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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),

INTERNATIONAL
JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 25-36 IAEME
AND TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET)

ISSN 0976 6308 (Print)


ISSN 0976 6316(Online)
Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 25-36
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IJCIET
IAEME

CYPRESS TREE EXTRACT AS AN ECO-FRIENDLY ADMIXTURE IN


CONCRETE
Abraham M. Woldemariam1,
1

Walter O. Oyawa2,

Silvester O. Abuodha3

Civil Engineering Department, Basic Science Technology and Innovation, Pan African University,
JKUAT, Kenya,
2
Civil, Const. & Env. Engineering Department, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and
Technology (JKUAT), Kenya,
3
Civil Engineering Department, University of Nairobi, Kenya,

ABSTRACT
In order to get high strength concrete with good rheology, proprietary chemical admixtures
are normally added to the concrete during the mixing stage. However, the manufacturing of the
chemicals emits toxic gasses like CO2 to the environment which significantly contributes to global
warming. The chemicals are also patented products which are imported into developing countries
and sold at exorbitant prices. To alleviate this situation, research work was undertaken to determine
the suitability of plant extract (cypress extract) as an eco-friendly and economical admixture for
concrete. Accordingly, extracts from the bark of cypress tree was prepared by either boiling the bark
of the cypress tree in water or by dipping the bark in cold water for some time. Varying dosages of
the extracts in water (5%, 10% & 15%) were then used as admixture in the preparation of concrete
cubes at constant slump, which were then tested for compressive strength. Results obtained indicate
that the use of cypress plant extract delayed the setting time of cement, hence indicating the potential
of cypress extract as a concrete retarder in hot climates. It was further determined that at a constant
liquid: cement ratio, cypress plant extract increased the workability of the wet concrete mix or vice
versa i.e. at a constant slump the cypress plant extract reduced the liquid requirement of the concrete
mix. Compressive test results demonstrate that increased dosages of the plant extract in water
improved the compressive strength of concrete. In conclusion, the use of cypress plant extract is
proved to increase strength at a constant slump, and also increase workability at a constant liquid:
cement ratio.
Keywords: Cypress Extract, Bio-Admixture, Compressive Strength, Setting Time, Workability.

25

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 25-36 IAEME

1. INTRODUCTION
Concrete is a mixture of Cement, Sand, Coarse aggregate and water. Concrete is one of the
most versatile building materials used in building technology and that can fit any structural shape as
required [1, 2].Good characteristics of concrete depend on the quality of the constituent material and
the mix proportion of each constituent used. The amount of water required to hydrate the cement in
concrete mix ranges from 22 to 25% by weight of cement [3].To obtain high workable concrete,
normally much water is used than the required to hydrate the cement. The amount of water used is
indirectly related to the strength of concrete. In order to get high strength concrete with good
rheology, water reducing (plasticizer) and high range water reducing chemical admixtures are used.
However, the manufacturing of the chemicals emits toxic gasses like CO2 to the environment which
significantly contributes to global warming. The chemicals are also patented products which are
imported into developing countries and sold at exorbitant prices. In addition it is documented that 5%
of the world CO2 is contributed from the cement industry [4]. Work done by other researchers show
that, Organic admixtures generally improves fresh concrete rheology as well as hardened property.
Indeed polysaccharides (polymers) have been used as water reducers, set retarders, anti-washout and
water retention agents [5, 6]. Other research work has also shown that bio-admixture from water
hyacinth increases both workability and strength of concrete [7].
This research work was undertaken to determine the suitability of plant extract (cypress
extract) as an eco-friendly and economical admixture for concrete.
2. MATERIALS METHODS
2.1
Materials
2.1.1 Plant Extract
The plant extract used as an admixture was prepared by boiling cypress bark in water and
soaking it in cold water. For the first case, bark of cypress was cut in to very small pieces and then
1kg of the bark was boiled with four litter of water for two hours under pressure. From successive
boiling an average of 700ml/kg was obtained. For the later one, bark of cypress tree was cut in to
small pieces and then 1kg of the bark was soaked in 1litter of water for 24 hours. After 24 hours it
was shaken vigorously for 5 minutes and an average of 900ml/kg of extract was obtained. The
elemental analysis for boiled plant extract was done by X-ray florescence and the results are shown
in the table 1.
Table 1: Chemical concentration in ppm or g/g
Element
Bark of Cypress Extract
Element
Bark of Cypress Extract
Potassium (K)

