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AN OVERVIEW OF MINERAL

POTENTIAL OF PAKISTAN

NATURAL RESOURCES WING


MINISTRY OF PETROLEUM & NATURAL RESOURCES
GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN

Contents

Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources

Overview of Mineral Potential of Pakistan

Major Mineral Resources of Pakistan

Quality and Coal Resources of Pakistan

MINISTRY OF

PETROLEUM AND
NATURAL RESOURCES

FUNCTIONS OF THE MINISTRY OF PETROLEUM AND NATURAL RESOURCES


The Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources (MPNR) is responsible for dealing with all matters
relating to petroleum, gas and minerals. Its detailed functions as per Rules of Business are as under:
1. All matters relating to oil, gas and minerals at the national and international levels,
including:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

Policy, legislation, planning regarding exploration, development and production;


Import, export, refining, distribution, marketing, transportation and pricing of all
kind of petroleum and petroleum products;
Matters bearing on international aspects; and
Controlling and coordinating with the federal agencies and institutions for promotion
of special studies and development programs.

2. Geological Surveys:
i)
ii)
iii)

Geological mapping and geophysical surveys;


Basic and applied research in earth sciences; and
Scientific investigations for geological resources and their prudent management.

3. Administration of Regulation of Mines and Oil-fields and Mineral Development


(Government Control) Act, 1948, and rules made thereunder, in so far as the same relate
to exploration and production of petroleum, transmission, distribution of natural gas and
liquefied petroleum gas, refining and marketing of oil;
4. Petroleum concessions agreements for land, off-shore and deep sea areas;
5. Administration of Marketing of Petroleum Products (Federal Control) Act, 1974 and the
rules made thereunder; and
6. Matters relating to Federal investments and undertakings wholly or partly owned by the
Government in the field of oil, gas and minerals excepting those assigned to the Industries
and Production Division.
ORGANIZATION OF THE MINISTRY
To perform its functions, the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources has been organized into four
wings i.e. Natural Resources, Petroleum, Investment & Joint Venture and Administration & Corporate
Affairs. The Ministry has one attached department, one autonomous body and eleven companies. The
Secretary is assisted by two Additional Secretaries, two Joint Secretaries, and five Director Generals.
Organizational chart and other information may be seen at the Ministrys website www.mpnr.gov.pk.
CONSTITUTIONAL POSITION ON MINERALS
Minerals other than nuclear minerals and those occurring in special areas [Federally Administered
Tribal Areas (FATA), Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT) and International Offshore Water Territory
(IOWT)] are a provincial subject under the Constitution. Provincial Governments/federating units
2

are responsible for regulation, detailed exploration, mineral development and safety concerns in
these operations, whereas geological/geophysical survey and mapping, national and international
coordination and formulation of national polices and plans are federal responsibilities.
NATIONAL MINERAL POLICY
The Government of Pakistan has recently announced National Mineral Policy (NMP-2013) replacing
the earlier Policy of 1995. Implementation of the first National Mineral Policy (NMP-1995) paved the
way for an expansion of mining sector activity in Pakistan, as well as the improvement of the sectors
investment attractiveness. Although the mining sector currently contributes less than 1% to Pakistans
GDP, recent discoveries have provided strong evidence of significant mineral deposits and a great
potential for the sector to contribute much more to our economy.
Pakistan has a large base of industrial minerals and the growing interest from international mining
companies carries great potential for the rapid development of the sector. As Pakistan plans to enhance
the contribution of the sector to Pakistans economic development, it becomes even more imperative
for the Policy to reflect developments in the global mining sector since 1995, including legal, fiscal
and environmental developments.
In view of these developments, a review of the NMP-1995 became necessary in order to ensure its
alignment with contemporary practice and enhance the international competitiveness of Pakistans
mining sector. The main challenges the new NMP-2013 seeks to address revolve around the following
five broad themes:
Increasing the economic contribution of mining sector to Pakistans economy through more
private investment;
Being competitive for scarce and mobile international capital for investment in the mining
sector through a stable and enabling environment;
Ensuring smooth operational and effective coordination between Federal and Provincial
institutions in the implementation of the regulatory and legislative regime for the mining
sector;
Ensuring that exploration, development and production of Pakistans mineral resources are
environmentally sustainable; and
Encouraging small scale mining and local private participation in the development of the
sector.
This new policy serves as a clear and detailed representation of countrys objective of improving
the international competitiveness of our mineral sector. NMP-2013 seeks to provide the basis for
addressing these and other challenges, as well as responding to important government priorities
and commitments. For example, policy provisions to cater for research development enhancement,
human resource development, promotion and marketing etc. This Policy is a culmination of extensive
consultation with all stakeholders. It represents a vital source of guidance to decisions on minerals in
the context of Pakistans sustainable development.
In changing times, the conversion of challenges to opportunities is very important. The Islamic Republic
of Pakistan remains committed to the development of a prosperous Pakistani minerals industry. The
NMP-2013 provides the Government with the direction and decision-making tools that will help to
guarantee that the industry grows from strength to strength.

OVERVIEW OF
MINERAL POTENTIAL
OF PAKISTAN
AN

At the time of independence only six mineral commodities including chromite, coal, sulphur, gypsum,
limestone and salt were being mined in an appreciable quantities in Pakistan. Now, large to medium
scale production of over sixty mineral commodities has started. Geological environments suitable for
the localization of important metallic minerals such as antimony, gold, lithium, silver and platinum
group elements have been identified in different parts of the country. In addition to its traditional usage,
minerals are now finding new applications in the fields of electronics, optics, advanced metallurgy
& materials and environmental sustainability, in Pakistan. The data on geology and exploration of
minerals; after carrying out all integrated steps like geochemical sampling, geophysical surveys, drill
exploration, reserve estimation, is generated and maintained by the Geological Survey of Pakistan
(GSP). The research work carried out by the GSP is published in form of monographs research papers
of various formats and geological, tectonic, seismo-tectonic, geo-hazard zonation and other specialized
maps in a variety of formats.
The statistical data on mining and production of solid minerals is essentially generated by the provincial
Directorate Generals of Mines and Mineral Development (DGMMD), as they are the respective
custodians of each provinces mineral wealth. The Federal Bureau of Statistics publishes this data in an
abridged form and supplements it with import and export figures for different metals, alloys, minerals
and mineral-based products. The GSP acts as the apex body for collecting the relevant data and then
undertakes its compilation and dissemination from time to time.
Vast resources of coal (186 billion tonnes), Copper (6000 million tonnes), gold (1656 million tonnes),
silver (618 million tonnes), lead-zinc (23.72 million tonnes), manganese (.597 million tonnes), chromite
(2.527 million tonnes), iron ore (1400 million tonnes) and precious and semiprecious stones have been
identified in different parts of the country. Inexhaustible resources of gypsum, fire clay china clay,
fullers earth, rock salt, basalt, bentonite, building stone and construction materials are available in all
the provinces and are being utilized in large quantities. Summarized data on major minerals deposits
of Pakistan is shown in the accompanying table and location of important mineral deposit of Pakistan
are shown in the mineral map on the last page.
During the recent past production of iron ore, coal, barytes, bentonite, various types of industrial
clays, fire clay, gypsum, limestone, onyx & ordinary marble, magnesite, ochre, silica sand, dolomite,
ebrystone, fullers earth, rock phosphate, rock salt, and soapstone has increased appreciably. Starting
of production of copper-gold ore at Saindak and discovery / detailed exploration of copper-gold at
Reko Diq in Chagai district of Balochistan province has brought Pakistan amongst the metal producing
countries of the world. Some important new mineral discoveries have also been made recently such
as coal deposits of Thar in Sindh and iron ore deposits of Dilband, Kalat (Balochistan) and Nizampur
(Khyber Pakhtunkhwa). Gemstones and industrial minerals such as nepheline syenite, abrasives, mica,
graphite, trona, lithium, rare earth metals and platinum group elements hold bright prospects in near
future. Some of the important minerals explored and being mined in the country are summarised
below:
Antimony
Vein type deposits of antimony ore mineral - stibnite are known from the vicinity
of Qila Abdullah, Panjgure, Kharan and Turbat districts in Balochistan province
and hosted mostly in Khojak and, Hushab Shale. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,
6

