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DRUG

CLOXACILLIN
Apo-Cloxi, Cloxapen, Cloxilean,
Novocloxin ,Tegopen
Drug class: Antibiotic
FDA Pregnancy Category: B
Route: Oral
Adult: 250-500 mg 4 times daily.
Child: 50-100 mg/kg in divided
doses every 6 hr.
Parenteral: 500 mg/vial, 1 g/vial,
and 2 g/vial injectable solutions.

USE

Mechanism of action
-Inhibits cell wall
synthesis and causes call
lysis o rdeath in bacteria
that make rigid,crosslinked call wall in several
steps.

CNS: Headache

Therapeutic use:
-Treatment of mild
respiratory tract infections
or localized skin and softtissue infection cause by
penicillinase-producing
staphylococci.

Metabolic: Elevated AST,


ALT; jaundice (possibly of
allergic etiology).

Pharmacokinetics:
Absorption: 3760% absorbed
from GI tract.
Peak: 0.52 h.
Duration: 46 h.
Distribution: Distributed
throughout body with highest

SIDE EFFECTS/
ADVERSE
EFFECTS

NURSING
CONSIDERATIONS

Assess for drug hypersensitivity, history


of allergy/asthma, severe illness, N/V,
gastric dilatation, cardiospasm, renal
impairment, intestinal hypermotility,
pregnancy/nursing status, and possible
drug interactions.

Monitor organ system function


periodically during prolonged therapy.

Monitor blood cultures, WBC and


differential cell count weekly.

Monitor BUN, urinalysis, creatinine,


ALT, and AST periodically.

Advise patient to report sign and


symptoms of allergic reaction.

Report to physician the onset of


hypersensitivity reaction and
superinfections.

GI: Nausea, vomiting,


flatulence, diarrhea
Hematologic: Eosinophilia,
leukopenia, agranulocytosis

Skin: Pruritus, urticaria, rash.


Others: Wheezing, sneezing,
chills, drug fever, anaphylaxis,
superinfections (Red mans
syndrome).

concentrations in liver, kidney,


spleen, bone, bile, and pleural
fluid; low CSF penetration;
crosses placenta; distributed into
breast milk.
Protein-binding: 94%
Metabolism: Metabolized in
liver.
Elimination: Through urine and
through bile.
Half-Life: 3060 min.

DRUG
CARBENICILLIN INDANYL
Geocillin, Geopen Oral
Drug class: Antibiotic
FDA Pregnancy Category: B
Route: Oral
Adult: PO 382 mg q6h for 10 days

USE
Therapeutic Use:
-Treatment of prostatitis and acute
and chronic infections of upper
and lower urinary tract caused by
susceptible strains of Escherichia
coli, Enterobacter, Enterococcus,
Proteus, and Pseudomonas
species.

SIDE EFFECTS/
ADVERSE EFFECTS
EENT: dry mouth, furry tongue,
and glossitis.

NURSING
CONSIDERATIONS

Gastrointestinal: Nausea,
vomiting, diarrhea, flatulence,
heartburn, abdominal cramps,
rectal bleeding, anorexia, loose
stools, and epigastric distress.

Assess for
drug hypersensitivity, history
of allergy/asthma, severe
illness, N/V, gastric dilatation,
intestinal hypermotility, renal
impairment,
pregnancy/nursing status,
and possible drug interactions.

Pharmacokinetics

Skin: Rash, urticaria, pruritus, and


fever

Monitor I&O rates and


pattern.

Absorption: Incompletely
absorbed , 3040% of an oral dose
absorbed from GI tract

Hematologic: Anemia,
thrombocytopenia, leukopenia,
neutropenia, and eosinophilia.

Check with physician


regarding optimum daily
fluid intake

Peak: 0.51 h.

Cardiovascular: Congestive heart


failure resulting from the sodium
content of carbenicillin

Report any change in


quality or quantity of urine
or in I&O ratio.

Observe patient for signs


of electrolyte imbalance

Evaluate renal, hepatic, and


hematopoietic systems at
regular intervals during

Distribution: Very low systemic


concentrations; crosses placenta;
distributed into breast
milk. Plasma Protein Binding
2960%
Metabolism-hydrolyzed by
plasma and tissue esterases

Metabolic: hypokalemia.
Hepatic: Mild elevations of liver
transaminases.
Genitourinary: Vaginitis.

Elimination: Urine
Other: Hyperthermia, itchy eyes,

Half-Life: 60-70 min

loose stools, and headache.


prolonged therapy.

Report to physician the onset


of hypersensitivity reaction