576 14

Copper(Cu)

0.070 0.007

Calcium (Ca)

102 3

Zink(Zn)

0.428 0.017

Titanium (Ti)

0.199 0.014

Arsenic(As)

<0.01

Vanadium(V)

0.201 0.020

Bromine(Br)

1.26 0.04

Chromium(Cr)

0.241 0.014

Rubidium(Rb)

1.49 0.05

Manganese (Mn)

15.3 0.50

Strontium(Sr)

1.62 0.04

Iron(Fe)

2.72 0.09

Yttrium(Y)

0.074 0.006

Nickel

<0.10

26

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 25-36 IAEME

The elemental analysis shows the extract was not toxic to human body. The level of bromine,
rubidium, arsenic and nickel are insignificant as compared their toxic level.
2.1.2 Cement
The cement used was Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) of grade 42.5. It was manufactured by
Bamburi cement Ltd, Kenya. The product conforms to European Norm EN 197 cement speciation
and has its composition contains of 95-100% clinker and 0-5% minor additional constituents by
mass. It was produced by inter-grinding Portland Cement Clinker with a controlled amount of
limestone and a strength enhancing additive.
2.1.3 Fine Aggregate
Locally available river sand was used. The aggregate was graded through sieving and curve
plotting according to BS 812:1992. The physical properties of fine aggregate were done based on
their respective BS standard: The specific gravity (BS 812-102:1995), Bulk density (BS 812-2:1995),
water absorption(BS 813-2:1995)and moisture content(BS 812-109:1990).The sieve analysis result
show5mm (99.5%), 2.36mm (98.5%), 1.18mm (86.75%) ,0.6mm (58.25%), 0.3mm (23.75%) and
0.15(4%) passing BS sieve and was in zone II grading. The fine aggregate has the following
properties: fineness modules of 3.3, specific gravity of 2.62, Bulk density of 1470kg/m3, water
absorption of 8.63% and moisture content of 8.1%.
2.1.4 Course Aggregate
The course aggregate used for this research was crushed stone obtained from Juja. According
to BS 812:1992 requirement for 20mm nominal size, percentage by mass passing BS sieve was
37.5mm (100%), 20mm (90-100%), 10mm (30-60%) and 5mm (0-10%). The course aggregate was
graded as 37.5mm (100%), 20mm (99.6%), 10mm (40%) and 5mm (9%) passing BS sieve. The
course aggregate properties were done based on their respective BS code and have the following
properties: Specific gravity (BS 812:1992) of 2.76, of Bulk Density (BS 812-2: 1995) of 1420
kg/m3, Water Absorption (BS 813-2:1995) of 2.7% and Moisture Content (BS 812-109:1990) of
2.2%.
2.1.5 Water
The water used for concrete mix and curing the specimen was the water available in the
laboratory form the tap. The water was clean, and the one used for home consumption and other
activities in Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT).
2.2
Methodology
2.2.1 Concrete Mix
For this research the prescribed mix ratios were used. The mix ratios are Mix-I (1: 1.5: 3) and
Mix-II (1: 2:4) for cement: sand: coarse aggregate, and for each of the mix ratios two different
slumps were used, namely 30mm and 50mm.
2.2.2 Standard consistency and setting time of cement
The consistency of cement was determined by vicat apparatus based on BS EN 196-3:1995.
A 400g of cement and a quantity of water with in a range of (105-135g) was mixed on a non-porous
tray by two trawls. The cement consistency mold was filled immediately with the cement paste and
the surface was smoothed. The plunger was lowered to touch the surface of cement paste and
allowed to sink with in 4minutes form the time of water added to cement. The test was repeated for
different water contents within the range of (105g-135g) until it was found to produce a distance
between plunger and base plate of 61mm. The quantity of cement and water used for setting time
27

