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Bronze AGE CHRONOLOGY

iN THE CARPATHIAN BASIN


Proceedings of the International Colloquium
from Trgu Mure
24 October 2014

B I B L IO T H E C A

M V S EI

M A RI S IEN S I S

seria archaeologica

VIII

Proceedings of the International Colloquiums


from Trgu Mure
Editor
Sndor Berecki

BRONZE AGE CHRONOLOGY


IN THE CARPATHIAN BASIN
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL COLLOQUIUM
FROM TRGU MURE

24 October 2014

Edited by
Rita E.NMETH
Botond REZI

Editura MEGA
Trgu Mure
2015

Mure County Museum, 2015


Executive editor: Zoltn Sos, Director
Cover:
Gyermely-Szomor spectacle fibula
(photo made by Kardos Judit, photographer, Hungarian National Museum,
Central Data Warehouse and Informatics Department)
Muzeul Judeean Mure
CP 85, str. Mrti nr.8A, 540328
Trgu Mure, Romnia

Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naionale a Romniei


INTERNATIONAL COLLOQUIUM BRONZE AGE CHRONOLOGY IN THE CARPATHIAN BASIN. TRGU MURE, 2014.
Bronze Age Chronology in the Carpathian Basin : proceedings of the International Colloquium from Trgu Mure :
2-4 October 2014 / edited by Rita E.Nmeth, Rezi Botond. Cluj-Napoca : Mega, 2015. (Bibliotheca Mvsei Marisiensis. Seria
Archaeologica ; VIII).
Bibliogr.
ISBN 978-606-543-684-8.
I. NMETH, Rita E. (ed.)
II. REZI, Botond (ed.)
903(498.4)637(063)

Editura Mega | www.edituramega.ro


e-mail: mega@edituramega.ro

Contents

Vorwort

Ondej Chvojka
Chronologie und Kulturen der sdbhmischen Bronzezeit und ihre Parallelisierung zu den Donaugebieten
und Karpatenbecken

Viktria KissSzilvia FbinTams HajdUKitti KhlerGabriella Kulcsr


Istvn MajorGza Szab
Contributions to the Relative and Absolute Chronology of the Early and Middle Bronze Age in Western
Hungary Based on Radiocarbon Dating of Human Bones

23

Marija LjutinaKatarina Dmitrovi


Core vs. Periphery: Some Stratigraphical and Chronological Remarks on the Vatin Culture in Banat and
Western Serbia

37

Katarina DmitroviMarija Ljutina


Metal Finds as Indicators of Relations Between the Middle Bronze Age Cultures on Western and Northern
Serbia

47

Florin Gogltan
The Early and Middle Bronze Age Chronology on the Eastern Frontier of the Carpathian Basin. Revisited
after 15 Years

53

Jzsef PUSKS
Contact Zone: Middle Bronze Age Cultural Connections in the Valley of the Black River (Covasna County,
Romania)

97

Neculai BolohanAlexandru GafincuIulian Stoleriu


Middle Bronze Age Chronology East of the Carpathian Area. A Bayesian Model

131

Horia Ciugudean Colin P.Quinn


The End of the Wietenberg Culture in the Light of new 14C Dates and its Chronological Relation Towards the
Noua Culture
147
Rita E.NMETH
The Middle Bronze Age Mass Grave from VoivodeniLa coal. A Chronological Approach

179

Tibor-Tams DarcziAdrian Ursuiu


Contextualising Decorations. A Study of Placement and Context of Ornaments on Bronze Age Ceramics
from the Lower Fene Valley
201
Gbor ILON
Zeitstellung der Urnenfelderkultur (1350/1300750/700 BC) in West-Transdanubien. Ein Versuch mittels
Typochronologie und Radiokarbondaten
223

Attila Lszl
ber die Chronologie des kulturellen Wechsels zwischen der Noua-Coslogeni Kultur und der NachfolgerKulturen mit kannelierter und mit ritz- und stempelverzierter Keramik in den innen- und aussenkarpatischen
Gebieten. Einige Lehren der Radiokarbondatierungen
297
Jnos Gbor Tarbay
The Reanalysis of the Eponymous Hoard from Gyermely-Szomor and the HaA2 Period in the Territory of
Hungary
311
Tiberius Bader
Zur Chronologie Der Lanzenspitzen im Karpaten-Donau-Raum

373

Abbreviations

393

Contact Zone: Middle Bronze Age Cultural


Connections in the Valley of the Black
River (Covasna County, Romania)
Jzsef PUSKS

Trgu Secuiesc, Romania


joska1987@yahoo.com

Keywords: Wietenberg culture, Monteoru culture, cultural connections, southeastern Transylvania, pottery, relative and absolute Chronology

J. PUSKS

The aim of this paper is to elaborate on the Wietenberg and Monteoru material found in the depot of
the National Seckler Museum (NSM) (Sfntu Gheorghe, Covasna county) and by doing this I can hopefully contribute to a deeper and better understanding of the connections between theese two cultures.
The south-eastern part of Transylvania was a contact area even from prehistoric times. The people
who lived here were mediators between the inner parts of Transylvania and the areas lying east and south
of the Eastern Carpathians. In a wider sense they connected the pontic area (even furthermore) with the
Carpathian Basin (Boroffka 2013, 887). In the MBA the western part of the Eastern Carpathians (and
Transylvania) was inhabited by the bearers of the Wietenberg culture while the eastern part by those of
the Monteoru culture.
Few studies have dealt with a review of the Monteoru relics in south-eastern Transylvania (this
being the case with the Wietenberg findings in Moldavia as well). This disinterest can be attributed to
the small amount of material and the uncertain finding circumstances. The archaeological excavations
achieved in 19501990s could have
contributed to the understanding of these relationships but most
of them remained unpublished.
Hereinafter, I would like to discuss
the chronological contacts between
the Wietenberg (Transylvania) and
Monteoru (Moldavia) cultures.
Geographical environment
The valley of the Black River
or Trgu Secuiesc Depression is the
easternmost basin of Transylvania,
being enclosed by the mountains
of the Eastern Carpathians: from
the west by the Bodoc Mountains,
from the north by the Turia- and
the Nemira Mountains, from the
east by the Vrancea Mountains
and from the south by the Buzu
Mountains. The nearby regions and

Fig.1. The distribution area of MBA cultures in the


Curvature Carpathians (map made after Palinca 2014,
302, fig.1. Black square marks the studied area).

Bronze Age Chronology in the Carpathian Basin, 2015, p. 97129

98 | J. PUSKS

depressions can be accessed through many passages: the Oituz- and Kdrti pass lead to Moldavia, the
Turia-pass leads to the neighbouring Sfntu Gheorghe Basin, the Ctrua-strait leads to the Cain Basin
and from there to the Ciuc Depression. The main river is the Black River, crossing the whole basin, with
many side stream tributaries enclosed by high, flood-free terraces. The fertile soils and moderate climate
made it attractive for farming peoples starting from the Neolithic.
The distribution area of the Wietenberg culture roughly corresponds to the territory of historical
Transylvania, an area rich in salt, copper and gold deposits (Fig.1). More than 600 sites show a dense
inhabitancy with defined social structures (Boroffka 2013, 895; Dietrich 2010). The Monteoru culture
is present in southern Moldavia and the north-eastern part of Walachia, between the Dmbovia and
Bistria rivers. Its maximum expansion was in the IC3 phase (Morintz 1978, 101) when it appeared in
south-east Transylvania as well. The northern part of Moldavia was inhabited by the bearers of the Costia
culture. From the Trgu Secuiesc Basin only a few sherds and vessels are known belonging to this culture,
always discovered in different cultures layer. The only (fortified) settlement discovered west of the Eastern
Carpathians is located in the neighbouring Ciuc Basin, at Puleni (Cavruc 2001, 56). The material of the
Tei culture (distributed in Wallachia) can be found mostly in the ara Brsei Depression (Dietrich 2014a,
280, Abb.IX/4). The mountains did not present an obstacle for the prehistoric people either and various
archaeological discoveries prove the close relationship between the cultures emerging on both sides of the
Eastern Carpathians.
Presentation of the finds
According to the present state of research in the studied area we have knowledge of twelve locations
where Monteoru pottery was discovered. Most of them were found together with Wietenberg materials.
In some cases we do not know the exact finding contexts. For the determination of the vessel forms and
decorating motifs of Wietenberg pottery I used the work of Boroffka (1994). For a better distinction of
these motifs a small letter was added next to the typonym. For some of the Monteoru artefacts only the
locality where they were found is known, but their presentation is necessary in the debate on the subject of
this cultural connection. On the map (Pl.1) the Monteoru locations are marked with minuscule.
1. Albi (Hu: Kzdialbis)Csiszr-garden (Hu: Ciszr-kert, Ro: Grdina Csiszr) (Pl.1/a)
The village Albi is located in a lateral valley of the Black River and administratively belongs to the
parish of Cernat. In the summer of 1998 during field surveys a MBA settlement was discovered while digging the foundation of a house, where in 2001 archaeological excavations were made by the researchers
of the Szkely National Museum. The Bronze Age material belongs to the Wietenberg culture, very likely
to its 2nd and beginning of 3rd phase of evolution. Among the Wietenberg material a Monteoru sherd was
identified.
The Wietenberg material consist of different cup- (TC3e, TC3g, TD3de, TD3g), bowl- (TD1b) and
pot-fragments (TA2bc), decorated with impressions (VD5a-b) impressed cord (VE2) and incised triangles on the neck and/or on the rim (VD6a, VD47), hatched networks (VD4a) mostly on the neck, rarely on
the rim (here appear the shaded triangles too (VD51)), crosshatched rhombs (VD20b), oblique channelling on the body of the vessels. This decoration has various types: wide, abut channels disposed obliquely,
associated by grain-like impressions (VA12), or narrow, separated channelling (VA10ab). On one sherd
the outer part of the rim is decorated with simultaneous impressions (Zahnstempelung VC1) (Szkely
2007, 162176; Szkely et al. 1999, 163170). Another vessel form are the four-lobed bowls (TE1c and
TE2a), decorated with VD4a type incisions (Pl.2/27). The Monteoru Ib sherd discovered here belongs to
a large-size vessel, with horizontally out curved rim, decorated with shaded triangles. On the body there
are straight and wave-moulding lines incised (Pl.2/1).
Bibliography: RepCovasna 1998, 69, nr.167; Szkely et al. 1999, 161170; SzkelyBordi 2000a;
SzkelyBordi 2000b, 131144; Szkely 2001a, 3839; Szkely 2001b, 177; Szkely 2003a, 469482;
Szkely 2007.
2. Boroneu Mare (Hu: Nagyborosny)Roman fort (Pl.1/b)
The Boroneu Mare settlement is located in the southern part of the Black Rivers water-shed. The village is situated on a flood-free plateau, near a stream, being an attractive place for prehistoric and ancient
peoples too. In the 2nd century AD a roman fort was established. During the 20th century four campaigns

