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Writing Reports

At the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

Write an incident report.

Identify the elements of incident reports.
Discuss purpose of the incident report.
Describe correctly the events in an incident through incident report,
5. Correctly document an incident report.

No matter where you work, the unexpected frequently occurs. Such
digression from normal operating procedure generally requires an incident
report to supervisors or others to prevent the incident from recurring. The
incident report is a written investigation of accidents, machine break-downs,
delivery delays, cost overruns, production slowdowns, or personnel
The incident report may be reviewed when the next budget is planned if your
recommendations include finances. The report may constitute the basis of a
longer proposal to improve procedures. It may even be used as legal
evidence in follow-up investigation. A carefully detailed report becomes part
of the written record of what goes on in your place of work.
The incident report adheres to fairly conventional organization. Its parts


happened (factual, not opinionated)

caused it (detailed and Chronological)
were the results (injuries, losses, delays, costs)
can be done to prevent recurrence (recommendations)

In a lengthy incident report it is a good idea to include topical headings such


Accident Descriptions


Analysis of Causes


Corrective Action

Your reader will be able to cull the appropriate information quickly by

glancing at the headings.
Incident Descriptions. In your introductory material, write a concrete
statement detailing what happened. Include the exact date, time and
location. Personnel details, such employees names, titles and departments,
should be included. If personnel injuries occurred, include the name(s) of
victim(s), titles, and departments, or in the case of victims, who are not
employees, include home address, phone numbers and places of
employment. Describe the actual injury. If equipment is involved, identify it
by including brand names, serial numbers, inventory numbers or other
pertinent descriptive detail.
Analysis of Causes. In this section write a chronological review of what
caused the incident. Include what was happening prior to the incident and
each step which caused the incident.
Results. In this section, explain what happened due to the incident, such as
the action which was taken immediately. If anyone was injured, describe the
extent of the injury and how, when, and where the person was treated.
Explain who was immediately involved. This may include paramedics, police,
repair experts, or extra workers. In the case of equipment failure, explain
how it was repaired or replaced, how late deliveries were speeded, or how
high costs were curtailed. Detail what was done to settle a personnel
problem or to satisfy a customer demand.
The results section may require an actual or estimated expense review.
Include a precise breakdown of medical expenses, equipment replacement,
repair costs, profit loss, or other applicable costs.
Recommendation. This section should include concrete suggestions to
prevent the incident from recurring, consider what should be done, who

should do it, and when it should be done. Include as much detail as your
position authorizes.

EMPLOYEE: Return this COMPLETED FORM to your SUPERVISOR as soon as possible.
Name of Person Involved: ______________________________________________________________
Address: ____________________________________ City: ___________________________________
Phone Number: _____________________ Age: ________ DOB: _____________ Sex: M ____ F _____
SS#: _________________________ Date of Incident: _____________ Time: ______ am/pm
Exact Location of Incident: ______________________________________________________________
Check Type of Accident:
Clerical/Data Entry
_____ Patient
_____ Employee
Testing Process
_____ Visitor
Result reporting
_____ Volunteer
_____ Other
Medical Device Failure
Policy/Procedural Violations
Adverse Drug Reaction
Vehicle Accident
Exposure to Hazardous Substance
Medication Error (Wrong: Route, Dosage, Medication, Schedule)
EMPLOYEE: Involved _____ yes _____ no
Were they doing their regular job duties: _____ yes _____ no Observed by employee
Hire Date: ____________ Marital Status: ____________ Situation observed only by employee
Employee Classification: ______________________________
Protective Equipment being used: _____ yes _____ no
If not used, Why:
Description of Incident/Complaint (Who, What, Where, How, Why, Include sequence of events, personnel
involved, body part injured, reason incident occurred) (If medication error include brand name,
manufacturer, dosage) (Use additional form if necessary)
Actions Taken by Staff Members: _________________________________________________________

Witness Name: ________________________________ Phone Number: _________________________
Address: ___________________________________________________________________________
Witness Name: __________________________________ Phone Number: _______________________
Address: ___________________________________________________________________________