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 25-36 IAEME

were 400g and the quantity water obtained from consistency test respectively. The penetration was
measured for 10min time interval for 0 - 4mm and 5min for 4 - 61mm penetration. For the cement
past containing plant extract the same procedure was followed for both consistency and setting time.
2.2.3 Workability
The workability of concrete was measured by both slump and flow table test. For the first
case, the slump was measured and recorded using a truncated cone with base diameter of 300mm,
top diameter of 200mm and a height of 300mm based on BS 1881-102:1983. For the later one, the
flow or workability of mortar was determined by measuring the mean diameter of the test sample
(BS EN 1015-3).
2.2.4 Compressive strength
150x150x150mm steel molds were used for casting concrete cubes. A total of 144 cubes were
cast i.e. 36 cubes without plant extract as control and 108 cubes containing plant extract at dosages
of 5, 10 and 15% in water , according to BS EN 12390-1:2000. The mixes were compacted with a
vibrator in two layers. Within 16-28 hours the cubes were de-molded and cured in water at a
temperature of 20 50C until the testing age as it is prescribed in BS EN 12390-2:2000 i.e. 7, 14 and
28 day. The cubes were tested based on BS EN 12390-3: 2002 by placing and aligning each
specimen between the lower and upper platens of the test machine and loading appropriately. The
load was applied at a rate of 0.2 MPa/s until failure.
3

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.2

The Effect on Setting Time of Cement


Table 2 describes the effect of plant extract on consistency and setting time. The plant extract
has reduced the consistency of cement due to its viscous nature. The plant extract has also delayed
the setting time of cement, possibly due to its ability to delay hydration process of cement. Cement
contains compounds responsible for setting, early age strength and longtime strength. Tricalcium
aluminate (3CaOAl2O3) and tetracalcium aluminoferrite (4CaOAl2O3Fe2O3) are Compounds in
cement that react with water and make cement to set very fast [8]. Tricalcium silicate (3CaOSiO2)
and dicalcium silicate (2CaOSiO2) are also compounds responsible for setting and strength of
concrete through time. When cement react with water (Cat-ions (Ca2+) from cement and anions (OH) from water), calcium hydrate gel (3CaO2SiO2H2O) calcium hydroxide (Ca (OH)2) are formed [9].
Plant extract has anions to link up with cat-ions, and polysaccharides have a carboxyl group. Since
plant extract contains polysaccharides it has a carboxyl group that can be coupled with Ca2+ions on
the surface of cement particles. In addition C3A (3CaOAl2O3) react rapidly to form calcium
aluminate hydrate if there is insufficient sulfate in solution [10]. The plant extract was engaged in
complex formation with calcium crosslinking, and may be decrease the large amount of heat
liberated by Tricalcium aluminate (3CaOAl2O3) to delay the setting time. In hot areas concrete sets
very fast thus reducing the time available for handling and placing the concrete. Hot weather may
also result in early age shrinkage, leading to cracking and decreased durability of the concrete. So the
boiled cypress bark plant extract can be used as a retarder in hot areas.

28

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 25-36 IAEME

Table 2: The Effect of Plant Extract on setting time of Cement


Plant extract
Consistency
Initial setting time,
Final setting time,
added, %
%
min.
min.
0
32
128
193
5
31
186
303
10
30
197
291
15
30
212
315
3.3

The Effect on Workability of Concrete


From the flow table test, it was observed that at constant liquid to cement ratio, plant extract
additions improved concrete workability as shown in Figure 1. The plant extract was able to increase
the viscosity of mix and retain water. It was demonstrated in other research that, starch and starch
derivatives are capable of reducing the amount of free water and increasing viscosity [11, 12]. Soft
wood plant bark contains lignin (40-45%), polysaccharide (30-48%) [13]. Starch is also a
polysaccharide that can be found in plant extract. In addition of increasing the slump, the extract
retained water and reduced the fast flow of water or acted as viscous enhancing admixture.
Workability increased linearly for the added extract up to 5% and thereafter remained almost
constant after 5%.
Figure 2-6 shows the amount of liquid reduced to get constant slumps of 30 & 50mm when
using plant extract admixture. In Figure 2&3 for Mix-I, the average amount of liquid reduced for
slump 30&50mm were 1.5% & 1.7% by weight ratio of cement or 3.0% &3.4% of the water used for
control respectively. The same is true for figure 4-5 and water was reduced by 1.55% & 1.55% by
weight ratio of cement or 2.54% &2.46% of the water used for their respective control.
Figure 2&6 shows the amount of liquid reduced to get constant slump for the same mix when
using boiled and water soaked cypress extract respectively. The water soaked extract was not
effective in reducing the water demand as compared to the boiled extract. Water soaked extract
reduced the water demand in average of 0.69% by weight ratio of cement or 1.39% of the water used
for control. As compared to water soaked extract, the boiled one reduced the water demand by
double. The plasticizing properties of the admixture resulted in decreased mix water demand. Figure
2-6 also shows indirectly the plant extract was improving the workability of concrete.
Workability