Contact Zone: Middle Bronze Age Cultural Connections in the Valley of the Black River | 99

of excavations were made to locate and clarify the dimensions of this fortress. With this occasion prehistoric sherds were found too, a few belonging to the Wietenberg and Monteoru cultures. The Wietenberg
pottery belongs to: TD2c type bowls, with channelled and impressed decoration on their surface (VA12),
S-profiled pots (TA4c) with simple, horizontal cord (VE1) (BordiPopa 2013, 278, pl.4/34; 290, pl.16/2)
(Pl.3/15). The Monteoru fragment is decorated with oblique channelling on the body and horizontal on
the neck, associated by grain-like impressions (BordiPopa 2013, 290, pl.16/4) (Pl.3/68).
Bibliography: BordiPopa 2013, 263, 266.
3. Ctlina (Hu: Szentkatolna)Unknown finding place (Pl.1/c)
From unknown place came one, almost undamaged cup with overriding handle, smoothed surface,
burnt on dark-brown, decorated with three horizontal channelling on the neck, bordered by small, prolonged impressions (Pl.16/3).1
Bibliography: Roska 1929, 38, 48/58. kp/12; Roska 1942, 266, nr.144; Szkely 1971, 392; Szkely
1978, 26; Zaharia 1990a, 36.
4. Cernat (Hu: Csernton)Roberts land (Hu: Rberttag, Ro: Pmntul lui Robert) (Pl.1/d)
In the first half of the 1960s (196265) on the place called Roberts land archaeological excavations
were carried out by Z.Szkely. Several features belonging to the Neolithic, MBA and LBA, Late Iron Age
and Migration period were discovered. The MBA material belongs to the Wietenberg and Monteoru cultures (early and late phase of evolution). For Wietenberg vessels TA2bc type pots are characteristic. Also,
the TD1b, TD3c and TD3e type bowls, and the well-known four-lobed bowls (TE1a, TE1c) appear here.
The decoration of these vessels consists of circular or triangular impressions (VD5ab, VD6a), small,
applied disks (VE10), oblique, narrow, separated channelling (VA10b) and crosshatched, rhomboidal incisions (VD20c) (Pl.6). The ceramic fragments belonging to the early phase of the Monteoru culture are
from two-handle cups, decorated with zigzag motifs on the neck and the body. On a sherd burnished circles appear (Pl.4/1; 5/12). The oblique and the garland incisions represent the late period of this culture
(Pl.4/29; 5/35). In the NSMs depot a cup with two overriding handles can be found and it is decorated
with two horizontal channelling on the shoulder, while on the neck there appear prolonged impressions,
on the body there are scratched garlands, made after the burning of the cup (Pl.16/4). It is without an
inventory number, but it was identified by P.Hasszman, as coming from this site.2
Bibliography: Szkely 1970a, 309; Szkely 1971, 392; RepCovasna 1998, 7072, nr.179; Szkely
1978, 26; Szkely 2007, 6267; Munteanu 2010b, 39.
5. Cernat (Hu: Csernton)Hill of the Church/Garden of the Damokos-manor (Hu: Templomdomb/
Damokos-kria kertje, Ro: Movila bisericii/Grdina conacului Damokos) (Pl.1/e)
In 1980 in the courtyard of the Damokos-manor (the actual parish hall), in the vicinity of the reformed
church block of flats were built. The foundation pits disturbed and destroyed prehistoric settlement layers.
Material from different periods were found. The most significant discovery was a circular fireplace belonging to the Wietenberg culture. Nearby, at the Hill of the Church a verification trench was opened, where
beside Neolithic and Late Iron Age sherds a half Monteoru cup was found.
Bibliography: Szkely 1983, 147; Szkely 1988b, 46; Szkely 1990, 96; Boroffka 1994, 94, nr.539.
6. Dalnic (Hu: Dlnok)Veresmart (Pl.1/f)
During the field surveys made in 1950 by Z.Szkely, Monteoru pottery was found at DalnicVeresmart.
The fragments are from fine and coarse vessels of different size. The decoration consists of burnished concentric circles, incised zigzag motifs, impressions (Pl.16/68).
Bibliography: Zaharia 1990a, 36; Munteanu 2010b, 39.
7. Le (Hu: Lcfalva)Vrhegy (Pl.1/g)
In 1949 and 1955 in two campaigns excavations were made by Z.Szkely and I.Nestor at the modern
period fortress Szkelybnja, placed at Vrhegy (Hillfort). It is located on a high, outstanding plateau, with
a good view on the surrounding area. Under the modern remains several Neolithic layers were discovered

The cup is known from the studies of M.Roska (see bibliography). The inventory number (5684) written on the cup is wrong;
in the register there is a different object with this number.
2
AtZaharia (1990a, 37) the finding place appears as Ctlina.
1

100 | J. PUSKS

belonging to different cultures. On the occasion of the 1955 excavations a few MBA sherds (Wietenberg
and Monteoru) were found. The Wietenberg material are from bowls (TD2a) and cups, decorated with
incised spiral motif, shaded triangles (VD17), crosshatched bands (VD4c) waved rib (VE5) and oblique,
separated channelling (VA10a) (Pl.7/711). The Monteoru ceramics belong to large-size pots, some with
out curved rim. The decoration consists of burnished concentric circles, incised zigzag motifs, impressions, small cuttings on the edge of the rim (Pl.7/16).3
Bibliography: Szkely et al. 1951; Nestor 1957, 61; Szkely 1971, 392; Szkely 1978, 26; Zaharia
1990a, 35; Boroffka 1994, 25, nr.78;4 Munteanu 2010b, 39.
8. Lunga (Hu: Nyjtd)Unknown finding place (Pl.1/h)
From an unknown location a Monteoru sherd is known, made of fine paste, burnt on black, with
polished surface. The outer part is decorated with horizontal changelings, one bordered by prolonged
impressions. Four short, vertically performed channels appear on the shoulder (Pl.16/9).
9. Poian (Hu: Polyn, Kzdiszentkereszt)Panta de piatr (Hu: Kht) (Pl.1/i)
In the early 1960s on a shallow slope of the Telek stream, near Poian, during field-works archaeological material was found. In the period between 1963 and 1967 Z.Szkely investigated the area in five
campaigns. Through the excavations several MBA and LBA, Early- and Late Iron Age and Late Migration
period features were discovered. In the MBA findings the Wietenberg material was dominant, with a few
sherds belonging to other cultures Costia and Monteoru. In 1967 a child-grave was excavated, with a
small bowl as grave-good. Z.Szkely considered it belonged to the so-called Ciomortan culture, but in a
recent study R.Munteanu considered it as a Monteoru vessel (Pl.8/1). Beside this bowl I have been able to
identify two other sherds, most probably belonging to the Costia culture (Pl.8/11; 10/11). The pot fragments of the Wietenberg culture belong to TA2a-type pots, S-profiled vessels (TA4c), pots with mildly out
curved rim (TA3a). The simple (TD1bc) and S-profiled bowls (TD3ce) are frequent. The TD2c bowl is
decorated with oblique separated channelling (VA10b). A TC3e mug and a TB1b jug were identified. The
well known four-lobed bowls are represented by the types TE1a and TE1c.
As usual the decorating motifs are relatively poor. The larger coarse pots have simple, impressed or
incised cords on the neck (VE13). The fine pottery (mostly the cups) is decorated with wide (VA11)
or narrow, distanced (VA10a) channelling, sometimes with circular or triangular impressions on the
shoulder (VD5a, VD6a). The decoration based on incision is very common: motifs like shaded rhomb
(VD20ab) or triangles (VD18), zigzag made of multiple lines on the body (VD14) or on the rim (VD48),
crosshatched bands (VD4ab) can be found. On a sherd partially remained spiral incision is visible. The
Costia fragments are from fine vessels, burnt on light brown and black. One is decorated with incised
horizontal and vertical lines, the other one with vertical and oblique incisions (Pl.8/213; 9; 10/110).
Bibliography: Szkely 1968, 125126; Szkely 1970b; Szkely 1997, 80, nr.39; RepCovasna 1998,
117, nr.422; Mder 2006, 43; Munteanu 2010a, 271276; Munteanu 2010b, 39.
10. Trgu Secuiesc (Hu: Kzdivsrhely)Unknown finding place (Pl.1/j)
In the exposition of the Szkely National Museum there are two Monteoru cups (inv. nr.: 16584
16585), donated by P.Hasszman in 1970. In the registry the provenience is mentioned as Trgu Secuiesc
without further details on their exact finding location (Pl.16/1, 5). P.Hasszman claims that these cups
were discovered at CernatRoberts land.
Bibliography: Szkely 1971, 392; Szkely 1978, 26.
11. Turia (Hu: Torja)Garden of the Apor-manor/Silos (Hu: Apor-kria kertje/Silk; Ro: Grdina conacului Apor/La silozuri) (Pl.1/k)
In the year of 1982 in the garden of the Apor-manor from Turia, on a high terrace of the Turia river,
a huge pit was dig for silo, disturbing (and partially destroying) archaeological layers belonging to different epochs. In 1984 and 85 excavations were made by Z. Szkely. The plateau was inhabited in the

3
4

One fragment presented byZaharia (1990a, 34, fig.1/1) was discovered at LeVrhegy, not Sfntu Gheorgherk.
N.Boroffka confused (probably after Roska 1942, 186187, where he locates Vrhegy in Boroneu Mare, too) the excavations
at Boroneu Mare (inside the settlement made in 1911 by F.Lszl and V.Csutak for futher information see BordiPopa
2013, 263264) with the field surveys at LeVrhegy (Lszl 1912, 183). At Vrhegy the first excavations were made only in
1949 see above.

