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# Real System

Estimated Model

## What is System Identification?

Using experimental data obtained from input (Stimulate)/output
(Response) relations to model dynamic systems.
Stimulate
Signal

Real System
PC with
LabVIEW

Response
Signal

System estimated
Model

## However, there will always be some uncertainty due to noise on

the signals and disturbances acting on the system.
Model Types
Graphs and tables Bode plots and step responses
Mathematical models Di erential and di erence equations

Physical system NOT required
New designs/technologies can be treated without prototype
More flexible than real world
Easy to check many approaches, parameter values, ...
Safe
Experiments can be dangerous
Help in gaining insight and better understanding

Model Representations

## Step response test is used to get basic understanding of

system dynamics such as linearity, static gains, time delays,
time constants, sampling interval

## Estimated model more accurate in frequency ranges where

input has high energy

## Large amplitude gives high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), low

parameter variance

## Procedure of System Identification

Further, it should be noted that identification of
a system under closed loop control is much
more tricky than identification on an open-loop
system.
So unless it is impossible to perform the
experiment without a closed-loop controller
make sure that you only experiment on an openloop system

## Model Structure Selection

1- ARX (autoregressive with exogeneous input)

## A good starting point for a model structure

It is a very simple model and is quite adequate for a
considerable number of systems.
The A-polynomial is the auto-regressive part of the
output (previous instances of output affects the
current output) and the B-polynomial correspond to
shaping the input. The noise e is assumed to be white
noise.

## Some Model Structure Selection

2- ARMAX (autoregressive moving average with
exogeneous input)
3- OE (output error)
4- BJ (Box Jenkins)
5- Model structures based on state-space representation:

## Getting Started with the System

Identification Assistant
1. Launching the System Identification Assistant
Launch the System Identification Assistant by selecting StartAll
ProgramsNational InstrumentsLabVIEW System Identification
ToolkitLabVIEW System Identification Assistant. The System
Identification Assistant launches within the LabVIEW SignalExpress
environment.
The Project View is the blank white rectangle on the left side of the LabVIEW
SignalExpress environment
Data View is the green coordinate grid on the black background in the middle
of the LabVIEW SignalExpress environment
If the graph does not appear in the Data View, select ViewData View to
display the Data View

Project View

Data View

To Identify

LabVIEW

through the DAQ

through the DAQ

to Data View

## Acquiring the Output

Response Signal through the
DAQ

## Acquiring the Output

Response Signal through the
DAQ

to Data View

## The Stimulated signal

Was for 6 Seconds

Click Run

Stimulate Signal

The Result

The Response

1- Determine

## 2- Play with the

A and B orders
That minimize the
error

## This is the error between

the actual response and
the estimated model response

signals appears

## To Do Further Analysis on the

Simulated Model of the Open Loop
System

Further Analysis

## Frequency Domain Analysis

Further Analysis

Pole-Zero Analysis

Zero
Pole

Stability

## The Model type you want

State Space model
or
Transfer Function Model
or
Zero Pole Gain Model

## Three Methods for Controller Design

1- Using PID Synthesis

PID Synthesis
Creates a controller based on changing the PID (proportionalintegral-derivative) series algorithm as defined as below:

## where Kc is the proportional gain, Ti is the integral time in

seconds, and Td is the derivative time in seconds.
T1 is the HF Rolloff 1 time (in seconds), which defines the time
constant of a first order filter in series with the PID algorithm.
T2 is the HF Rolloff 2 time (in seconds), which defines the time
constant of a first order filter in series with the PID algorithm.

Response

## Further Analysis for Closed Loop System

Pole-Zero Analysis

LabVIEW

Converting
Discrete to
Continuous

## Change Gain Poles and

Zeros for required root
locus