Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 16

THE RAMAYANA

Rama seated with Sita, fanned by Lakshmana, while Hanuman pays his respects.
Rama is one of the protagonists of the tale. Portrayed as the seventh avatar of
god Vishnu, he is the eldest and favourite son of Dasharatha, the king of Ayodhya and
his Chief Queen, Kausalya. He is portrayed as the epitome of virtue. Dasharatha is
forced by Kaikeyi, the second of his three wives, to command Rama to relinquish his
right to the throne for fourteen years and go into exile. He kills the evil demon
Ravana, who abducted his wife Sita and later returned to Ayodhya to form an ideal
state.

Sita is another of the tale's protagonists. She is daughter of Mother Earth, adopted
by King Janaka and Rama's beloved wife. Rama went to Mithila (located
in Janakpur, Nepal) and got a chance to marry her by breaking the Shiv Dhanush
(bow) while trying to tie a knot to it in a competition organized by King Janaka of
Nepal in Dhanusa. The competition was to find the most suitable husband for Sita
and many princes from different states competed to win her. Sita is the avatara of
goddess Lakshmi, the consort of Vishnu. Sita is portrayed as the epitome of female
purity and virtue. She follows her husband into exile and is abducted by the demon
king Ravana. She is imprisoned on the island of Lanka, until Rama rescues her by
defeating Ravana. Later, she gives birth to Luv and Kusha.

Synopsis]
Vishvamitra looks on as Rama breaks the bow, to win the hand of Sita in marriage.
Dasharatha was the king of Ayodhya. He had three wives: Kaushalya, Kaikeyi and
Sumitra. He was childless for a long time and anxious to produce an heir, he
performs a fire sacrifice known as putra-kameshti yagya. As a consequence, Rama
is first born to Kaushalya, Bharata is born to Kaikeyi, Lakshmana and Shatrughna
are born to Sumitra. These sons are endowed, to various degrees, with the essence
of the Supreme Trinity Entity Vishnu; Vishnu had opted to be born into mortality to
combat the demon Ravana, who was oppressing the gods, and who could only be
destroyed by a mortal. The boys are reared as the princes of the realm, receiving
instructions from the scriptures and in warfare from Vashistha. When Rama is 16
years old, sage Vishwamitra comes to the court of Dasharatha in search of help
against demons who were disturbing sacrificial rites. He chooses Rama, who is
followed by Lakshmana, his constant companion throughout the story. Rama and
Lakshmana receive instructions and supernatural weapons from Vishwamitra and
proceed to destroy the demons.
Janaka was the king of Mithila. One day, a female child was found in the field by the
king in the deep furrow dug by his plough. Overwhelmed with joy, the king regarded
the child as a "miraculous gift of god". The child was named Sita, the Sanskrit word
for furrow. Sita grew up to be a girl of unparalleled beauty and charm. The king had
decided that who ever could lift and wield the heavy bow, presented to his
ancestors by Shiva, could marry Sita. Sage Vishwamitra takes Rama and Lakshmana
to Mithila to show the bow. Then Rama desires to lift it and goes on to wield the bow
and when he draws the string, it breaks. [8] Marriages are arranged between the sons
of Dasharatha and daughters of Janaka. Rama gets married to
Sita, Lakshmana to Urmila, Bharata to Mandavi and Shatrughan to Shrutakirti. The
weddings are celebrated with great festivity at Mithila and the marriage party
returns to Ayodhya.

Ibalon
16JULA long time ago, there was a rich land called Ibalong. The hero Baltog, who
came from Botavora of the brave clan of Lipod, came to this land when many
monsters were still roaming in its very dark forests. He decided to stay and was the
first to cultivate its field and to plant them with gabi.
Then one night, a monstrous, wild boar known as Tandayag saw these field and
destroyed the crops. Upon knowing this, Baltog decided to look for this boar with all
his courage and patient. At last, as soon as he saw it, he fearlessly wrestled with it,
with all his might. Baltog was unafraid. He was strong and brave. Though the
Tandayag had very long fangs, he was able to pin down the monstrous, wild boar
and break apart its very big jawbones. With this, Tandayag fell and died.
After this fight, Baltog went to his house in Tondo, carrying the Tandayag broken
bones. Then he hung it on a talisay tree in front of his house. Upon learning of the
victory of their Chief Baltog, the people prepared a feast and celebrated. The very
big jawbones of the dead boar became an attraction for everyone. Thus, came the
tribes of Panikwason and Asog to marvel it.
The second hero who came to the land of Ibalong was Handyong. Together with his
men, he had to fight thousands of battles, and face many dangers to defeat the
monster. As warriors, they first fought the one-eyed monster with the tree necks in
the land of Ponong. For ten months, they fought without rest. And they never
stopped fighting until all these monsters were killed.

Handyong and his men made their next attack against the giant flying sharks called
Triburon which had hardly flesh and sawlike teeth that could crush rocks. They
continued fighting until the defeat of the last Triburon.
They tamed the wild carabaos. They even drove away the giant and very fierce
Sarimao which had very sharp fingernails. And using their spears and arrows, they
killed all the crocodiles which were as big as boats. With all these killings, the rivers
and swamps of Ibalong turned red with blood. It was at this time that the savage
monkeys became frightened and hid themselves.
Among the enemies of Handyong and his men, the serpent Oryol was the hardest to
kill. Having a beautiful voice, Oryol could change its image to deceive its enemies.
To capture it, Handyong tried different ways. But Oryol escaped every one of it and
disappeared.
So alone and unafraid, Handyong decide to look for Oryol in the heart of the forest.
He followed the beautiful voice and was almost enchanted by it in his pursuit. Days

