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To Study The Reasons Of Absenteeism Of XI Std

Student And Find Out The Remedies.

Yashwant Rao Chavan Maharastra Open University, (YCMOU)

ACTION RESERCH

Student Name
Shaini Jaura
Study centre Code
35284
PRN
2012017002901312

Dnyan Ganga Education Trusts


College of Education (B.Ed.)
Thane(W)
2012-2013

I - Self Declaration

I Shalini Jaura declare that the research work To Study The Reasons Of
Absenteeism Of XI Std Student And Find Out The Remedies.
have successfully completed under the guidance of Nitin M. Dhage
This is my own writing .This research I have not presented for any degree
course.
Researcher
Date: ___________
Shalini Jaura

II - Certificate Guide
2

This is to certify that Shalini Jaura has done research on To Study The
Reasons Of Absenteeism Of XI Std Student And Find Out The Remedies.
This work has done under my own guidance and her writing based on
facts and questionnaire.
Date: ___________
______
_
Guides Sign

III Certificate of College

This is to certify that Shalini Jaura has taken admission to D.S.M


course and has presented work on To Study The Reasons Of Absenteeism Of
XI Std Student And Find Out The Remedies.

For this research she has completed her work under the guidance
of Mr. Nitin M. Dhage.
This research is part and parcel of D.S.M course and this subject is
not presented to any other degree course.

Date

Signature of Principal

IV Acknowledgement
A student is like a pearl diver in search of treasure, in the ocean of
knowledge. For research studies, even sky is not the limit, but a researcher tries
to get as much as possible.
To start with a hymn of thanks to God for his blessings was and is
always with me to overcome any difficulty.
This is to acknowledge my sincere, humble and deepest sense of
gratitude towards my guide respected Mr. Nitin M. Dhage. His guidance, expert
suggestions and moral support during course of investigation has helped me to
complete this project successfully.
Its my pleasure to avail this golden opportunity to express my sincere
thanks to Mrs. Lavanya M. Joshi ; Principal B.Ed college .I am grateful To all
the staff members and my dear classmates.
I think words with me are insufficient to express my heart to
acknowledge my parents, Husband and son for their endurance and being there
for me in every thick and thin.

Date

Shalini Jaura

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

Chapter I
Introduction
1.1

Introduction

1.2
1.3

Need of research
Statement of problem

1.4

Definition of variable

1.5
1.6

Objective of research
Hypothesis of research

1.7
1.8

Scope of research
Limitation of research

1.9

Importance of research

CHAPTER-1
7

INTRODUCTION
1.1. Introduction:Education is not merely the delivery of knowledge, skills and information
from teachers to students. what is really important about being and becoming educated.
Being an educated person means you have access to optimal states of mind regardless of the
situation you are in. You are able to perceive accurately, think clearly and act effectively to
achieve self-selected goals and aspirations
The study of absenteeism is very important for any college. The word
absenteeism means the absence of student from class when he is scheduled to be present at
school/college. when teacher has no information in advance, that the student will not reputed
for class if he has taken leave to which he is entitled or on ground of sickness or in case of
accident. Thus absence may authorized or unauthorized willful or caused by circumstance
beyond teacher's control.
Attendance is an important factor in school success among children and youth.
Studies show that better attendance is related to higher academic achievement for students of
all backgrounds, but particularly for children with lower socio-economic status.Beginning in
kindergarten, students who attend school regularly score higher on tests than their peers who
are frequently absent.
Chronic truancy (frequent unexcused absence) is a strong predictor of
undesirable outcomes in adolescence, including academic failure, dropping out of school,
substance abuse, gang involvement, and criminal activity.
Many factors can contribute to student absenteeism. Family health or financial
concerns, poor school climate, drug and alcohol use, transportation problems, and differing
community attitudes towards education are among the conditions that are often associated
with a childs frequent absence from school.

