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EDIT 720

Jennifer N. Hudson, M.Ed.

Annotated Bibliographies for Module 2


#1: Driscoll, M. (2005). Psychology of Learning for Instruction (3rd ed.)(pp.71-77). Boston, MA:
Allyn and Bacon.
In the beginning of the chapter, two scenarios were given and the two parties could not
remember what happened in their conversations that particular day. That goes back to the
information-processing system. There are three stages of information processing. They are
sensory memory, working memory, and long-term memory (Driscoll, 2005, p. 74).
The sensory memory is the first stage. The five senses are within this stage. In this stage, it holds
information briefly.
Working memory is the next stage. Another name for working memory is short-term memory. In
this stage, the memory is preparing to be transferred to long-term memory. In the working
memory stage, the person is actively thinking about ideas (Driscoll, 2005, p. 75). Only a limited
amount of information is stored, and the information is only stored for a limited amount of time
(Driscoll, 2005, p. 75).
Long-term memory is the final stage. If anything wants to become long-term memory, it has to
become transferred from short-term memory (Driscoll, 2005, p.75). The good thing is that longterm memory cannot be filled up and is never ever really lost (Driscoll, 2005, p. 75). A person
can retain an unlimited amount of information continuously, as long as the information is
transferred from short-term memory.
I would love to know or learn how can a person improve their long-term memory?
#2: Guenther, R.K. (1998). Introduction and historical Overview. Human Cognition (pp. 1-27).
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Guenther introduces human cognitive psychology. In this section it discusses the important
events that brought about this transition of human cognition. It goes into how the world becomes
natural with the discovery of the planets, moons, and orbits. The article goes through the steps of
us as humans become to think and have ideas. The author mentions of how there are different
versions of dualism. One of those versions are called property dualism-where a mind cannot
exist independently of a brain. (Guenther, 1998, p. 5). In the findings, Descartes found that
humans and animals both have a brain, but humans are the only ones that have language ability
and the ability to reason (Guenther, 1998, p. 5). The author discussed the findings of cognitive
science in the 19th Century and 20th Century. There are four claims in the information processing.
Those claims are that cognitive processing goes through stages in which information is
transformed, higher mental processes can be understood as a collection of elementary operations,
human cognition has limited capacity for storing information, and that there is a difference
between human thought processes and digital computers (Guenther, 1998, pgs. 12-13).
#3: Smith & Ragan (1999). Introduction to Instructional Design. Instructional Design (pp. 1-12).
New York: Wiley.

EDIT 720

Jennifer N. Hudson, M.Ed.

The authors discussed what the three phases of instructional design are. They are analysis,
strategy, and evaluation (Smith & Ragan, 1999, p. 7). The three categories are intertwined with
one another. It is not a linear approach (Smith & Ragan, 1999, p. 8). It was mentioned in the
article that when selecting the best instructional strategy, it is good to select the best one for
learning concepts (Smith & Ragan, 1999, p. 8). Having consistency is important in producing
results in education. Faulty congruence happens and as the designers, that falls into our hands.
There are advantages of systematic instructional design. Some of those advantages are:
encourages the advocacy of a learner, facilitates congruency with objectives, activities, and
assessment, and helps with learning problems (Smith & Ragan, 1999, pgs. 8-9). However, some
limitations to instructional design are the learning goals and particular goals cannot be identified
beforehand (Smith & Ragan, 1999, p. 9). Trainers and teachers could be identified as some
designers. Using the systematic instructional design process, enhances learning in many different
ways (Smith & Ragan, 1999, p. 11).
#4: Smith & Ragan (1999). Foundations of Instructional Design. Instructional Design (pp. 1329). New York: Wiley.
The authors discuss philosophy and theory in Instructional Design. One of the reasons for
studying philosophy and theory is that it helps designers understand why they make the decisions
they do (Smith & Ragan, 1999, p. 14). There are three different philosophical perspectives of
instructional design. They are constructivism, empiricism, and pragmatism.
Constructivism is categorized into a larger category of philosophies. In that philosophy it is,
the belief that reason is the primary source of knowledge and that reality is constructed rather
than discovered. (Smith & Ragan, 1999, p. 15). There is individual constructivism, social
constructivism, and contextualism. A misinterpretation of constructivism is when learners are
engaged and enthusiastic they are learning (Smith & Ragan, 1999, p. 17). This is not true.
Learners may not even have an idea of what the learning goal was.
Empiricism is when knowledge is obtained by experience (Smith & Ragan, 1999, p. 17).
Pragmatism could be considered in between constructivism and empiricism (Smith & Ragan,
1999, p. 17). Pragmatists also believe knowledge is obtained by experience, but also that
knowledge is interpreted by reason (Smith & Ragan, 1999, p. 17).
There were different theories mentioned: learning theories, cognitive learning theories,
developmental theories, and instructional theories.
#5: Anderson, S., Yu-Chang, H., & Kinney, J. (2016). Using Importance-Performance Analysis to
Guide Instructional Design of Experiential Learning Activities. Online Learning, 20(4), 33-47.
I selected this article because after reading about the different theories that played a role in the
instructional design process in Smith & Ragan (1999), I gained an interest in the topic. In this
article it focuses on experiential learning. In this theory it focus on the holistic approach for
learning. John Dewey was also mentioned in the text about how he developed a philosophy of
education. Kolbs experiential learning theory was based off of Dewey and Piagets approach.

EDIT 720

Jennifer N. Hudson, M.Ed.

What I discovered in this article was that Kolbs theory had four learning activities. Those
learning activities were concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization,
and active experimentation (Anderson, Yu-Chang, & Kinney, 2016, p. 35). In the article, there
was a study completed on online experiential learning. The study was successful and students
were able to connect classroom concepts to the real world (Anderson, Yu-Chang, & Kinney,
2016, p. 42).
There were some limitations in the study that could have hindered the results. Those limitations
were sample size and that the course students were taking (Anderson, Yu-Chang, & Kinney,
2016, p. 43).