Contact Zone: Middle Bronze Age Cultural Connections in the Valley of the Black River | 101

Neolithic, the Bronze- and Iron Ages and Middle


Ages. Several Wietenberg ceramics were found,
together with Monteoru sherds. Among the
identifiable vessels there are bowls (TD1b, TD1c,
TD2c, TD3d), mugs (TC2a, TC2c), four-lobed
bowls (TE1c and probably a TE2a) and S-profiled
pots (TA4c). The decoration is formed by simple motifs, like impressed cords (VE2), oblique
channelling (VA10ab) on the body and small
impressions (VD5a) on the neck, asymmetrical channelling (VA13), small, burnished dots
(VA9), impressed triangles in two rows (VD6b),
fishbone-like impressions and incisions
(VD8ab) on the neck and the rim (Pl. 11; 12;
13/15). Most of the Monteoru ceramics belong
to large-size vessels with out curved rim, darkgrey colour, smoothed surface. The decoration
consists of burnished circles, simple, horizontal
cords. Sometimes vertical, short ribs with incisions occur. A vessel, belonging to a later phase
is decorated with oblique and garland incisions
on the neck and vertical channelling on the body
(Pl.13/68; 14).
Bibliography: Szkely 1988a, 160161;
Szkely 1996, 115118; Boroffka 1994, 9798;
RepCovasna 1998, 143144, nr.580.
Fig.2. Vessel forms of the Wietenberg culture in

12. Turia (Hu: Torja)Hill of the church (Hu:


the Trgu Secuiesc Basin (after Boroffka
Templomlb/Karatna; Ro: Caratna) (Pl.1/l)
1994 , Typentafel 14).
In 1986 several excavations were made at
Turia, lead by Z.Szkely. One was near the reformed church on the left bank of the Karatna stream. Beside
the large quantity of chalcolitic pottery (Ariud culture), Bronze Age Wietenberg and Monteoru sherds
were also found. The fragments are from TD3d cup, TD1c bowl and TE1c four-lobed bowl, TA2a and
S-profiled (probably TA4c) pots. The decoration consists of incised cords (VE3) on the body of the vessels,
oblique channelling associated by impressed circles and triangles (VA10a), impressions on the rim (VD46).
By narrow channelling triangles were formed, filled with oblique lines (VA14) (Pl.15). Unfortunately I did
not manage to identify the Monteoru sherd(s) in the depot of the Museum.
Bibliography: Szkely 1988a, 160.
Analysis of the finds
For chronological determination we dispose only of ceramics. Unfortunately the material was not
separated by features, so we have to deal with the material as a whole. We do not dispose a well-defined
inner chronology of the Wietenberg culture in this parts of Transylvania. The only multi-layered settlement was discovered at the north-western part of Transylvania, at Derida, at the periphery of the distribution area (Chidioan 1980). Using it on the whole Wietenberg-area, the Derida-based chronology
can be problematical, but can be used as a reference point. Besides, several regional groups were identified
with a few specific vessel-forms and decoration motifs (Boroffka 1994, 244246). At Rotbav (Braov
County) a six-layered settlement was excavated between 197073 by Al. Vulpe and M. Marcu and in
20052013 the diggings were continued by L.Dietrich, O.Dietrich and Al. Vulpe. The three lower layers
belong to the Wietenberg culture. The results were recently published by L.Dietrich (Dietrich 2014a)
sketching the characteristics of pottery evolution in this part of Transylvania.
The TA2a-type pots (from TuriaHill of the church) were discovered in all the layers at Derida,
with a higher number in the 2nd and 3rd (2nd phase of evolution), whereas the TA2b type (AlbiCsiszrgarden and CernatRoberts land) was only discovered in the two upper layers belonging to the 3rd period

102 | J. PUSKS

(Boroffka 1994, 247). The TA2c pots have conical neck, bulged body, are sometimes provided with two
handles (fragments from AlbiCsiszr-garden and CernatRoberts land). They occur in the 2nd4th layers
at Derida. Two undecorated fragments of a TA3a pot were found at PoianPanta de piatr. The S-profiled
TA4c-type pots are present in the first four layers, with a higher frequency in the 2nd3rd. It is a very common vessel form, being used on a wide area and in a long period of time. The pots presented above mostly
belong to the coarse ceramic group, being used in everyday life (cooking, storage etc.). The decorating elements are modest: incised or impressed cords (VE13), small, applied disks (VE10), circular impressions
on the shoulder (VD5), incisions (VD48) and prolonged impressions (VD46) on the rim. The VE- and
the VD47-type motifs appear almost in each Derida-layer, while the VD48 in the 3rd5th (Boroffka
1994, 247). At Rotbav the applied disks and the impressed circles often appear in the first Wietenberg layer,
while the cords in all three (Dietrich 2014a, 9596, 112113).

Fig.3. Identifiable decorating motifs from Wietenberg settlements (with Monteoru pottery)
in the valley of the Black River (after Boroffka 1994, Typentafel 1122).

A TB1b jug is known from PoianPanta de piatr, with impressed triangles on the shoulder (VD6).
It was discovered in the 1st and 3rd layers at Derida, while the ornamentation is frequent in all five. These
type of impressions belong to the 12 phases at Rotbav (Dietrich 2014a, 96).
Another vessel form is the mug with four identified variants. The first one (TC2a: TuriaSilos) is
made of coarse pottery, undecorated, with an overriding handle. This type appears in the first four levels
at Derida, with a higher number in the 3rd layer. The TC2c-type mugs (TuriaSilos) have cylindrical neck,
mildly out curved rim, made of fine paste, with an overriding handle. The decoration consists of narrow,
burnished, oblique channelling on the body (VA10). These kinds of mugs are known from the three upper
layers from Derida (Boroffka 1994, 247). The mugs belonging to the TC3e type (AlbiCsiszr-garden,
PoianPanta de piatr) are made of fine paste, with smoothed surface, without decoration. They were
provided with overriding handle, occurring from the 2nd to 5th layers from Derida. The last mug-form

Contact Zone: Middle Bronze Age Cultural Connections in the Valley of the Black River | 103

belongs to the TC3g-type made of fine paste, provided with overriding handle. The decoration consists of
oblique channelling (VA11), known from the 2nd and 4th levels.
The most frequent vessel-form is the bowl with several variants. The simplest are the TD1b and
TD1c types (discovered at AlbiCsiszr-garden, CernatRoberts land, PoianPanta de piatr, Turia
Silos). They were equally made of fine and coarse paste. The fine vessels are often decorated with cords
(VE1), impressed triangles on the neck and/or the rim (VD6, VD47), small burnished circles (VA9) and
fishbone-like incisions on the rim (VD8), sometimes provided with handle. This vessel forms are known
from the 2nd4th, respectively 2nd3rd layers from Derida, while the decorations mostly from the 3rd to 5th
layers, characteristic for the IIIII (BC after Boroffka) periods of evolution (Boroffka 1994, 250). The
next bowl-types have cylindrical neck (TD2a: LeVrhegy), sometimes with mildly drawn rim (TD2c:
Boroneu MareRoman fort, CernatRoberts land, PoianPanta de piatr, TuriaSilos), made of fine paste,
decorated with impressions (VA9) or crosshatched band (VD4) on the shoulder and oblique, sometimes
distanced channelling on the body (VA1011). These forms appear in the first three layers at Derida,
while the ornaments in all five, with a higher frequency in the 2nd and 3rd. At Rotbav similar bowls were
found in uncertain stratigraphical conditions (Dietrich 2014a, 72). The oblique channelling appear in all
three phases, mostly in the 1st and 2nd (Dietrich 2014a, 102). The most frequent types are the S-profiled
bowls, always made of fine paste (TD3ce: AlbiCsiszr-garden, CernatRoberts land, PoianPanta de
piatr, TuriaSilos, TuriaHill of the church). The TD3c type appears in the 3rd and 5th, while the TD3de
in all the layers at Derida, with a higher number in the middle (24) layers. In most cases the decoration
consists of circular or prolonged impressions on the shoulder (VD5), often associated with oblique channelling (VA11), and sometimes separated (VA10). Besides channelling incised crosshatched bands (VD4),
oblique incisions (VD14) and shaded triangles (VD18) can also be found. At Rotbav the standing, shaded
triangles were discovered mostly in the first layer, while the crosshatched bands in all three. The incisions
were filled with white material,5 a decoration technique prevalent in the evolved phase of the culture
(Andrioiu 1992, 52; Dietrich 2014a, 118). The TD3g type (AlbiCsiszr-garden) has out curved spout,
bulged body, with the maximum diameter on the rim. It is decorated with circular impressions on the
shoulder (VD5), wide channelling on the body (VA12) and simultaneous impressions (Zahnstempelung,
VC1). This vessel form is common to the upper 4 Derida-layers, with higher concentration in the 4th5th.
The VA12 motif is prevalent in the 2nd5th, while the VC1 in the 3rd5th layers (Boroffka 1994, 247). At
Rotbav the Zahnstempelung decoration technique does not appear (Dietrich 2014a, 92).
The specific vessel-forms of the Wietenberg culture are the four-lobed bowls. These are mainly made
of fine pottery and are often decorated. In the Trgu Secuiesc Basin three types can be distinguished. The
first one, with the form of a chalice (TE1a), made of fine paste, was discovered at CernatRoberts land,
PoianPanta de piatr and is mostly undecorated. One fragment has an applied disk under the lob (VE10).
This vessel-type is known from the 2nd4th levels from Derida, with a higher concentration in the 3rd one,
while at Rotbav they are known from the two lower levels (Dietrich 2014a, 5354). The TE1c type vessels
(AlbiCsiszr-garden, CernatRoberts land, PoianPanta de piatr, TuriaSilos, TuriaHill of the church)
are made of fine paste, smoothed surface, are often decorated. The lobes are mildly turned in. The decoration consists of crosshatched bands (VD4), horizontally or vertically disposed, impressed circles (VD5)
or triangles on the neck and rim (VD6, VD47). The motifs in relief are made of simple or incised cords
(VE1, VE3) and knobs (VE10). Sometimes the knobs, impressions and channelling were used together.
The TE1c bowls appear in the three upper levels at Derida and were attributed to the IIIII phase of evolution (Boroffka 1994, 250). Two sherds (AlbiCsiszr-garden, TuriaSilos) made of fine paste, with out
curved lobes, no decoration, probably belong to a TE2a vessel, known from the 4th layer at Derida.
As we can see, the vessel forms as well as the ornamentation cover more periods of evolution, but
mostly belong to the earlier phases, very likely to Wietenberg II (A2B after Boroffka) period, 1 and 2
phases at Rotbav. The absence of the more complex spiral- or meandric motifs, S- or Z-shaped hooks,
Zahnstempelung and incrustation techniques, characteristic to the developed IIIrd (C after Boroffka)
period (Andrioiu 1992, 52; Boroffka 1994, 250; Dietrich 2014a, 118, 180) point to the fact that these
settlements were not in use in this phase. A few vessel forms from TuriaApor mason could belong to a
transition period from the IInd to the IIIrd phase.
The Monteoru material is formed only by ceramics, mostly belonging to the early Ic3 period of development (Ic3 discoveries from the Trgu Secuiesc Depression: CernatRoberts land, DalnicVeresmart,