antimony occurs in the Lutkho and Partisan areas near Krinj village, Chitral district. Stibnite (Sb2S3)
is found as veins, lenses and irregular masses along shear zones in Chitral slates. Present estimate of
available ore, in the country, is 86,000 tonnes but detailed investigations may prove more tonnage. The
reported average annual production has been over 200 metric tonnes but now-a-days due to various
tribal issues its production is almost negligible.
Chromite
At present chromite is being produced from Muslimbagh, Wad and Sonaro
areas of Balochistan Province and Malakand and Kohistan areas of Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa province. The entire chromite produced in the country is
exported. Generally, Pakistani chromite containing over 46% Cr2O3, 10 to
15% Al2O3, less than 10% SiO2 and with Cr, Fe ratio over 2.8. Present estimate of available ore in
the country, is over 2.527 million tonnes. The reported average annual production is 30,366 metric
tonnes.
Copper
Balochistan Province has vast resources of copper ore. Porphyry type copper
ore bodies have been discovered by the Geological Survey of Pakistan at
Saindak, Dasht-e-Kain, Kabul Koh, Koh-i-Dalil, Missi and Ziarat Pir Sultan
(Ahmad 1986). All these deposits occur in Chagai District of Balochistan
province. Similar deposits may be found in the Federally Administered Tribal
Areas (FATA) and the Federally Administered Northern Areas (FANA) while massive sulphide type
copper deposits may be found in Chagai, Lasbela and Khuzdar districts of Balochistan, Wazirstan
Agency, FANA and other Tribal Areas. Data on Saindak copper gold deposit is as follows:
Production of blister copper started, from the 412 million tonnes Saindak copper gold deposit, during
1995 and stopped due to certain reasons after making the trial production of 1,500 tonnes of blister
copper which was successfully marketed in the International Market. The production resumed in 2002
through a contract with a Chinese firm M/S Metal Construction Company (MCC) which later on
reformed as Resource Development Company Limited (MRDL). The project is producing 15,672
tonnes of copper blister, 51852 Oz of gold (1.47 metric tonnes) and 97356 Oz of silver (2.76 metric
tonnes) annually.
Reko Diq Copper Gold deposit is a very promising deposit, discovered by GSP in 1978-79. M/S
Tethian Copper Company (TCC) has invested over 500 million US $ for exploration of the deposit
which is expected to start production within next few years. Later on the ownership of TCC was sold
jointly to M/S Barrik Gold of Australia and Antofagasta of Chile, both holding 37.5% share each while
the Government of Balochistan is holding 25 % share. Current status of this world class deposit is that
the Government of Balochistan has declined to convert the Prospecting Lease of the area to Mining
Lease and the matter is sub-judicious. Basic facts about the deposit are given below:
Reserves
Copper Content
Gold

> 5 Billion tonnes


= 0.54 %
= 0.24 g/t
7

Gold / Silver
It has been established that there are indications that Pakistan has a significant
potential of gold, particularly in the folded belt regions (Northern Mountain
belt, Island Arc system), its association with volcanogenic sequences, porphyry
copper and in shear zones. In the Northern Areas, spread of gold anomalies is
concentrated along the Main Karakorum Thrust (MKT) within each geologic
unit. The distribution of gold anomalies, obtained through geochemical sampling, vary between 2 ppm
to 330 ppm in this area.
Gold panning was in practice at several places in the northern areas now constituting Pakistan along
the course of Indus River and its tributes before partition. Locally some gold is still produced in
these areas. Precambiran shield rocks exposed in Chiniot area of Punjab and Tharparkar area of Sindh
are also favourable for localization of gold deposits. Large scale production of gold and silver along
with copper has started from Saindak porphyry copper deposits in Chagai district of Balochistan (The
production figures are given under copper above).
Iron
Many small and large deposits of iron ore have been found in different parts
of the country. Important among these are the Dammel Nissar and Langrial
deposits of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Chichali and Kalabagh deposits of Punjab
province and Chilghazi, Chigendik and Pachin Koh deposits of Balochistan
province (Asrarullah 1976). The iron ore deposits recently discovered by the GSP at Dilband in
Kalat district, Uthal in Lasbela district of Balochistan and Nizampur area in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
province are of great economic significance. Inventory of iron ore deposits in the country is given in
the Table-1.
Present estimate of available ore in the country is over 1,400 million tonnes. The reported average
annual production is 341,651 metric tonnes (2010-2011). It must be noted that the production of iron
ore has registered a tremendous increase (about 1300%) during the last 3-4 years as compared to the
average production. During the last 10 years the average production was 24,322 metric tonnes.
Lead and Zinc
The Geological Survey of Pakistan has discovered several deposits of lead
and zinc ore in Lasbela-Khuzdar region of Balochistan Province. These
deposits are associated with carbonate rocks of Windar Group and Shirinab
Formation. Three of these deposits namely Gunga, Surmai and Duddar have been investigated in
some details by GSP with the help of UNDP and JICA. The result of these investigations were found
very encouraging (Ahsan et. al. 1994). PMDC with the technical and financial assistance of UNDP
undertook the preliminary evaluation of lead-zinc deposits at Duddar and evaluated 6.86 million
tonnes of proved reserves and 3.43 million tonnes of inferred reserves with 11.34% zinc and 2.01%
lead (Jones and Shah 1994). These deposits have been jointly evaluated for development by Pakistan
Mineral Development Corporation (PMDC) and Balochistan Development Authority (BDA) and the
earlier estimates of reserves have almost been doubled.
8

Table-1: Location, Reserves and Grade of Iron Ores in Pakistan

Area/Locality

Reserves
(million
tonnes)

Quality
Chemical

Mineralogical

1. Dilband, Kalat District,


Balochistan

250

35-45% Fe

Sedimentry ore with predominent hematite (Fe2O3)

2. Chigendik,
3. Pachin Koh,
4. Amir Chah,
5. Chilghazi, Chagai
District, Balochistan

85

20-60% Fe

Magnetite (Fe3O4) & hematite (Fe2O3).

