Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 9

GENERAL CARGOES -- TIMBER DECK CARGO

HAZARDS TO THE SHIP, PERSONNEL AND ENVIRONMENT

Timber deck cargo being stowed too high may cause stability problems.
Due to ice accretion &absortion of moisture the vessel may have stability problems.

Weight of water trapped in broken spaces, & slack tanks can cause stability problems due to free surface
effect.
Lashings not properly secured could be dangerous to persons on board.
Timber being a good fuel for fire may cause problems to the ship.
There could e depletion of oxygen in the holds due to the cargo.
Spilling of cargo may cause pollution to the environment.
Excessive storage of cargo may cause damage in the ship structure.

PRECAUTIONS TO MINIMISE THE HAZARDS PRESENT

Lashings to be checked regularly.


Cargo to be stowed in bundles to reduce the weight of water trapped in broken spaces
Cargo not to exceed the load density of the deck
Holds are to be regularly ventilated to prevent depletion of oxygen.
Any formation of ice to be removed as soon as possible
All slack tanks to be filled up to reduce free surface effect
As far as possible cargo not to be stowed too high.
Fire fighting equipments are to e always kept ready.

STATUTORY CONSTRAINTS:
1.SI 19,
2. Code of Timber Deck Cargo,
3.Code of Safe Practice For Cargo Stowage & Securing,
4.Code of Timber Deck Cargo & The Merchant Shipping (Load Lines) (Deck Cargo).
HOLD PREPARATIONS:
Holds to be examined by an officer& any damage to be reported immediately& prepared for next loading.
Ventilation system for holds to be checked.
Bilges to be cleaned &covered with burlap.bilge suction to be tested.
There should be proper lighting arrangements for the holds.
Remains of the previous cargo to be removed &hold to be kept clean for the next cargo.

. CARGO HANDLING:
Cargo to be loaded taking consideration of the SWL the loading gear.
Loading &discharging to be done keeping in mindof the ships structure.
While the lashings are loosened persons at work should be in a safe area.

CARGO STOWAGE:

The maximum height of a timber cargo above the deck if the vessel is in a seasonal winter zone during the
winter period remains 1/3rd of the extreme breadth of the ship.
Stowage should be in such a way that there is proper visibility for safe navigation.
Cargo to be loaded up to the Timber Load Line marks

CARGO SECURING:

Cargo securing to be done with reference to The Cargo Securing Manual


Securing of timber deck cargo is done using wires, 19mm chains, turnbuckles, roller shackles, metal lips at
edges of timber etc.
Lashings should pass over the cargo & to be shackled to eye plates at intervals of not more than 3 m apart

CARGO CARE:

There should be no water inside the holds, soundings to be done to check this.
Lashings to be checked regularly
Formation of ice on deck to be removed
Temperatures of the holds to be monitored regularly

CARGO OUT-TURN MAXIMISATION:

Cargo should be in palletised form to increase the rate of discharge & cargo out turn.
Proper tallying should be done.
There should be proper communication etween the ship & shore to increase the out turn.

GENERAL CARGOES -- IMDG CODE


HAZARDS TO THE SHIP, PERSONNEL AND ENVIRONMENT

There can be explosion while carrying explosives or flammable substances causing danger for the ship,
personal & may cause pollution to the environment.
Carriage of radioactive material may cause health problems to the persons on board or may be a serious
threat to the environment.
Carriage of corrosive materials may cause a problem to the metal of the ship.
Oxidising Substances & Organic Peroxides burn easily giving off oxygen which helps in increasing the
spread of fire.

MINIMISATION OF THE HAZARDS PRESENT:

Leaking or damaged packaging to be rejected


Poisonous substances to be handled with care & have readily available protective clothing & BA sets
Any strong smells indicating possible leakage should be carefully investigated.
Smoking to be prohibited & all ventilators to have spark arrestors & suitably meshed.

STATUTORY CONSTRAINTS:
The statutory instrument deals with the documentation & classification, markings, packaging, carriage of
dangerous goods in bulk, stowage & the carriage of explosives.
Ships intending to carry DGs are required to have a Document of Compliance issued by the DOT.
In addition,references to be made with
1. SI 19,
2. Code of Safe Working Practice,
3. IMO Code for the Stowage & Securing Of Cargo,
4. Health & Safety at Work,
5. The Emergency Procedures for ships carrying DGs should be consulted.

HOLD PREPARATIONS:

Holds are to cleaned, washed &kept free from moisture.


Holds are to be ventilated regularly.
All holds are to be water tight & access also.
Fire fighting systems to be checked
Lighting equipments to be good order& isolated if necessary.

CARGO HANDLING
Persons handling the goods should be fully aware of the nature & hazards & actions to be taken in case of
damage.
Loading & discharging must be done with utmost care & precaution.
If possible, DGs should be handled & stowed during daylight hours.
Lighting used inside the hold should be of an approved one &isolated.
Before loading the cargo packages are to be checked.