In the present state of research this type of decoration technique is unknown in the Trgu Secuiesc Basin.

104 | J. PUSKS

LeVrhegy, PoianPanta de piatr, Turia


Silos). Vessels characteristics for this phase are
the Swedish helmet-like bowls, cups with
overriding handles, out curved and down-leaning rims. This type of rim can be found on the
large-size vessels, too. The decoration consists
of incised zigzag motifs on the neck and body of
the vessels, incised triangles filled with dots, burnished concentric circles, incisions on the outer
part of the rim or on short, vertical ribs. Similar
vessels and decorations are known from settlements in the distribution area of the Monteoru
culture, like Bogdneti (FlorescuBuzdugan
1972, 130, fig.21/23, 67; 131, fig.22/2, 5, 13),
Crlomneti (OanceaDrmbocianu 1977,
512, fig. 2/4; 521, fig. 8/11), Srata-Monteoru
Fig.4. Vessel forms of the Monteoru culture
(Zaharia 1990b, fig. 9/3, 5, 33; 14/1; 15/3,
discovered
in the Trgu Secuiesc Basin (Monteoru
37; 14) etc. From TuriaSilos a cup fragment
Ic3
types
after Munteanu 2010b, 292).
is known, with closest analogies from the Ic2
settlements at Bogdneti (Florescu 1966, 97,
fig.39/4; 103, fig.44/1). The Monteoru Ib period is represented by a sherd from AlbiCsiszr garden.
Similar pottery was discovered on the excavations at Srata Monteoru (Zaharia 1993, 22, fig.8/12; 28,
fig.13/1) and Neni (Vasilescu 2013, 183, fig.5/1). Characteristic vessels of the Monteoru IIab period
(Boroneu MareRoman fort, CernatRoberts land, Trgu SecuiescUnknown finding place) are the oneor two-handled cups made of fine paste, with polished black or brown surface. The overriding handle is
formed as a saddle. The decoration consists of short, oblique- or garland incisions on the body, motifs
common for this periods (Florescu et al. 1971, 172). Similar cups were found at Pufeti (Florescu et
al. 1971, 164, fig.2/12), Poiana (Dunreanu-Vulpe 1938, 160, fig.8/1112). The cups from Ctlina,
TuriaSilos, Boroneu MareRoman fort and Lunga decorated with horizontal or vertical/oblique channelling, prolonged impressions, oblique or garland incisions could belong to the Monteoru IIb or BalintetiGrbov period, with analogies from Grbov (Florescu 1964, 168, fig.16). The channelled motifs are
known from the upper layer at Pufeti and Tercheti (FlorescuConstantinescu 1967, 299), considered to belong to this phase of evolution (Florescu et al. 1971, 172).

Fig.5. Decorating motifs of the Monteoru culture from the Trgu Secuiesc Depression.

Contact Zone: Middle Bronze Age Cultural Connections in the Valley of the Black River | 105

Relative and absolute chronology


Monteoru sherds cannot be found only in Transylvania but the same is true vice versa. In the present
state of research we know about ten settlements from Moldavia belonging to the Monteoru culture and one
to the Noua culture (Trpeti) where Wietenberg pottery was discovered. The first findings were reported
in the first half of the 20th century from Poiana (Dunreanu-Vulpe 1941, 111), Perchiu (VulpeVulpe
1933, 163, fig.10/7) and Rugineti (Dunreanu-Vulpe 1941, 111, fig.6/11, 25; 117, fig.13). Unfortunately
the finding circumstances were uncertain. In the 195060s several excavations were made in Monteoru
settlements like Bogdneti (FlorescuBuzdugan 1962; 1972), Brboasa (CpitanuFlorescu 1969,
2334) and Nstseni (Florescu 1971, 41), when Wietenberg material was discovered and all findings
are now in well documented conditions. These results were published by M.Florescu in 1971 (Florescu
1971). Recently this problem was debated by A. Popescu in the light of the Wietenberg discoveries at
Costia, where in the Monteoru Ic2Ic1 layer several ceramic fragments were discovered (Popescu 2008,
196). Wietenberg material is also known from four other sites: from Rctu (CpitanuUrsachi 1969,
99, fig.4/5), Urecheti-Palanca (Bobi 1981, 64, fig.11/3), Trpeti (Marinescu-Blcu 1981, 148) and
Srata-Monteoru (Boroffka 1994, 71, nr.368).
The Wietenberg ceramics discovered in precise conditions are known from the Monteoru Ic2 layers
from Bogdneti (Florescu 1971, 42) and Ic2Ic1 from Costia (Popescu 2008, 196) and mostly belong
to the 2nd period of evolution: undecorated TE1a type bowls, fragments decorated with crosshatched
bands (sometimes filled with white material), spiral motifs, impressions (Dunreanu-Vulpe 1941, 111,
fig.6/25; Florescu 1971, fig.14; Popescu 2008, 200201, fig.13). The more complex meandric motifs
and Zahnstempelung technique are missing.6 At Puleni (Transylvania) in the Wietenberg II settlement
Monteoru Ic2 fragments were discovered (CavrucBuzea 2002, 50), while from Rotbav in the 3rd layer a
Monteoru IIa sherds were found (Dietrich 2014a, 279).
Regarding the relative chronology of the Wietenberg and Costia cultures we dispose of scarce
data. The only Costia settlement known from Transylvania is superposed by a Wietenberg II settlement
(CavrucRotea 2000, 157; Cavruc 2005a, 91). From the 3rd level at Rotbav a Costia sherd is known
(Dietrich 2014a, 281), while at Zoltan sherds from EBA, Monteoru, Wietenberg, Costia and Tei cultures
were found (Cavruc 1999, 17). At Peteni (Pl.1/m) Costia (Ciomortan) vessels were found in a Noua
settlement (Szkely 1997, 80).
The determination of an absolute chronology raises difficulties because of the small number of 14C
measurements, but the ever-growing data of the last few years can give some clues for a conservative valuation (Fig.6). Until present time six radiocarbon data are published for the Wietenberg culture. The data
collected from the settlements of the 2nd phase (Oara de Sus: 16101445 cal BC respectively 19301730
cal BC7 and Puleni: 18301680 cal BC (Whitlow et al. 2013, 38)) place this period roughly between
2000/19001700/1600 BC.
The 2nd layer from Rotbav belongs to this time interval (Dietrich 2014b, 6061). For the Wietenberg
III period three measurements were made on two sites: the first one at SighioaraCartierul Viilor, the
other two are from the 3rd layer at Rotbav. The one at Sighioara corresponds to 16851524 cal BC time
interval (PopaBoroffka 1996, 56). The measurements from Rotbav gave the following results: 1501
1430 cal BC respectively 14971416 cal BC (Dietrich 2014b, 61). As we can see, the 3rd period of this
culture can be dated roughly between 1700/16001450/1400 BC.
For the Monteoru culture we dispose of thirteen, sometimes controversial results. Most of the data
cover more than 150 years, sometimes even more, making their use almost senseless. For the earlier
Monteoru Ic period until now five measurements were made from the settlements at Srata Monteoru (Ic3:
22801880 cal BC, Ic2: 25702230 cal BC; Motzoi-Chicideanu 2003, 45), Pietroasa Mic (Vasilescu
2013, 177, Tab. 1), Crlomneti (Ic1: 20301870 cal BC; Motzoi-ChicideanuChicideanu-andor
2010, 36) and Costia (Ic2Ic1: 17401620 cal BC; Popescu 2013, 185). At Silitea Monteoru Ic3Ic2 and
Costia ceramics were found together: there are no evidence of a stratigraphic superposition of Costia
and Monteoru communities (Bolohan 2010, 240), where the following 2 dates were obtained: 1739
1614 cal BC, 18791691 cal BC respectively 19551773 cal BC (Bolohan 2010, 238, Table 1). 14C measurements were made on bones resulting from the excavations at Neni, from the Monteoru Ia feature,

A few sherds presented from Trpeti probably are decorated with simultaneous impressions (Marinescu-Blcu 1981, 154,
fig.6/19). The vessel from Urecheti-Palanca was dated to Wietenberg III period (Bobi 1981, 64, fig.11/3).
The measurments were made on carbonized seeds in two laboratories, resulting two, totally different dating (Kacs 2011, 412).