6. Uthal, Lasbela District,


Balochistan

Not
estimated

Up to 45%
Fe

Magnetite (Fe3O4) & hematite (Fe2O3).

7. Nizampur, Nowshehra
District, Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa

168

25-35% Fe

Sedimentary ore with predominent hematite (Fe2O3)

8. Langrial, Hazara District,


Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

30

30-40% Fe

Primarily a silicate oolitic ore which has been


oxidized to form laterite; a reddish mixture of
clayey iron and aluminum oxides and hydroxides
formed by the weathering of primary ore under
humid, tropical conditions.

9. Dammel Nissar, Chitral


District, Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa

6.5

Up to 60%
Fe

Magnetite (Fe3 O4) & hematite (Fe2 O3).

10. Pezu, Khyber


Pakhtunkhwa

66

30-34 % Fe

Limonite Fe O(OH)n H2O, hematite (Fe2 O3) &


goethite Fe O(OH).

65.91

34-42 % Fe

Hematite (Fe2 O3) & goethite Fe O(OH).

11. Besham, Abbottabad,


Galdanian, Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa
12. Kalabagh/Chichali
Makarwal area, Mianwali
District, Punjab

350

25-35% Fe

Silicate-carbonate ores; containing siderite FeCO3,


glauconite (Fe+3,Al,Fe+2,Mg)4 (Si7-7.6Al10.4O20) (OH)4 7nH20, limonite Fe O(OH)n H2O,
hematite (Fe2 O3) and goethite Fe O(OH).

13. Kirana, Sargodha


District, Punjab

110

Up to 66%
Fe oxides

Hematite (Fe2 O3).

14. Chiniot, Jhang District,


Punjab
15. Rakhi Munh, Dera Ghazi
Khan District, Punjab.

16. Noori-Abad, Dadu


District, Sindh
TOTAL:

27.46

Fe2 O3 41.5%
to 77.5%.

268.3

37.5% Fe

Not
estimated

40% Fe

Magnetite (Fe3 O4) & hematite (Fe2 O3).


Sedimentary ore with predominant limonite FeO
(OH)n H2O, goethite Fe O(OH), chamosite [(Mg,
Fe, Al)6 (Si, Al)4 O14], clay minerals with oolitic
texture.
Sedimentary ore with predominant hematite
(Fe2 O3).

1427.17

The preliminary investigations by the GSP have indicated the availability of over 10 million tonnes of
lead-zinc ore along with baryte at Gunga near Khuzdar, Balochistan with about 8 percent total metal
value (Ahsan et.al.1994).
At Surmai, exploration work carried out by GSP and JICA proved the presence of 2.93 million tonnes
of ore with average metal content of 6.5 percent (Ahsan et.al. 1994). Further exploration may reveal
additional reserves in the area as only a very small part of the deposit was investigated during the
project period.
Present estimate of available ore, in the country, is over 23 million tonnes. Production of lead-zinc
commenced during 2010-2011 with total metal production of 12692 metric tonnes (Lead + Zinc).
Manganese
Manganese ores are found at many localities in Lasbela, Kharan, Chagai
and Zhob districts in Balochistan. The host rock of almost all the manganese
deposits in the Lasbela district is the volcanic assemblage of olivine basalt and
pillow lava belonging to Bela Volcanic Group. The manganese minerals are mainly psilomelane, and
pyrolusite which occur in the jasperoid layer above pillow lava and below shale sedimentary rocks.
The manganese occurrences in Chagai district are found as veins cutting limestone beds and basalts
of Cretaceous age. These occurrences are reported from Ras Koh (Charkohan area) Siah Koh and
Sotkinoh in Chagai district of Balochistan. The manganese deposits reported from Zhob district occur
in altered siliceous limestone associated with pillow lava of Cretaceous age. The manganese localities
in Zhob district of Balochistan are at Naweoba and Warsak Killi area.

Present estimate of available ore, in the country, is over 600,000 metric tonnes and the average annual
production is 2,712 metric tonnes. Current production of manganese has shown an increase over the
past few years, as earlier it was about 1,500 metric tonnes per annum.

10

SOLID FUEL
Coal
The recent work by GSP has proved that Sindh Province has very large reserves
of coal. The coal resource base of this province alone exceeds 185 billion
tonnes out of the total coal resources of the country exceeding 186 billion
tonnes. Sindh province, especially huge lignitic resources at Thar make the future hope of Pakistan for
production of thermal /electrical energy based on coal fired power stations. The coal resources base of
the Punjab Province is over 235 million tonnes. Balochistan Province has a coal resource base of over
217 million tonnes but due to thin and steeply dipping coal seams, obtaining large production is not
possible. Small power plants based on local coal may however, be planned for Chamalang, Mach, Sor
Range - Daghari, Pir Ismail Ziarat, Khost - Shahrig - Harnai and Duki areas. Coal also occurs in Kotli
district of Azad Jammu and Kashmir and in Cherat and Hangu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Orakzai
Agency in FATA.
Almost the entire production of indigenous coal is being used for firing brick kilns and some industrial
units. Two coal fired power plants with 7.5 MW capacity each were operational since 1964 near Quetta
but have since been closed. Three coal fired power plants of 50 MW capacities each based on fluidized
bed technology have been set up at Khanot near Hyderabad.
Present estimate of available coal resources in the country is over 186 billion tonnes. The reported
average annual production is 3.3 million metric tonnes.
Underground Coal Gasification at Thar
The GSP had discovered over 175 billion tons of lignite coal in Thar desert in 1992. The project,
Creation of New Processing Facilities for handling and purification of Coal Gas (HPCG) produced
by underground coal gasification was approved in the CDWP meeting. The aim of the project was to
create new processing facility for handling and purification of coal gas produced by underground coal
gasification located in Tharparkar.
Geological Survey of Pakistan carried out drilling for Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) at Thar,
Sindh. As a result of GSPs efforts, under this project, the pilot test bore holes have successfully
yielded pure methane gas at the site. As per agreement, GSP has deployed two of its riqs alongwith
drilling engineers and trained staff for the Project. All costs involved for the execution of the project
was met through PSDP funding. As per the agreement total 20 bore holes have been drilled.
Thar Lignite Coal reserves, spread over 9,600 square-kilometres possess the power generation
potential of 100,000 MW consuming 536 million tonnes coal a year. Underground Coal gasification,
in fact, may be one of the best ways to produce clean-burning methane for tomorrows automobiles
and power-generation. Once successfully experimented, the scope of the project could be broadened
to cover coal deposits in the Punjab, KPK, Balochistan, FATA, NAs and AJK.

