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Real System

Estimated Model

What is System Identification?


Using experimental data obtained from input (Stimulate)/output
(Response) relations to model dynamic systems.
Stimulate
Signal

Real System
PC with
LabVIEW

Response
Signal

System estimated
Model

However, there will always be some uncertainty due to noise on


the signals and disturbances acting on the system.
Model Types
Graphs and tables Bode plots and step responses
Mathematical models Di erential and di erence equations

Advantages to Mathematical Models


Physical system NOT required
New designs/technologies can be treated without prototype
More flexible than real world
Easy to check many approaches, parameter values, ...
Safe
Experiments can be dangerous
Help in gaining insight and better understanding

Model Representations

Procedure of System Identification

Generate the Stimulated Input Signal

Step response test is used to get basic understanding of


system dynamics such as linearity, static gains, time delays,
time constants, sampling interval

Input signal should excite all relevant frequencies

Estimated model more accurate in frequency ranges where


input has high energy

Trade-off in selection of signal amplitude

Large amplitude gives high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), low


parameter variance

Most systems are non-linear for large input amplitudes

Procedure of System Identification


Further, it should be noted that identification of
a system under closed loop control is much
more tricky than identification on an open-loop
system.
So unless it is impossible to perform the
experiment without a closed-loop controller
make sure that you only experiment on an openloop system

Model Structure Selection


1- ARX (autoregressive with exogeneous input)

A good starting point for a model structure


It is a very simple model and is quite adequate for a
considerable number of systems.
The A-polynomial is the auto-regressive part of the
output (previous instances of output affects the
current output) and the B-polynomial correspond to
shaping the input. The noise e is assumed to be white
noise.

Some Model Structure Selection


2- ARMAX (autoregressive moving average with
exogeneous input)
3- OE (output error)
4- BJ (Box Jenkins)
5- Model structures based on state-space representation:

Getting Started with the System


Identification Assistant
1. Launching the System Identification Assistant
Launch the System Identification Assistant by selecting StartAll
ProgramsNational InstrumentsLabVIEW System Identification
ToolkitLabVIEW System Identification Assistant. The System
Identification Assistant launches within the LabVIEW SignalExpress
environment.
The Project View is the blank white rectangle on the left side of the LabVIEW
SignalExpress environment
Data View is the green coordinate grid on the black background in the middle
of the LabVIEW SignalExpress environment
If the graph does not appear in the Data View, select ViewData View to
display the Data View

Project View

Data View

context help window

Open Loop System


To Identify

Start System Identification By


LabVIEW

Click Add Step


Pop up menu appears

Create the Stimulate Signal

Generate the Stimulate Signal


through the DAQ

Generate the Stimulate Signal


through the DAQ

1- Click Data View

2- Drag Square wave


to Data View

Acquiring the Output


Response Signal through the
DAQ

Acquiring the Output


Response Signal through the
DAQ

Drag Output wave


to Data View

How to Run the Program

The Stimulated signal


Was for 6 Seconds

Click Run

Stimulate Signal

The Result

The Response

To Estimate the System Mold

1- Determine

Model Structure Selection

2- Play with the


A and B orders
That minimize the
error

This is the error between


the actual response and
the estimated model response

Drag Simulated (estimated) Response to Data View. Now the three


signals appears

Drag SysID Model to Data View. The result is

To Do Further Analysis on the


Simulated Model of the Open Loop
System

Time Domain Analysis

Further Analysis

Frequency Domain Analysis

Further Analysis

Pole-Zero Analysis

Zero
Pole

Stability

The Model type you want


State Space model
or
Transfer Function Model
or
Zero Pole Gain Model

Open Loop State Space model

Open Loop Transfer Function model

Open Loop Zero Pole Gain model

Three Methods for Controller Design


1- Using PID Synthesis

PID Synthesis
Creates a controller based on changing the PID (proportionalintegral-derivative) series algorithm as defined as below:

where Kc is the proportional gain, Ti is the integral time in


seconds, and Td is the derivative time in seconds.
T1 is the HF Rolloff 1 time (in seconds), which defines the time
constant of a first order filter in series with the PID algorithm.
T2 is the HF Rolloff 2 time (in seconds), which defines the time
constant of a first order filter in series with the PID algorithm.

Closed Loop Design and Time


Response

The Model type you want

Controller State Space model

Controller Transfer Function model

Controller Zero Pole Gain model

Closed Loop State Space model

Closed Loop Transfer Function model

Closed Loop Zero Pole Gain model

Further Analysis for Closed Loop System

Frequency Domain Analysis

Further Analysis for Closed Loop System

Time Domain Analysis

Further Analysis for Closed Loop System

Pole-Zero Analysis

Saving the Designed Models

Saving the Designed Open Loop Model

Saving the Designed Controller Model

Saving the Designed Closed Loop Model

Generated Models at the Desktop


Download

Download

Download

Loading the Designed Models in


LabVIEW

Converting
Discrete to
Continuous

2- Using Root Locus

Change Gain Poles and


Zeros for required root
locus