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N otes and brief art icles



Department of Biology , Liverpool Polytechnic, By rom S treet , Liverpool L] ] A P, U.K .

Departm ent of Botany, M akerere Univ ersity, Kampala, Uganda

Hypoxy lon munkii sp .nov. and H. citrifor me sp.nov. are described and illustrated from
specimens found in N iger ia. Their relat ion ships to other speci es are d iscu ssed .
During 1979 H. K. Taligoola collected xylariaceous fungi in th e Idanre, G ambari and Oluwa
for ests of Wes tern N igeria. T wo pre viou sly un described species of Hypoxy lon Bull. were amo ng
the colle ction s and are described here. One is
named in hon our of Professor Anders Munk in
recognition of hi s contribution s to pyrenomy cete
taxonomy wh ilst in the other taxon the speci fic
epithet "citr iform e' reflects th e lemon- shaped
ascos pores .

Hypoxylon munkii sp. nov.

(F igs 1-2 )
Stromata late effusa, plana vel plano-convexa, orbicularia
vel e substrato irregularia, 15-4 ern x 0"1-1 em et
0"5- 1 mm crassa, tumulis perithecialibus inconspicuis;
ectostroma primum pallide lilacina, pallide purpureobrunnea, deinde griseo-pur purea et demum obscure
porphyrea; entostrorna alba, carneo-coriacea usque
lignosa. Perithecia semiglobosa vel conferta oblonga,
03--{)"4 mm diam et o"4--{)"8 mm alta, ostiolis umbilicatis,

TrailS. B r. my col. Soc. 90 (1), (1988)


vetustis punc ta tis, Asci cylindrici, p. sp, 33- 40 x 5-7 pm ,

stipite 40- 50 pm Iongo; annulo apicali ope iode cyanescente, triangulari in sectione opticali. Ascosporae
oblique uniseriatae, 55- 7"5 x 3-35 p m, inaequilaterialiter ellipticae rima germinativa longa praeditae, pallide
brunneae vel obscure brunneae, leves.

Stromata widely effuse d, plane or plano-convex,

orbicular or irregular in outline depending on the
character istics of th e subs tratum , 15-4 ern x 051 em and 0"5- 1 mm th ick, perithecial elevations
not prom inent ; ectos troma initially lilac, pale red br own , later grey-purple and finally dark redbr own wh en old; entos troma whi te, soft leathery
or woody . Perithecia semiglobose or oblong when
crow ded , 03--0"4 mm dia m and 0"4--08 mm high,
ostioles umbilicat e, surrounded by a wh ite mycelial
fringe, slightly sunken and becom ing punctate
with age. Asci cylindrical, sp. p . 33-40 x 5- 7 /tm
with sti pe 40-50 pm lon g ; ap ical ascu s ring turning
blue with Melzer's iodine reagent, tri angular in

Hy poxy lon munhii, stromata x 5.

Prim ed ill Great Br itain


Notes and brief articles


optical section. Ascospores obliquely uni seriate,

5'5-7'5 x 3-3'5/lm, inaequilaterally elliptic with
straight germination slit running the whole length
of the spore, light to dark brown, smooth-walled.
Sp ecimens examined : On twig of unidentified angi osperm, Idanre Forest, Akure , Nigeria, Aug. 1979, H .
K. Taligoola 680, 1M1 315972, holotype . On undetermined wood , Idanre Forest, Akure, Nigeria, Aug .
1979, H . K . Taligoola 160, A. ]. S. Whalley 1259.

Fig .


Hypoxylon munkii. (A) Ascus ; (8) apical

apparatus ; (C) ascospores.

Hypoxylon munk ii can be accommodated in

Miller's section Hypoxylon (M iller, 1961 ) on
account of its strongly pigmented stromata, umbilicate ostiole s and inequilaterally elliptic ascospores with a germination slit on the convex side
of the spore. Superficially it resembles H . rubiginosum Pers . : Fr. and has ascospore dimensions
similar to those of the small-spored variety, H.
rubiginosum var . microsporum Whalley. However,
the white entostroma which extends throughout
the stroma is a very distinctive feature and is one
more usually associated with species of Xylaria
Hill ex Schrenk and Peneigia Sacco & Pao\. than
Hypoxylon . Three species of Hypoxylon belonging
to the Primocinerea subsection of the section
Papillata, H . quisquiliarum Mont., H . conostomum
Mont. and H . rosellinioides Henn. possess a white
interior of differing degrees of development, and
Miller (1961) remarked that they ' are intermediate
between Hypoxylon and Penzigia and could just as
well be in the last genus as in the first'. Hypoxylon

Fig. 3. Hyp oxylon citrifo rme, stromata x 5.

Trans. Br. my col. S oc. 90 (1), (1988)

Pr int ed in Great Britain

N otes and brief articles


Hypoxylon citriforme sp. nov.

(F igs 3- 5)

Stromata erumpentia, ap planata usque convexa, orbicularia, irregularia, 0'8-3 cm x 0'5- 1 em and 0'5- 1 mm
crassa, grisea, griseo brunnea, demum obscure fusca,
carbonacea, ostiolis umbilicatis, impressio, demum punctat is, Perith ecia ovata, 0'4-0'5 mm diam . Asci cylindrici,
p . sp . 70--85 pm x 6-10 pm, st ipite, br eve 20--30 pm
longo, annulo apicali ope iode cyanescente, cubico basim
versus deminuto, 3-4 p m crasso x 2 pm alto. Ascosporae
un iseriatae, 10--13 x 6-8'5 pm , citri formes rim a germinat iva longa praeditae, brunneae, leves.

Stromata erumpent , applanate to convex, irregul ar orbicular to elliptic, 0'8-3 em x 0'5-1 cm

and 0'5-1 mm thick, grey, grey-brown, dull dark
br own at matu rit y, carbonaceous, ostioles sunken
and becoming punctate with age. Perithecia ovate,
0'4-0'5 mm diam . As ci cylindrical, sp. p. 70-8 5 lim
x 6-10 flm with short stipe 20-30 flm long ;
apical ascu s ring staining blue in Melzer's iodine
reagent, cubical with tapering base, 3-4 fl m
wide x 2 fl m high. A scospores uniseriate, 10-13 x
6-8'5 flm , lemon-shaped with germination slit
running the whole length of the spore, br own ,
smooth-walled .

S pecimen examined : On undeterm ined wood, Id anr e

Fore st, Akure, N iger ia, Aug. 1979, H . K . T aligoola
170D, 1M1 31597 1, holotype .
IOll m

Fig. 4. Hy poxy lon cit rifo rme . (A) Ascus ; (B) ascospores.

munkii is we bel ieve the first record of a Hypoxylon

species from another section to possess a white
interio r, but in th is case its affinity to othe r wellestablished species of Hypoxy lon is beyond

Hypoxylon citrifo rme can be accommodated in

the Applanata section (M iller, 1961). The slightly
sunken ostioles whi ch become punctate at maturity,
the cubical iodine-positive apical apparatus, and
the lemon- shaped ascospo res are its main distinguishing features.

MILLER , J. H . (1961). A Monograph of the World Species

of H ypoxylon . Ath ens, U .S.A. : University of Georgia
Pr ess.

Fig . 5. Hyp oxylon citriforme. Ascospor es x 1500.

T rans. Br . mycol. Soc. 90 (1), (1988)

Prim ed in Great B ritain

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