Absenteeism and Student Performance


People have strong opinions about almost anything and the
issue of education is no exception. How these opinions have been formed needs to be
examined. This is what good research does. It informs and guides. A myriad of factors
influence education and oftentimes, these factors are not independent from each other.
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Factors interact, sometimes these add, and other times, these subtract. General notions
therefore need to be carefully drawn. Writing articles on education can also be quite
challenging. When problems in basic education involve an inability to think critically, it is
difficult to reach the audience and convey the correct message. Oftentimes, sarcasm is lost so
such style of writing needs to be avoided. For people who are convinced of their wisdom and
understanding of how education works, profound messages from basic research can be often
easily lost.
Education Week recently came out with an article, "School Absences Translate to
Lower Test Scores, Study Says". One of the first comments on the article was "Really? We
need a study to show a link between absences and achievement". This is followed by
"Another obvious finding..., A wise man once said that data that is easy to gather is
meaningless". And then, "Duh!" The article related the following important findings from the
study:
"Three days, if you multiply that out by nine months, is five weeks a year," Mr.
Ginsburg said. "You've got more than a quarter of the below-basic kids who are going to miss
five weeks of school a year or more," he said, noting that only 8 percent of students at the
advanced level had missed that much school. "That, to me, would be something that if you
are a chief state school officer or a superintendent, you might worry about."
Being absent for three days in a month strongly correlates with poor performance. As
educators, it is important to know the threshold. Drawing policies on school intervention
regarding absenteeism requires guiding information on where to draw the line. Policies
cannot be simply drawn out of thin air. Three days in a month, that number, a result of
research, is a useful guide for teachers and school administrators. The study as described by
the article is only an initial analysis of the data. Ongoing research will continue to unravel
further the underlying factors that result into absenteeism. This is an important task since this
information likewise is necessary to design the interventions that are relevant.
Among the comments on the article is an informed one and it brings us to another
website, "Attendance Works: Advancing Student Success by Reducing Chronic Absence".
"Sure, the connection between attendance and achievement is obvious. But do you know
how many students in your district or your school are missing 10% of the school year, the
point where research shows that absenteeism undermines academic performance? Unless you
live in Maryland, probably not. Most schools measure average daily attendance (who shows
up) and truancy (who's skipping). But they don't look at who's missing too much school in
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excused and unexcused absences. When they do, they get to some of the "why"--asthma,
homelessness, transportation problems, boredom--and they can figure out how to address it."

The causes of absenteeism of students


1. Lack of Subject Interest
2. Lack of Personal Interest in studies.
3. Available opportunities for entertainment like malls, movie halls etc.
4. The mental capacity of a students does not matches with the course opted.
5.Too much Pampered from family.
6. The poor teaching skills of a teacher also keep away student from the school.
7. Lack of confidence
8. Ragging also cause absenteeism
9. Lack of allied activities also causes absenteeism like no sports program, no freshers or
farewell parties ,no annual day celebration etc.
10.Poor food of canteen may also be consider as one of the reason for absenteeism.
11. Poor infrastructure facility in school such as no place in a library to sit is also one of the
reason of absenteeism.
12. Most of the students are doing private coaching s for their entrance examinations such as
medical engineering or are preparing for their board exams through private tuition causes
absenteeism in school & college.
13 Excess of homework and sometimes fear from examination keep away students from
school/college.
14 Preparation for the participation in TV shows in dance musical or acting,G.K. contest
programs also increase the percentage of absenteeism.
15. Preparation for examination causes absenteeism.
16. If school or college is far off the percentage of absenteeism may increase.
17. Over expectation of parents also deteriorate the attendance of a student when s/he is
unable to cope with parent nature of making comparison among their own children of with
the friends of their child.
18. Too much socialization causes absenteeism. It mostly happens during teen age and
college when the students forms a group to freak out .
19 .When more than desired facilities are provided by parents such as CAR, Mobiles, High
Amount of Money as Pocket Money the student start enjoying those facilities and becomes

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absent.
20. Inferiority complex within student causes absenteeism.