MEDICAL FOLLOW-UP: Was Medical Attention Sought: _____ yes _____ no

Treatment Refused: _____ yes _____ no

First Treatment Date: _____________________________

Treating Physician: ________________________________ Phone Number: ____________________

Address: ___________________________________________________________________________
First Day Off Work: _________________________ Return to Work Date: _______________________
Duties Restricted: _____ yes _____ no Explain: ___________________________________________

Incident Reported By: __________________________________ Date: ________________________
Supervisor Notified: _____ yes _____ no
Date: _________________ Time: _______________
Name of Supervisor: __________________________________________________________________
Signature and Title of Person Preparing Report: ______________________________ Date: _________
Supervisor Comments: ________________________________________________________________
Supervisor Signature: ___________________________________________________ Date: ________
Corrective Action Taken/Follow-Up: (Things that have been or will be taken to prevent recurrence)
Director Comments: ___________________________________________________________________
Director Signature: ______________________________________________________ Date: ________
Nursing Administrator Signature: ___________________________________________ Date: ________
Administrator Signature: __________________________________________________ Date: ________
Signature of Person making Complaint: ______________________________________ Date: ________
Worker Compensation first Report Sent: _____ yes _____ no Date: _______ OSHA 300 Log # : ______
_____ I understand the potential risks related to the exposure to the incident that occurred and agree to
receive an examination and/or treatment for the exposure, as recommended by my physician. This
includes serological testing for Hepatitis B and the HIV virus as indicated.
_____ I understand the potential risks related to the exposure incidents that occurred and DO NOT agree
to have an examination or treatment for the exposure.
Employee Signature: _________________________________________________ Date: ___________
Supervisor Signature: ________________________________________________ Date: ___________
I understand the information above will be used by my employer to help determine liability for injury. I
acknowledge that the above statements are true and accurate representation of the requested
Employee Signature: ___________________________________________________ Date: _________
Job Title: ___________________________________________
Testing for HBV: Baseline and 6 months*

Testing for HIV: Baseline, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year**

Current references may be found on the CDC website: www.cdc.gov (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly
Report [MMWR], June 29, 2001/Vol.50/No.RR-11 or latest version; Morbidity and Mortality Weekly
Report [MMWR], September 30, 2005/Vol.54/No. RR-9, update)

Activity 1. Make an Incident Report.

For instance, you have seen the accident happened in your workplace or
anywhere (consider any incident scenes). Now you are required to make an
incident report regarding about it. Make sure to:
1. Mention the actual happening.
2. Identify the cause and results of the incident.
3. Give your suggestions or recommendation to prevent reoccurrence.

At the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

Design a business report.

Identify the elements of a business report.
Describe the purpose of a business report, and
Distinguish the importance of a business report.

A business report as the subject for serious study may, at first thought, seem
perfectly straightforward, even simple. It is neither. A business report,
despite the visual image that the term evokes, is not a static or stable object
to be isolated and scrutinized. The useful study of any business report
necessarily involves some consideration of the report writer (his or her
perspective and composition skills), some understanding of the report reader
(his or her process of perception), some analysis of the reports content (its
completeness, accuracy, validity, and clarity), and some overview of the
reports contribution to a larger business context. In this study, special
attention is paid to the interaction among writer, reader, content, and
context as they combine to create the communication dimensions of a
business report.
Our common usage of any term depends upon the dictionary of that term (its
denotative meaning) and the associated feelings, images and experiences
that the term evokes (it connotative meaning). In theory, denotative and
connotative definition of a word can be separated easily; in practice, a neat
separation of the two is nearly impossible. Some words are more apt to
accumulate associated meanings than others, and one term peculiarly prone
to loose definition is business report.

