, sugar, etc., and sealed the bottle.
Shama is responsible for selling the
defective product.
Your decision with the' reason

(a)- (ii)
(b)- (vi)
(c) -(v)
(c) -(iv)

1) If A is asked to do something by B, B is
responsible for the act, not A.

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2) If A, while acting for B commits a wrong, A
is responsible for the wrong, not B.
3) If A is authorized to do something for B,
but in the name of A without disclosing
B's presence, both A and B may be held
FACTS: Somu contracted with Amar whereunder Amar
would buy a pumpset to be used in-Somu's farm. Such
a pumpset was in short supply in the market. Gulab, a
dealer, had such a pumpset and he refused to sell it to
Amar. Amar threatened Gulab of serious
consequences if he fails to part with the pumpset.
Gulab filed a complaint against Amar.
Proposed Decisions
(a) Amar alone is liable for the wrong though he
acted for'Somu.
(b) Amar is not liable for the wrong, though he is
bound by the contract with Somu.
(c) Somu is hound by the 'contract and liable for the
(d) Both Somu and Amar are liable for the wrong.
Suggested Reasons


Amar committed the wrong while acting

for the benefit of Somu.
Amar cannot do while acting for Somu
something which he cannot do while
acting for himself.
Both Amar and Somu are liable since they
are bound by the contract.
Somu has to be responsible for the act of
Amar committed for Somu's benefit.
Your decision with the reason

(a)- (i)
(a)- (ii)
(c) -(iii)
(d) -(iv)

1) The owner of a land has absolute 'interest
on the property including the contents
over and under the property,
2) Water flowing below your land is not
yours though you can use it:

3) Any construction on your land belongs to

4) All mineral resources below the land
belongs to the State.
FACTS: There is a subterranean water flow under
Suresh's land surface. Suresh constructed a huge
reservoir and drew all subterranean water to the
reservoir. As a result, the wells of all adjacent
property owners have gone dry. They demanded that
either Suresh must demolish the reservoir or share
the reservoir water with them.
Proposed Decisions
(a) Suresh need not demolish the reservoir.
(b) Suresh has to demolish the reservoir.
(c) Suresh has to share the water with his neighbours.
(d) The Government can take over the reservoir.
Possible Reasons
Water cannot be captured by one person for
his personal use.
The Government must ensure equitable
distribution of water.
Whatever is under Suresh's land may be 'used
by him.
Suresh has to respect the rights of others
regarding water.
Your decision with the reason
(a) (a)- (iii)
(b) (b)- (i)
(c) (c) -(iv)
(d) (d)- (ii)
(1) An employer shall be liable for the wrongs
committed by his employees in the course of
(2) Third parties must exercise reasonable
care to find out whether a person is actually'
acting in the course of employment.
FACTS: Nandan was appointed by Syndicate Bank to
collect small savings from its customers spread over in
different places on daily basis. 'Nagamma, a
housemaid, was one of such customers making use of
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Nandan's service_ Syndicate Bank, after a couple of
years,. terminated Nandan's service. Nagamma,
unaware of this fact, was handing over her savings to
Nandan who misappropriated them. Nagamma
realised this nearly after thive months, when she went
to the Bank to withdraw money. She filed a complaint
against the Bank.
Possible Decisions
(a) Syndicate Bank shall be liable to
compensate Nagamma.
(b) Syndicate Bank shall not be liable to
compensate Nagamma.
(c) Nagamma has to blame herself for hei
Possible Reasons
Nandan was not acting in the course
of employment after the termination
of his service.
A person cannot blame others for his
own negligence.
Nagamma was entitled to be
informed by the Bank about Nandan.
The Bank is entitled to expect its
customers to know actual position.
Your decision with the reason

time and get the entries done in the

passbook. After a year or so, Keshav was
dismissed from the service by the Bank. Being
unaware of this fact, Rama Bhai continued to
hand over her savings to him and Keshav
misappropriated them. Rama Bhai realised
this only when Keshav disappeared from the
scene one day and she sought compensation
from the Bank.
Possible Decisions
(a) Syndicate Bank shall be liable to
compensate Rama Bhai.
(b) Syndicate Bank shall not be liable to
compensate Rama Bhai.
(c) Rama Bhai cannot blame others for her
Possible Reasons
Keshav was not an employee of the
Bank when the fraud was committed.
The Bank was not aware of the special
arrangement between Rama Bhai and
It is the Bank's duty to take care of
vulnerable customers.
Rama Bhai should have checked about
Keshav in her own interest.

