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ScienceDirect

Procedia Engineering 145 (2016) 707 714

Electric Poles

Girum Urgessa* and Sara Mohamadi

George Mason University, 4400 University Dr MS 6C1, Fairfax, VA, 22030

Abstract

Engineers are increasingly tasked with designing and operating structures that incorporate the philosophy of resiliency across a

variety of critical infrastructure sectors. Electric distribution and transmission systems are examples of the critical infrastructure

sectors. The majority of existing electrical poles supporting electric distribution systems in the United States are made out of

wood. It is estimated that up to 3.6 million existing electric wood poles have to be replaced every year. One of the primary

hardening strategies is upgrading wooden electric poles and supporting structures with stronger materials that withstand

hurricane-force winds. This paper presents finite element analysis of fiber-reinforced polymer composite poles including

parametric studies on geometric characteristics, fiber orientation, number of layers, and lamina thickness.

2016

2015The

TheAuthors.

Authors.

Published

by Elsevier

Published

by Elsevier

Ltd. Ltd.

This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

Peer-review under responsibility of organizing committee of the International Conference on Sustainable Design, Engineering

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review

under responsibility

of the organizing committee of ICSDEC 2016

and Construction

2015.

Keywords: Fiber-reinforced polymers; Finite element analysis; FRP poles; Shell elements

1. Introduction

In the face of frequent natural and man-made disasters, engineers are increasingly tasked with designing and

operating structures that incorporate the philosophy of resiliency across a variety of critical infrastructure sectors.

Electric distribution and transmission systems are one example of the critical infrastructure sectors. A recent report

on economic benefits of increasing electric grid resilience to weather outages estimates that the US economy lost

$18 billion to $33 billion annually during 2003-2012, and identifies several strategies to increase the nations electric

grid resiliency [1]. The majority of existing electrical poles supporting electric distribution systems in the United

States are made out of wood. It is estimated that up to 3.6 million existing electric wood poles have to be replaced

every year. One of the primary hardening strategies identified is upgrading wooden electric poles and supporting

structures with stronger materials that withstand hurricane-force winds [2].

*Corresponding author. Tel.: +1-703-993-1658 ; fax: +1-703-993-9790 . E-mail address: gurgessa@gmu.edu

1877-7058 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of ICSDEC 2016

doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2016.04.085

708

Girum Urgessa and Sara Mohamadi / Procedia Engineering 145 (2016) 707 714

The strategy of upgrading wooden poles includes FRP strengthening of existing wood poles or installing new

poles made from alternative and relatively new materials, such as fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP) composite poles.

For example, Saafi and Asa [3] investigated the feasibility of in-situ FRP strengthening system to repair and extend

the service life of damaged wooden poles. They proposed an in-situ wet layup FRP method using epoxy

impregnated E-glass jacket consisting of four layers and concluded that using the FRP wraps extends the service life

of damaged wood poles by 25 years. In addition to strengthening of wood poles with FRP, poles completely made

out FRP are gaining popularity. In fact, the global FRP pole market is expected to grow at a compounded annual

growth rate of 8.9% during 2014-2019 [4]. The use FRP poles is on the increase because they are light weight, offer

corrosion resistance properties, can be tailored to satisfy specific strength and deflection requirement, and have low

cost of construction and maintenance. FRP poles can also be used in places where poles of other materials face

problems, such as coastal areas where salinity may be detrimental, and areas with high temperature fluctuation.

Fouad and Mullinax [5] presented an overview on the use of fiber reinforced composite poles for electric

distribution lines. They provided a rationale why FRP poles are advantageous when compared to wood, steel and

concrete. The main reasons include easy installation, high strength, smooth texture, high electric insulation

properties and economical cost in terms of installation. They discussed the lack of national standards for FRP utility

poles, but pointed out related standards for FRP poles used in highways signs and street lighting. Oliphant [6]

discussed the potential confusion that occurs when standards attempt to use equivalent wood class poles when

using non-wood structural material such as FRP poles. He highlighted that careful consideration should be given to

limit deflection and stresses when treating FRP poles as an equivalent class wood pole. In the past two decades, a

number of researchers performed static and dynamic analyses to study different behaviors of FRP poles such as

ovalization, buckling, bending and flexure. Ibrahim and Polyzois [7] investigated the ovalization behavior of tapered

FRP poles subjected to bending. They proposed two design methods for computing the critical ovalization load

based on the critical moment that can be carried by the pole and the position in which maximum ovalization occurs.

They concluded that both methods correlate very well and the proposed models can be used efficiently to calculate

the FRP critical ovalization load.

Desai and Yuan [8] presented a numerical model to study the buckling and bending behavior of FRP utility poles.