106 | J. PUSKS

giving the 18801680 cal BC time interval (Vasilescu 2013, 174). We dispose of two absolute dates for the
Monteoru II period from Crlomneti (16401520 cal BC; See Motzoi-Chicideanu et al. 2012, 49)
and from the Cmpina cemetery M30 (13921232 cal BC; Frnculeasa 2014, 8182). Two other graves
(M13, M20) probably belong to a period post-Monteoru IIb, BalintetiCioinagi (Frnculeasa 2012, 99),
dated between 14311316 cal BC respectively 14941404 cal BC (Frnculeasa 2014, 81).
Regarding the absolute chronology of the Costia culture we dispose of six measurements from the
eponymous site and SiliteaCetuie. The Costia layer at CostiaCetuie can be dated between 2000
1600 BC (17701620 cal BC, 17801630 cal BC and 19801770 cal BC (Popescu 2013, 184185)). These
results were confirmed by the dating from Silitea (Bolohan 2010, 238).8

Fig. 6. 14C data of the Wietenberg (red), Monteoru (black) and Costia (blue) cultures: 1. 25702230 cal BC Srata
Monteoru (Motzoi 2003, 45); 2. 22032040 cal BC Pietroasa Mic (Vasilescu 2013, 177, Tab. 1); 3. 22801880 cal BC
Srata Monteoru (Motzoi 2003, 45); 4. 20301870 cal BC Crlomneti (Motzoi-ChicideanuChicideanu-andor
2010, 36); 5ab. 19541867 cal BC (69%), 18481774 cal BC (25 %) Rotbav (Dietrich 2014b, 61); 6. 19551773 cal BC
Silitea (Bolohan 2010, 238); 7. 19801770 cal BC Costia (Popescu 2013, 185); 8. 19301730 cal BC (laboratory from
Berlin) Oara de Sus (Kacs 2011, 412); 9. 18791691 cal BC Silitea (Bolohan 2010, 238); 10. 18801680 cal BC
Neni (Vasilescu 2013, 174); 11. 18301680 cal BC Puleni (Whitlow et al. 2013, 38); 12. 17801630 cal BC Costia
(Popescu 2013, 185); 13. 17701620 cal BC Costia (Popescu 2013, 184); 14. 17401620 cal BC Costia (Popescu
2013, 185); 15. 17391614 cal BC Silitea (Bolohan 2010, 238); 16. 16851524 cal BC Sighioara (PopaBoroffka
1996, 56); 17. 16401520 cal BC Crlomneti (Motzoi et al. 2012, 49); 18. 16101445 cal BC (laboratory from Lyon)
Oara de Sus (Kacs 2011, 412); 19. 15011430 cal BC Rotbav (Dietrich 2014b, 65, fig. 3); 20. 14971416 cal BC
Rotbav (Dietrich 2014b, 65, fig. 3); 21. 14941404 cal BC Cmpina (Frnculeasa 2014, 81); 22. 14311316 cal BC
Cmpina (Frnculeasa 2014, 81); 23. 13921232 cal BC Cmpina (Frnculeasa 2014, 8182).

Regarding the latest 14C data from Transylvania for this period see CiugudeanQuinn 2015 forthcoming; Gogltan 2015
forthcoming; Nmeth 2015a; Nmeth 2015b forthcoming.

Contact Zone: Middle Bronze Age Cultural Connections in the Valley of the Black River | 107

***
As mentioned above the first Wietenberg ceramics outside of Transylvania are known from the
Monteoru Ic2 layers and belong to the 2nd phase of evolution, so the synchronism of the Wietenberg I and
Monteoru Ic3 phases seems plausible, at least partially. In the present state of research we have no conclusive evidence for the presence of the earliest phase of the Wietenberg culture in the Trgu Secuiesc Basin.

Fig.7. The distribution area of foreign elements in- and outside of the Eastern Carpathians
with the possible communication routes (the distribution of Tei and Costia material in southeastern part of Transylvania was made after Dietrich 2014a, 280, Abb.IX/4).

For the presence of the Monteoru Ic3 pottery two possible explanations can be drafted: 1. The
Wietenberg ceramics belong to the early phase (I) and indicate lively contacts (Zaharia 1990, 33) with the
outer part of the Carpathians at Monteoru Ic3 level, or 2. Before the appearance of the Wietenberg communities in these parts of Transylvania, the area was inhabited (presumably not for long) by the bearers of
the Monteoru culture (Ic3) and not the Costia/Ciomortan group, as supposed until now (Szkely 1988a,
159; Boroffka 1994, 258, Tabelle 14; Munteanu 2010b, 183)! This seems plausible since in Transylvania
we only know of one Costia settlement and as we can see in the Trgu Secuiesc Depression we have much
more Monteoru findings than Costia/Ciomortan.
Ceramic fragments belonging to the later phases of the Monteoru culture (Ic1IIa) were discovered
in settlements of the Wietenberg II period from AlbiCsiszr garden, CernatRoberts land, TuriaApor
manor. This parallelism is confirmed by the earlier observations as well (Oancea 1981, 183; Boroffka
1994, 288).
As far as the 3rd period of the Wietenberg culture in the valley of the Black River is concerned we
dispose of scarce information. During the excavations a few sherds were discovered belonging to this
period from ReciTelek (unpublished) and the hill fort from Turia (Szkely 2003b, 76). In recent years
the field surveys resulted in three new sites with meandric and Zahnstempelung decorated sherds at

108 | J. PUSKS

SsuiIII.Kzp/Kzps hatr (Pusks 2012, 139, 6. tbla/4), ImeniSzentegyhzdombja and Albi


Mrton garden (unpublished, in the collection of the Szkely National Museum). The events which ended
the development of the Wietenberg culture in the studied area can be attributed to the appearance of the
Noua culture in Transylvania, but if these contacts were peaceful or turbulent is unclear.
In terms of absolute chronology the beginning of the Wietenberg II period (including the Boroffka A2
and B) can be placed in the 20th century BC and came to an end sometime at the end of the 17th century
BC.This time interval roughly corresponds with the 14C dating of the Costia culture (Popescu 2013, 179;
Bolohan 2010, 239). The beginning of the early Wietenberg phase (I or A1) must be placed before the 20th
century BC (Dietrich 2014a, 160), a period of time which corresponds to a later phase of the Monteoru
Ic3 period (Vasilescu 2013, 176).
The Wietenberg III period probably appeared at the end of 17th/beginning of 16th century BC, while it
ended sometime at the end of the 15th century BC (Dietrich 2014b, 62), when the Noua culture appeared
in these parts of Transylvania.
Hereinafter I have tried to sketch possible influences or contact routes for the south-eastern part of
Transylvania with the neighbouring, outer-Carpathian regions (Fig.7). As we can see, these contacts were
made mostly with the closest depressions: most of the Tei ceramics were discovered in the ara Brsei
Depression, the Monteoru pottery in the Trgu Secuiesc Basin. From here they probably spread to southwest, mostly along the water courses. The closest depression to the distribution area of the Costia culture
is the Ciuc Depression, where the one and only settlement appeared, probably as an outpost, in order to
control this route (the Ghime Pass Palanca route), which seems to have been used for copper and salt
exchange (Cavruc 2005b, 333). Diffusion to the south could be possible through the Cain Pass to the
valley of the Black River. Another route may be the valley of the River Olt through the Tunad Pass. Of
course a direct route is not excluded. If we take a look at the distribution map of the Wietenberg pottery
outside the Carpathians we can see, that most of it lies nearby the exit of the Oituz Pass (Fig.7), a very
possible contact route between the two regions and not only (Cavruc 1999, 14).
Catalogue of MBA settlements in the Trgu Secuiesc Basin
In the following the MBA settlements and fortifications are listed from the Trgu Secuiesc Basin, for
which the exact location is known. I excluded the discoveries with unknown finding place. The data was
furnished by the Archaeological Repertory of Covasna County and the recent field surveys.
Fortified settlements/Hilltop discoveries:
1. CernatIka fortress (unpublished; collected by Zs. L.Bordi)?
2. CovasnaZnelor fortress (Dietrich 2014a, 324, nr.18)?
3. LemniaCiuchian fortress (Szkely 1981, 2122).
4. TuriaTuria fortress (Szkely 2003b, 7576).
5. Valea MicBadger fortress (unpublished; 2010 excavations lead by S.J.Sztncsuj)?
6. Valea ScurtCece fortress (Szkely 1981, 2223).
7. Valea SeacJewish fortress (Szkely 1999, 157158).
Open settlements:
8. AlbiCsiszr garden (see above).
9. AlbiMrton garden (unpublished; collected by . Tth).
10. Boroneu MareRoman fort (see above).
11. CernatRoberts land (see above).
12. CernatHill of the church/Garden of the Damokos-manor (see above).
13. ImeniHill of the Church (unpublished; collected by J.Pusks).
14. LeVrhegy (see above).
15. PoianPanta de piatr (see above).
16. ReciTelek (Szkely 1965, 29, pl.V/45).
17. SsuiIII.Kzp/Kzps hatr (Pusks 2012, 119122).
18. SnzieniUrakszerelbja (Horedt 1960, 114, nr.146).
19. SnzieniTncospad (Horedt 1960, 114, nr.147).
20. SnzieniPiatra de tocil (unpublished).

