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OHM

Chapter 1, Manoos and Manwanthras, in Canto 8: Srimad Bhagvatam.


(mprnair)
Before beginning the summary of Chapter 1 in Canto 8, a little knowledge about
Kala Ganana by Units of Time or Kala Parimanam, will be nice, to have some idea
about the Kalam(Tme) like, Yuga, Manwanthara, Kalpa etc., used frequently, and
particularly in this Chapter in Srimad Bhavagavatam.
We know well, that we are now in Kali Yuga and the duration of Kali Yuga is, 4 lakh
and 32 thousand years.
4 Yugas make 1 Chathuryuga; 71 chathyryugas make 1 Manwanthara;
1000 Manwantharas make 1 Kalpam.
1 Kalpam is 1 daytime (pakal) of Lord Brahmaji. This one Kalpam or 1 daytime of
Lord Brahmaji, is divided into 14 Manwantharas. Lord Brahmajs 1 night time is also
another 1 Kalpa.
Now, we are in the 5,116th year of the 28th Chathuryuga in Kaliyuga. By this time
Kruthayugam with 4 Avatharas, Threthayugam(3) and Dwaparayugam(2) are over
and Kaliyuga(1) will come to an end after 4 lakh, 26 thousand, 884 years. Longevity
of a Man is 120 years. This is Vivaswatha Manwanthara in Varaha Kalpa. The
immediately preceding Kalpa was Paadma Kalpa. Vivaswatha Manwanthara is the
7th Manwanthara; only 6 Manoos have passed so far in the present Varaha Kalpa. 7
more Manwantharas are yet to come, to complete the present Varaha Kalpa. All the
stories of the 14 Manoos are covered in the 24 Chapters in Canto 8. The
Manwantharas from 7 to 14, are described as going to happen, in future.
The rotation of Kalachakram (the wheel of time) will go on, and on like that, and
Yuga, Chathuryuga, Manwanthra, Kalpa etc., will come repeatedly, as the spokes of
the Chakra.
In the 1st Chapter, in answer to the question of Maharaja Pareekshit, Suka Maha
Deva tells him that in each Manwanthara, Bhagvan takes Separate Avathara to
establish Dharma, in this universe.
This is reiterated In Srimad Bhagavat Geetha as: (4.7)
Meaning shortly, wherever and whenever there is a decline in religious practice, and
a predominant rise of Adharma, or irreligious things happen, at that time, I descend
Myself for re-establishing Dharma.
In each and every Manwanthara, along with Bhagavath Avatharam, there will be five
more categories of personnel (body of Divine Administrators) accompanying
Bhagavan to assist HIM in His overall administration. They are Manu, Sons of Manu
(include Manus family), Saptharshees, Devas (demigods), and King Indra . They are
all new in every Manwathara, though the 5 categories (the body of Divine

Administrators) will never change. (Total 6 categories, including Bhagavath


Avatharam)
The Manus, are the Administrators of the Universe. There are total 14 Manus, one
each for each Manwanthara. The First Chapter describes the first four Manus. The
first Manu was Swayambhuva Manu. His two daughters, namely kti and
Devahti, gave birth to two sons, - Yaja and Kapila respectively. Because ukadeva
had already described the activities of Kapila Deva in the Third Canto, he now
describes the activities of Yaja Moorthy. The original Manu, Swaayambhuva Manu,
along with his wife, hataoop, went into the forest to practice austerities on the
bank of the River Sunand. They practised severe austerities for a hundred years,
and then Manu, in a trance, performed prayers to the Supreme Power. Rakhaasas
and asuraas then attempted to devour him, but Yaja, accompanied by his sons, the
Yamaas and the demigods, killed them. Then Yaja personally took the position of
Indra, the King of the heavenly planets. In the first Manwanthara, Bhagvan took
Avathara as Yajna Moothy, and protected Swaayambhuva Manu.
The second Manu, whose name was Swrochiha Manu, was the son of Agni, and his
sons were headed by Dyuman, Suhea (Dyuman Sushanadi) and Rochihman
(Rochanan). In the age of this Manu, Rochanan became Indra, the ruler of the
heavenly planets, and there were many demigods, headed by Tuhita. There were
also many saintly persons, such as rja and Sthambha. Among them was Vedahir
Rishi, whose wife, Tuhit, gave birth to Vibhu. He remained a bachelor, throughout
his life.
Bhagavan Sri Hari, took Avathara as Vibhu in the 2nd Manwanthara, helping
Swarochisha Manu. Vibhu taught Brahmacharya Vrutham, to eighty-eight thousand
dha-vrata Munees, or saintly persons, along with teaching, self-control and
austerity.
Uthama, the son of Priyavrata, was the third Manu. Among his sons were Pavana,
Sujaya and Yajahotra. During the reign of this Manu, the sons of Vasiha,
headed by Pramada, became the seven saintly persons. The Satyas, Vedarutas and
Bhadras became the demigods, and Satyajit became Indra. From the womb of
Sunut, the wife of Dharma Deva, Bhagavan took Avathara as the famous
Satyasena, and He killed all the Yaksha, Rkhasas and evil Bhoothaganas, who
were fighting with Satyajit and protected the Earth.
Tmasa, the brother of the third Manu Uthama, was the fourth Manu, and he had
ten sons, including Puthu, Khyati, Nara and Ketu. During his reign, the Saatyakas,
Harees, Veeras and others were demigods, the seven great saints were headed by
Jyotirdhama. Trihikha became King Indra. Harimedh begot a son named Hari,
from the womb of his wife, Hari. In this Manwanthara, Bhagavan took Avathara as
Sri Hari, and saved the devotee Gajendra, the Lord of the elephants, from an
Alligator. This incident is described as Gajendra-mokham. Pareekhit Mahrja
particularly asks about the details of this incident and Suka Deva later narrates the
story in detail.

Raja Pareekshit, sitting in Prayopavesha (sitting in starvation to make


amends for the indignity done towards a great Muni) has deep interest in hearing
the stories of other Manus also. After hearing descriptions of the dynasty of
Swyambhuva Manu until the end of the Seventh Canto, Mahrja Parkit was
waiting patiently to know about other Manus. He also desired to understand how the
Supreme Lord, Sri Hari descendednot only in the past but at the present and in
the futureand how He spend his pastimes with different Manoos. Since Parkit
Mahrja was eager to know all this, ukadeva gradually described about all the
Manoos, beginning with the six Manus, who had appeared in the past. He also told
to King Pareekshit, the story of Gajendra Moksham, in particular detail

Subham