CARGO STOWAGE:

Cargoes giving off dangerous vapours are to be stowed in proper ventillated places.
Cargoes are to be segregated according to the IMDG.
If stowed on deck cargoes are to be secured properly.
Water reacting cargoes are not to be stowed on deck.

CARGO SECURING:
All DGs to be tightly stowed & well secured against any movement including chafe.
Securing materials used should be compatible with the goods themselves.
DGs shipped in containers are secured just as normal containers.

CARGO CARE:

Temperature & humidity conditions should be monitored regularly.


Goods requiring proper ventilation should taken care of.
Soundings must be taken to ensure there is no water inside the holds.
Lashings are to be checked regularly.
weather tightness of hatch covers to be checked.

CARGO OUT - TURN MAXIMISATION:


Pre load checks should be carried out & recorded.
Accurate tally upon completion.
Proper documentation of the cargo could help avoid unnecessary delays.

REFRIGERATED CARGOES
HAZARDS TO THE SHIP, PERSONNEL & ENVIRONMENT.

Due to low temperature ship structure may become brittle.


Deficiency of oxygen occurs when ozone is used to eliminate oddurs causing danger to both personnel &
environment.
Chemicals used inside the referigerant are harmful to persons at work.
Holds being very cold present the risk of cold burn to persons at work.
PRECAUTIONS TAKEN TO MINIMISE THE HAZARDS PRESENTED.

Chemicals used should be environmental friendly.


Holds to be well ventilated before entering.
Personnel working in holds should be well protected from the cold &gases.
The carriage of temperatures must be clearly understood.

STATUTORY CONSTRAINTS:
Reference must be made to
SI19,
Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage & Securing.
HOLD PREPARATIONS:

Compartments are to be taint free & free from odour.


Insulations to be inspected and damages are to be repaired.
Ventilators leading to compartments are to be unplugged.
Bilges are to be cleaned &their suctions to be tested.
Dunnages are to be pre cooled efore use.

CARGO HANDLING:

Cargo nets be used for slingingof meat trays for fruits.


Walking over the cargo is not allowed with using a walking board.

Temperature inside the hold should be as per the cargo requirements.


Refer cargo should be in container or pallatised form.

CARGO STOWAGE:

Cargo box should be self ventillated type.


Cargo should be distriuted uniformly over the floor.
Compartment temperature should as per the shippers requirement.
Certain cargo emit carbon dioxide ,constantly check the level of CO2.

CARGO SECURING:
The cargo should be stowed uniformly to prevent movement or shifting.
Reefer containers to be lashed as ordinary containers.

CARGO CARE:
The temperature, humidity, CO2, & ozone contents of the cargo to be regularly monitored .
Eggs & Butter, very liable to taint, should not be stowed with fruits.
Good ventilation must be given to fruit, otherwise CO2 gas is liable to build up which causes the fruit to
deteoriate.
Operations such as defrosting should be carried out as per shippers instructions.
CARGO OUT-TURN MAXIMISATION.

Pre load checks to be done & recorded.


Proper logging should be done at all time.
SOLID BULK CARGO -- COAL
HAZARDS TO THE SHIP, PERSONNEL AND ENVIRONMENT

Coal emits methane, a flammable gas which can be ignited by sparks or naked flames & can thus cause an
explosion on board ships.
Coals may be subject to oxidisation, leading to a depletion of oxygen & an increase in CO2.
Flammable & toxic gases such as CO is produced which is harmful by inhalation.
Coals are liable to react with water & produce acids which may cause corrosion, a potential hazard to the
ship.
PRECAUTIONS TAKEN TO MINIMISE THE HAZARDS PRESENTED.

Adequate surface ventilation to be maintained.


All enclosed places to be tested for methane.
No smoking on board.
The temperature of the cargo in each cargo space should be monitored at regular intervals to detect self
heating.
When excess acidity is noted the bilges should be pumped out to reduce corrosion on the tank tops & the
bilge system.