11

Gems and Precious Stones


Some of the important gemstones, which have given Pakistan a recognized position amongst supplier of
precious and semi-precious stones in the international market, include emeralds, rubies, topaz (golden
and white), tourmaline, garnet, beryl, zircon, rutile, quartz, rutile quartz, morganite, apatite, spinel,
pargasite, sphene, agate, zoisite, epidote, emerald-colour tourmaline, diopside, amethyst, scheelite,
moon stone, aquamarine and fluorite. Mainly these deposits have been found in Gilgit-Baltistan, FATA
and Azad Jammu & Kashmir.

RUBY

TOPAZ

ZIRCON

12

QUARTZ

BERYL

EMERALD

AQUAMARINE

FLUORITE

CERAMIC MINERALS
Barytes
The barytes deposits of Balochistan province were discovered by the Geological
Survey of Pakistan (Ahmad and Klinger, 1967). These deposits are located in
the area between Uthal and Khuzdar.
The production from indigenous deposits meets the total requirement of barytes for oil well drilling
and barium based chemical plants of the country. The barytes deposits of the country are sufficient and
suitably located for large scale production to meet local demand and as well as export.
Total reserve of barytes in Pakistan has been estimated at 13.71 million tonnes and it is believed that
more huge resources are available in the country. The reported average annual production is 33,312
metric tonnes.
China Clay
China clay deposits are found at Shah Dheri, Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
and in Nagar Parkar, Sindh. Some smaller deposits have also been found in
Dir, Hazara and Gilgit. The Geological Survey of Pakistan discovered both
the Shah Dheri and Nagar Parkar deposits (Moosvi 1975; Kazmi et. al. 1973) and investigated these
deposits in detail with the help of detailed geological mapping, channel sampling and physical and
chemical tests. The Shah Dheri deposits have been evaluated to contain 29.8 million tonnes (Moosvi
1975) of raw china clay. Plagioclase rich leuco-quartz diorite is the parent rock from which kaolin has
been formed as a result of alteration of feldspars. Kaolin zones occur as patches, pods and streaks in
unaltered rock. Typical analysis of Swat china clay is as follows:Overall estimation for the country has not been worked out but it is believed that huge resources are
available in the country. The reported average annual production is 22,790 metric tonnes, registering
about 50% decrease over the past few years.
Feldspar
Large deposits of both sodic and potassic feldspars with over 6 billion tonnes
of reserves have been found near Mingora and Bunair in Swat district of
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Badshah 1994). Feldspar is widespread in pegmatites
in Chitral, Gilgit and Skardu. Deposits of orthoclase feldspar are also present in Nagar Parkar area of
Sindh.
Overall estimation for the country has not been worked out but it is believed that large resources of
feldspar are available in the country. The reported average annual production is 150,487 metric tonnes.
Production of feldspar has shown tremendous, about 500% increase, over the past few years.

13

Fullers Earth
Punjab and Sindh provinces have very large resources of Fullers earth. In
Sindh these deposits occur at Thano Bulla Khan (District Dadu), Shadi Shahid
(District Khairpur) while in Punjab the main deposits are found in D.G. Khan.
Fullers earth is formed along the flood plains of ancient river channels. The Paleocene-Eocene rivers
which deposited coal in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab, Balochistan and Sindh also deposited Fullers
earth in the adjoining areas. The present production is being utilised in oil refining and other industries
in the country. It is also being used by insecticide, foundries vegetable oil, ghee and steel industries.
Thus a sharp rise in the demand of Fullers earth is expected in future.
Overall estimation for the country has not been worked out but it is believed that huge resources are
available in the country. The reported average annual production is 6,774 metric tonnes, showing
notable decline in production over the past few years as earlier it was about three times of this figure.
Fire Clay
Sizable deposits of fire clay are found in the province of Punjab, which is
also the main consumer of this commodity. Large deposits occur in Mianwali,
Sargodha and Attock districts. Fire clay is also found in Thatta and Dadu
districts of Sindh and D.I. Khan district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. These are residual sedimentary
deposits generally found at the base of Patala Formation of Paleocene age in the Punjab and at the
base of Sonhari beds of Paleocene age in Sindh. The bulk of the present production is obtained from
Mianwali and Sargodha deposits which could be classed as heavy duty refractory clay. It is used
mainly for furnace lining in cement and other industries.
Total reserve of fire clay in Pakistan are over 100 million tonnes and reported average annual production
is 289,573 metric tonnes.
Silica sand/Glass sand
Datta Formation of Jurassic age and its equivalent formations contain thick
beds of silica sand in Khisor and Marwat Ranges, between Paniala and Pezu,
over a length of 16 km with an estimated reserves of 20 million tonnes (Raza
and Iqbal 1997). In Salt Range and Surghar Range glass sand beds occur in Datta Formation and
Patala Formation (Late Paleocene). Near Mallakhel, glass sand beds with over 99% Si O2 occurs in
Lumshival Formation of Lower Cretaceous age (Ahmad 1959, Shah 1980). In Hazara high grade silica
sand occurs as thick layers within a 150 m thick sequence of metamorphosed calcareous sandstone
at Mand Kachcha (Raza and Iqbal 1977). Large deposits of glass sand are found in Dadu District of
Sindh province in Eocene and Oligocene sediments. Large lenticular bodies of silica sand occur in
meta sediments in Mohmand Agency with reserves of over 537 million tonnes.
Total reserves of silica sand in Pakistan are estimated to be 557 million tonnes and reported average
annual production is 317,225 metric tonnes. The production of silica sand has also shown an upward
trend and it has increased about 20% over the past few years.
14

FERTILIZER AND INDUSTRIAL MINERALS


Gypsum and Anhydrite
Pakistan has very large reserves of gypsum/anhydrite found in all the provinces
of the country. Major deposits are those of Daud Khel, Khewra and D.G. Khan
Punjab, Kohat Region in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. and Spintangi and Chamalang
in Balochistan. Smaller deposits occur in Dadu district of Sindh and Lasbela
district of Balochistan. Present estimate of available gypsum resources in the country is over 4,850
million tonnes. The reported average annual production is 1,041,972 metric tonnes, registering an
increase of about 100% over the past few years.
Magnesite
Magnesite is found at Wad and Muslim Bagh in Balochistan and Malakand &
Hazara in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa along fractures, joints and faults in ultramafic
rocks. The Kumhar magnesite deposit of Hazara Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has
been estimated to contain 8.75 million tonnes of total reserve. The magnesite from this deposit has
been found suitable for production of refractory bricks and fused magnesium phosphate (Hirayama et.
al. 1995).
The magnesite resources in Pakistan have been estimated at 12 million tonnes whereas the average
annual production is 9,844 metric tonnes, registering an increase of about 200% over the past few
years.
Rock Salt
Huge deposits of rock salt are located in the Salt Range in Punjab province and
in Kohat district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Salt mining has been traditionally
carried out by the government since annexation of Punjab and Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa during the British rule, but recently some private parties have also started salt mining.
In the late fifties, the mining engineers working in Khewra salt mines had reached a conclusion that
the salt deposits of the area were nearing exhaustion and that the mining operations would be closed
down within a short period. Consequently GSP was requested to evaluate the salt deposits of Khewra.
Detailed exploration and evaluation of these deposits by GSP proved the existence of inexhaustible
reserves of rock salt in the Salt Range (Asrarullah 1962).
The rock salt resources of Pakistan stands at 800 million tonnes and the reported average annual
production is 2,021,008 metric tonnes, showing an increase of about 30% over the past few years.
About 40% of the total output is consumed by soda ash, caustic soda and leather industries and rest
is marketed for domestic / human consumption. A certain amount of rock salt is also exported to a
number of countries.