The images most readily associated with the idea of a business report have
nothing to do with its actual definition. These images, nevertheless, influence
the practice of report writing. Because they are, for the most part, negative
associations, these appendages to the rea definition of a business report
must be cleared away from the outset of our investigation. Specifically, three
mistaken notion persist.
Report writing is necessary evil: mundane, boring and unimaginative.
As with most inaccuracies, this distorted perception of report writing has
some basis in truth. Report writing is necessary to the efficient working of a
business: but it is not a necessary evil. Only useless, redundant, incomplete
or inaccurate reports can approach the negative certitude of evil.
Necessary reports, based upon accurate information and valid interpretation,
well written and well read, are vital to any business.
That report writing can be difficult, tedious, and frustrating does not lead to
a logical conclusion that the activity is mundane, boring or unimaginative.
Only a misunderstanding of the report writers job will give rise to this
negative image. Good report writing demands all the research skills and
composition ingenuity that give satisfaction to the serious writer in any other
form of written communication. Because a business writer has the possibility
of seeing tangible results from a report, he or she may be afforded a creative
pleasure denied to most other authors.
Report reading is a nuisance: dull, wasted effort.
This second, negative impression of the business report is a corollary to the
first, seen now from the readers point of view rather from the writers. The
many business reports are a nuisance and a waste of the readers time
cannot be denied. But this criticism is neither an inevitable nor a necessary
response to the business report. Such a negative image in the mind of a
reader invariably reflects some breakdown or inadequacy in the reportmaking process if a business report has been well written in direct response
to a specific need and makes a timely arrival in the recipients hands, the
report will become priority reading: interesting, important and time saving.
advertisements, sales pitches.




A third prevalent notion about business reports is the cynical assertion

that they are predictably prejudiced in favor of the company represented.
This viewpoint, when maintained by a reader, causes an insidious erosion of

the communication potential of any report. Again, there is a real wary

perspective. That some business reports go beyond valid representation of a
legitimate viewpoint gives rise to the accusation of unreliable bias. This
commonly held impression of business reports presents a serious barrier to
be overcome by the good writer. He or she must clearly acknowledge a
particular vantage point towards a reports subject and, thereby, invite the
readers careful scrutiny of data and analysis. A well-written business report
benefits from the healthy skepticism of its reader.
These three popular notions combine to give the business report an
unenviable reputation. A business report is commonly held to be boring for
the writer, dull to the reader, and unreliable in itself. Granting that each of
these assumptions represents an exaggeration, it remains true that such
negative connotations do surround the legitimate definition of a business
A business report is
a direct response to a specific business need, an accurate and
complete account of relevant information, and a valid interpretation of
available data.
A business report can be written clearly and read easily; it can be
concise, logical in its development, and memorable. A business report is both
informative and persuasive in its approach and appeal. Business reports are
vital communication links between employers and employees, corporations
and shareholders, technicians and lay readers, sales personnel and
customers, service representatives and clientsvital links among all
business constituencies.


Every business report6, regardless of format or purpose, involves at least
three common elements: writer, reader and text. From one perspective,
these three terms offer easy definitions. The report writer is the individual
charged with a task of compiling information in written response to a specific
business need. The reader, then, is the individual to whom a given report is
addressed, the person who most requires the information reported. A text is
the physical report itself, a printed document (long and short) comprised of
expository prose and (often) numbers, graphs, charts, illustrations, or
photographs. It would seem obvious that the linkage among these three