and nights passed until Oryol came to admire Handyongs bravery and gallantry.
Then the serpent helped the hero to conquer monsters, thus restoring peace to the
entire Ibalong.
In one the areas of Ibalong called Ligmanan, Handyong built a town. Under his
leadership and his laws, slaves and masters were treated equally. The people
planted rice and because of their high regard of him they named this rice after him.
He built the first boat to ride the waves of Ibalongs seas. Through his good
example, his people became inspired and came up with their own inventions. There
was Kimantong who made the plow, harrow and other farming tools. Hablom who
invented the first loom for weaving abaca clothes, Dinahong an Agta, who created
the stove, cooking pot, earthen jar and other kitchen utensils, and Sural who
brilliantly thought of syllabary and started to write on a marble rock. This was a
golden period in Ibalong.
Then suddenly, there came a big flood caused by Unos, with terrifying earthquakes.
The volcanoes of Hantik, Kulasi and Isarog erupted. Rivers changed their direction
and the seas waves rolled high. Destruction was everywhere. Soon, the earth
parted, mountains sank, a lake was formed, and many towns in Ibalong were
ruined.Then appeared the giant Rabot, half-man and half-beast, with awesome and
terrifying powers.People were asking who will fight against Rabot. So Bantong, the
third hero was called. He was a good friend of Handyong. He was ordered to kill the
new monster on Ibalong. To do this, he took with him a thousand warriors to attack
Rabots den. But using his wisdom against Rabot, he did not attack the giant right
away. He first observed Rabots ways. Looking around the giants den, he
discovered that there were many rocks surrounding it, and these were the people
who were turned into rocks by Rabot.Bantong also learned that Rabot loved to sleep
during the day and stayed awake at night. So, he waited. When Rabot was already
sleeping very soundly, Bantong came hear him. He cut the giant into two with his
very sharp bolo and without any struggle, Rabot died. So Ibalong was at peace once
more.

Indarapatra at Sulayman
Indarapatra and Sulayman: The fight among the giants
Once upon a time, there lived a great and mighty Sultan, named Nabi Bakamarat
and his wife, Potri Malaylabangsa in the kingdom of Komara Mantapoli. They were
unhappy for a long time, because they were not gifted with a child. Sad, they
appealed to Bathala to gift them with a child. Bathala was moved by pity for the two
and let his son, Indarapatra come down from heaven to be their son.
"I am Indarapatra," said the child to the couple.Indarapatra grew up healthy and
strong with special powers -- he was able to walk on the bottom of the ocean, and
he was friends with the wild animals of the forest. When Sultan Nabi died,
Indarapatra ruled Komara Mantapoli.However, it was little known that Sultan Nabi
had a child with one of his slaves. This son was named Sulayman. His existence was
kept secret by the slave, because she did not want her son to die. It was only that
when she lay dying that she admitted to her son's paternity and then died. Potri
took the child, and raised him as her own. It wasn't long before Sulayman was
recognized as Prince, and the best warrior in the whole kingdom.
Then it was quiet and peaceful in Komara Mantapoli, but then the giant, Omaka-an
appeared and threw the whole kingdom into disorder. Omaka-an was mean and
horrible. He ate man and beast and destroyed the crops. He had a charm that kept
him from dying, or getting hurt, whomever or whatever fought him.Because of the

destruction wrought by Omaka-an, Indarapatra asked Sulayman to stop Omaka-an


before there was no Komara Mantapoli left.
"Leave it to me, my brother-King." said brave Sulayman. "Even if Omaka-an is a
sorcerer, I assure you that he will not be safe from my sharp kampilan." and
together with his men, he left to do as he was bid by Indarapatra.Many days had
passed, and Sulayman had not yet returned to Komara Mantapoli. Worried,
Indarapatra vowed to look for his missing brother. He mounted his winged horse and
flew, over mountains and valleys, searching for his brother. He then came to a
forest, where he attacked by wild animals. He waved his hand, slowly, and they
stood, looking at him, and then left, one by one.
When Indarapatra arrived in the ocean, he left his horse and rose on a large binta.
Because of the strong winds, his binta turned over. He dove then, and walked at the
bottom of the ocean. The shark, jelly-fish, crab and pugita planned to eat him, but
when Indarapatra struck the water, the noise shocked them, and Indarapatra was
able to walk safely through these vicious monsters of the deep.
As dusk settled, Indarapatra found himself in front of a mountain. Because he was
so tired, he fell asleep immediately. When he woke up, he caught and roasted a wild
boar. While the boar was roasting, he noticed an old lady hanging on a tree. He got
up and helped her, and led her to where he was roasting the boar. After eating, the
old lady thanked him and turned into a beautiful fairy.
"I am Saling Talib," she said, "I was Omaka-an's former slave. He hung me on that
tree because I did not do as he wished. Sulayman lies dying, from wounds from
fighting the giant. When the giant gets hurt, his body becomes two, and when one
of them is hurt, they become four. Because of this, he defeated Sulayman
easily.""Where can I find Omaka-an?" asked Indarapatra of the fairy. She led him to
a cave at the back of the mountain. "When you face Omaka-an," she said softly, "Be
sure that his body doesn't halve, and you will be able to defeat him." She gave him
a dagger. "This is an enchanted dagger. When Omaka-an gets hurt, he will become
blind. When this happens, stab him many many times."
Indarapatra entered the cave and shouted for Omaka-an. It was very dark and the
cave was large, so large you could put fifty kalabaw in there and there would be
room for more. "Omaka-an!" he shouted again, "Today will be your last! Come and
show yourself!" The earth rumbled from the approaching Omaka-an. "This is my
lucky day! I shall be able to eat man-flesh again!"
He did as the fairy bid him, and then cut off Omaka-an's head. He returned to his
kingdom, with the head of Omaka-an. He told the kingdom of Sulayman's fate, and
they mourned for two weeks, but at the same time they celebrated the courage and
bravery of Indarapatra and Sulayman. From then on then, the Kingdom of Komara
Mantapoli lived happily ever after.