Workability (%)

70
65
60

Extract From Bark of


Cypress Tree

55
50
0

5
10
15
20
% of Plant Extract Added
Figure 1: The Effect of Boiled Cypress Bark Extract on Workability

29

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 25-36 IAEME

Amount of water in gm/1000gm of


cement

The Effect Boiled Cypress Extract on Water Usage for mix-I and
slump 30mm
Water Used
600
500

Water Reduced by % of
Extract added

400

% Plant Extract added

300
200

Water used + Extract


added

100
0
0

10

15

Water removed by the


same amount of extract
added

20

% Plant Extract added

Figure 2: The Effect on Water usage for Mix-I & slump 30mm

Amount of water in gm/1000gm


of cement

The Effect Boiled Cypress Extract on Water Usage for Mix-I and slimp of
Water Used
50mm
600
500
400

Water Reduced by % of
Extract added

300

% Plant Extract added

200

Water used + Extract


added

100
0
0

10

15

% Plant Extract added

20

Water removed by the


same amount of extract
added

Amount of water in gm/1000gm


of cement

Figure 3: The Effect on Water usage for Mix-I & slump 50mm

The Effect of boiled Cypress Extract on Water Usage for mix-II (1:2:4) &
slump 30mm
Water Used
700

600

Water Reduced by %
of Extract added

500
400

% Plant Extract added

300
200

Water used + Extract


added

100
0
0

10
15
% Plant Extract added

20

Water removed by the


same amount of
extract added

Figure 4: The Effect on Water usage for Mix-II& slump 30mm


30

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 25-36 IAEME

Amount of water in gm/1000gm


of cement

The Effect of Boiled Cypress Extract on Water Usage for mix-II (1:2:4) &
slump 50mm
Water Used
700
600

Water Reduced by % of
Extract added

500
400

% Plant Extract added

300
200

Water used + Extract


added

100
0
0

5
10
15
% Plant Extract added

20

Water removed by the


same amount of extract
added

Figure 5: The Effect on Water usage for Mix-II& slump 50mm

Amount of water in
gm/1000gm of cement

The Effect of water Soaked Cypress Extract on Water Usage for mix
1:1.5:3 and slump 30mm
Water Used
600
500
400

Water Reduced by % of
Extract added

300

% Plant Extract added

200

Water used + Extract added


100
0
0

10

15

20

Water removed and the


same amount of extract
added

% Plant Extract added


Figure 6: The Effect of Water soaked Extract on Water usage for Mix-I & slump 30mm
3.4

The Effect of Plant Extract on Compressive Strength of Concrete


The compressive strength of concrete was done for both plant extract (boiled and water
soaked), two different mixes, two different slumps and different percentage of dosage. The
compressive strength was measured after 7, 14 and 28 days. Based on the compressive strength test
results, as the percentage of boiled plant extract increased from 0 to 15%, the compressive strength
also increased while for water soaked extract, the compressive strength increased for 5% and
decreased onwards. The boiled plant extract acted as a plasticizer by reducing the water demand and
increasing the strength of concrete.
Figure 7-8 and Table 3 shows, the compressive strength of concrete for mix-I with two
different slumps (30 &50mm). The 28 days test result show, the percentage variations between the
conventional concrete (control) and concrete with 15% of boiled extract were 13.8 & 15% for slump
of 30 and 50mm respectively or 15% dosage of plant extract increased the compressive strength by
5.5 & 6 Mpa for slump of 30 and 50mm respectively as compared to the control. Boiled plant extract
was effective in improving the strength of concrete as the slump increases from 30 to 50mm. Figure
9 and table 4 shows, the effect of water soaked plant extract on compressive strength of concrete. 5%
dosage of the plant extract has increased the compressive strength by 4% as compared to the control
and meanwhile the compressive strength was decreased for 10 and 15% plant extract dosage.
31