components proceeds, essentially, in one directionfrom writer to reader via

the text. From a closer perspective, however, the term writer, reader and
text may be seen to describe highly complex, interrelated phenomena.
It is rarely a simple matter to determine precisely who is the writer of a given
report. The document may carry one individuals name, but the real
authorship of a business report also includes the perspectives of those who
gathered data, the graphic artist who designed a chart, or the photographer
who chose a particular angle of vision. Many business report represent a
group perspectivethe findings of a research team, the decisions of a
committee, or the policy of a corporation. Often, a business report does not
even carry the name of an author. The special circumstances that give rise to
business reports make special demands upon a writer and place him or her
in a special relationship to the process of composition.
The recipient of a business report, likewise, is a special kind or reader. The
process of perception in any other kind of experience is sufficiently
complicated. The proper reading of a business report imposes added
variables that further complicate the process. Some of the unique
complexities of a report readers job may be introduced by remembering that
a business report is understood to represent one factor in some large
business context, that reports are rarely (if ever) read word for word, and
that readers almost always brings a vested interest or predisposition to the
contents of a report.
Where the writer and reader meet is in the report itself, the text. This is
the central element of the reporting process, the most important, most
complex element. The text actually creates a world in which the writer and
reader meet and communicate. To call a report a kind of world is not
hyperbole: it is quite literally true. The text can never be a completely
neutral, inanimate report of information. A text always includes some
projection of the writers perspective, some expectations of the readers
perceptions, some indication of a reports context, and some conjunction of
communication modes (e.g., words, numbers and graphics). A business
report may seem to be a commonplace form of composition to the
uninitiated observer. To the serious writer and reader of business reports, the
form is highly variable, economical, and, in many ways, unique.
The student report writer must realize from the outset of his or her
apprenticeship that there are no easy formulas or simples tricks for the
efficient composition of business reports. The person who does not

understand the philosophical and practical links among writer, reader, and
text has little possibility of serving a business well as a report writer.
Business Report Parts
The contents of business reports differ dependent on the report's purpose.
However, reports typically include four parts: introduction, summary,
discussion and conclusions. The introduction is a short outline of the report's
content. This might include a Table of Contents or merely state an
overview. The summary illustrates the opportunity or problem or summarizes
the situation the report covers. The discussion includes descriptive details,
such as methods used, results found and existing choices. The conclusion
differs dependent on the reports, such as implications of each option for
recommendation or analytical reports, evaluations for analytical reports, and
explanations of why you think one options is best in recommendation
Analytical Reports
These types of business reports include information along with analysis or
interpretation from the report's writer or in response to the person who
requested the report. A business uses analytical reports to make a decision
or to work out a problem. Examples of analytical reports include a progress
report detailing what has occurred and the writers analysis of it, or a sales
report requested by the business owner as to why sales are falling in one
location and not another.
Informational Reports
Informational reports contain information only and no commentary from the
writer. This type of report includes data, facts and results about a specific
subject in detail without any explanation or suggestions. This might be an
informal report, such as a minutes of meetings report that contains actions
and dialog of a meeting. It might be a report on applicants for a new position
requested by a company president, which might include names, experience,
work record and other details pertinent to the job.
Recommendation and Research Reports
A recommendation and research report includes information, the writers
examination of the information and the suitable action or actions the writer

advises. These reports are based on research performed by a person or

group in regard to a specific problem or subject. A common recommendation
report is policy directives. These reports detail the topic or problem using
figures and significant facts, suggest various options and include detailed
explanations of why one option is better than another option.

Report on Eco-Homes Project

1. Title of Business Report
Title: Eco-Homes Project Initiative
Objective: Compile data and analysis for development for
housing project Eco-Homes at location and address of the
Report by: Dr. Larry Marshall, CEO EcoVision Projects, Empire
Construction and Infrastructure Group.
Key Contents: A Detailed plan, proposition, execution
schedule and analysis of the project idea of an eco-friendly
settlement put forth by Dr. Jason Smith, New Projects
Sample Report
Department, Empire Construction and Infrastructure Group
Now, note that, this
report is just an example, and is thus quite
short and simple.
an actual
Time: is
1 month
much longer and also tends to

provide much more precise and intricate information.
Assumptions: The time frame and execution is framed, taking
into consideration the seasonal elements of climate and other
turnover ratios, experienced in the previous financial year.
2. Letter of transmittal
Attached, letter of transmittal, conveying the idea by Dr Smith,
consisting of the core features of report.
3. Table of Contents
Summary and Synopsis of the Project
Discussion and Details
4. Summary and Synopsis
The Eco-Homes Project Initiative is an underway project which has
been conceived by the Empire Group. The basic ideology of the
initiative is eco-friendly living. The Empire group intends to build a
mega residential complex which is spread over 35 acres of land, and
house around about 150 households, which are self-sufficient in several
ways. The complex thrives on the basis of inbuilt agricultural center,
animal husbandry center, building gardens, fuel cell and bio-gaspropane generators of electricity, massive solar panels which provide

over the 35 acre premise and will consist of 3 core residential

centers 15 solar panel driven green houses, 2 orchards, 5 gardens, 3
pastures and 3 animal husbandry centers cum dairies and a staff of
33 people.
5. Discussion and Details
Some common points, details and conclusions that were drawn in
the meeting of project engineers, company architects, cost
accountants and the CFA's go as follows.