15

Soapstone and Talc


Soapstone deposits occur in Parachinar area, Kurram Agency; Jamrud, Khyber
Agency; Dargai, Swat district; Sherwan, Abbottabad district; Muslim Bagh &
Wadh-Uthal areas in Balochistan. The Sherwan deposit is the major producer
of soapstone in the country but other deposits of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and FATA/ FANA have also
started producing and are expected to increase the production as the demand rises. Soapstone deposits
of Kurram Agency have been estimated to contain 1.6 million tonnes of reserves (Badshah 1994).
Overall estimation of soapstone has not been worked out but it is believed that huge resources are
available in the country. The reported average annual production is 147,250 metric tonnes, showing
about 337% increase over the past few years.
Table-2 Reserves and Production of Cement, Fertilizer, Ceramic, Glass and
Chemical Raw Material

S. No.

Variety of Building Stone

1.
2.
3.
5.

Limestone
Shale
Gypsum
Dolomite

6
7.
8.
9.

Glass (Silica) Sand


Phosphate
Rock Salt
China Clay

Extensive
Extensive
4,850
Extensive

Annual Production
2010-2011 (in metric
tonnes)
34,585,693
3,964,080
1,041,972
364,008

557
7
800
Large

317,225
91,350
2,021,008
22,790

Reserves
(in million tonnes)

BUILDING AND DECORATIVE Stones


Pakistan is blessed with a variety of exquisite building and decorative stones throughout the country.
The most commonly used and mined in large quantities are marble, onyx marble, various types of
limestone and igneous rocks, mainly granite, diorite and gabbro.
Large reserves of re-crystallized limestone and marble occur widely in the
Gilgit and Skardu region, in Chitral, Khyber Agency, Swat and Mardan districts
of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Bajaur and Khyber Agencies of FATA, in Azad
Jammu and Kashmir (Asrarullah and Hussain 1985). Onyx marble of high
quality is found in Chagai District of Balochistan Province (Ahmed, 1965).
Other forms of building stones like slate, sandstone, boulders and gravels
etc are abundantly available throughout the country. Attractive and good quality granitic, dioritic and
gabbroic rocks occur in Gilgit, Chitral, Swat, Raskoh, Chagai, Lasbela and Nagarparkar areas.

16

Reserves and average annual production of some varieties of building stones are given in the following
table.
Table-3 Reserves and Production of Some Varieties of Building Stones
S.
No.

Variety of Building Stone

1.

Onyx Marble

2.

Aragonite Marble

3.

Granite

4.

Annual Production
Reserves (in million
2010-2011 (in metric
tonnes)
tonnes)
2

78,612

158

1,369,315

4,140

15,877

Sandstone

Extensive

440

5.

Slate Stone

Very Large

103,101

6.

Miscellaneous Building Stones (diorite, gabbro, gneiss, rhyolite & basalt)

Very Large

477

7.

Serpentine

Very Large

2,542

DESCRIPTION OF ACCOMPANYING DATA TABLE


In the following table data on almost all major mineral commodities has been compiled including 8
metallic, 49 non metallic and 3 Energy Fuel commodities. Reserves of the commodities in the country
have been worked out where ever possible, otherwise, size is described in terms of small, Large, Very
Large and Extensive, as the case may be. Average quality is shown to reflect the representation of
quality on broader terms instead of depicting individual deposits. In the next column production of the
commodity for the year 2010-2011 is given and next column describes the average production worked
on the basis of the production of the last l0 years, to show the variation or trend of increase or decrease
in the production of that commodity over the past few years. Under the column with the title Life of
Mine, is to show for how long that particular commodity has been in production in the country. In
the last column, resources already exploited have been worked out on the basis of the average rate of
production and the life of production for each commodity in the country.
This data has been compiled with aim that the reader can get a fair idea, on the basis of reserves,
production, number of producing years, resources already exploited; the actual position of a particular
commodity and then analyse the overall picture of the potential of the mineral sector of Pakistan.

17

MINERAL
RESOURCES

MAJOR

OF PAKISTAN

19

20
Total

2.527

0.086

Low to medium
grade

Low to medium
grade

115,931

30,366

79

30

30

910,980

2,370

Utilized Life of Mine / period of production has been assumed considering the non availability of actual data

0.547
1.3
0.03
1.877

0.65

0.6

0.05

0.026
0.026

0.06
0.06

QUALITY

ANNUAL
RESOURCES
AVERAGE
LIFE OF MINE /
PRODUCTION
ALREADY
PRODUCTION PRODUCTION
(in metric tonnes)
EXPLOITED
(in metric tonnes)
(in Years)
2010-2011
(in metric tonnes)

Average production of all mineral commodities has been based on the average of annual production of last 10 years, provided by provincial DGMMD's, for calculating present in-situ value of the commodity in the country.

Total
BALOCHISTAN
Naweoba, Zhob
Muslim Bagh, Qila Saifullah
Sonaro, Khuzdar
Raskoh, Chagai
Total

KPK
Harichand, Dargai
Boya, N.Waziristan
Jijal, Bisham
Chilas

BALOCHISTAN
Shekran, Khuzdar
Qila Abdullah

KPK/FATA
Zaimukht Hill, Kurram Valley
Krinj Partson, Chitral
Total
PUNJAB
Karangali Hill Salt Range

NAME OF DEPOSITS

RESERVES IN
PAKISTAN
(in million
tonnes)

Chromite

Antimony

COMMODITY

SIZE
(in million
tonnes)

METALLIC

21

2.76

2.76

1 47
1.47

12

12

33

17 64
17.64

188,064

Reserve of Gold in the country = 1656 metric tons (58,413,680 Ounces) and that of Silver = 618 metric tons (21,799,308 Ounces)

Low grade

1 47
1.47

12

618

Low grade

15,672

Production figure for copper shows blister copper, which has been assumed as the average production for the total period of production for the last 12 years. For convenience the reserves have been calculated at an average value of
0.5 % copper for all copper deposits.

618

1 656
1,656

15,672

Average production of all mineral commodities has been based on the average of annual production of last 10 years, provided by provincial DGMMD's, for calculating present in-situ value of the commodity in the country.