BIUAG AND MALANA


Biuag was from Enrile, the southern most part of Cagayan. When he was born, his
mother was visited by an exceptionally beautiful woman who silently admired the
baby. When it dawned on the child'smother that her visitor was a goddess, she
knelt and implored her child with long life.
The goddess made no reply. Instead, she placed three small stones around the
neck of the baby where one stone protected him from any bodily harm. When he
was big enough to swim across the wide river, the crocodiles created a path for
him. The other two stones gave him supernatural powers and prowess. He could
go faster than the wind. He could throw easily a carabao across the hills when he
was only at the age of twelve. He could uproot a big beetle nut as if it were a

wood. On account of this display of extraordinary strength, people from far and
wide places came to see him.
Despite all these powers, Biuag seemed troubled and unhappy. In the town of
Tuao, he fell in love with a young lady with unsurpassed beauty. No one could tell
where this lady came from nor could anyone say who this lady was. Biuag wanted
to find her. His waking hours were thoughts of her.
There was another young man from Malaueg, called Malana who was gifted with
powers similar to that of Biuag. When Malana was eighteen, a devastating
typhoon destroyed all the crops of Malaueg. The people were in grip of appalling
famine. Their only hope of starving off came from a very distant place, Sto. Nio.
It was very difficult and dangerous to journey the place, because the river to cross
was wide and full of crocodiles. Malana understood the hazards of the journey but
finally volunteered to take the journey. He loaded cavans of palay to seven
bamboo rafts.
The people eagerly waited Malana's return. Prayers were offered for his safety.
When they saw him back, everyone was overjoyed. He distributed the rice to the
people and went home.
Upon reaching his home, he found a bow and arrow on the bench. He presumed
these were made for him by his father who knew how fond he was of them. Fitting
the arrows, he found two tiny stones just like those around Biuag's neck.
Meanwhile, Biuag was unmindful of the people's open admiration for Malana. The
lovely lady occupied his thoughts. One day, he paid her a visit and found out that
Malana was also there. Biuag became furious. He told the lady he will prove to her
that Malana was unworthy of her love. He grabbed his famous spear and hurried
to the window towards Malana. Malana recognized Biuag's spear and read it as a
challenge. He hurled it back with the message that his powers were not meant for
such feats.
Biuag laughed decisively and interpreted Malana's message in a different manner.
He said to the lady: "Your suitor is very strong but he is a coward."One afternoon,
Biuag was taking lift of the young woman when he heard sounds of a thousand
bamboo tubes. He saw approaching from a distance great number of people from
Malaueg. Leading the group was Malana - tall, broad-shouldered, and handsome,
Biuag quivered at the sight of Malana. The latter spoke first: "Now I know why you
challenged me. You covet the woman I love."The gods forbid anyone from taking
anything that belongs to the other, but I am ready to give you a chance. If the
lady would allow us, we shall fight for her hand.The day of the duel was
controversial. The news spread fast and by mid-afternoon, the two mountains and
the outlaying hills were blanketed with men, women and children who had come
to witness their heroes fight each other. Biuag arrived accompanied by the people
of Enrile. He climbed the mountain on the eastern part of the river, carrying a big
coconut tree and a sharp spear. Upon reaching the peak, he heard the natives
cheering Malana. He felt like barking a command to his followers to kill Malana's
people.Malana went up the opposite mountain. From their position, they saw
some rafts being pulled up. As these drew near, Biuag and Malana saw the
beautiful lady on one of the rafts. Sadness was clearly etched on her face but this
only heightened her ethereal beauty. When she was near, Biuag shouted at
Malana, "the woman we both cherish is before us. If you are as brave as you claim
to be then, receive this gift of mine from Enrile."Without thinking, he hurled the
coconut tree at Malana. Everyone held his breath. The river stood still. The
coconut tree flew like an arrow into the air. Malana caught it and unlike Biuag, he

hurled it at the direction of Yeluru. Today, thick coconut grooves abound in that
place.Biuag became more insane. He plucked the spear from the ground where he
thrust it. He aimed it at Malana's heart. The people were troubled. They knew too
well the accurate deadliness of this terrible spear. Malana's chest was hit but his
heart was not pierced. Instead the spear broke into two when it reached the
bottom of the river.Malana shouted: "There you are, Biuag, with no weapons
whatsoever. It is now my turn!"Before Malana would finish uttering the warning,
Biuag leaped into the river. Gigantic waves dashed against the rocks and shook
the mountain where Malana stood. Biuag emerged with the biggest crocodile
under his arm. The crocodile opened wide its jaws. Malana accepted the
challenges as he leaped from the mountain. The hundreds of people watching the
fight suddenly fell on their knees. They saw a dazzling light that sparkled.She rose
into the air and checked Malana's fall upon meeting him in mid-air. The woman
looked down at Biuag and said: "You have shown yourself a coward by getting the
help of a crocodile. I am the daughter of the goddess who gave you your
supernatural powers. You do not deserve the gift." With the magic wand, the
beautiful woman gave her blessings to the people below and then flew with
Malana in the kingdom of the air and the clouds where she reigned.

