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Gurtiza, Vince A.


10:30-11:30AM M/W/F


Once you have written a successful proposal and have secured the resources to do a
project, you are expected to update the client on the progress of that project. This
updating is usually handled by progress reports, which can take many forms:
memoranda, letters, short reports, formal reports, or presentations. What information
is expected in a progress report? The answer to this question depends, as you might
expect, on the situation, but most progress reports have the following similarities in
1. Background on the project itself. In many instances, the client (a manager at
the National Science Foundation, for instance) is responsible for several
projects. Therefore, the client expects to be oriented as to what your project is,
what its objectives are, and what the status of the project was at the time of the
last reporting.
2. Discussion of achievements since last reporting. This section follows the
progress of the tasks presented in the proposal's schedule.
3. Discussion of problems that have arisen. Progress reports are not necessarily
for the benefit of only the client. Often, you the engineer or scientists benefit
from the reporting because you can share or warn your client about problems
that have arisen. In some situations, the client might be able to direct you
toward possible solutions. In other situations, you might negotiate a revision of
the original objectives, as presented in the proposal.
4. Discussion of work that lies ahead. In this section, you discuss your plan for
meeting the objectives of the project. In many ways, this section of a progress
report is written in the same manner as the "Plan of Action" section of the
proposal, except that now you have a better perspective for the schedule and
cost than you did earlier.
5. Assessment of whether you will meet the objectives in the proposed schedule
and budget. In many situations, this section is the bottom line for the client. In
some situations, such as the construction of a highway, failure to meet the
objectives in the proposed schedule and budget can result in the engineers
having to forfeit the contract. In other situations, such as a research project,
the client expects that the objectives will change somewhat during the project.

An Annual Report is a comprehensive report on a company's activities throughout the
preceding year. Annual reports are intended to give shareholders and other interested
people information about the company's activities and financial performance. They
may be considered as grey literature. Most jurisdictions require companies to prepare
and disclose annual reports, and many require the annual report to be filed at the
company's registry. Companies listed on a stock exchange are also required to report at
more frequent intervals (depending upon the rules of the stock exchange involved).
Typical annual reports will include

General corporate information

Operating and financial review

Director's Report

Corporate governance information

Chairpersons statement

Auditor's report

Contents: non-audited information

Financial statements, including

Balance sheet also known as Statement of Financial Position

Income statement also profit and loss statement.

Statement of changes in equity

Cash flow statement

Notes to the financial statements

Accounting policies


The project report is a document, which gives an account of the project proposal to
ascertain the prospects of the proposed plan/activity. The project report contains
detailed information about:

Land & building required

Manufacturing Capacity per annum

Manufacturing Process

Machinery & equipment along with their prices and specifications

Requirements of raw materials

Power & Water required.

Manpower needs


Cost of the project and production.

Financial analyses & economic viability of the project.

A short appraisal report limited to property characteristics, valuation, and
recommendation. A report by a title company as to the condition of the title on a
specific date. A letter report gives no insurance on that title.
In today's advanced technological settings, an analytical report is generally used to
detail trends. An example of such a report might list the top products sold over a fivemonth period and the related analytics. On a website, analytics are used to measure,
collect and analyze data for website optimization.
Often part of an analysis report, web analytics are used for the purpose of marketing
and business research and as an aid in improving the effectiveness of a business site.
Analytics can extend to customer-relationship platforms and to inventory activity as
well. A traditional analytical report used for business research features an executive
summary, an introduction, study results, a conclusion and recommendations.

A feasibility study is done before an idea is approved or implemented. It is not a

marketing proposal but rather an unbiased, factual inspection of what the idea means
for the business. It examines multiple aspects of the idea, such as its potential market,
initial and ongoing investment needs, staffing and equipment requirements, impact on
current business operations, competition, marketing schemes and profit expectations
in the short and long term. The study also identifies potential risks and defines
mitigating solutions. This is an important element of feasibility studies, because
addressing shortcomings while an idea is still on paper is more cost effective than
after it is in production. This helps prevent unplanned costs, delayed schedules and
lost customers.
Feasibility reports for complex technical ideas requiring large investments are more
sophisticated than straightforward, low risk ones. In general, a feasibility report
should address the marketing, technical, financial and organizational aspects of the
idea and its positive and negative outcomes for the business.
The thought of writing a proposal overwhelms many people, but the task does not
have to be daunting. Proposals are written when people need to ask permission to
make a purchase, do a project, or write a paper; the proposal is a formal way of
putting forth an idea and asking for action to be taken on that idea. A
business proposal is a written offer from a seller to a prospective buyer. Business
proposals are often a key step in the complex sales processi.e., whenever a buyer
considers more than price in a purchase.
A position paper is an essay that presents an opinion about an issue (typically that of
the author or another specified entity). Position papers are published in academia, in
politics, in law and other domains. A position paper presents an arguable opinion
about an issue. The goal of a position paper is to convince the audience that your
opinion is valid and worth listening to. Ideas that you are considering need to be
carefully examined in choosing a topic, developing your argument, and organizing your
paper. Position papers range from the simplest format of a letter to the editor through
to the most complex in the form of an academic position paper. Position papers are
also used by large organizations to make public the official beliefs and
recommendations of the group.