(1.5 grams/ton)

1450

Reko Diq (0.29 grams/ton)

Saindak

206

(0.5
(0 5 grams/ton)

Saindak

BALOCHISTAN

5962.032

Low to high
grade

QUALITY

ANNUAL
RESOURCES
AVERAGE
LIFE OF MINE /
PRODUCTION
ALREADY
PRODUCTION PRODUCTION
(in metric tonnes)
EXPLOITED
(in metric tonnes)
(in Years)
2010-2011
(in metric tonnes)

Silver

Gold

Total

30.41266

412
200
200
50
100
0.032
5000

Saindak, Chagai
Sasht-e-Kain, Chagai
Ziarat Pir Sultan, Chagai
Kabul Koh, Chagai
Missi, Chagai
Bandegan, Chagai
Reko Diq, Chagai

Total

120
0.5
120.5
6082.532

KPK
Shinkai, Boya, Waziristan
Bulashgah, Gilgit

Copper

RESERVES IN
PAKISTAN
(in million
tonnes)

BALOCHISTAN

NAME OF DEPOSITS

COMMODITY

SIZE
(in million
tonnes)

METALLIC

22
341,651

24,322

10

243,220

For iron average rate of production has been assumed as 300,000 metric tone per year for calculating resources already exploited and present in-situ value of iron ore in the country.

Total:

Low to high

Utilized Life of Mine / period of production has been assumed considering the non availability of actual data

250
10
0.43
1.125
1.125
23
0.05
0.13
45
0.18
331.04

Total:

1427.2

350
110
27.46
268.3
755.76

Total:

6.8
2.6
60
30
66
0.5
6.5
168
340.4

QUALITY

ANNUAL
RESOURCES
AVERAGE
LIFE OF MINE /
PRODUCTION
ALREADY
PRODUCTION PRODUCTION
(in metric tonnes)
EXPLOITED
(in metric tonnes)
(in Years)
2010-2011
(in metric tonnes)

Average production of all mineral commodities has been based on the average of annual production of last 10 years, provided by provincial DGMMD's, for calculating present in-situ value of the commodity in the country.

BALOCHISTAN
Dilband, Kalat
Shekran, Khuzdar
Mashkichah
Durban Chah
Amir Chah
Chilghazi
Chapar
Kundi Baluchap
Pachin Koh
Bandagan

PUNJAB
Kalabagh
Kirana Sargodha
Chiniot
Rakhi Munh, DG Khan

KPK
Besham
Abbottabad
Galdanian
Langrial
Pezu
Mazar Tang, Kohat
Dammer Nisar
Nizampur

NAME OF DEPOSITS

RESERVES IN
PAKISTAN
(in million
tonnes)

Iron Ore

COMMODITY

SIZE
(in million
tonnes)

M
METALLIC

23

BALOCHISTAN
- Lasbela
- Khuzdar

KPK
- Chur Gali, Abbottabad

BALOCHISTAN
- Gunga, Khuzdar
- Surmai, Khuzdar
- Duddar

KPK
- Besham

NAME OF DEPOSITS

0.5
0.5
10
2.93
10.29
23.22
0.18
0.18

Total:

Total:
Total:

Ebry stone

-do-

Conglomerat
-doe

Building
stone (diorite,
A number of deposits all over
gabbro,
Pakistan
gneiss,
rhyolite &
basalt)

Medium

-do-

Very Large
Deposits

Medium to high
grade
Medium to high
grade

Medium to high
grade

260
238

477

636,815

138

477

1,369,315

Considering minor difference of rates of Lead & Zinc both the metals have been treated as one for calculating present in-situ value of the deposits.

25,472,600

18,825

25,384

Utilized Life of Mine / period of production has been assumed considering the non availability of actual data

40

15

346

1,255

1,569
11,123
12,692

Average production of all mineral commodities has been based on the average of annual production of last 10 years, provided by provincial DGMMD's, for calculating present in-situ value of the commodity in the country.

High grade

158

2,753

1,569
11,123
12,692

ANNUAL
RESOURCES
AVERAGE
LIFE OF MINE /
PRODUCTION
ALREADY
PRODUCTION PRODUCTION
(in metric tonnes)
EXPLOITED
(in metric tonnes)
(in Years)
2010-2011
(in metric tonnes)

High grade

Low to medium
grade

Low to medium
grade

QUALITY

Large

0.597

23.72

RESERVES IN
PAKISTAN
(in million
tonnes)

0.188
0.229
Total:
0.417
Balochistan
Agglomerate Many deposits in KPK &
A number of deposits in
Aragonite
marble
Balochistan

Manganese

Lead Zinc

COMMODITY

SIZE
(in million
tonnes)

NON METALLIC

METALLIC

BUILDING & DIMENSION STONES


S

Extensively Available All Over Pakistan

A number of deposits in KPK, Sindh &


Balochistan

Gravel

Millstone

-doSmall
-do

A number of deposits in KPK

A few deposits in Punjab

A few deposits in Punjab

A number of deposits in
Sindh & KPK

Extensively Available All Over Pakistan

Slate stone

Ball clay

Bentonite

China clay

Clays

1,942,049

179356320

911600

1512080

6720

4124040

101,680

8687160
17600

265200

1,779,680

752080

160,000

Utilized Life of Mine / period of production has been assumed considering the non availability of actual data

4,483,908

Medium to high
grade

47,993

47,229

1,560

1 834
1,834

3,390

40

20

20

22,790

37,802

168

103 101
103,101

2,542

150,000
1,834

217,179
440

Medium to high
grade

Medium to high
grade
Medium to high
grade

High grade

Medium grade

3,991

44,492

2,809

26,612

8,000

6,630

78,612

Medium to high
grade
Low to high
grade
High grade
High grade

37,604

15,877

High grade

Medium to high
grade

QUALITY

ANNUAL
RESOURCES
AVERAGE
LIFE OF MINE /
PRODUCTION
ALREADY
PRODUCTION PRODUCTION
(in metric tonnes)
EXPLOITED
(in metric tonnes)
(in Years)
2010-2011
(in metric tonnes)

Average production of all mineral commodities has been based on the average of annual production of last 10 years, provided by provincial DGMMD's, for calculating present in-situ value of the commodity in the country.

NON METALLIC

Large

Medium
Deposits

-do-

A number of deposits in KPK & Balochistan

Serpentine

Very Large
Deposits
-do-do-

-DO-DO-

Extensively Available All Over Pakistan

Small

Very Large
Deposits

4,140

RESERVES IN
PAKISTAN
(in million
tonnes)

Ordinary
stone
Sand / Bajri
Sand stone

Onyx marble/
A number of deposits in KPK & Balochistan
Travertine

A number of deposits in SINDH, KPK &


Balochistan

NAME OF DEPOSITS

SIZE
(in million
tonnes)

Granite

COMMODITY

BUILDING & DIMENSION STONES

CLAYS

24

25

A number of deposits in Punjab & KPK

30

30

1,106,190

5,953,950

Utilized Life of Mine / period of production has been assumed considering the non availability of actual data

23,871

1,117
6,984
263,521

1,225

53 196
53,196

18,486

36873

1,500,000

17283

198,465

Average production of all mineral commodities has been based on the average of annual production of last 10 years, provided by provincial DGMMD's, for calculating present in-situ value of the commodity in the country.