Story of Hudhud ni Aliguyon

Hudhud hi Aliguyon( Ifugao


)

Plot:
In the mountainous regions of Northern Luzon, a hudhud is a long tale sung
during special occasions. This particular long tale is sung during harvest. A favorite
topic of the hudhud is a folk hero named Aliguyon, a brave warrior.
The Myth about the Lanzones Fruit

November 14, 2016, 8:46 am


Lanzones are local berry-like fruits with light brown skin. The fruit itself is white
inside. When ripe enough they have a subtle sweetness that tantalizes the taste

buds and make them want to sample for more. But according to a local myth, it
used to be a harmful fruit.
Before, according to the myth, the lanzones fruit was poisonous. The fruit looked
edible enough, and in fact many were tempted to sample it. The myth says, the
people wondered: How could anything that looked so good be so dangerous? Some
people, despite the death toll, could not fight off the temptation once they see the
fruits abundantly display themselves in clusters hanging invitingly on the lanzones
tree. Several deaths in the village had been linked to eating its fruits, the myth
adds.
One day, the myth says, a hungry old woman came to the village begging for food.
The kind villagers gladly gave the old woman food and water and clothes to wear.
They even offered her free lodging as long as she saw the need to stay with them.
According to the myth, the woman was awed by the kindness of the villagers. One
day, while staying with the people, she learned about the lanzones fruits that could
not be eaten because they were poisonous. She asked the people where the tree
was. They gladly obliged. Then, according to the myth, upon seeing the lanzones
tree and its fruits, the old woman smiled knowingly. She announced to the people
that the fruit was edible, to everyones wary delight.
She taught the villagers the proper way to pick, peel and eat the fruits of the
lanzones tree. According to the myth, the old woman said that peeling the fruit by
pinching it lets out a small amount of the white sticky sap from the fruit, and that
served as an antidote to the poison of the fruit. Then, the myth says, she did it with
a fruit and ate it. She did the same with another fruit, and another, and another. The
myth says the villagers also discovered for themselves that the fruits were very
edible and delicious. Since then, the villagers started planting more lanzones trees
and it became a very lucrative source of income for everyone, the myth adds.
The Philippine myth on the lanzones tree and fruit reminds us that there is a proper
procedure for doing things, even things untried before, to end up with a safe
outcome.
Once upon a time, in a village called Hannanga, a boy was born to the couple
named Amtalao and Dumulao. He was called Aliguyon. He was an intelligent, eager
young man who wanted to learn many things, and indeed, he learned many useful
things, from the stories and teachings of his father. He learned how to fight well and
chant a few magic spells. Even as a child, he was a leader, for the other children of
his village looked up to him with awe.
Upon leaving childhood, Aliguyon betook himself to gather forces to fight against his
fathers enemy, who was Pangaiwan of the village of Daligdigan. But his challenge
was not answered personally by Pangaiwan. Instead, he faced Pangaiwans fierce
son, Pumbakhayon. Pumbakhayon was just as skilled in the arts of war and magic as
Aliguyon. The two of them battled each other for three years, and neither of them
showed signs of defeat. Their battle was a tedious one, and it has been said that
they both used only one spear! Aliguyon had thrown a spear to his opponent at the
start of their match, but the fair Pumbakhayon had caught it deftly with one hand.
And then Pumbakhayon threw the spear back to Aliguyon, who picked it just as
neatly from the air.
At length Aliguyon and Pumbakhayon came to respect each other, and then
eventually they came to admire each others talents. Their fighting stopped
suddenly. Between the two of them they drafted a peace treaty between Hannanga
and Daligdigan, which their peoples readily agreed to. It was fine to behold two
majestic warriors finally side by side.

Aliguyon and Pumbakhayon became good friends, as peace between their villages
flourished. When the time came for Aliguyon to choose a mate, he chose
Pumbakhayons youngest sister, Bugan, who was little more than a baby. He took
Bugan into his household and cared for her until she grew to be most beautiful.
Pumbakhayon, in his turn, took for his wife Aliguyons younger sister, Aginaya. The
two couples became wealthy and respected in all of Ifugao.

The Myth about the Lanzones Fruit


Lanzones are local berry-like fruits with light brown skin. The fruit itself is
white inside. When ripe enough they have a subtle sweetness that tantalizes the
taste buds and make them want to sample for more. But according to a local myth,
it used to be a harmful fruit.
Before, according to the myth, the lanzones fruit was poisonous. The fruit looked
edible enough, and in fact many were tempted to sample it. The myth says, the
people wondered: How could anything that looked so good be so dangerous? Some
people, despite the death toll, could not fight off the temptation once they see the
fruits abundantly display themselves in clusters hanging invitingly on the lanzones
tree. Several deaths in the village had been linked to eating its fruits, the myth
adds.
One day, the myth says, a hungry old woman came to the village begging for food.
The kind villagers gladly gave the old woman food and water and clothes to wear.
They even offered her free lodging as long as she saw the need to stay with them.
According to the myth, the woman was awed by the kindness of the villagers. One
day, while staying with the people, she learned about the lanzones fruits that could
not be eaten because they were poisonous. She asked the people where the tree
was. They gladly obliged. Then, according to the myth, upon seeing the lanzones
tree and its fruits, the old woman smiled knowingly. She announced to the people
that the fruit was edible, to everyones wary delight.
She taught the villagers the proper way to pick, peel and eat the fruits of the
lanzones tree. According to the myth, the old woman said that peeling the fruit by
pinching it lets out a small amount of the white sticky sap from the fruit, and that
served as an antidote to the poison of the fruit. Then, the myth says, she did it with
a fruit and ate it. She did the same with another fruit, and another, and another. The
myth says the villagers also discovered for themselves that the fruits were very
edible and delicious. Since then, the villagers started planting more lanzones trees
and it became a very lucrative source of income for everyone, the myth adds.
The Philippine myth on the lanzones tree and fruit reminds us that there is a proper
procedure for doing things, even things untried before, to end up with a safe
outcome.