Need for research:Student absenteeism is a serious issue in public education. Concerted efforts have
been expended aimed at engaging students and promoting active learning, but schools are
still full of clock-watchers Many high schoolers regularly skip classes and, according to
some inside reports, the hallways are virtually empty some Friday afternoons.
Student absenteeism is a major concern for lecturers at institutions of higher learning.
Absences create a dead, tiresome, unpleasant classroom environment that makes students
who come to class uncomfortable and the lecturer irritable (Marburger 2001).
Absenteeism disturbs the dynamic teaching-learning environment and adversely
affects the overall well-being of classes (Segal 2008). In quality terms, absenteeism is a
waste of educational resources, time and human potential. Student absenteeism also causes
rework and wasted time for lecturers (Lalek 1995; Rumberger 1997). Lecturers who spend
class time re-teaching lessons take instructional time away from students who attend class
regularly, and the extra time spent going over absentee homework and class assignments
takes time away from lecturer planning periods and time needed to provide individual
assistance (Weller 1996). When students are absent from class, they miss valuable
information resulting from peer-lecturer interaction and the benefits of the specific examples
lecturers use to clarify difficult concepts.

1.3

Statement of Problem
To study the reasons of XI std student Absenteeism and find out the remedies

1.4 Definition of Variable


Absenteeism, according to Casio (2003), is any failure of an employee to report for
or to remain at work as scheduled, regardless of reason (pg. 45); Strickland (1998) writes
that absenteeism is a period of not attending school. Truancy, according to Bell et. al (1994),
is an unexcused and unlawful absence from school without parental knowledge and
consent.

1.5 Objectives of research


11

1. To find out root cause of Absenteeism among 11th standard students


2. To find out remedies for the students Absenteeism.

1.6 Hypothesis of research


If proper guidance is provided to the students, the problem will be solved.

1.7 Scope of research


1.
2.
3.
4.

The researcher has selected 11th commerce class for her research
The researcher has selected Dnyan Ganga Junior college for her research
The researcher has selected Thane city as a place of research
The researcher has selected the academic year 2012-2013

1.8 Limitation of research


1
2

The researcher has not selected 12th standard or any other Degree class for her research
The researcher has not selected 11th (Science) standard or any other Degree class for her
research

3
4

The researcher has not selected Dnyan sadna junior College, St. Xavier Senior secondary

5
6

School for her research.


The researcher has not selected Kalva, Mulund, Airoli as a place of research.
The researcher has selected the academic year 2010-2011, 2011-2012.

1.9 Importance of Research


1. Students: The students will find out the positive results of being in the
classroom. As Absenteeism can spoil their future too. They will learn to be
disciplined and other moral values to be present in the classroom. They will
understand the concepts related to their curricular being regular in Class. The
encouragement, rewards and gaining attention after understanding the
consequences, improve their self esteem too.
2. Teacher: This research will help the teacher to understand the main problem,
cause for it and suggestion provided will help her to bring drastic change in her
classroom and provide her hold in the class to teach qualitatively with
maximum effectiveness.
3. Principal: This research will help her in planning her goal, to organize,
administrate and to supervise the school discipline with the help of better
presence of students in the class in a better way, to guide the teaching and nonteaching staff and students of the institution, to maintain Human relations in a
healthy manner by the steps, activity and remedies given through the action
research study.
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4. Society: Absenteeism creates the nuisance in college and in society too.


Without students class is not the class, As it is said that Empty Mind Devils
Home. If students understand the value of the regularity in the class, only then
they can be a good social animal. The distractive and disturbing behavior of the
student is vulnerable. It may induce them to take part in any of the anti-social
act. This research will help the society to indentify the children with problem
of not attending college and also to correct them by the advised remedies to
keep the environment and society in a safe hand. Because todays children are
the tomorrows future of the society and country.

13

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED
LITERATURE

Chapter II
14

Review of Related Literature

2.1

Introduction

2.2

Review of related literature

2.3

Criticism of related literature

Chapter II
Review of Related Literature
2.1 Introduction
A literature review is a body of text that aims to review the critical points of current
knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological
contributions to a particular topic.
15