STATUTORY CONSTRAINTS:

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

A statement of cargo information should be obtained from the shipper giving details of the
flow moisture point,
safe transportable moisture limit,
average moisture content etc.
The vessel should carry an O2 meter, gas detector, explosimeter, ph papers, thermometer.
Reference should be made with
SI 19,
Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargo,
Merchant Shipping Safety, &
IMO Code for the Stowage & Securing of cargo.
MGN 60

HOLD PREPARATION:

All holds to be cleaned, washed down & kept dry prior to the loading of coal.
Bilges & strum boxes should be cleaned
Regular hold bilge testing should be systematically carried out.
All hatch covers should be hose tested for water tightness

CARGO HANDLING:
Loading could be done using shutes, conveyor belts where the initial rate should be slow.
If loading by grabs, the first few lifts should be lowered down in the holds.
If discharging by grabs, they should not be allowed to swing inside the holds in an attempt to loosen the
cargo & thus result in damaging the frames of the ship.
Where bulldozers are used for trimming purpose they should not be allowed to bang the frames in an attempt
to loosen the cargo.
Some ports have an endless bucket system for loading, this is excellent for graded coal & also keeps the dust
down.
CARGO STOWAGE:
Coal should not be stowed adjacent to hot areas.
The cargo stowed should be reasonably trimmed to avoid cargo shift, formation of less pockets of gas,
stability purpose etc.
Proper segregation of different coal cargo to be carried out.
If large coal is loaded it needs to be trimmed as its angle of repose is very high.

CARGO SECURING:
Trimming of the cargo & filling all the possible void spaces is the best way to reduce the risk of cargo shifting.
CARGO CARE:
Temperature of the cargo must be taken & the air above the cargo must be tested regularly.
Smoking & hot works should be prohibited.
To control heating, limit surface ventilation to the absolute minimum keeping the holds closed & monitoring
CO.
During wet weather, all holds & hatchways openings to be closed.

Cargo hold bilges regularly sounded & pumped to remove any water that may have collected.
A monitoring of the adjacent working spaces should be regularly carried out.
CARGO OUT-TURN MAXIMISATION:
Proper communication between the ship & shore to make the out-turn faster & easier.
A systematic work order to be maintained. Stevedores & bulldozer operators to be efficient.
Coal stuck in the side frames should be removed manually with brushes, brooms, shovels & cargo remaining
must be swept & added to the discharged amounts.
Draught surveys carried out to verify the quantity of cargo loaded/discharged.
GRAIN
HAZARDS TO THE SHIP, PERSONNEL AND ENVIRONMENT
Fumigation of cargo is generally toxic creating problems to personnel and environment.
Grain loaded in bulk has a very small angle of repose, & is liable to shift thus adversely affecting the vessels
stability.
Grain cargo causes depletion of oxygen in holds.
PRECAUTIONS TAKEN TO MINIMISE THE HAZARDS PRESENTED BY GRAIN.
At all times the vessel should comply with the International Grain Rules to minimise hazards.
The surface of grain should be well trimmed & incase of holds being slack the proper securing methods to be
carried out-- lashing, strapping, saucering, bundling etc.
Holds to be kept dry & adequate ventilation carried out to prevent the grain from heating.
All holds to be immediately closed upon slight drizzle or rain.
STATUTORY CONSTRAINTS:
Ships should comply with the International Grain Code & must have on board a Document of Authorisation.
In addition, regarding documentation, stowage, securing & acceptability for loading reference should be
made to:1. SI 19
2. Code of Safe Practice for the Carriage of Grain in Bulk,
3. Merchant Shipping Safety &
4. the International Grain Code.
HOLD PREPARATIONS:

Holds to be swept, washed down with SW & then with FW to remove traces of salt, & dried completely.
The holds to be properly ventilated.
Bilges should be cleaned including the strum boxes and dried & bilge suctions to be tested.
Hold inspections to be carried out & any damages caused during previous discharge to be noted & rectified.
Water tightness of the holds to be ascertained including the hatchways.

CARGO HANDLING:
Assure that the initial loading is done just a couple of metres above the deck .
Where the grain cargo is to be fumigated all personnel involved in the cargo operations to be aware of the
chemicals involved .

Where dealing with bagged grain, bags to be inspected & if wet or ripped open to be rejected.
Use shutes to load & unload.
Make sure the cargo is trimmed.
CARGO STOWAGE:
In due regard to the stowage of grain the IGC should be consulted.
The stowage of grain should comply with the minimum stability criteria.
The grain surfaces in a partly filled compartment must be trimmed level.

CARGO SECURING:
A hold completely filled with cargo need not be secured, but shall be trimmed so as to fill all spaces under
deck & hatch covers to the maximum extent possible.
For securing partly filled compartments, to avoid shift of cargo can be done by saucering, lashing, strapping
& bundling.

CARGO CARE:
Holds to be closed immediately upon slight drizzle or rain to prevent the cargo from getting contaminated
due to water.
Adequate ventilation & temperature monitoring of the cargo to be carried out at regular intervals.
Bilges & ballast tanks to be regularly sounded.
Prior to loading visual inspection of the cargo to be carried out. The cargo should be properly fumigated to
ensure that no micro organisms are present.
CARGO OUT-TURN MAXIMISATION:
Draft surveys should be carried out at both the loading & discharging ports to determine the quantity of
cargo loaded.
Proper tallying of bagged cargo to be carried out.
Proper communication between ship & shore to make the cargo out-turn faster & easier.