150,487

High grade
High grade

460
1,599
364,008

250

High grade
High grade
High grade
High grade

42 622
42,622

9,033

33,312

3,964,080

6,774

289,573

Medium to high
grade
High grade

Medium to high
grade
Medium to high
grade

High grade

Medium to high
grade
Medium to high
grade

QUALITY

ANNUAL
RESOURCES
AVERAGE
LIFE OF MINE /
PRODUCTION
ALREADY
PRODUCTION PRODUCTION
(in metric tonnes)
EXPLOITED
(in metric tonnes)
(in Years)
2010-2011
(in metric tonnes)

Flint stone

Feldspar

Celestite
Chalk
Dolomite

Calcite

Medium
Small to
A number of deposits in Balochistan, Punjab &
Medium
A few deposits in Sindh and PUNJAB
Small
A few deposits in KPK & Punjab
-doA number of deposits in all four provinces
Large
Very Large
A number of deposits in Balochistan & KPK
Deposits
A number of deposits in KPK
-do-

A few deposits in Punjab & KPK

Brine

Small

0.002
0.014
1.4
12.28

Bankhari
Kundi
Gunga
Moner Talar

A few deposits in Punjab & KPK

13.708

0.012

Naka Pabni

Barite

Bauxite

Small

A few deposits in Balochistan & KPK

Asbestos

-Do-

A large number of deposits all over Pakistan

Fairly Large
Deposits

100

RESERVES IN
PAKISTAN
(in million
tonnes)

Shale

Fullers earth A number of deposits in Punjab & KPK

Fire clay

NAME OF DEPOSITS

SIZE
(in million
tonnes)

NON METALLIC

COMMODITY

CHEMICAL, FERT
TILIZER & INDUSTRIAL

A number of deposits in Balochistan & KPK

Magnesite

91,350

2,186

27
470
27,470

3,287

25

20

25

30

25

54,650

549400

82,175

14,565,390

24,100

Utilized Life of Mine / period of production has been assumed considering the non availability of actual data

37
680
37,680

9,844

14,496,811

62,655

48,029

485,513

964

A number of deposits in Balochistan & KPK

Phosphate

Small

100

Small

Medium to high
grade
Low to medium
grade
Low to medium
grade
Low to medium
grade
Low to medium
grade

34,585,693

154,033

Low to medium
grade
High grade

293,085

1,041,972

198

High grade

Medium to high
grade

Low to medium
grade

QUALITY

ANNUAL
RESOURCES
AVERAGE
LIFE OF MINE /
PRODUCTION
ALREADY
PRODUCTION PRODUCTION
(in metric tonnes)
EXPLOITED
(in metric tonnes)
(in Years)
2010-2011
(in metric tonnes)

Average production of all mineral commodities has been based on the average of annual production of last 10 years, provided by provincial DGMMD's, for calculating present in-situ value of the commodity in the country.

NON METALLIC

A few deposits in KPK

Orpiment

Nephline
A few deposits in KPK
Synite
Ochres / Red
A number
b off ddeposits
it iin B
l hi t & KPK
Balochistan
oxides

Large

Extensively available all over Pakistan

Limestone
12

-do-

Small

A few deposits in Balochistan & KPK

Being produced in Sindh & Balochistan

Lake salt

4,850

RESERVES IN
PAKISTAN
(in million
tonnes)

Laterite

A number of deposits in all four provinces

A few deposits in Balochistan

NAME OF DEPOSITS

SIZE
(in million
tonnes)

Gypsum

Fluorite

COMMODITY

CHEMIICAL, FERTILIZER & INDUSTRIAL

26

27

A number of deposits in Balochistan & KPK

A number of deposits in Punjab & KPK

Rock salt

A number of deposits in Balochistan, Punjab


& KPK

Quartzite

Quartz

Pumice

800

Small to
medium

-do-

RESERVES IN
PAKISTAN
NAME OF DEPOSITS
(in million
tonnes)
Medium to
A number of deposits in Balochistan & KPK
Large
SIZE
(in million
tonnes)

High grade

Medium to high
grade

High grade

Low to high
grade

QUALITY

2,021,008

207

2,160

4,036

1,478,529

2,189

446

2,716

50

73926450

ANNUAL
RESOURCES
AVERAGE
LIFE OF MINE /
PRODUCTION
ALREADY
PRODUCTION PRODUCTION
(in metric tonnes)
EXPLOITED
(in metric tonnes)
(in Years)
(in metric tonnes)
2010-2011

Silica sand

A number of deposits in all the four provinces

557

Medium to high
317,225
268,478
30
8,054,340
grade
Medium to high
A number of deposits in Balochistan & KPK Medium to large
147,250
33686
Soap stone
grade
Low to medium
0
398
30
11,940
A number of deposits in Balochistan & KPK
0.8
Sulphur
grade
Low to medium
p
472
2,560
,
A number of deposits
in Sindh
-doTrona
grade
d
* Average production of all mineral commodities has been based on the average of annual production of last 10 years, provided by provincial DGMMD's, for calculating present in-situ
value of the commodity in the country.
* Utilized Life of mine / period of production has been assumed considering the non availability of actual data

NON METALLIC

COMMODITY

CHEMICAL, FERTILIZER & INDUSTRIAL


C

*
*

Natural Gas

A number of deposits in all the four


provinces (List of deposits attached)

NAME OF DEPOSITS

SIZE
(in million
tonnes)

Good Quality

1,471,591 (million
CFT)

27.50048
(TCF)

3,305,758

Good Quality 24041156 (Barrels)

Low grade (ligA to bit-c)

QUALITY

3,335,179

50

166,758,950

ANNUAL
RESOURCES
AVERAGE
LIFE OF MINE /
PRODUCTION
ALREADY
PRODUCTION PRODUCTION
(in metric tonnes)
EXPLOITED
(in metric tonnes)
(in Years)
2010-2011
(in metric tonnes)

264.011
(Million
Barrels)

186,008

RESERVES IN
PAKISTAN
(in million
tonnes)

Utilized Life of Mine / period of production has been assumed considering the non availability of actual data TOE= Tonnes of Oil Equivalent, TCF= Trillion Cubic Feet, CFT= Cubic Feet

Figures given for crude oil and gas indicate balance recoverable reserves,
reserves Source: Energy Year Book,
Book 2011
Inexhaustible cement raw material (Lst + Shale), rock salt (Other than PMDC mines), building & dimension stones, various types of clays, chemicals like brine, lake salt, aggregate resources, fertilizer & industrial minerals, fairly
large but un-explored deposits of Platinum Group Elements (PGE) and Rare Earth Elements/metals (REE) and large deposits of gemstones and crude oil & gas are excluded from the resources'

NB
Average production of all mineral commodities has been based on the average of annual production of last 10 years, provided by provincial DGMMD's, for calculating present in-situ value of the commodity in the country.