The project will bring a substantial revenue if all 150 houses

are sold off at a price of amount per house hold. The project
will be a highly big commercial success as it is not just
situated in the city but, once the customer buys the housing
facility his usual bills that include, electricity and water bill
will be cut down to half. The only con that is foreseen is that
the sale value is huge.
There are 5 phases of the project, namely, the basic
foundation phase, housing complex 1 phase, followed by 2
and 3, with the last phase being the development of all the
support and infrastructure facility. It is estimated that every
phase would go on for 3 months plus a backup of 2 months
has been provided.
The sales for real estate would begin with the completion of
housing complex 1, followed by complex 2 and 3. By the end
of complex 3, the real estate market rates would have
increased by 7.8%. This price escalation however is not
included in any of the calculations.
The cost sheets showing cost projections for the project have
been attached.
A 5 year maintenance, free of cost has been provided for the
complex. An operation cost of about $500 per 2 months is to
be paid by every household to keep the operations going.

6. Conclusion
The project team recommends that this project should be taken up
and executed as fast as possible as the real estate market is and the
eco-friendly products have been consistently showing positive rises
in the past 5 years.

Activity 1. Write a Business report.

Situation: You want a 3D printer for your division. To convince your manager
to requisition one, you would write a justification or recommendation report
to formally ask the management team for the printer. Make sure to mention
the purpose of your report.

At the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

Write a technical report.

Identify the elements of a technical report.
List the functions of a technical report in various contexts.
Discuss the purpose of a technical report, and
Value the importance of a technical report.

Technical report is a generic label for any professional, business or
scientific document that gives a precise, descriptive account of product or
process data. Specifications, schematics, and design fall under this category
of composition, but this do not fill the whole catalog. Technical is this
reports defining adjective pertaining to information peculiar to or
characteristic of a given profession. As such, a technical report offers printed
documentation of some verifiable phenomenon (e.g., product, experiment, or
industrial process). Each technical report demands specific, professional
competence of its readers. Only those initiated into the special perspective

and language of a given field will be qualified to understand and evaluate

this documents merits.
Technical reports serve many functions within the business context.
They describe products, report experimental finding, and prescribe scientific
procedures. They serve engineers and researchers; they inform
manufacturers and consumers; they respond to governmental and
professional regulatory agencies. While the content and structure of
individual report will vary greatly from one circumstance to another, and
whole manuals are devoted to technical reporting, certain generalizations
may be offered as a guide to the writer.
The writer approaches a technical report with the same obligations of
accuracy, completeness, and clarity that attend any other reporting
assignment. Likewise, the familiar inventory of composition tools serves a
technical writer as well as any other business author. The difference here is
not one of responsibility or strategy; it is a difference in content. A technical
report, by definition, contains ideas, data, and language custom fit to the
technological needs of a certain group of professionals. In order to speak
precisely and to be heard with authority, the writer must be well versed in a
technical nomenclature. And if the document is to communicate with
persuasive force and memorable impact, a writer must be an imaginative
artist capable of translating data from one mode of presentation to another
(i. e., from words to numbers to graphics).
Particularly crucial to the success of any technical report is its authors
understanding of the assignment and assessment of probable readers. One
must know, for instance, whether a report will be read only by fellow
professionals or will be expected to communicate to lay readers as well.
Myriad composition choices rest on how specifically the question of
readership can be answered. In addition, a reports intention and scope
should be specified clearly in the assignment and in the documents
introduction. A writers selection of information and the sequence of its
presentation depend largely upon the reports aim and limitations. Before
initiating research or composition, a technical writer must learn, What
specifically is this report intended to accomplish? and Who specifically will
read it?