They studied the effect of section variables, including rigidity length ratio (a/l) defined as the length of the bottom

portion of the pole section to the overall length of pole, moment of inertia ratio (IT/IB) capturing the change in cross

section of upper and lower portion of pole, and the overall pole length. They concluded that the rigidity length ratio

has little effect on the buckling of poles that are taller than 9.14 m (30 ft) and they showed that the moment of inertia

ratio between the top and the bottom sections of the FRP poles had a significant effect on the buckling behavior. In

addition, they concluded that the buckling load of carbon FRP poles was 175% higher than glass FRP poles with the

rigidity length ratio having a major influence on the bending stress of the poles. Masmoudi et al. [9] investigated the

deflection and bending strength of glass fiber reinforced polymer poles fabricated by filament winding with service

openings (holes) using a 3-D non-linear finite element analysis. They proposed a new design with optimized number

and thickness of longitudinal and circumferential layers, fiber orientation and stacking sequence of layers. Their new

design was shown to provide excellent results. The finite element analysis results predicted failure and flexural

behavior of poles very well when compared with experimental results.

Khalili and Saboori [10] used a combination of beam finite element formulation and time integration methods to

investigate the transient dynamic analysis of tapered fiber reinforced polymer transmission poles. They studied thin

walled circular cross-sections that are subjected to dynamic cable tension and vehicle impact. Transmission poles

under step, triangular and sine pulses have been evaluated considering the effect of fiber type, fiber orientation, pole

geometry and concentrated mass at the pole tip. They found that the maximum deflection of the pole tip is the

greatest for the step pulse force followed by the sine and triangular pulses respectively. They concluded that

increasing fiber orientation with respect to pole axis and decreasing top diameter with respect to base diameter

increases the amplitude of deflection history of the pole tip. Furthermore, they showed that using tougher fibers at

the inner and the outer laminas of the pole cross-section decreases the tip deflection significantly. Saboori and

Khalili [11] presented a linear static analysis of FRP transmission poles. They investigated the behavior of the poles

using a second-order shell finite element model considering the effect of various parameters such as fiber orientation

and type, volume fraction, and number of layers and geometry. They developed a computer code in

MATHEMATICA for conducting their analysis and verified their findings partly with ANSYS and partly with a

Girum Urgessa and Sara Mohamadi / Procedia Engineering 145 (2016) 707 714

simplified analytical method. Their numerical code showed good agreement with the methods mentioned. They used

their code to conduct further parametric studies and concluded that increasing fiber orientation angle with respect to

axial direction increases the maximum deflection. Furthermore, the maximum principal stress in at the base of the

pole increases until the fiber orientation reaches 45 degrees and then decreases for fiber orientations greater than 45

degrees. They also found that both the maximum deflection and stress decrease with reduction in tapered angle or

increase in fiber volume fraction and wall thickness. When stronger fibers were used in the inner and outer laminas

of the cross-section, the performance of the poles was improved. Metiche and Masmoudi [12] presented a new

design method for glass fiber-reinforced polymer poles that incorporates a local buckling mode of failure nearby the

area of service openings. They performed experiments on poles with hollow circular cross-section of various wall

thicknesses. They concluded that the ultimate bending moment at the base of the poles is inversely proportional to

linear fiber mass, and identified a specific value of the stiffness to linear mass ratio that causes failure at the base of

the pole.

Our study presents finite element analysis of tapered FRP poles in ABAQUS and associated parametric studies in

order to evaluate the effect of various properties on the overall structural response of FRP poles. These properties

include geometric characteristics, fiber orientation, taper ratio, number of layers, lamina thickness and location of

transverse load. Understanding the response of FRP poles for the varying aforementioned properties will lead to

improved designs and aid in the quantification of fragility curves.

2. Finite element analysis of a tapered FRP pole using ABAQUS

Figure 1 shows the general geometry of the FRP pole with its cross-section variable. ABAQUS [13] was used for

finite element analysis. Geometry and material properties were selected so that our ABAQUS results can be

compared with results from Saboori and Khalili [11] who developed a fast-running numerical algorithm in

MATHEMATICA. Conventional shell elements were used in which the geometry is specified at the reference

surface with the corresponding thicknesses defined by section property [14].

A finite-element analysis was conducted on anti-symmetric FRP pole with a selected layup of [-10/10]4.

Table 1 shows the geometric and material properties of the FRP pole. This specific pole has a taper ratio of 0.5 and

709

710

Girum Urgessa and Sara Mohamadi / Procedia Engineering 145 (2016) 707 714

is referred to as baseline FRP pole in this paper. Conventional thick shell elements were used in which the

geometry is specified at the reference surface with the corresponding thicknesses defined by section property. Two

shell elements, S4 and S8R based on thick shell theory were used [15]. While there is no consensus on the exact

transition point between thick and thin shell assumptions, structures with radius-to-thickness (R/t) ratios of less than

15 are typically modeled as thick shells. Therefore, the use of thick shell theory is warranted for most poles. Element

S4 implements a standard rule with four integration points and accounts for finite membrane strains and large

rotations. S8R is an eight-node quadratic element and six degrees of freedom at each node with reduced integration

rule that is capable of handling arbitrary large rotations but it is based on a small-strain theory.