Cupid and Psyche


A certain king and queen had three daughters. The charms of the two elder were
more than common, but the beauty of the youngest was so wonderful that the
poverty of language is unable to express its due praise. The fame of her beauty was
so great that strangers from neighboring countries came in crowds to enjoy the
sight, and looked on her with amazement, paying her that homage which is due
only to Venus herself. In fact Venus found her altars deserted, while men turned
their devotion to this young virgin. As she passed along, the people sang her
praises, and strewed her way with chaplets and flowers.
This homage to the exaltation of a mortal gave great offense to the real Venus.
Shaking her ambrosial locks with indignation, she exclaimed, "Am I then to be

eclipsed in my honors by a mortal girl? In vain then did that royal shepherd, whose
judgment was approved by Jove himself, give me the palm of beauty over my
illustrious rivals, Pallas and Juno. But she shall not so quietly usurp my honors. I will
give her cause to repent of so unlawful a beauty."
Thereupon she calls her winged son Cupid, mischievous enough in his own nature,
and rouses and provokes him yet more by her complaints. She points out Psyche to
him and says, "My dear son, punish that contumacious beauty; give your mother a
revenge as sweet as her injuries are great; infuse into the bosom of that haughty
girl a passion for some low, mean, unworthy being, so that she may reap a
mortification as great as her present exultation and triumph."
Cupid prepared to obey the commands of his mother. There are two fountains in
Venus's garden, one of sweet waters, the other of bitter. Cupid filled two amber
vases, one from each fountain, and suspending them from the top of his quiver,
hastened to the chamber of Psyche, whom he found asleep. He shed a few drops
from the bitter fountain over her lips, though the sight of her almost moved him to
pity; then touched her side with the point of his arrow. At the touch she awoke, and
opened eyes upon Cupid (himself invisible), which so startled him that in his
confusion he wounded himself with his own arrow. Heedless of his wound, his whole
thought now was to repair the mischief he had done, and he poured the balmy
drops of joy over all her silken ringlets.
Psyche, henceforth frowned upon by Venus, derived no benefit from all her charms.
True, all eyes were cast eagerly upon her, and every mouth spoke her praises; but
neither king, royal youth, nor plebeian presented himself to demand her in
marriage. Her two elder sisters of moderate charms had now long been married to
two royal princes; but Psyche, in her lonely apartment, deplored her solitude, sick of
that beauty which, while it procured abundance of flattery, had failed to awaken
love.
Her parents, afraid that they had unwittingly incurred the anger of the gods,
consulted the oracle of Apollo, and received this answer, "The virgin is destined for
the bride of no mortal lover. Her future husband awaits her on the top of the
mountain. He is a monster whom neither gods nor men can resist."
This dreadful decree of the oracle filled all the people with dismay, and her parents
abandoned themselves to grief. But Psyche said, "Why, my dear parents, do you
now lament me? You should rather have grieved when the people showered upon
me undeserved honors, and with one voice called me a Venus. I now perceive that I
am a victim to that name. I submit. Lead me to that rock to which my unhappy fate
has destined me."
Accordingly, all things being prepared, the royal maid took her place in the
procession, which more resembled a funeral than a nuptial pomp, and with her
parents, amid the lamentations of the people, ascended the mountain, on the
summit of which they left her alone, and with sorrowful hearts returned home.
While Psyche stood on the ridge of the mountain, panting with fear and with eyes
full of tears, the gentle Zephyr raised her from the earth and bore her with an easy
motion into a flowery dale. By degrees her mind became composed, and she laid
herself down on the grassy bank to sleep.
When she awoke refreshed with sleep, she looked round and beheld near a pleasant
grove of tall and stately trees. She entered it, and in the midst discovered a
fountain, sending forth clear and crystal waters, and fast by, a magnificent palace
whose august front impressed the spectator that it was not the work of mortal

hands, but the happy retreat of some god. Drawn by admiration and wonder, she
approached the building and ventured to enter.
Every object she met filled her with pleasure and amazement. Golden pillars
supported the vaulted roof, and the walls were enriched with carvings and paintings
representing beasts of the chase and rural scenes, adapted to delight the eye of the
beholder. Proceeding onward, she perceived that besides the apartments of state
there were others filled with all manner of treasures, and beautiful and precious
productions of nature and art.
While her eyes were thus occupied, a voice addressed her, though she saw no one,
uttering these words, "Sovereign lady, all that you see is yours. We whose voices
you hear are your servants and shall obey all your commands with our utmost care
and diligence. Retire, therefore, to your chamber and repose on your bed of down,
and when you see fit, repair to the bath. Supper awaits you in the adjoining alcove
when it pleases you to take your seat there."
Psyche gave ear to the admonitions of her vocal attendants, and after repose and
the refreshment of the bath, seated herself in the alcove, where a table immediately
presented itself, without any visible aid from waiters or servants, and covered with
the greatest delicacies of food and the most nectareous wines. Her ears too were
feasted with music from invisible performers; of whom one sang, another played on
the lute, and all closed in the wonderful harmony of a full chorus.
She had not yet seen her destined husband. He came only in the hours of darkness
and fled before the dawn of morning, but his accents were full of love, and inspired
a like passion in her. She often begged him to stay and let her behold him, but he
would not consent. On the contrary he charged her to make no attempt to see him,
for it was his pleasure, for the best of reasons, to keep concealed.
"Why should you wish to behold me?" he said. "Have you any doubt of my love?
Have you any wish ungratified? If you saw me, perhaps you would fear me, perhaps
adore me, but all I ask of you is to love me. I would rather you would love me as an
equal than adore me as a god."
This reasoning somewhat quieted Psyche for a time, and while the novelty lasted
she felt quite happy. But at length the thought of her parents, left in ignorance of
her fate, and of her sisters, precluded from sharing with her the delights of her
situation, preyed on her mind and made her begin to feel her palace as but a
splendid prison. When her husband came one night, she told him her distress, and
at last drew from him an unwilling consent that her sisters should be brought to see
her.
So, calling Zephyr, she acquainted him with her husband's commands, and he,
promptly obedient, soon brought them across the mountain down to their sister's
valley. They embraced her and she returned their caresses.
"Come," said Psyche, "enter with me my house and refresh yourselves with
whatever your sister has to offer."
Then taking their hands she led them into her golden palace, and committed them
to the care of her numerous train of attendant voices, to refresh them in her baths
and at her table, and to show them all her treasures. The view of these celestial
delights caused envy to enter their bosoms, at seeing their young sister possessed
of such state and splendor, so much exceeding their own.
They asked her numberless questions, among others what sort of a person her
husband was. Psyche replied that he was a beautiful youth, who generally spent the
daytime in hunting upon the mountains.