To maintain that a technical report is privileged communication among fellow

professionals does not diminish a writers accountability to the reader. This
custom content and special intent of a technical report actually increase a
writers communication responsibility. The recipient of a technical report may
be assumed to have a specific and significant need the document and its
presentation. This readers work and welfare may depend upon his or her
understanding of a technical report. Hence, clarity and reliability are
paramount virtues.
A technical readers task, like that of a technical writer, is made
difficult by the content density of a document. A competent reader must
acknowledge the fair use of a given report
and not accept less or more
than this reasonable standard. For example, one cannot demand material
specification of an instruction sheet or instructions of a materials list.
Likewise, one cannot ensure safety from high toxicity from a description of
product services or envision practical use from a list of the products
hazardous sides effects. This kind of report presents technical information for
a specific purpose. A reader must be prepared to comprehend the
documents content and to acknowledge its intent.
Four good rules to follow when establishing the communication
contract of a technical report are the following:
1. Select the simplest word available to present accurately a given data.
2. Define any technical term that the reports intended reader may not
know or that can imply more than one meaning.
3. Construct straightforward sentences and firm paragraphs, avoiding
wordiness or circuity.
4. Design the most efficient and effective communication strategy for
imparting technical information (e.g., words, numbers or graphics).
If these guidelines to common sense are followed, the writers duty will be
discharged concisely and the readers task will be fulfilled expeditiously.
The structure of a given technical text depends upon the circumstances of
communication. The report of a scientific experiment may proceed
chronologically from hypothesis to procedure to test results to discussion to
conclusion. The report of an engineering design may proceed spatially form
an exterior view to an interior perspective on construction. Or the report of
product safety may proceed categorically according to the circumstances
and use (e.g., temperature, pressure and altitude). Whatever the context of a

reports communication, a technical text must specify its own aim and limit
its application.
As with other report types, the technical report demands a descriptive
title and is well served by an introductory sentence or paragraph stating its
purpose and defining its scope. The latter mandate applies particularly to
technical reports that offer only partial explanation of a product, process or
experiment. A simple sentence of exposition making clear what the report
contains and does not contain can save confusion and may even, under
proper circumstances, prescribes limit of legal liability.
All the approaches to composition that we have discussed are available
to a technical writer. Reliable heading are especially important here
inasmuch as a reader may want to scan to the items of information most
useful at a given time. Charts and graphs are also important to the
presentation and explanation of complex information. Technical illustrating
goes beyond usual graphic display and is specific to each professional field.
The designs and uses of orthographic, axonometric, and oblique projections,
for instance, require skills and training beyond our interest in composition.
Whether or not a report writer actually creates technical illustration, he or
she may be held accountable for their contribution to communication.
The text of a technical report has a primary descriptive aim. It I
evaluative or persuasive only by implication. This kind of report documents
facts, verifies numbers, and validates designs. Where doubt or discrepancy
exists, the technical reporter is obliged to acknowledge a margin of
reasonable interpretation. as with any other report, a technical text binds
together a body of information, the writer and the reader within a particular
business context and documents their linkage for future reference.


Purpose and scope (a brief description of the reports aim and

Four suggested formats for the technical report follow. Each is presented in
outline form
only major
While theuses
cover all
(a survey
of the appropriate
situations of technical
reporting, they cover a range of structural possibilities.
The circumstances selected for illustration are product specifications,
Documentation (a review for all pertinent experiments and
scientific research, industrial process and theory presentation.
designs by which the information was gathered).


Specifications (a graphic listing of vital product data such as

weights, materials, and strength).
Technical report
format 1

Standards of measure (a description of criteria for data



Quality assurance (a survey of test results, plus-or-minus variance,

and guarantees of product or service performance).


Shipping and handling (a description of preferred methods for

transportation and delivery).