(a) (b)- (i)

(b) (c) -(ii)
(c) (a) -(iii)
(d) (b) -(iv)
(1) A master shall be liable for the fraudulent
acts of his servants committed in the course
of employment.
(2) Whether an act is committed' in the
course of employment has to be judged in the
context of the case.
(3) Both master and third parties must
exercise reasonable care in this regard.
FACTS: Rama Bhai was an uneducated widow
and she opened an S.B. account with
Syndicate Bank with the help of her nephew
by name Keshav who was at that time
working as a clerk in the Bank. Keshav used to
deposit the money of Rama Bhai from time to

Your decision with the reason

(a) (a)- (iii)
(b) (c)- (iv)
(c) (b)- (ii)
(d) (b)- (i)

(1) A person is liable for negligence, if he fails
to take care of his neighbors interest,
(2) A neighbor is anyone whose interests
should have been foreseeable by a reasonable
man while carrying on his activities.
FACTS: A cricket match was going on in a
closed door stadium: A cricket fan who could
not get into the stadium was watching the
game by climbing up a nearby tree and sitting
there. The cricket ball in the course of the
Page 9

game went out of the stadium and hit this
person and injured him. He filed a suit against
the organizers.
Possible Decisions
(a) The organizers are liable compensate the injured
(b) The organizers are not liable compensate the
injured person.
(c) The injured person should have avoided the place
where he might be hit by the cricket ball.
Possible Reasons
The organizers are responsible for the people
inside the stadium.
The organizers could not have foreseen
somebody watching the game by climbing up
a tree.
A person crazy about something must pay the
price for that. (iv) The organizers shall be
liable to everybody likely to watch the game.

Possible Decisions:
(a) The hospital need not share its profit with the
(b) The hospital may share its profits ex gratia basis.
(c) The hospital shall share its profit with the patient.
Possible Reasons
The patient, far from being deprived the use
of his appendix, ac benefitted by its removal.
The hospital instead of throw away the
appendix conducted research on it on its own
and development of drug was the result its
own effort.
The hospital could not have ac its success
without that ap belonging to the patient.
Everybody must care for and with others.
Your decision with the reason
(a) (a)- (i)
(b) (a)- (ii)

Your decision with the reason

(c) (c) -(iii)

(a) (a)- (iv)

(d) (c) -(iv)

(b) (a)- (iii)

(c) (b) -(ii)
(d) (c) -(i)
(1) When a-person unlawfUlly interferes in
the chattel of another person by which the
latter is deprived of its use, the former
commits the tort of conversion.
(2) Nobody shall enrich himself at other's
A patient suffering from stomach ailment approached
a teaching hospital. He was diagnosed as suffering
from appendicitis and his appendix was removed. He
became alright. The hospital. however, found some
unique cells in the, appendix and using the cell lines
thereat= it developed drugs of enorm commercial
value. When the rest patient came to know about it,
he claimed a share in the profit made by the hospital.

(1) Copying including attempt to copy
examinations is a serious offence.
(2) One shall not take any unauthorized
materials into the examination hat
Rohini, an examinee in PUC,' thoroughly checked
while entering the examination hall. She did not have
anything other than authorised materials such as pen,
instrument box, etc., with her. As she was writing her
paper, an invigilator found close to her feet a bunch d
chits. The invigilator on scrutiny found that the chits
contained answers to the paper being written by
Rohini. Rohini's answers tallied with the answers in
the chits. A charge of copying was leveled against

Probable Decisions
(a) Rohini shall be punished for copying.
(b) Rohini cannot be punished for copying.
Probable Reasons


Page 10

Something lying near the feet does not mean
that the person is in possession of that thing.
The fact that she was checked thoroughly
while getting into the hall must be conclusive.
Similarities between her answers and the
answers in the chit indicate that she used
those chits.
After using those chits, she must have failed
to dispose of them properly.
Your decision with the reason
(a) (a)- (iii)
(b) (a)- (iv)
(c) (b)- (iii)
(d) (b)- (i)


Nothing is an offence which is done in the
exercise of right of private defence. This right
also extends to lawfully causing the death of
the assailant, if the offence which occasions
the exercise of the right of private defence, be
An assault which reasonably causes the
apprehension of death or grievous hurt
(very serious hurt)
An assault which causes reasonable
apprehension of rape
An assault which causes reasonable
apprehension of kidnapping.
This right is available for protecting..one's
own body, as well as the body of any other,
provided the assault is not self invited.
Decide whether the right of private defence is
available in the following situation:
FACTUAL SITUATION: A was holding the birthday
party of his daughter. Some of his friends decided to
present her with a car. To create an element of
surprise, they decided to kidnap her for a few minutes
while the party was in full swing and then get her back
in the new car. They put the plan into action. While
they were kidnapping, A got very alarmed and asked
the guards to open fire. The guards killed all the five
friends. A is
(a) Not protected