The sisters, not satisfied with this reply, soon made her confess that she had never
seen him. Then they proceeded to fill her bosom with dark suspicions. "Call to
mind," they said, "the Pythian oracle that declared you destined to marry a direful
and tremendous monster. The inhabitants of this valley say that your husband is a
terrible and monstrous serpent, who nourishes you for a while with dainties that he
may by and by devour you. Take our advice. Provide yourself with a lamp and a
sharp knife; put them in concealment that your husband may not discover them,
and when he is sound asleep, slip out of bed, bring forth your lamp, and see for
yourself whether what they say is true or not. If it is, hesitate not to cut off the
monster's head, and thereby recover your liberty."
Psyche resisted these persuasions as well as she could, but they did not fail to have
their effect on her mind, and when her sisters were gone, their words and her own
curiosity were too strong for her to resist. So she prepared her lamp and a sharp
knife, and hid them out of sight of her husband. When he had fallen into his first
sleep, she silently rose and uncovering her lamp beheld not a hideous monster, but
the most beautiful and charming of the gods, with his golden ringlets wandering
over his snowy neck and crimson cheek, with two dewy wings on his shoulders,
whiter than snow, and with shining feathers like the tender blossoms of spring.
As she leaned the lamp over to have a better view of his face, a drop of burning oil
fell on the shoulder of the god. Startled, he opened his eyes and fixed them upon
her. Then, without saying a word, he spread his white wings and flew out of the
window. Psyche, in vain endeavoring to follow him, fell from the window to the
ground.
Cupid, beholding her as she lay in the dust, stopped his flight for an instant and
said, "Oh foolish Psyche, is it thus you repay my love? After I disobeyed my mother's
commands and made you my wife, will you think me a monster and cut off my
head? But go; return to your sisters, whose advice you seem to think preferable to
mine. I inflict no other punishment on you than to leave you for ever. Love cannot
dwell with suspicion." So saying, he fled away, leaving poor Psyche prostrate on the
ground, filling the place with mournful lamentations.
When she had recovered some degree of composure she looked around her, but the
palace and gardens had vanished, and she found herself in the open field not far
from the city where her sisters dwelt. She repaired thither and told them the whole
story of her misfortunes, at which, pretending to grieve, those spiteful creatures
inwardly rejoiced.
"For now," said they, "he will perhaps choose one of us." With this idea, without
saying a word of her intentions, each of them rose early the next morning and
ascended the mountain, and having reached the top, called upon Zephyr to receive
her and bear her to his lord; then leaping up, and not being sustained by Zephyr,
fell down the precipice and was dashed to pieces.
Psyche meanwhile wandered day and night, without food or repose, in search of her
husband. Casting her eyes on a lofty mountain having on its brow a magnificent
temple, she sighed and said to herself, "Perhaps my love, my lord, inhabits there,"
and directed her steps thither.
She had no sooner entered than she saw heaps of corn, some in loose ears and
some in sheaves, with mingled ears of barley. Scattered about, lay sickles and
rakes, and all the instruments of harvest, without order, as if thrown carelessly out
of the weary reapers' hands in the sultry hours of the day.
This unseemly confusion the pious Psyche put an end to, by separating and sorting
everything to its proper place and kind, believing that she ought to neglect none of