Purpose of a Literature Review


There are several purposes to writing a literature review:
1. To provide the reader with an up to date account and discussion of the research findings
in a particular topic.
2. This might sound pretty esoteric but you will find that in writing a literature review you
will learn about the ways other people have constructed their own research projects.
3. Seeing what others have done might help you understand your own assignment.
4. You might be able to see the methods that other more experienced researchers have used
and you might decide to follow on their footsteps and copy their methodological approach.
5. You might also be able to detect conflicting points of view expressed by different authors.
These conflicting points of view might be the indicators of diverging theories within the
same topic.
6. You need to be aware of these conflicting theories as well as of the arguments supporting
these theories in order for you to assess their value and make up your own mind on the
topic.
7. Being aware of the theories will help you later in your life as a student when you will
have to design a larger research project like your dissertation.
8. You might also be able to discuss relevant research carried out in the same topic.
9. It is important to be able to discuss relevant research because very often it is very
difficult (as students and as researchers) to keep abreast of everything that is published
every year in a topic.
10. The job of the writer of the literature review is to summarize and discuss the major
documents published in that topic over a stated period of time.

2.2 Review of related literature

16

1. Student Absenteeism: Whose Responsibility?


Author(s):

Barlow, Joyce; Fleischer, Stephanie

Abstract:
Internationally there is concern about levels of student absenteeism. Research underpinning
this article consisted of a survey of academic staff and 25 interviews with first year students
in a well regarded "new" university in Britain. The article explores the issue of poor
attendance and why a significant number of students seem to have difficulty in engaging
fully with their studies in order to become critical and autonomous learners. We look at the
role of government policy, institutions, educators, students, schools and parents.

2. Causes and Structural Effects of Student Absenteeism:


A Research on Three South African Universities
Author(s): Newman Wadesango and Severino Machingambi
Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate the extent of student absenteeism in
selected universities in South Africa, explore the reasons why student absent themselves from
classes and examine the implications of student
absenteeism. The study adopted the mixed methodology and used a survey research design as
the operational framework for data gathering. Data were collected by self administered
questionnaires and interviews with one hundred and twenty-six students from three
universities in South Africa. The study revealed that student absenteeism is rampant in the
universities under study due to reasons such as: lack of subject interest, poor teaching
strategies by lecturers, unfavourable learning environment, too much socialization, part-time
jobs to augment meagre bursaries granted by various sponsors and poor relations with the
lecturers. The study also found an inverse relationship between student absenteeism and
course performance

3. An Analysis of Teacher and Student Absenteeism in Urban Schools:


What the Research Says and Recommendations for Educational Leaders

17

Author(s): Karen Dupre Jacobs, William Allan Kritsonis, PhD


This article addresses an analysis of current literature on employee and student absenteeism
and seeks to provide key recommendations that may yield higher levels of attendance and
student achievement in urban school districts. It hones on the idea that educational leaders
must be cognizant of the factors relating to absenteeism and its cost to the educational
community at large. Additionally, examples of employee incentives and elements of
effective student truancy plans are recommended that may aide in curtailing student and
teacher absenteeism rate for the district.

CHAPTER - III

RESEARCH DESIGN

18

Chapter III

Research Design

3.1

Introduction

3.2

Research
Methodology

3.3

Sample

3.4

Tools of Research

3.5

Statistical techniques

3.6

Action of Research

19

Chapter III
Research Methodology
3.1 Introduction
Research implies the discovery of truth. It is an intellectual activity undertaken with
the ultimate aim of scientific and systematic creation of knowledge. Human beings rely on
several sources of acquiring knowledge.
1. Research contributes to systematic and scientific development of new theories, laws and
principles, i.e. creation of new knowledge in the academic discipline of education.
2. It helps in testing existing theories and modifying them if necessary.
3. The purpose of research is to trace growth, developmental history, change and status of
phenomena.
4. Research is aimed at solving problems faced by practioners in the field of education
including teachers and principals.
5. It tries to study the cause-and-effect relationships among and between certain phenomena.
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3.2 Meaning of Research