Table 1. Properties of the glass-fiber reinforced polymer composite tapered pole (65% fibers)

Geometry

Material

Longitudinal elastic modulus

Length (mm)

4000

48

(GPa)

Top = 72

Transverse elastic modulus

Diameter (mm)

13.3

Base =144

(GPa)

Total Thickness (mm)

4

Poissons ratio

0.235

No. of lamina

8

Shear modulus (GPa)

5.17

Transverse Load

Magnitude (N)

Location

Type

2000

Tip of the

pole

Point load

Table 2 shows results from our study in comparison with results from Saboori and Khalili [11]. Our results using

shell element S4 in ABAQUS [13] match well with their results. The error is 3.4% for maximum deflection and

6.17% for maximum stress. We note that Saboori and Khalili [11] used an 8-noded element with full-integration for

their composite pole FEM validation and the small error can be attributed for that reason. Shell element S8R

produced lower results because of its inability to capture finite strains. We concluded that shell element S4 is the

better choice from the two elements studied and will be used for further studies.

Table 2. Comparison of results for the baseline glass-fiber reinforced polymer tapered pole.

Saboori and Khalili [11]

Result from our study in ABAQUS with element type

Response

Numerical

ANSYS

S4

S8R

Max. deflection (mm)

327.3

328.7

339.9

302

Max. principal stress (MPa)

128.1

142.6

133.8

128.1

Number of elements

8

2000

216

160

Once the finite element analysis results in ABAQUS [13] were validated, parametric studies were conducted in

order to evaluate the effect of various properties on the overall structural response of FRP poles. These properties

include geometric characteristics, fiber orientation, number of layers, and lamina thickness. Whenever possible we

compared our results with numerical results obtained from other models

3.1. Effect of fiber-orientation

The effect of fiber-orientation was studied by modeling multiple tapered FRP poles with anti-symmetric [-T/T]4

lay-up and determining the resulting maximum deflection and maximum stress in the poles. The angle, T, was varied

in increments of 5q from 0q to 60q for this study. All other material, geometric and load properties were kept the

same as before. Figure 2 and Figure 3 show the maximum deflection and maximum stress results respectively. We

conclude that the maximum stress in the pole increases as the fiber-orientation increases up to 45q with respect to

the axial direction, and then decreases as the fiber-orientation increases up to 60q. It is also apparent that increasing

the fiber-orientation increases the maximum deflection of the pole because of the reduced stiffness of the FRP pole.

3.2. Effect of number of layers and lamina thickness

In the analysis presented so far, the glass fiber-reinforced composites FRP poles were made out of 8 layers of

composite regardless of fiber-orientations. A finite element analysis was conducted by varying the number of

composite layers from 4 to 12 in increments of 2 layers for a specified anti-symmetric fiber-orientation, [-10/10]# of

Girum Urgessa and Sara Mohamadi / Procedia Engineering 145 (2016) 707 714

layer. Figure 4 and Figure 5 show the maximum deflection and maximum stress results respectively. As expected

increasing the number of layers decreases both the maximum deflection and maximum stress in the pole. The

percentage reductions in the maximum deflection and maximum stress were 70% and 60% respectively between

using 4 versus 12 layers. However, the rate of reduction is not constant for all variations of number of layers. The

rate decreases as the number of layers increases. Our ABAQUS [13] results also compared very well with results

from other numerical models [11].

Fig. 3. Effect of fiber-orientation on the maximum principal stress of the FRP pole.

711

712

Girum Urgessa and Sara Mohamadi / Procedia Engineering 145 (2016) 707 714

Fig. 4. Effect of number of layers on the maximum deflection of the FRP pole.

Fig. 5. Effect of number of layers on the maximum principal stress of the FRP pole.

Furthermore, a parametric study was conducted to study the effect of varying lamina thickness without changing

the overall laminate thickness of the baseline FRP pole described in section 2.2. Table 3 shows the results. There

was no significant difference in maximum deflection and maximum stress for FRP poles of the same overall

thickness with 4 or 6 layers in comparison to the baseline FRP pole with 8 layers of 0.5 mm lamina thickness per

layer. The maximum difference is within 0.5%.