Contact Zone: Middle Bronze Age Cultural Connections in the Valley of the Black River | 109

21. SnzieniBakn (Pusks 2013, 155156).


22. Trgu SecuiescSinka (unpublished; Wietenberg ceramics collected by J.Pusks).
23. Trgu SecuiescBarbarian cemetery (Boroffka 1994, 85, nr.466).
24. TuriaApor mason (see above).
25. TuriaNear the roman-catholic cemetery (Szkely 1990, 96).
26. TuriaVrmegye (Szkely 1995).
27. TuriaHill of the church (see above).
28. Valea ScurtTerrace of the Vrpatak stream (Szkely 1981, 23).
Catalogue of Wietenberg discoveries east and south of the Eastern Carpathians (see Fig.7):
1. Brboasa (CpitanuFlorescu 1969, 2334).
2. Bogdneti (FlorescuBuzdugan 1972).
3. Bucureti (Leahu 1966, 16).
4. Costia (Popescu 2008, 196).
5. Nstseni (Florescu 1971, 41).
6. Palanca (Bobi 1981, 64, fig.11/3).
7. Perchiu (VulpeVulpe 1933, 163, fig.10/7).
8. Poiana (Dunreanu-Vulpe 1941, 111).
9. Rctu (CpitanuUrsachi 1969, 99, fig.4/5).
10. Rugineti (Dunreanu-Vulpe 1941, 111, fig.6/11, 25, 117, fig.13).
11. Srata Monteoru (Boroffka 1994, 71, nr.368).
12. Trpeti (Marinescu-Blcu 1981, 148).
Aknowledgements
I would like to express my gratitude to dr. A.-D.Popescu (Institute of Archaeology Vasile Prvan)
and dr. L.Dietrich (Deutsches Archologisches Institut) for providing me the literature. Last but not least
I would like to thank to K.Bajka for the text proofing.
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175226.
Leahu, V., Cultura Tei, Bucureti.
Marinescu-Blcu, S., Cteva elemente de cultur Noua i hallstattiene, descoperite n
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Motzoi-Cicideanu, I.Chicideanu-andor, M., Cimitirul din Epoca Bronzului de
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Motzoi-Chicideanu, I.Matei, S.Mgureanu, D., O pies de harnaament din epoca
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Nmeth 2015b forthcoming Nmeth, E.R., The Middle Bronze Age Mass Grave from VoivodeniLa coal. A
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Palinca, N., Body and Social order in Middle Bronze Age Transylvania (Central
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Szkely 1970a
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Dacia N.S., XXXVII, 1538.

Listof figures
Fig.1. The distribution area of MBA cultures in the Curvature Carpathians (map made after Palinca 2014, 302,
fig.1. Black square marks the studied area).
Fig.2. Vessel forms of the Wietenberg culture in the Trgu Secuiesc Basin (after Boroffka 1994, Typentafel 14).
Fig.3. Identifiable decorating motifs from Wietenberg settlements (with Monteoru pottery) in the valley of the
Black River (after Boroffka 1994, Typentafel 1122).
Fig.4. Vessel forms of the Monteoru culture discovered in the Trgu Secuiesc Basin (Monteoru Ic3 types after
Munteanu 2010b, 292).
Fig.5. Decorating motifs of the Monteoru culture from the Trgu secuiesc Depression.
Fig.6. 14C data of the Wietenberg (red), Monteoru (black) and Costia (blue) cultures: 1. 25702230 cal BC Srata
Monteoru (Motzoi 2003, 45); 2. 22032040 cal BC Pietroasa Mic (Vasilescu 2013, 177, Tab. 1); 3.
22801880 cal BC Srata Monteoru (Motzoi 2003, 45); 4. 20301870 cal BC Crlomneti (Motzoi-

Contact Zone: Middle Bronze Age Cultural Connections in the Valley of the Black River | 113
ChicideanuChicideanu-andor 2010, 36); 5ab. 19541867 cal BC (69%), 18481774 cal BC (25 %)
Rotbav (Dietrich 2014b, 61); 6. 19551773 cal BC Silitea (Bolohan 2010, 238); 7. 19801770 cal BC
Costia (Popescu 2013, 185); 8. 19301730 cal BC (laboratory from Berlin) Oara de Sus (Kacs 2011,
412); 9. 18791691 cal BC Silitea (Bolohan 2010, 238); 10. 18801680 cal BC Neni (Vasilescu 2013,
174); 11. 18301680 cal BC Puleni (Whitlow et al. 2013, 38); 12. 17801630 cal BC Costia (Popescu
2013, 185); 13. 17701620 cal BC Costia (Popescu 2013, 184); 14. 17401620 cal BC Costia (Popescu
2013, 185); 15. 17391614 cal BC Silitea (Bolohan 2010, 238); 16. 16851524 cal BC Sighioara (Popa
Boroffka 1996, 56); 17. 16401520 cal BC Crlomneti (Motzoi et al. 2012, 49); 18. 16101445 cal BC
(laboratory from Lyon) Oara de Sus (Kacs 2011, 412); 19. 15011430 cal BC Rotbav (Dietrich 2014b,
65, fig.3); 20. 14971416 cal BC Rotbav (Dietrich 2014b, 65, fig.3); 21. 14941404 cal BC Cmpina
(Frnculeasa 2014, 81); 22. 14311316 cal BC Cmpina (Frnculeasa 2014, 81); 23. 13921232 cal BC
Cmpina (Frnculeasa 2014, 8182).
Fig.7. The distribution area of foreign elements in- and outside of the Eastern Carpathians with the possible
communication routes (the distribution of Tei and Costia material in south-eastern part of Transylvania
was made after Dietrich 2014a, 280, Abb.IX/4).

Listof plates
Pl.1. Discoveries belonging to the Wietenberg, Monteoru and Costia cultures from the Trgu Secuiesc Basin
(numeration after the catalogue of discoveries).
Pl.2. AlbiCsiszr garden. Ceramics belonging to the Monteoru (1) and Wietenberg (27) cultures (1. after Zs.
L.Bordi; 27. after SzkelyBordi 2000a).
Pl.3. Boroneu MareRoman fort. Ceramics belonging to the Wietenberg (15) and Monteoru (68) cultures.
Pl.4. CernatRoberts land. Ceramics belonging to the Monteoru culture (19).
Pl.5. CernatRoberts land. Ceramics belonging to the Monteoru culture (15).
Pl.6. CernatRoberts land. Ceramics belonging to the Wietenberg culture (18).
Pl.7. LeVrhegy. Ceramics belonging to the Monteoru (15) and Wietenberg (711) cultures.
Pl. 8. PoianPanta de piatr. Ceramics belonging to the Monteoru (1), Costia (11) and Wietenberg (210, 1213)
cultures (1. after Munteanu 2010a, 275, fig.1/1).
Pl.9. PoianPanta de piatr. Ceramics belonging to the Wietenberg culture (19).
Pl.10. PoianPanta de piatr. Ceramics belonging to the Wietenberg (110) and Costia (11) cultures.
Pl.11. TuriaApor mason. Ceramics belonging to the Wietenberg culture (18).
Pl.12. TuriaApor mason. Ceramics belonging to the Wietenberg culture (19).
Pl.13. TuriaApor mason. Ceramics belonging to the Wietenberg (15) and Monteoru (68) cultures.
Pl.14. TuriaApor mason. Ceramics belonging to the Monteoru culture (110).
Pl.15. TuriaHill of the church. Ceramics belonging to the Wietenberg culture (110).
Pl.16. Ceramics belonging to the Monteoru culture from Trgu Secuiesc (1), CernatRoberts land (?2), Cernat or
Trgu Secuiesc (45), Ctlina (3), DalnicVeresmart (68) and Lunga (9).

114 | J. PUSKS

6
28
7

15
I
4

20
27
24 k
1
11
d
8

12
e

l
25

18
26
22

j
23

21
19
17

13

9
m

16

14
2

10
b
5

Legend
-

Wietenberg settlements

Wietenberg and Noua settlements

fortified Wietenberg settlements

Monteoru discoveries

Costia discoveries

Plate1. Discoveries belonging to the Wietenberg, Monteoru and Costia cultures from the Trgu Secuiesc Basin
(numeration after the catalogue of discoveries).

Contact Zone: Middle Bronze Age Cultural Connections in the Valley of the Black River | 115

1
3

7
Plate2. AlbiCsiszr garden. Ceramics belonging to the Monteoru (1) and Wietenberg (27) cultures (1. after Zs.
L.Bordi; 27. after SzkelyBordi 2000a).

116 | J. PUSKS

2
0

5 cm

6
3

5
0

5 cm

Plate3. Boroneu MareRoman fort. Ceramics belonging to the Wietenberg (15) and Monteoru (68) cultures.

Contact Zone: Middle Bronze Age Cultural Connections in the Valley of the Black River | 117

9
0

5 cm

Plate4. CernatRoberts land. Ceramics belonging to the Monteoru culture (19).

118 | J. PUSKS

3
5 cm

4
0

5 cm

Plate5. CernatRoberts land. Ceramics belonging to the Monteoru culture (15).

Contact Zone: Middle Bronze Age Cultural Connections in the Valley of the Black River | 119

2
1

8
0

5 cm

Plate6. CernatRoberts land. Ceramics belonging to the Wietenberg culture (18).

120 | J. PUSKS

2
1

5.
7

9
8

11

10
0

5 cm

Plate7. LeVrhegy. Ceramics belonging to the Monteoru (15) and Wietenberg (711) cultures.

Contact Zone: Middle Bronze Age Cultural Connections in the Valley of the Black River | 121

3
6

10

11

12
13
0

5 cm

Plate 8. PoianPanta de piatr. Ceramics belonging to the Monteoru (1), Costia (11) and Wietenberg (210, 1213)
cultures (1. after Munteanu 2010a, 275, fig.1/1).

122 | J. PUSKS

2
1

3
4

6
5

9
0

5 cm

Plate9. PoianPanta de piatr. Ceramics belonging to the Wietenberg culture (19).

Contact Zone: Middle Bronze Age Cultural Connections in the Valley of the Black River | 123

8
7

11

5 cm

10
0

5 cm

Plate10. PoianPanta de piatr. Ceramics belonging to the Wietenberg (110) and Costia (11) cultures.

124 | J. PUSKS

7.

8.
0

5 cm

Plate11. TuriaApor mason. Ceramics belonging to the Wietenberg culture (18).

Contact Zone: Middle Bronze Age Cultural Connections in the Valley of the Black River | 125

2
3

4
5

6
7

9
0

5 cm

Plate12. TuriaApor mason. Ceramics belonging to the Wietenberg culture (19).