(b) Protected because he did not kill, the

guards did
(c) Not protected because A's own body was
not involved
(d) Protected because to any ordinary person
there would have appeared a reasonable
apprehension of kidnapping.
When a contract has been broken, the party
who suffers by such breach is entitled to
receive, from the party who has broken the
contract, compensation for any loss or
damage caused to him thereby, which
naturally arose in the usual course of things
from such breach, or which the parties knew,
when they made the contract to be likely to
result from the breach of it. Such
compensation is not given for any remote or
indirect loss or damage sustained by reason of
the breach. Decide, whether and to what
extent B is entitled to damages in the
following situation:
A contracts will B to sell him 1,000 tons of iron at Rs.
100 per tonne. B tells A that he needs the how for
export purposes, and that he would be selling the iron
at Rs. 200 per tonne. A breaks the contract. When the
question comes about damages, A says he will pay
only Rs. 5,000 as damages because the same variety
of iron was available in the market at Rs. 105 per
tonne. B however contends that he should be give. Rs.
1,00,000 because that was the profit which he would
have made had A fulfilled the contract. B had actually
bought the iron at Rs. 110 and had exported it. B is
(a) not entitled to damages
(b) entitled to Rs. 10,000 as damages
(c) entitled to Rs. 5,000 as damages
(d) entitled to Rs. 1,00,000 as damages.
Contract is agreement freely entered into
between parties.
Tapan was dealer in mustard oil. The Government
India by an order issued under Essential Commodities
Act, fixed the price of mustard oil, and also the quality
which a person can buy from the dealer. Tapan
carried on his business under this order for a while,
Page 11

but he refused to pay sales tax on his sale transactions
on the ground that these were not the contracts
freely entered into by him.
(a) Tapan would succeed_ because the price
and quantity were not negotiated by him
(b) Tapan would not succeed because free
consent between the parties was there
despite the restriction on price and
(c) He would succeed because the
Government under the new order forced
him to enter into contracts
(d) Both (a) "and(c).
An occupier is not normally liable to a
trespasser except in respect of willful act
intended to cause him harm or done with
reckless disregard.
Tony, a richman, had kept a ferocious dog to guard his
house. He strictly instructed all his servants not to go
near the dog. Further a special attender was hired to
take care of the dog. Visitors were warned by a
prominent warning sign board about this dog.
One day, a 13 year old boy playing in the
neighbourhood, running after his ball got into the
house. The dog attacked him and killed him. Tony was
sued for damages.
(a) Tony was not liable because the boy was a
(b) Tony is not liable because a 13 year old
boy ought to have known about the
presence of the ferocious dog
(c) Tony is liable of the negligence of his
servant to keep watch on such a ferocious
dog during the day time
(d) Both (a) and (b).
A master will be liable for the wrongful acts of
his servants in the course of employment.
Maria was an old widow who opened an account with
the Indian Overseas Bank, whereby she would deposit
Rs. 5 everyday in the bank. Stephen was her
neighbour who used to collect the amount and
deposit them in the bank. Stephen would get a small

commission from the bank for the money deposited.

One day it was discovered that Stephen who had not
deposited the money fOr more than thred months,
had vanished with the amount. Maria filed a suit
against the Bank.
(a) Bank would not be liable because
Stephen, was not an employee of the
(b) Bank would not be liable for the failure of
Maria to check the balance in her account
(c) Bank would be liable because Stephen
was paid commission by the bank for
doing its work
(d) None of the above.
The contract after death of one party can be
continued if it is ratified by the surviving
Vishal, a famous artist was requested by Arun, an
industrialist to draw the portrait of his deceased wife
and paid Rs. 20,000 in advance and agreed to pay
when the work was completed, a sum of Rs. 2 lakhs.
When the portrait was half drawn, Vishal died due to
heart attack. His son also a fine artist completed his
father's work and demanded the money from Arun.
Arun refused to pay and to accept the portrait drawn
by Vishal's son and also demanded the advance to be
(a) Arun cannot demand the advance amount
from the son of Vishal, because -in normal
cases the son is not responsible for the
father's contractual obligation
(b) Son of Vishal cannot demand the rest of
amount from Arun because Arun. has not
assigned him the work
(c) Arun can demand the rest, of the amount
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Ignorance of law is not an excuse in India with
the practice that every person in India should
be acquainted with the law of land.
Mr. Jackson, a foreigner, came to Delhi in the winter
season. He saw the people in Delhi set fire on road
side during night and get their body warm. One night
Page 12