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 25-36 IAEME

Figure 10-11 and table 5 shows, the compressive strength of concrete for mix-II with slumps
of 30 &50mm. The 28 days test result show, the percentage variations between the conventional
concrete (control) and concrete with 15% of boiled extract added were 10.45 and 17% for slump of
30 and 50mm respectively as compared to the control. Figure 8a and 8b shows 28 day compressive
strength for slump 30&50mm. Addition of plant extract for slump 50mm resulted much increased
strength as compared the control for slump of 30mm. The compressive strength of control for 30mm
slump was greater than that of 50mm slump by 6.5%. However, the addition of plant extract to get
50mm slump increased the compressive strength by 2, 4.7 & 8.4% for 5, 10 & 15% dosage
respectively as compared to the control for slump of 30mm.
The boiled plant extract increased the compressive strength comparable to super plasticizers.
Researched conducted on supper plasticizer like Sulphonated naphthalene polymer, aqueous solution
of (anionic formaldehyde-polycondensate, naphthaline sulphonic acid and sodium salt),
lignosulphonate and sulphonated naphthalene formaldehyde increased the compressive strength by
5.5, 4.73, 4.03 and 4.45 Mpa respectively [14]. Comparably the boiled plant extract has also
increased the compressive strength for mix-I by 5.5 and 6 Mpa for slump of 30 and 50mm
respectively. And also for mix-II of slump of 30 and 50mm, the compressive strength increased by
3.5 and 5 Mpa. So the plant extract has chains that react with Ca2+ to give calcium silicate hydrate
gel which increases the strength of concrete. Super plasticizer has a carboxyl chain [9]. Carboxyl
group and other chains present in plant extract increased the strength of concrete by increasing
calcium hydrate gel and decreasing calcium hydroxide content.
The durability of concrete is an actual issue linked to sustainable development considerations.
The cypress extract is increasing the strength of concrete and it can have a positive effect on
durability of concrete. Researches done on ancient structure show, in ancient time extract from herbs
were used in construction with lime [11]. Still some of the structures are standing and proved its
durability for centuries. So it is evident to say plant extract has a positive effect on durability of
concrete.
Table 3: Compressive Strength of concrete for Mix-I
The Effect of Boiled Plant Extract from Bark of Cypress Tree on Concrete Compressive
Strength
Mix-I: 1:1.5:3
28 Day comp
7 Day Compressive
14 Day Compressive
% age
Strength
Strength
Plant
Extract Load
Strength
Load
Strength
Load
Strength Slump
added
(KN)
(MPa)
(KN)
(MPa)
(KN)
(MPa)
(mm)
893.081 39.692
0%
603.536
26.824
805.109
35.783
30*
938.227 41.670
5%
658.873
29.328
822.628
36.561
977.762 43.456
10%
704.835
31.326
865.396
38.461
15%

762.556

0%
568.432
5%
605.692
10%
620.767
15%
619.822
*The slump margin is 2

33.891

896.339

39.837

1016.331 45.170

25.263
26.92
27.59
27.548

748.447
787.005
801.592
822.682

33.265
34.978
35.626
36.564

838.365
911.086
934.946
968.249

32

37.260
40.492
41.553
43.033

50*

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 25-36 IAEME

Strength of concrete for Cypress Extract added

Comp. Strength, MPa

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

7 Day for slump 30mm


14 Day for slump 30mm
7 day for slump 50mm
14 day for slump 50mm
28 Day for slump 30mm
0%

5%

10%
15%
Plant Extract added

20%

28 Days for slump 50mm

Figure 7: The Effect on Compressive Strength of Concrete for Mix--I.