Crude Oil

Coal

COMMODITY

ENERGY/ FUEL

SOLID

LIQUID

GAS

28

Quality AND
Coal Resources
OF PAKISTAN

30

0.3-2.0

0.43-0.6

0.8-1.2

0.25-1.0

Hangu/Orakzai

Cherat/Gulla Khel
Sub Total

Kotli
Total

186,008

9
9

8.5
90

81.5

22
235

213

34,505

1
1

0.5
1.5

1.0

5
55

50

15
14
9
2
1
54

13

244
60
106
18
51
10
150
2,700
3,339

Measured

1
1
11677.5

4.5

4.5

8
24

16

11
2
13

629
511
810
77
170
43
9,395
11,635

Indicated

Reserves

56,582

7
7

8
84

76

9
11

19
25
14
8
5
134

63

455
2197
907
217
1556
108
200
50,706
56,346

114,298

145

145

16
16

932
500
112705
114,137

Inferred Hypothetical
Sindh

Developed

Developed

Developed

Developed

Developed

Developed
Developed
Developed
Developed
Developed

Developed

AJK

NWFP

Punjab

0.2-6.0

0.1-7.1

0.2-2.5

2.8-6.0

3.2-10.8

3.9-18.9
3.5-11.5
7.1-12.0
6.3-13.2
1.1-2.9

5.1-32.0

14.0-31.2

16.2-33.4

31.5-48.1

21.5-38.8

20.7-37.5
32.0-50.0
34.2-43.0
34.6-41.0
24.9-43.5

9.3-45.3

23.1-36.6

29.6-55.5

1.7-11.2

25.2-34.0

20.0-44.2

26.6-36.6

}9.0-39.5

18.3-38.6
16.1-36.9

Volatile Matter

26.3-69.5

37.0-76.9

21.8-49.8

34.9-44.9

25.7-44.8

41.0-50.8
28.0-42.0
32.4-41.5
19.3-42.5
19.4-478.1

25.5-43.8

14.2-34.0

24.1-32.2

15.0-58.8

9.8-38.2
8.9-31.6

Fixed Carbon

3.3-50.0

6.1-39.0

5.3-43.3

6.4-30.8

12.3-44.2

4.9-17.2
5.0-38.0
9.6-20.3
10.3-37.5
9.1-36.5

9.3-34.0

2.9-11.5

8.2-16.8

5.0-39.0

4.3-49
2.7-52.0

Ash

Coal Quality Proximate Analyses (in percent)

9.7-38.1
22.6-48.0

Moisture

Balochistan

Developed
Non-Developed
Non-Developed
Non-Developed
Non-Developed
Developed
Non-Developed
Non-Developed

Status

SubA to hvBb
SubB to hvAb
SubA to hvCb
SubA to hvVb
hvCb to hvAb

0.3-4.8

7,336-12,338

9,388-14,171

10,500-14,149

10,688-14,029

9,472-15,801

11,245-13,900
10,131-14,164
11,110-12,937
10,786-11,996
12,500-14,357

9,637-15,499

5,503-9,158
8,878-13,555
8,800-12,846
5,219-11,172
7,782-8,660
7,734-8,612
11,415-11,521
6,244-11,054

Heating Value
(mmmf)
Btu/lb

Tons of Oil Equivalent (TOE)

ligA to hvCB

1.1-3.5 SibC to hvAb

1.5-9.5 SubA to hvAb

2.8-6.3 SubA to hvAb

2.6-10.7 SubC to hvAb

0.6-5.5
4.0-6.0
3.2-7.4
4.0-5.5
3.0-8.5

3.5-9.55 SubB to hvAb

1.2-14.8 ligB to SubC


0.2-15.0 SubC to hvBb
SubC to hvCb
LigB to SubA
0.4-7.7
LigA to SubC
2.9-5.1 LigA to SubC
SubA to hvCb
0.4-2.9 LigB to SubA

Total
Sulphur

Rank ASTM
Classifi-cation

hvAb =high volatile A bituminous coal


Sub A =Sub bituminous A coal
Sub C = Sub bituminous C coal
Btu
= British Thermal Unit
hvBb =high volatile B bituminous coal
Sub B = Sub bituminous B coal
lig B
= Lignite B coal
ASTM = American Society For Testing and Materials
hvb =high volatile C bituminous coal
Sub B = Sub bituminous B coal
mmmf = moist mineral matter free
Kg
=kilogram
Mineable Reserves = 60 % of the proved reserves
Measured Reserves: having a high degree of geological assurance, coal lies within a radius of 0.4 km from a point of coal measurement.
Indicated Reserves: having a moderate degree of geological assurance, coal lies within a radius of 0.4 to 1.2 km. from a point of coal measurement.
Inferred Reserves: having a low degree of geological assurance, coal lies within a radius of 1.2 to 4.8 km from a point of coal measurement.
Hypothetical Resources: undiscovered coal resources and are generally extension of inferred reserves in which coal lies beyond 4.8 km from a point of coal measurement.
To convert Btu to Kcal/Kg multiply by 0.556.
To convert Kcal/Kg to Btu/lb multiply by 1.798
Source:
1. Ahmad and others, (1986), Coal Resources of Pakistan, GSP, Rec. Vol. 73
2. Kazmi and Siddiqui, (1990). Significance of the Coal Resources of Pakistan, GSP/USGS Pub.
3. Jaleel and others, (2002), Coal Resources of Four Block of Thar, Sindh, Pakistan,GSP, Rec. Vol.115.
4. Javed & others (2000), Coal Resources of Eastern Salt Range, Pakistan (unpublished)

TOTAL

0.15-1.2

Salt Range

50
50
23
12
6
217

Makarwal
Sub Total

76

0.3-1.3
0.2-2.3
0.6-1.3
0.4-0.7
0.3-2.0

1,328
3,700
1,823
312
1,777
161
850
175,506
185,457

Total

0.3-2.3

0.3-3.3
0.3-1.5
0.3-6.2
0.3-1.5
0.3-2.5
0.3-1.0
0.55-3.1
0.2-22.81

Seam
Thickness
Range (Meters)

Khost-Shahrig-HarnaiZardalu
Sor Range-Deghari-Sinjdi
Duki
Mach Abegum
Pir Ismail Ziarat
Chamalong-Bala Dhaka
Sub Total

Lakhra
Sonda-Thatta
Jherruk
Ongar
Indus East
Meting-Jhumpir
Badin
Thar
Sub Total

Field

Table-4 Summary of Quality and Coal Resources of Pakistan

1,845,036

4,123,907

242,969
242,969

553,453
553,453

281,371
564,944
305,037
318,116
520,185
2,268,623

278,920

1,038,926
19,936
1,058,862

Annual
Production
2009-2010
(tonnes)

Tel: +92-51-9202337
Fax: +92-51-9204077
E-mail: info@mpnr.gov.pk
Website: www.mpnr.gov.pk