the gods, but endeavor by her piety to engage them all in her behalf. The holy
Ceres, whose temple it was, finding her so religiously employed, thus spoke to her,
"Oh Psyche, truly worthy of our pity, though I cannot shield you from the frowns of
Venus, yet I can teach you how best to allay her displeasure. Go, then, and
voluntarily surrender yourself to your lady and sovereign, and try by modesty and
submission to win her forgiveness, and perhaps her favor will restore you the
husband you have lost."
Psyche obeyed the commands of Ceres and took her way to the temple of Venus,
endeavoring to fortify her mind and ruminating on what she should say and how
best propitiate the angry goddess, feeling that the issue was doubtful and perhaps
fatal.
Venus received her with angry countenance. "Most undutiful and faithless of
servants," said she, "do you at last remember that you really have a mistress? Or
have you rather come to see your sick husband, yet laid up of the wound given him
by his loving wife? You are so ill favored and disagreeable that the only way you can
merit your lover must be by dint of industry and diligence. I will make trial of your
housewifery." Then she ordered Psyche to be led to the storehouse of her temple,
where was laid up a great quantity of wheat, barley, millet, vetches, beans, and
lentils prepared for food for her pigeons, and said, "Take and separate all these
grains, putting all of the same kind in a parcel by themselves, and see that you get
it done before evening." Then Venus departed and left her to her task.
But Psyche, in a perfect consternation at the enormous work, sat stupid and silent,
without moving a finger to the inextricable heap.
While she sat despairing, Cupid stirred up the little ant, a native of the fields, to take
compassion on her. The leader of the anthill, followed by whole hosts of his sixlegged subjects, approached the heap, and with the utmost diligence taking grain
by grain, they separated the pile, sorting each kind to its parcel; and when it was all
done, they vanished out of sight in a moment.
Venus at the approach of twilight returned from the banquet of the gods, breathing
odors and crowned with roses. Seeing the task done, she exclaimed, "This is no
work of yours, wicked one, but his, whom to your own and his misfortune you have
enticed." So saying, she threw her a piece of black bread for her supper and went
away.
Next morning Venus ordered Psyche to be called and said to her, "Behold yonder
grove which stretches along the margin of the water. There you will find sheep
feeding without a shepherd, with golden-shining fleeces on their backs. Go, fetch
me a sample of that precious wool gathered from every one of their fleeces."
Psyche obediently went to the riverside, prepared to do her best to execute the
command. But the river god inspired the reeds with harmonious murmurs, which
seemed to say, "Oh maiden, severely tried, tempt not the dangerous flood, nor
venture among the formidable rams on the other side, for as long as they are under
the influence of the rising sun, they burn with a cruel rage to destroy mortals with
their sharp horns or rude teeth. But when the noontide sun has driven the cattle to
the shade, and the serene spirit of the flood has lulled them to rest, you may then
cross in safety, and you will find the woolly gold sticking to the bushes and the
trunks of the trees."
Thus the compassionate river god gave Psyche instructions how to accomplish her
task, and by observing his directions she soon returned to Venus with her arms full
of the golden fleece; but she received not the approbation of her implacable
mistress, who said, "I know very well it is by none of your own doings that you have

succeeded in this task, and I am not satisfied yet that you have any capacity to
make yourself useful. But I have another task for you. Here, take this box and go
your way to the infernal shades, and give this box to Proserpine and say, 'My
mistress Venus desires you to send her a little of your beauty, for in tending her sick
son she has lost some of her own.' Be not too long on your errand, for I must paint
myself with it to appear at the circle of the gods and goddesses this evening."
Psyche was now satisfied that her destruction was at hand, being obliged to go with
her own feet directly down to Erebus. Wherefore, to make no delay of what was not
to be avoided, she goes to the top of a high tower to precipitate herself headlong,
thus to descend the shortest way to the shades below. But a voice from the tower
said to her, "Why, poor unlucky girl, do you design to put an end to your days in so
dreadful a manner? And what cowardice makes you sink under this last danger who
have been so miraculously supported in all your former?" Then the voice told her
how by a certain cave she might reach the realms of Pluto, and how to avoid all the
dangers of the road, to pass by Cerberus, the three-headed dog, and prevail on
Charon, the ferryman, to take her across the black river and bring her back again.
But the voice added, "When Proserpine has given you the box filled with her beauty,
of all things this is chiefly to be observed by you, that you never once open or look
into the box nor allow your curiosity to pry into the treasure of the beauty of the
goddesses."
Psyche, encouraged by this advice, obeyed it in all things, and taking heed to her
ways traveled safely to the kingdom of Pluto. She was admitted to the palace of
Proserpine, and without accepting the delicate seat or delicious banquet that was
offered her, but contented with coarse bread for her food, she delivered her
message from Venus. Presently the box was returned to her, shut and filled with the
precious commodity. Then she returned the way she came, and glad was she to
come out once more into the light of day.
But having got so far successfully through her dangerous task a longing desire
seized her to examine the contents of the box. "What," said she, "shall I, the carrier
of this divine beauty, not take the least bit to put on my cheeks to appear to more
advantage in the eyes of my beloved husband!" So she carefully opened the box,
but found nothing there of any beauty at all, but an infernal and truly Stygian sleep,
which being thus set free from its prison, took possession of her, and she fell down
in the midst of the road, a sleepy corpse without sense or motion.
But Cupid, being now recovered from his wound, and not able longer to bear the
absence of his beloved Psyche, slipping through the smallest crack of the window of
his chamber which happened to be left open, flew to the spot where Psyche lay, and
gathering up the sleep from her body closed it again in the box, and waked Psyche
with a light touch of one of his arrows. "Again," said he, "have you almost perished
by the same curiosity. But now perform exactly the task imposed on you by my
mother, and I will take care of the rest."
Then Cupid, as swift as lightning penetrating the heights of heaven, presented
himself before Jupiter with his supplication. Jupiter lent a favoring ear, and pleaded
the cause of the lovers so earnestly with Venus that he won her consent. On this he
sent Mercury to bring Psyche up to the heavenly assembly, and when she arrived,
handing her a cup of ambrosia, he said, "Drink this, Psyche, and be immortal; nor
shall Cupid ever break away from the knot in which he is tied, but these nuptials
shall be perpetual."
Thus Psyche became at last united to Cupid, and in due time they had a daughter
born to them whose name was Pleasure.