126 | J. PUSKS

3
2
1

5
5 cm

8
0

5 cm

Plate13. TuriaApor mason. Ceramics belonging to the Wietenberg (15) and Monteoru (68) cultures.

Contact Zone: Middle Bronze Age Cultural Connections in the Valley of the Black River | 127

2
1

7
8

10

9
0

5 cm

Plate14. TuriaApor mason. Ceramics belonging to the Monteoru culture (110).

128 | J. PUSKS

2
5

9
8
7

5 cm

10

Plate15. TuriaHill of the church. Ceramics belonging to the Wietenberg culture (110).

Contact Zone: Middle Bronze Age Cultural Connections in the Valley of the Black River | 129

4
3

5 cm

6
0

5 cm

5 cm

Plate16. Ceramics belonging to the Monteoru culture from Trgu Secuiesc (1), CernatRoberts land (?2), Cernat or
Trgu Secuiesc (45), Ctlina (3), DalnicVeresmart (68) and Lunga (9).

Abbreviations
ABSA
Acta ULFA
ActaArch Carpathica
ActaArchHung
ActaMB
ActaMN
ActaMP
ActaMPa
ActaPraehistArch
ActaTS
AEA Eurasia
AEAM
Aegaeum
AFN
AFSB
Agria
AIH
AJPhA
Alba Regia
Altertum
Aluta
AMND
Analele Banatului
Anali
Angustia
AnnalesUA
AnnalesUVT
ANODOS
Antaeus
AnthrAnz
AnthropKzl
Antiquaries Journal
Antiquitas
Antiquity
AS
Apulum
Archaeolingua SM
ArchAustr
ArchBohemia
ArchBulg
ArchD

The Annual of the British School at Athens, Cambridge University press


Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Archaeologica, d
Acta Archaeologica Carpathica, Academia Scientiarum Polona Collegium Cracoviense,
Krakw
Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, Budapest
Acta Musei Brukenthal, Sibiu
Acta Musei Napocensis, Cluj-Napoca
Acta Musei Porolissensis, Zalu
Acta Musei Papensis, Ppa
Acta Praehistorica et Archaeologica, Berlin
Acta Terrae Septemcastrensis, Sibiu
Archaeology, Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia, Siberian Branch of the Russian
Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk
, The Archaeological Work in Upper
Macedonia, Archaeological Museum of Aiani
Aegaeum, Le service dhistoire de lart et darchologie de la Grce antique, Universit
de Lige
Archologische Forschungen in Niedersterreich, St.Plten
Arbeits- und Forschungsberichte zur Schsischen Bodendenkmalpflege, Dresden
Agria, Annales Musei Agriensis. Az Egri Mzeum vknyve (1982), Eger
Rgszeti Kutatsok Magyarorszgon. Archaeological Investigation in Hungary,
Budapest
American Journal of Physical Anthropology, HobokenOxford
Alba Regia, Annales Musei Stephani Regis, Szkesfehrvr
Das Altertum, Berlin
Aluta, Revista Muzeului Naional Secuiesc, Sfntu Gheorghe
Archologische Mitteilungen aus Nordwestdeutschland
Analele Banatului (S.N.), Timioara
Anali Zavoda z znanstveni nad JAZU u Osijeku
Angustia, Sfntu Gheorghe
Annales Universitatis Apulensis, Series Historica, Alba Iulia
Annales dUniversit Valahia Targoviste Section dArchologie et dHistoire, Trgovite
Studies of the Ancient World, Trnavska univerzita
Antaeus, Budapest
Anthropologischer Anzeiger, Journal of Biological and Clinical Anthropology
Anthropolgiai Kzlemnyek, A Magyar Biolgiai Trsasg Embertani Szakosztlynak
folyirata, Budapest
The Antiquaries Journal, Society of Antiquaries of London
Antiquitas, Bonn
Antiquity, London
Archologie sterreichs Sonderausgabe, Wien
Apulum, Acta Musei Apulensis, Alba Iulia
Archaeolingua Seria Minor, Budapest
Archaeologia Austriaca, Wien
Archaeology in Bohemia
Archaeologia Bulgarica, Sofia
Archologie in Deutschland, Darmstadt

Bronze Age Chronology in the Carpathian Basin, 2015, p. 393397

394 | Abbreviations
ArchE
Archeologick Sbornk
Archeometriai Mhely
Archrt
ArchHung
ArchKorr
ArchNeuchteloise
ArchPol
ArchRoz
ArchS
Arheo
ArhMold
ArhVest
ASGE
ASMCommunicationes
AUSBp
AVJC
BAR
BayerVorgeschbl
BB
BBM
Beitrge MK
Beitrge UFM
Berliner Jahrbuch
BerRGK
BHAB
BIP
BLDAM
BM
BMA
BMM
BMS
BT
BTMM
BuletinMJT
Carpica
Castellum PP
Catalogi et Monographie
CCA
CCDJ
lanci i Graa
CMM
ComArchHung
CSPS
CsSzM
Dacia (N.S.)
Danubius
Der Schlern

Archologie in Eurasien, Mainz am Rhein


Archeologick Sbornk, K edestm narozeninm Vratislava Janka, Opava
Archeometriai Mhely elektronikus folyirat, Budapest
Archaeologiai rtest, Budapest
Archaeologia Hungarica, Budapest
Archologisches Korrespondenzblatt, Rmisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseum in
Mainz
Archologie neuchteloise, Neuchtel
Archaeologia Polona, Warszawa
Archeologick Rozhledy, Prague
Archologie in Salzburg
Slovensko Archeoloko Drutvo
Arheologia Moldovei, Iai
Arheoloki vestnik (Acta Archaeologica), Lubljana
Arheologieskij Sbornik Gosudarstvennogo Ermitaa, Leningrad
Archaeologica Slovaca Monographiae, Communicationes, Nitra
Annales Universitatis Scientiarum Budapestinensis de Rolando Etvs Nominatae,
Sectio Historica, Budapest
Archeologick vzkumy v jinch echch, Historick budova Jihoeskho muzea v
eskch Budjovicch
British Archaeological Reports, International Series/British Series, Oxford
Bayerische Vorgeschichtsbltter, Mnchen
Bibliotheca Brukenthal, Sibiu
Bri Balogh dm Mzeum vknyve, Szekszrd
Beitrge zu ur- und frhgeschichtlichen Archologie des Mittelmeer-Kulturraumes,
Bonn
Beitrge zur Ur- und Frhgeschichte Mitteleuropas, Weissbach
Berliner Jahrbuch fr Vor- und Frhgeschichte, Berlin
Bericht der Rmisch-Germanischen Kommission, Frankfurt
Bibliotheca Historica et Archaeologica Banatica, Timioara
Biblioteca Istro-Pontica, Seria Arheologie, Tulcea
Brandenburgisches Landesamt fr Denkmalpflege und Archologisches
Landesmuseum, Wnsdorf
Bibliotheca Marmatia, Baia Mare
Bibliotheca Mvsei Apvlensis, Alba Iulia
Bibliotheca Musei Marisiensis, Trgu Mure
Bibliotheca Mvsei Sabesiensis, Sebe
Bibliotheca Thracologica, Bucureti
Budapest Trtneti Mzeum, Mhely
Buletinul Muzeului Judeean Teleorman. Seria Arheologie, Alexandria
Carpica, Bacu
Castellum Pannonicum Pelsonense, Budapest
Catalogi et Monographie, Ljubljana
Cronica Cercetrilor Arheologice din Romnia
Centrul Cultural Dunrea de Jos, Galai
lanci i Graa Tuzla, Muzej Istone Bosne, Tuzla
asopis Moravskho Muzea. Vdy spoleensk, Brno
Communicationes Archaeologicae Hungariae, Budapest
asopis Spolenosti ptel staroitnost, Prague
Cski Szkely Mzeum vknyve, Miercurea Ciuc
Dacia, Recherches et dcuvertes archologiques en Roumanie, IXII (19241948),
Bucureti; Nouvelle Srie (N.S.), Dacia. Revue darchologie et dhistoire anciene,
Bucureti
Revista Muzeului de Istorie Galai
Der Schlern, Monatszeitschrift fr Sdtiroler Landeskunde, Konstanz

Abbreviations | 395
DissArch
DissArchBudapest
DissPann
Dobruda
Documents prhistoriques
Dunntli Szemle
EA
EAE
EJA
EphemNap
EPRO
ERAUL
Erdlyi TudFz
FAP
FB
FBBW
FDS
F
FolArch
FolPraehPos
ForschStillfried
GAS
Germania
Gyulai Katalgusok
Historica Carpatica
HOM
HungArch
IA
IANSA
IHAD
IJRAT
Instrumentum
IntArchA-STK
ISPRS
Istros
IUPUAS
Jahrbuch DAI
Jahrbuch RGZM
JahrIVUF
JAS
JEA
JPM
JWP
Korrespondenzblatt AEU
LAF
LDMK
MAGW