he came out of his hotel and asked two labourers to
cut down a dry tree in Pandara Road and when they
agreed he paid them Rs. 150 Indian currency for
cutting down the tree. They cut and made the log into
small pieces and the foreigner along with the tree
cutters set fire and got their body warm. After some
time, the Police Patrol car watched it and arrested the
foreigner arid two labourers on the spot. The
foreigner pleaded that the tree was dry and he did not know the cutting of tree from road side is an
offence in India.
(a) The foreigner shall not be responsible for
the offence because he himself has not
cut the tree but got it cut through the
Indian people
(b) The foreigner shall be punished because
in India cutting of tree from road side is
an offence
(c) The pretence that he does not know such
act is an offence is not an excuse for a
foreigner also
(d) Both (b) and (c).
The occupier of a premises owes a duty of
care to all his invitees and visitors.
FACTUAL SITUATION: Devi who was the owner of a
big home with a compound wall, constructed an
underground tank to store water. This was covered by
jute bags since the work was incomplete. The
postman who came inside to deliver a registered
letter, fell into this tank and hurt himself. There was
also a box on the outside of the compound wall,
where all the mail could be depbsited. The injured
man filed a suit against Devi claiming compensation.
(a) Devi is not liable, because she did not
invite the postman to her house
(b) Devi is not liable, because the postman
could have delivered the letter in the box
on the outside of the compound wall
(c) Devi is not liable because the postman
was required to take care of himself
(d) Devi is liable because the postman came
into the premises in the course of his


Even if the sovereign functions of the State

are discharged negligently the State is not
vicariously liable in tort.
FACTUAL SITUATION: 'A' was a trader in gold. He was
arrested by Police and was detained in the police lock
up after search. The gold with him along with sundry
other things were seized. Later he was discharged. His
possessions seized by the police were returned,
except the gold. He moved against the State in tort. In
the words of Supreme Court, "There can be no escape
from the conclusion that the .Police Officers were
negligent in dealing with the property after it was
seized." One of the Constables was a Muslim. He fled
with gold to Pakistan.
(a) 'A' succeeded because the servants of the
State were negligent and thus caused injury
(b) 'A' failed because the Constable who
seized the gold had fled to Pakistan and the
gold was not with the state at all.
(c) A failed because the acts of search and
seizure by the police officer were part of
sovereign Function of the state.
(d) There was some other relief given to A.
Whoever, intending to take dishonestly any
movable property out of the possession of any
person without that person's consent, moves
that property in, is said to commit theft.
Whoever commits theft, shall be punished with
imprisonment which may extend to three years
or with fine or with both.
FACTUAL SITUATION: Raju sees a cell phone belonging
to Ram lying on the table in Ram's house. Raju hides the
cell phone in Ram's house in such a place where Ram
could not find it ever, due to the fear of immediate
search and detection. Raju did this with the intention of
taking away the cell phone from the hidden place when
Ram forgets about and then sell it away.
QUESTION: Is Raju guilty of theft?
a. Yes
b. No, because he merely played a prank on his
c. Yes, because Raju did not inform Ram about the
place where he had hidden the cell phone.
d. Yes, because Raju intended to take the
immovable property from Ram's possession and
with this intention he moved the property.

Page 13

44. LEGAL PRINCIPLE: The acceptance to an offer
should be given only in the mode prescribed by
the proposer, for a contract to become
FACTUAL SITUATION: A offered to buy a horse from
B requesting that the acceptance should be sent
through A's agent. B sent his acceptance through his
servant, who reached A's office a day after A's agent
QUESTION: Is A bound by B's acceptance?
a. No, because the contract is binding only
when the acceptance is made in the
prescribed mode.
b. No, because B should have intimated A
about the servant coming with the
c. Yes, because B did send the acceptance.
d. Yes, because the servant is B's
45. LEGAL PRINCIPLE: Violation of a Legal Right,
with or without damage, gives rise to a tort.
FACTUAL SITUATION: A establishes a coaching class
and charge Rs. 5000 per year as fees. A's neighbour
B establishes another coaching class thereby
creating a competition. This forces A to reduce his
fees to Rs. 3000 per year.
QUESTION: Can A claim damages from B for the loss
caused to him?
a) Yes, he can as B has violated his Legal
b) No, A has reduced the fees on his own.
c) No, because though there was damage
there was no legal injury.
d) None of the above.
46. LEGAL PRINCIPLE: A parent is not liable for a
tort committed by his/her child except when the
parent affords the child an opportunity to
commit the tort.
FACTUAL SITUATION: A mother takes her 7 year old
son with her to market. On reaching the market she
shuts the car ignition, pulls the handbrake and puts
the car in gear. She leaves her son in the car only.
The child starts playing with the car, she releases the
brakes and pushes the gear lever to neutral. As a
result, the car starts moving down the road and runs
down a pedestrian.