28 days Comp. Strength for Mix
Mix-I

46

Comp. Strength, MPa

Comp. Strength, MPa

28 Days Comp. Strength for Mix-I


Mix
44
42
28 Days
for slump
of 30mm

40
38
36

44
42
40
28 Days
for slump
50mm

38
36
34
0%
5% 10% 15%
Plant Extract added
(b)

0% 5% 10% 15%
Plant Extract added
(a)

Figure 8: Plant Extract Effect on Comp. Strength of Mix-I,


I, (a) slump 30mm and (b) slump 50mm

Table 4: Compressive strength of concrete for water soaked Extract (Mix


(Mix-I)
Water soaked Plant Extract from Bark of Cypress Tree
Mix-I: 1:1.5:3
7 Day Compressive
Strength

% age
Plant
Extract
added

Load
(KN)

Strength
(MPa)

0%

603.536

5%
10%

14 Day Compressive
Strength

28 Day Compressive

Load (KN)

Strength
(MPa)

Load
(KN)

Strength
(MPa)

26.824

805.109

35.783

616.335

27.392

801.382

35.617

893.081
928.958

39.692
41.287

601.275

26.723

808.860

35.949

889.143

39.517

15%
588.187 26.142
*The slump margin is 2

792.289

33.879

882.862

39.238

33

Slump,
mm

30*

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

Comp. Strength for Mix-I


( Water soaked)
28 Days
for Slump
of 30mm
14 Days
for slump
of 30mm
7 Day for
slump of
30mm
0%

5%

10%

15%

Plant Extract added


(c)

20%

Comp. Strength, Mpa

Comp. Strength, Mpa

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 25-36 IAEME

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

28 Days Comp. Strength for Mix-I


( Water soaked)

28 Days
for Slump
of 30mm

0%

5%

10%

15%

Plant Extract added


(d)

Figure 9: Effect of water soaked Plant Extract on Comp. strength for Mix-I
Table 5: Compressive Strength of concrete for Mix-II
The Effect of Boiled Plant Extract from Bark of Cypress Tree on Concrete Compressive Strength
Mix-II: 1:2:4
7 Day Compressive
14 Day Compressive
28 Day comp
% age
Strength
Strength
Plant
Extract
Strength
Strength
Load
Strength Slump
Load (KN)
Load (KN)
added
(MPa)
(MPa)
(KN)
(MPa)
(mm)
0%
486.286
21.613
634.286
28.190
757.043
33.646
30*
5%
544.418
24.196
623.685
29.073
767.095
34.093
10%
567.071
25.203
705.253
31.344
792.753
35.233
15%
576.162
25.607
752.743
33.455
836.147
37.162
0%
441.148
19.606
593.67
26.385
683.348
30.371
50*
5%
472.872
21.016
645.086
28.671
715.313
31.792
10%
479.595
21.315
634.445
28.197
766.246
34.055
15%
498.174
22.141
622.27
27.656
799.616
35.538
*The slump margin is 2

Strength of concrete for Cypress Extract added

40

7 Day for slump 30mm

Comp. Strength, MPa

35
30

14 Day for slump 30mm

25
20

7 day for slump 50mm

15

14 day for slump 50mm

10
5

28 Day for slump 30mm

0
0%

5%

10%

15%

20%

28 Day for slump 50mm

Plant Extract added

Figure 10: The Effect on Compressive Strength of Concrete for Mix-II


34

38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31

28 Days Comp. Strength for Mix-II

28 Days Comp. Strength for Mix-II


Comp. Strength, MPa

Comp. Strength, MPa

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 25-36 IAEME

28 Days
for slump
of 30mm

0%

5%
10%
15%
Plant Extract added
(e)

36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27

28 Days
for slump
of 50mm

0%

5%
10% 15%
Plant Extract added
(f)

Figure 11: Plant Extract Effect on Comp. Strength of Mix-II, (e) slump 30mm and (f) slump 50m
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CONCLUSIONS

Based on the experiments carried out and the results on the effect of plants extracts on the
properties of fresh and hardened concrete, the following conclusions are made:
a) The addition of plant extract increased the setting time of concrete and hence the plant extract
can be used as a retarder in hot climate.
b) The plant extract increased the workability of concrete at constant liquid to cement ratio, hence
fresh concrete properties are improved by the use of cypress plant extract.
c) The plant extract increased the strength of concrete at constant slump; hence hardened concrete
properties are improved by the use of cypress plant extract.
d) The ways of extraction has also an effect on the optimum dosage of the extract. It was
determined that the boiled plant extract significantly improves the property of concrete as
compared to cold extraction in cold water.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors sincerely thank staff in the Civil Engineering and Materials Lab. of JKUAT, the
African Union, and University of Nairobi.
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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
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