Pyramus and Thisbe

Avery touching love story that is


sure to move anyone who reads it is that of Pyramus and Thisbe. Theirs was a
selfless love and they made sure that even in death, they were together. The tale
has its origins in the Roman Mythology. It is best recounted by Ovid and the passion
of love that blossomed between the two young lovers enthralls readers even today.
Pyramus was the most handsome man and was a childhood friend of Thisbe, the
fairest maiden in Babylonia. Pyramus and Thisbe were neighbors. They both lived in
neighboring homes and fell in love with each other as they grew up together.
However, their parents were dead against them marrying each other. Their parents
were totally against their union, leaving the young lovers with no option but burn
the light of love brightly in their hearts and meet surreptitiously if they can. Over
the years, the lovers could only talk through a hole in their wall because their
parents refused them to see each other.
Finally, Pyramus got fed up with his parents and so did Thisbe. One day while
whispering through a crack in the wall, they decided to meet the next night under a
mulberry tree near tomb of Ninus. They decided to elope then.
So, the next night, just before the crack of dawn, while everyone was asleep, they
decided to slip out of their homes and meet in the nearby fields near a mulberry
tree. Thisbe reached there first, covered with a cloak. As she waited under the tree,
she saw a lioness coming near the spring close by to quench its thirst. Its jaws were
bloody, from a previous kill that day. When Thisbe saw this horrifying sight, she
panicked and ran to hide in some hollow rocks nearby. As she was running, she
dropped her cloak.
The lion, on hearing the shriek, came near the tree where Thisbe was initially
waiting. The creature picked up the cloak in its bloody jaws. Then it tattered the
cloak with its blood-stained mouth, leaves it on the ground and goes away.
Soon after, Pyramus arrived at the appointed spot and saw Thisbe's cloak, his love
gift to her, covered in blood and torn to pieces with the footprints of the lioness left
behind. He immediately thought that his only love had been killed by a hungry lion.
He is completely devastated. He thought that the lion had just hunted down Thisbe
and blamed himself to be the cause of her death. Had he not been late, could the
lion have killed Thisbe? Shattered, he prepared to kill himself. Without any haste, he
unsheathed his sword (her love gift to him), letting the cold, hard steel pierce his
broken heart. He pierced his chest with his own sword.

Meanwhile, unknown to what just happened, Thisbe was still hiding in the rocks due
to the fear of the lion. When she came out from her hiding place after sometime and
came under the mulberry tree once more, she saw the body of a man writhing in
pain. Thisbe, bringing courage to her heart, ran towards the man and was shocked
when he found her only love lying on the ground next to the blood-covered Mulberry
bush with his own sword impaling his chest.
She gasped in horror as she asked the still breathing Pyramus what happened.
Barely able to stay awake, he told her what happened and she cried out in sorrow.
Pyramus died soon after leaving Thisbe totally shattered.
"What would I do in this world without my Pyramus?" thought the grief-stricken
Thisbe. She resolves to finish herself too.
She brought out from Pyramus' chest his blood-stained sword. Then she said to the
dead Pyramus:
"Wait for me my love. I'm coming to you."
Then she brought the blade into her own soft flesh. Thus they died together, in love
and peace.
It is said that this is the reason why the berries on the Mulberry bush are red,
instead of their original white, in commemoration of the two young lovers and their
great sacrifice.
The love story of Pyramus and Thisbe continues to inspire lovers all around the
world. The love between the two remain one of the purest and truest ever seen in
this world.

The Myth Of Icarus & Daedalus


Daedalus was a highly respected and
talented Athenian artisan descendent
from the royal family of Cecrops, the
mythical first king of Athens. He was
known for his skill as an architect,
sculpture, and inventor, and he produced
many famous works. Despite his selfconfidence, Daedalus once committed a
crime of envy against Talus, his nephew
and apprentice. Talus, who seemed
destined to become as great an artisan
as his uncle Daedalus, was inspired one
day to invent the saw after having seen
the way a snake used its jaws. Daedalus,
momentarily stricken with jealousy,
threw Talus off of the Acropolis. For this
crime, Daedalus was exiled to Crete and
placed in the service of King Minos,
where he eventually had a son, Icarus,
with the beautiful Naucrate, a mistressslave of the King.
Minos called on Daedalus to build the
famous Labyrinth in order to imprison the
dreaded Minotaur. The Minotaur was a

monster with the head of a bull and the body of a man. He was the son of Pasiphae,
the wife of Minos, and a bull that Poseidon had sent to Minos as a gift. Minos was
shamed by the birth of this horrible creature and resolved to imprison the Minotaur
in the Labyrinth where it fed on humans, which were taken as "tribute" by Minos
and sacrificed to the Minotaur in memory of his fallen son Androgenos.
Theseus, the heroic King of Athens, volunteered himself to be sent to the Minotaur
in the hopes of killing the beast and ending the "human tribute" that his city was
forced to pay Minos. When Theseus arrived to Crete, Ariadne, Minos's daughter, fell
in love with him and wished to help him survive the Minotaur. Daedalus revealed the
mystery of the Labyrinth to Ariadne who in turn advised Theseus, thus enabling him
to slay the Minotaur and escape from the Labyrinth. When Minos found out what
Daedalus had done he was so enraged that he imprisoned Daedalus & Icarus in the
Labyrinth themselves.
Daedalus conceived to escape from the
Labyrinth with Icarus from Crete by
constructing wings and then flying to safety. He
built the wings from feathers and wax, and
before the two set off he warned Icarus not to
fly too low lest his wings touch the waves and
get wet, and not too high lest the sun melt the
wax. But the young Icarus, overwhelmed by the
thrill of flying, did not heed his father's warning,
and flew too close to the sun whereupon the
wax in his wings melted and he fell into the
sea. Daedalus escaped to Sicily and Icarus'
body was carried ashore by the current to an
island then without a name. Heracles came
across the body and recognized it, giving it
burial where today there still stands a small
rock promontory jutting out into the Aegean
Sea, and naming the island and the sea around
it after the fallen Icarus.

Centres d'intérêt liés