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no flow!

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in a "broken" circuit!
(break) no flow!

no flow!
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no flow!
îcontinuous
electron flow cannot
occur anywhere
in a "broken" circuit!
no flow! (break)

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Water analogy

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Water analogy

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electron flow

-
Battery Electric lamp (glowing)
+

electron flow
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no flow! no flow!
(break)

-
- üvoltage
ý +
drop
Battery Electric lamp
+ (not glowing)

 no flow!
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a route the wires take
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Pressure = increase Voltage = increase


Flow rate = increase Current = increase
Resistance= same Resistance= same

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Pressure = same Voltage = same
E E
Flow rate = decrease Current = decrease
D D
Resistance= increase Resistance= increase

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E C E
Pressure = decrease Voltage = decrease
Flow rate = same Current = same
E E
Resistance= decrease Resistance= decrease

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Horsepower =
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S = shaft speed in r.p.m.
T = shaft torque in lb-ft.
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This symbol means


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. &
E = 18 V R=3Ω
-

$
I = ???
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I= = = 6A
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P = I E = (6 A)(18 V) = 108 W
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E = 36 V R=3Ω
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I = ???
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$ E 36 V
I= = = 12 A
R 3Ω
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N
P = I E = (12 A)(36 V) = 432 W
à Š…™£ € ¡©™F”*•±™™£”¡¯“Š±°½¡¢”*•…šŸ‹ € ¢£¡p•…š£¡ —¯Ï¹‘*š ™½•„š(°½¡H¤Ÿ«„”„™½”*•»…¡Hš£‘*š£“¡ € ™F¡ —@†6›‘‡™½¦™½Ÿ‹ € ¢£¡p•…š£¡ —¥õ6‘Ÿ™£¡[•§›Ÿ™
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¿t¨c°¡’Š…‹*–ŸŒvœ%‹Š±°²»…Š„–¦™·•ƒ«…¡ ë Ƚ콕ƒ‹*—E¢F¡ š£žš ™F•…‹ € ¡ ë [ì:é
.
E
If, I= and P=IE
R

2
N E . V E
Then, P = & E or P= W
R R
¿t¨c°¡’Š…‹*–ŸŒvœ%‹Š±° € ‘¢F¢F¡‹6™ ë ¿ ì©•ƒ‹—Ž¢F¡ š£žš ™F•…‹ € ¡ ë [ìLé

If, E= I R and P=IE

N $ $ & X V Y 2W
Then, P = I(I R ) or P= I R
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Ohm’s Law for Power


.
N $ . N E2 N $
P = IE P= & P = I2R
R

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R1 This is resistor "R1"


with a resistance value
150 of 150 ohms.

This is resistor "R2"


R2 25 with a resistance value
of 25 ohms.
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1 kΩ

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Body resistance

Boot resistance
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Disconnect On/Off
switch switch

Power Load
source

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switch switch

Power ‰
source temporary
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ground

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switch switch

Power zero voltage Load


source ensured here

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• å †‘$’+“7‡…”–•p—n…˜4…7†‡”P™†’+˜o„v’+š…A‡P›

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ê volts
10

é
ê 2400
volts

æ
downed power line
é
ê 2390
volts

ç current through the earth


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ê volts
10

é
ê 2400
volts

ë person æ
downed power line
(SHOCKED!)

ç current through the earth é


é 250 volts
ê volts
2390

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"Hot" conductor

Source Load

"Neutral" conductor
Ground point
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• ⠆‘$’+“7‡…”–•p—n…˜4…7†‡”P™†’+˜o„v’+š…A‡P›

Electrical
"Hot" appliance

plug
Source
120 V

"Neutral" metal case


Ground point
no voltage
between case
and ground

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! û

ú contact
accidental

"Hot"

plug
Source
120 V

"Neutral" voltage between


Ground point case and ground!

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"Hot"

plug
Source ú contact
accidental
120 V

"Neutral"
Ground point no voltage between
ú case and ground!

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"Hot"

plug
Source ú contact
accidental
120 V

"Neutral"
voltage between
Ground point case and ground!

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•ð †‘$’+“7‡…”–•p—n…˜4…7†‡”P™†’+˜o„v’+š…A‡P›

"Hot"
3-prong
plug
Source
120 V

"Neutral"

Grounded case
"Ground" ensures zero
ú voltage between
case and ground
Ground point

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! û

"Hot"

I
Source
120 V I

"Neutral" no voltage
Ground point between case
and ground
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úcontact
accidental
"Hot"
(more)
I
Source
120 V I
(less)
"Neutral"
Shock current
Shock current

Shock current
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0
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"Hot"

I
Source
120 V I

"Neutral"
switches open automatically
if the difference between the
two currents becomes too
great.
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Multimeter

V A

V úOFF A

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‰
tip

probe

V A

V A lead
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plug

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lead
plug

probe

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tip
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V A

V A + -
OFF
9
volts
A COM

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V A

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ý
V A

ý
V A large spark
OFF
from short-
circuit!
A COM

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carbon-composition
resistor
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OFF

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ý
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V A + -
9
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V A
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V A

V A
OFF

A COM

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Indication with a good fuse Indication with a "blown" fuse

V A V A

V A V A

   
OFF OFF

A COM touch probe tips A COM touch probe tips


together together

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