QUESTION: What is the liability of the mother?

a) The Mother is not liable because she
took great care to ensure that the car
would remain.sta tionary.
b) The Mother is liable because she was
c) The son is liable because his action
caused accident
d) The pedestrian is liable as he should
have been careful while walking on the
road. LEGAL
47. PRINCIPLE: A minor is not competent to enter
into a contract and the law will assume that the
contract never happened and everything is
returned to where it was.
FACTUAL SITUATION: X a minor misrepresents his
age to enter into a contract with Y a seller of
bicycles, to purchase the bicycle. After the bicycle is
delivered to the minor, he refuses to pay the sale
price for the same, contending the non-existence of
a legally binding contract.
QUESTION: Is the contract entered by X a valid
(a) The contract is 'valid because in this case, the
minor has knowingly misrepresented his age in
order to enter into the contract.
(b) The contract is not valid because the buyer is
a minor and the seller will get nothing.
(c) The contract is not valid because the buyer is
not competent to contract, but the minor buyer
may be directed by the Court to return the
(d) The contract is not valid but the seller can
file a suit against X's parents.
48. LEGAL PRINCIPLE: When at the desire of the
promisor, the promisee promises to do some
act, then such promise is called a consideration
for the promise.
FACTUAL SITUATION: X arranges his Birthday party
at his home, and his friend Y promises to cook a
special dish for the guests. On the day of the party, X
finds that Y neither came to his party nor did he get
the special dish. X sues Y for the breach of contract.
QUESTION: Will X succeed in his action?
(a) X will succeed because his friend has failed
to keep his promise
(b) X will succeed because his reputation was
affected due to his irresponsive behavior

Page 14

(c) X will not succeed because there is no
consideration for his friend's promise to bring
the special dish
(d) Both (a) and (b).
49. PRINCIPLE: No person shall be convicted of any
offence except for violation of a law in force at
the time of the commission of the Act charged
as an offence, nor be subjected to a penalty
greater than that which might have been
inflicted under the law in force at the time of
the commission of the offence.

(a) A cannot be held liable for murder because

he was only standing and he did not fire.
(b) Therefore the sessions court and High Court
were wrong. A can be held liable only for
(c) A will be responsible in the same manner as
B and other members of the team because
they were acting in furtherance of common
'intention of all.
(d) None of above.

FACTS: A boy of 16 years of age was convicted for

committing an offence of house trespass and
outraging the modesty of a girl aged 7 years. The
Magistrate sentenced him for 6 months rigorous
imprisonment and also imposed fine. After
judgment, the Probation of Offenders Act, 1958
came into force. It provided that a person below 21
years of age should not Ordinarily be sentenced to
imprisonment. Now the boy claims the benefit of
the Probation of Offenders Act.
(a) He should not get the benefit of Probation of
Offenders Act.
(b) The rule of beneficial interpretation required
that ex post facto law could be applied to
reduce the punishment.
(c) A boy below the age of 21 years is treated as
minor and so he should not be punished.
(d) None of these.
50. PRINCIPLE: When a criminal act is done by
several persons, in furtherance of the common
intention of all, each of such persons is liable for
that act in the same manner as if it were done
by him alone.
FACTS: A, B, C and D went armed to commit a
robbery at a post-office. The Postmaster was
counting. money at the table. A was watching the
gate, C was with the vehicle. B and D entered into
the post office and asked the post master to hand
over the money. On refusal they had a quarrel and B
shot the postmaster and he died. B and D got away
in their vehicle without taking the money. A was
caught while B, C and D managed to escape. A was
sentenced to death by the sessions court, which was
affirmed by the High Court. Now appeal is before
the Supreme Court. What would you submit before
the court as a friend of the court?


Page 15

Legal Aptitude Practise Exercise 1 (Solutions)


21. A

41. D


22. B

42. C


23. A

43. D


24. B

44. A


25. C

45. C


26. D

46. B


27. A

47. C


28. B

48. C


29. C

49. B

10. D

30. C

50. C

11. C

31. C

12. B

32. B

13. A

33. A

14. B

34. D

15. C

35. C

16. C

36. B

17. B

37. D

18. C

38. A

19. D

39. D

20. B

40. B