Warnings (a list of hazards associated with the proper and

improper uses of the product or service).


Appendixes (any supplemental data or documentation).


Abstract (a brief summary of report contents to follow).


Introduction (a statement of the purpose of this experiment and

Technical report
format to
2 its interpretation).

Review of Literature (a survey of pertinent literature describing

related research or provocation of current research).


Experimental Method and Materials (a narrative description of

the experiments procedure).


Test Results (a descriptive account of all measurable test



Discussion (a consideration of the experiments meaning,

interpretation and application).


Conclusions (a summary statement of the importance of this

research and a call for pertinent future investigation).


Appendixes (any supplemental data or documentation of test

methods and results).

Technical Report Format 3


Definition of Problem (a narrative introduction to the

process described and the need for its utilization).


Description of Materials (a listing of all equipment, parts,

and other materials required of the process reported).


Description of Personnel (a listing of all personnel

required of the process including necessary skills and


Procedures (a step-by-step, chronological account of the

process documented).


Summary (a review of the need for this process, its

procedures, and advantages).

Technical Report Format 4


Introduction (a description of the general theory and its

context in relation to other perspectives).


Theory (a full statement of the theory with its contributing



Definitions and Limitations (a delineation of any special

understanding s pertinent to the theory and its


Computations (an overview of the logical, experimental, or

mathematical proofs of the theory).


Discussion (a consideration of the theorys strengths and

weaknesses and possible applications).


Conclusion (a summary statement of the theorys

importance and a call for appropriate testing).


References (a citation of all contributing references and

personnel assistance in theory construction and testing).


Technical Data Report
(Dispersant Additive)

Here is a report
a variation
of thewhich
is the
number under
2-amino-2methyl-1-propanol containing 7% of water. The colorless
liquid has a relatively low viscosity and remains mobile at
temperatures as low as 4C (39F).

Specifications for DA-17

Water (max.) ..7.9% by wt
Color (max.) 22 APHA
Nonvolatile matter (max.) 0.005% by wt

Properties of DA-17
Specific gravity at 25/25C 0.951
Weigh per gallon at 25C 7.61 lb
Viscosity at 25C (77F) 145 cp
At 10C (50F) . 0.00095/C
Flash point, tag open cup 169F
Tag closed cup 179F

Vapor pressure at 180F ... -237

Freezing point .. 2C
Surface tension, neat . 35-39
In 10 % aqueous solution . -58
pH of 0.1M aqueous solution
at 20C . 10.9
pKa at 25C . 9.46

Uses of DA-17
1. In latex emulsion paints, DA-17 is an effective
dispersant for pigments and performs fatty acid salts
functions in emulsification systems for waterimmiscible liquid ingredients.
2. DA-17 is an emulsifier for polyethylene and wax by
either the normal emulsification methods or pressure
3. DA-17 is an amine for neutralizing the carboxylic acid
maoieties in acid-functional resins making them
suitable for use in water-borne coatings.

Shipping and Handling of DA-17

DA-17 is the shipped in bulk in tank cars and tank
trucks; in AX6E 55-gallon drums containing 410 lb net.
DA-17 is corrosive to copper and aluminum.
Do not store near heat or flame.

Toxity of DA-17

Prolonged exposure of the skin to DA-17 may result in

minor irritations. In case of skin contact, wash the exposed area
with water only. Wash contaminated clothing before reuse.
Effects of inhalation have not been fully measured at this

Further Information Regarding DA-17

Technical bulletins describing continued research on DA-17
are available from Roltex sales representatives or the Division of
Industrial Research.

Activity 1. Create a Technical report.

Create a Technical report in an area of your specialization (e.g.,
manufacturing, administrative science, personnel management, industrial
research, theoretical mathematics, market analysis, or product design). Write
the report by means of a sensible structure and appropriate style. Produce
the document in neat print with effective graphic display.

Attach to this report a preliminary page answering these questions:

1. What is the business context for this report?
2. What position is the writer assumed to hold within a corporate
3. What is a profile of the reports intended reader?