Girum Urgessa and Sara Mohamadi / Procedia Engineering 145 (2016) 707 714

Number of Layers

341.7

340.6

338.7

134.3

134.0

133.2

Structural reliability is an important consideration particularly as design philosophies move towards performance

based design. Simulation method, such as Monte Carlo, can be used to calculate the probabilities of failure of the

FRP poles while varying the value of the wind load (or wind speed) as specified in design codes [16]. For each

random variable with uncertainty, selected random values can be generated and the probabilities of flexural failure

can be determined by determining the number of instants where the flexural stress demand at the critical location of

the FRP pole exceeds the corresponding flexural stress capacity. The critical location is usually located at the ground

line and using fragility analysis, the limit state function (G) can be determined by subtracting the stress demand at

the ground line (S) from the strength of the pole at any time (R). The analyses presented in the previous sections are

critical in determining the strength of the FRP poles at critical section and are currently being studied in fragility

analysis of the FRP poles.

5. Conclusion

This study presents parametric studies to determine the effects of geometric characteristics, fiber orientation,

number of layers, and lamina thickness of tapered FRP poles using finite element analysis. The main findings of the

paper are summarized below.

x The conventional general purpose shell element S4 in ABAQUS was found to be suitable and relatively accurate

for modeling the behavior of FRP composite poles. Finite element results for the baseline FRP pole compared

very well with results obtained from existing numerical models.

x The maximum stress in the FRP composite pole increases as the fiber-orientation increases up to 45q with respect

to the axial direction, and then decreases as the fiber-orientation increases up to 60q. It was also apparent that

increasing the fiber-orientation increases the maximum deflection of the pole increases as the fiber-orientation

increases from 0q to 60q.

x The maximum deflection and maximum stress in the FRP composite poles decrease as the number of layers

increase (thicker in cross-section). However, the rate of reduction decreases as the number of layers increases.

x There was no significant difference in the maximum deflection and maximum stress between FRP poles of same

overall thickness with 4 or 6 layers in comparison to the baseline FRP pole with 8 layers of 0.5 mm lamina

thickness per layer.

x Strength of the FRP poles at critical sections as determined from finite element analysis are used in an ongoing

fragility analysis of the poles.

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the Sid and Reva Dewberry Department of Civil, Environmental and Infrastructure

Engineering at George Mason University for providing student support.

713

714

Girum Urgessa and Sara Mohamadi / Procedia Engineering 145 (2016) 707 714

References

[1] The White House, Economic benefits of increasing electric grid resilience to weather outages, 2013; pp. 1-28.

[2] American National Standards Institute. Fiber-reinforced plastic lighting poles, ANSI C136, 2005.

[3] Saafi, M. and Asa, E., Extending the service life of electric distribution and transmission wooden poles using a

wet layup FRP composite strengthening system. Journal of performance of constructed facilities 2010, 24(4), pp.

409-416.

[4] Lucintel, Growth opportunities in global FRP poles market 2014-2019: trends, forecast, and opportunity analysis,

2014.

[5] Fouad, H.F. and Mullinax, Jr., E.C., FRC poles for distribution power lines. Advanced Technology in Structural

Engineering, American Society of Civil Engineers, 2010, pp. 1-7.

[6] Oliphant, W.J., The chaotic confusion surrounding wood equivalent non-wood poles, Conference Proceedings

of the Electrical Transmission and Substation Structures, American Society of Civil Engineers, 2009, pp. 11-19.

[7] Ibrahim, S. and Polyzois, D., Ovalization analysis of fiber-reinforced plastic poles, Journal of Composite

Structures 1999, 45(1), pp. 7-12.

[8] Desai, N. and Yuan, R., Investigation of bending/buckling characteristics for FRP composite poles. Proceedings

of Earth and Space 2006, American Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 1-18.

[9] Masmoudi, R., Mohamed, H. and Metiche, S., Finite element modeling for deflection and bending responses of

GFRP poles, Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 2008, 27(6), pp. 639-658.

[10]

Khalili, S.M.R. and Saboori, B., Transient dynamic analysis of tapered FRP composite transmission poles

using finite element method. Journal of Composite Structures 2010, 92(2), pp. 275-283.

[11] Saboori, B. and Khalili, S.M.R., Static analysis of tapered FRP transmission poles using finite element method,

Journal of Finite Element in Analysis and Design 2011, 47(3), pp. 247-255.

[12] Metiche, S. and Masmoudi, R., Analysis and design procedures for the flexural behavior of glass fiberreinforced polymer composite poles. Journal of Composite Materials 2013, 47(2), pp. 207-229.

[13] ABAQUS, ABAQUS version 16.12, 2014, Dassault Systmes Simulia Corp., Providence, USA.

[14] Urgessa, G., Horton, S., Significance of stress-block parameters on the moment-capacity of sections underreinforced with FRP, American Concrete Institute 2005, SP 230, pp. 1531-1550.

[15] Sadowski, A.J. and Rotter, J.M., Solid or shell finite elements to model thick cylindrical tubes and shells under

global bending. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 2013, 74, pp. 143-153.

[16] American National Standards Institute. American National Standard for Wood Poles 05.1 Specifications and

Dimensions, 2008.

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