Dissertationes Archaeologicae Brunenses/Pragensesque, Brno


Dissertationes Archaeologicae ex Instituto Archaeologico Universitatis de Rolando
Etvs nominatae, Budapest
Dissertationes Pannonicae, ex Instituto Numismatico et Archaeologico Universitatis
de Petro Pzmny nominatae Budapestinensis provenientes, Budapest
Istorieski Muzej v Dobri i v Silistra, Varna
Annales littraires de lUniversit de Besanon
Dunntli (Vasi) Szemle (19331944), Szombathely
Eurasia Antiqua. Zeitschrift fr Archologie Eurasiens, Berlin
Experimentelle Archeology in Europa, Uhldingen-Mhlhofen
European Journal of Archaeology
Ephemeris Napocensis, Cluj-Napoca
tudes prliminaires aux religions orientales dans lEmpire romain
Etudes et recherches archologiques de lUniversit de Lige
Erdlyi Tudomnyos Fzetek, Az Erdlyi Mzeum Egyeslet kiadsa, Kolozsvr
Fontes Archaeologici Pragenses, Prague
Fundberichte aus Baden-Wrttemberg, Stuttgart
Forschungen und Berichte zur Vor- und Frhgeschichte in Baden-Wrttemberg
Forschungen zur Denkmalpflege in Sdtirol, Trento
Fundberichte aus sterreich, Wien
Folia Archeologica, Budapest
Folia Praehistorica Posnaniensia, Pozna
Forschungen in Stillfried, Verffentlichungen der sterreichischen Gesellschaft fr
Ur- u. Frhgeschichte, Wien
Gothenburg Archaeological Studies, Gteborg
Germania, Frankfurt am Main
Gyulai Katalgusok, Gyula
Historica Carpatica, Kosice
A Herman Ott Mzeum vknyve, Miskolc
Hungarian Archaeology e-journal
Internationale Archologie, Buch am Erlbach, Espelkamp, Rahden/Westf.
Interdisciplinaria Archaeologica. Natural Sciences in Archaeology. Archaeological
Centre Olomouc
Izdanja Hrvatskog arheolokog drutva, Zagreb
International Journal of Research in Advent Technology, online journal
Instrumentum, Bulletin du Groupe de travail europen sur lartisanat et les productions
manufactures dans lAntiquit
Internationale Archologie Arbeitsgemeinschaft, Symposium, Tagung, Kongress,
Leidorf
International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing International
Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Istros, Buletinul Muzeului Brilei, Brila
Indiana University Publications Uralic and Altaic Series, Bloomington
Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archologischen Instituts, Berlin
Jahrbuch des Rmisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums, Mainz
Jahresbericht des Institut fr Vorgeschichte des Universitt Frankfurt a. M.
Journal of Archaeological Science, London
Journal of European Archaeology, Durham
A Janus Pannonius Mzeum vknyve, Pcs
Journal of World Prehistory
Korrespondenzblatt der deutschen Gesellschaft fr Anthropologie, Ethnologie und
Urgeschichte, Mnchen
Linzer Archologische Forschungen, Linz
A Laczk Dezs Mzeum Kzlemnye, Veszprm
Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft Wien

396 | Abbreviations
Marisia
Marmatia
MAS
MBVF
MCA (S.N.)
MemAnt
Memorie
Memorii
MFM
Moravsk Kiovatky
Mousaios
MPK
MSVF
Musaica
Muzejski vjesnik
MMO
MA
NotizieS
Obavijesti HAD
Offa
OpArch
Opera IAS
srgszeti levelek
PamArch
Pannonkr Fzetek
PAS
PAT
PBF
PJZ
PLoS ONE
Praehistorica
Praehistorica Basel
Pravk N
Prilozi IAZ
PrzArch
PZ
Rckevei Mzeumi fzetek
Radiocarbon
RadMV
RadVM
RgFz
RevArh
RevBis
RevMuz
RGF
RGZM
RJA
RKM
RSP
SAA

Marisia (V), Studii i Materiale, Trgu Mure


Marmatia, Anuarul Muzeului Judeean Maramure, Baia Mare
Materialia Archaeologica Slovaca, Nitra
Mnchener Beitrge zur Vor- und Frhgeschichte, Mnchen
Materiale i Cercetri Arheologice, Bucureti
Memoria Antiquitatis, Acta Musei Petrodavensis, Bucureti
Memorie del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Verona, Sezione Scienze dellUomo,
Verona
Memoriile Academiei Romne, Bucureti
A Mra Ferenc Mzeum vknyve, Szeged
Moravsk Kiovatky, Stedn Podunaj mezi pravkem a histori, Moravsk zemsk
muzeum, Brno
Mousaios, BuzuBrila
Mitteilungen der Prhistorischen Kommision der sterreichischen Akademie der
Wissenschaften, Wien
Marburger Studien zur Vor- und Frhgeschichte, Marburg
Musaica, Bratislava
Muzejski vjesnik, Varazdin
MMO, skoros Kutatk sszejvetelnek konferenciaktete
MA, Moscova
Notizie degli Scavi di Antichit, Roma
Obavijesti Hrvatsko arheoloko drutvo, Zagreb
Offa, Berichte und Mitteilungen zur Urgeschichte, Frhgeschichte und
Mittelalterarchologie, Neumnster
Opuscula Archaeologica, Arheoloki zavod, Filozofski fakultet u Zagreb
Opera Instituti Archaeologici Sloveniae, Ljubljana
srgszeti levelek. Prehistoric newsletter, Budapest
Pamtky Archeologick, Praha
Pannon Kulturlis rksg Fzetek, Kszeg
Prhistorische Archologie in Sdosteuropa, Berlin, Kiel, Mnchen
Patrimonium Archaeologicum Transylvanicum, Cluj-Napoca
Prhistorische Bronzefunde, Mnchen, Stuttgart
Praistorija Jugoslavenskih Zemalja, Sarajevo
PLoS ONE.Open Access journal, San Francisco, Cambridge
Praehistorica, Praha
Praehistorica, Basel
Pravk Nov ada, stav archeologick pamtkov pe, Brno
Prilozi Instituta za arheologiju u Zagrebu, Zagreb
Przegld Archeologiczny, Wrocaw
Praehistorische Zeitschrift, Berlin
Rckevei Mzeumi fzetek, Rckeve
Radiocarbon, International Journal of Cosmogenic Isotope Research, Tucson
Rad Muzeja Vojvodine
Rad Vojvoanskih muzeja, Novi Sad
Rgszeti Fzetek, Budapest
Revista Arhivelor (S.N.), Bucureti
Revista Bistriei, Bistria
Revista Muzeelor, Bucureti
Rmisch-Germanische Forschungen, MainzBerlin
Rmisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, Monographien, BonnMainz
Romanian Journal of Archaeology, online
Rgszeti Kutatsok Magyarorszgon, Budapest
Rivista di scienze preistoriche, Florence
Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica, Iai

Abbreviations | 397
Savaria
SAX
SBA
SCIV(A)
Sibrium
SlovArch
SMA
SMA
SMK
SNMP
SovArh
Specimina EA
Specimina Nova
SPM
SprArch
SSMA
Starinar N.S.
StC Maramureene
StCom Satu Mare
StCom Sibiu
StudArch Brunensia
StudArch Slovaca
StudArchMed
Studia Troica
Studie AUCAB
Studii de Preistorie
Studii Semitici
tudijn zvesti
SympThrac
Terra Sebus
Thraco-Dacica
Tisicum
TransRev
TVMK
Tyragetia
UPA
VAH
VAMZ
VF
VIA KK
VMK
VMMK
VMUFP
Vrancea
WMM
Zalai Mzeum
Zbornik IA
Zbornk SNM
Ziridava
upanjski Zbornik

Savaria Pars Archaeologica, Szombathely


Szzhalombatta Archaeological Expedition, Budapest
Saarbrcker Beitrge zur Altertumskunde, Bonn
Studii i Cercetri de Istorie Veche (i Arheologie 1974), Bucureti
Sibrium, Center of Prehistoric and Archaeological Studies of Varese
Slovensk Archeolgia, Nitra
Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology, Gteborg
Seria Monografii Arheologice, Sfntu Gheorghe
Somogy Megyei Mzeumok, Kaposvr
Sbornk Nrodnho muzea v Praze, ada A Historie. Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae,
Series A Historia, Praha
Sovjetska Arheologija
Specimina Electronica Antiquitatis, Pcs
Specimina Nova Dissertationum ex Institutom Historico Universitatis
Quinqueecclesiensis de Jano Pannonio nominatae, Pcs
Die Schweiz vom Palolithikum zum frhen Mittelalter. La Suisse du Palolithique
laube du Moyen-ge Basel
Sprawozdania Archeologiczne, Krakw
Saarbrcker Studien und Materialien zur Altertumskunde, Saarbrcken
Starinar, Arheoloki institute, Beograd
Studii i Cercetri Maramureene, Baia Mare
Studii i Comunicri Satu Mare
Studii i Comunicri, Sibiu
Studia archaeologica Brunensia, Brno
Studia Archaeologica Slovaca Instituti Archaeologici Acadaemiae Scientiarum, Nitra
Studia Archaeologica et Medievalia, Bratislava
Studia Troica, Universitt Tbingen
Studie Archeologickho stavu eskoslovensk Akademie vd v Brn, Praha
Asociaia Romn de Arheologie, Bucureti
Studii Semitici, Roma
tudijn zvesti, Archeologickho stavu Slovenskej Akadmie Vied, Nitra
Symposia Thracologica, Bucureti
Terra Sebus, Acta Musei Sabesiensis, Sebe
Thraco-Dacica, Bucureti
Tisicum, A Jsz-Nagykun-Szolnok Megyei Mzeumok vknyve, Szolnok
Transylvanian Review, Cluj-Napoca
Tapolcai Vrosi Mzeum Kzlemnyei, Tapolca
Tyragetia (S.N.), Anuarul Muzeului Naional de Istorie al Moldovei, Chiinu
Universittsforschungen zur prhistorischen Archologie, Bonn
Varia Archaeologica Hungarica, Budapest
Vjesnik Arheolokog muzeja u Zagrebu
Vorgeschichtliche Forschungen, Berlin
VIA, Kulturlis s rksgvdelmi Kismonogrfik. Monographia Minor in Cultural
Heritage, Budapest
Verffentlichungen der Mykenischen Kommission, Wien
A Veszprm Megyei Mzeumok Kzlemnyei, Veszprm
Verffentlichungen des Museums fr Ur- und Frhgeschichte Potsdam
Vrancea Studii i Comunicri, Vrancea
Wosinsky Mr Mzeum vknyve, Szekszrd
Zalai Mzeum, Kzlemnyek Zala megye mzeumaibl, Zalaegerszeg
Zbornik Instituta za Arheologiju, Zagreb
Zbornk Slovenskho Nrodnho Mzea, Bratislava
Ziridava, Studia Archaeologica, Arad
upanjski Zbornik, Zaviajni muzeja upanja