Etymologically, the word Research is derived from the French word recherch
which means to seek again.
Although human beings have not yet devised any perfect method of finding solutions
to their problems found worthy of investigation, there is a general transition from acquiring
knowledge based on customs, tradition, culture, authority and experience to the use of
research incorporating the scientific method.
Research is a systematic attempt at seeking answers to meaningful questions about
events, processes or phenomena through the application of the scientific method. In other
words, research is a formal, logical, methodical and rigorous process aimed at discovering
new knowledge and solving problems.
The Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English defines research as a careful
investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge
According to Kerlinger, Scientific research is systematic, controlled, empirical and
critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural
phenomena.
On the other hand, Redman and Mory defined research in a simplistic manner as a
systematized effort to gain new knowledge.
This is one of the earlier definitions of the term research.
Young defines social research as the systematic method of discovering new facts or
verifying old facts, their sequences, interrelationships, casual explanations and the natural
laws which govern them.
Based on the preceding definitions, it may be said that research is an academic
activity aimed at making original contribution to the available stock of knowledge thereby
leading to progress and advancement. Research enables an individual to comprehend reality
through a logical array of processed data and information. This is very clear from the
definition of research as a studious inquiry or examination, especially a critical and
exhaustive investigation or experimentation having for its aim the discovery of new facts and

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their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories or laws in the light
of newly discovered facts or the practical application of such conclusions, theories or laws.
This definition implies that there is no research without discovery of new knowledge.

3.3 Method of Research


1. Experimental Research
2. Survey Research
3. Historical Research

3.3.1. Experimental Research: Experimental research describes what will be when certain variables are
carefully controlled or manipulated. The focus is on establishing cause-and-effect
relationship between variables. The basic idea behind the experimental method is to attempt
to account for the influence of a factor or factors conditioning a given situation. Purposeful
manipulation is a part of the experimental method. Experimental research provides the most
rigorous test of casual hypothesis. It is an attempt by the researcher to maintain control over
all factors that may affect the result of an experiment. In doing this, the researcher attempts to
determine or predict what may occur.
An experiment involves the comparison of the effects of a particular treatment with
that of a different treatment or with no treatment. In conventional experiments, mention is
typically made to the terms experimental group and control group.
1. Experimental Group : The group in which the experimental treatment is manipulated is
known as the experimental group. It is usually denoted by the symbol X in a research study.

2. Control Group : The group to which either no experimental treatment is given or an


alternate treatment is given is known as the control group. It is usually denoted by the symbol
C in a research study.

22

3. Pre-Test : The scores on a variable measured before the experimental treatment is


administered are known as pre-test scores or observations. They are usually denoted by the
symbol O.

4. Post-Test : The scores on a variable measured after the experimental treatment is


administered are known as post-test scores. They are usually denoted by the symbol O in a
research study.
5. Randomization: The symbol R denotes random assignment of subjects.

6. Variables : Variables are the conditions or characteristics that the experimenter


manipulates, controls or observes. Following are some of the different types of variables

a. Independent Variable The independent variables are those conditions or


characteristics that the experimenter manipulates, controls or observes in his attempt to
ascertain their relationship to observed phenomena.

b. Dependent Variable The dependent variables are those conditions or characteristics


that the experimenter expects to be influenced by the treatment variables. It is measured to
determine the effects of the experimental treatment.

c. Control Variables The term control refers to the researchers effort to remove the
influence of any extraneous variable that might affect the scores on the dependent variables.

d. Confounding variables They are the attributes or characteristics that the researcher
cannot directly measure because their effects cannot be easily separated from other variables,
even though they may influence the relationship between the independent and dependent
variables.

Survey Research : Survey research studies large or small populations by selecting and studying
samples chosen from the populations to discover the relative incidence, distribution or
interrelationships among educational, psychological and sociological variables. It collects
data from a relatively large number of cases at a particular time. It is not concerned with
characteristics of individuals as individuals. It is concerned with the generalized statistics that
result when data are abstracted from a large number of individual characteristics. A Survey
research determines and describes the way things are. It is a distinctive research method that
has its origin in the field of sociology. The key factor in defining the Survey Research is that
some phenomenon is studied, but the researcher does not have control over its variation.
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Historical Research :Researchers who are interested in reporting events and/or conditions that occurred
in the past employ the historical method. An attempt is made to examine past events or
combinations of events and establish facts in order to arrive at conclusions concerning past
events or predict future events. Historical research is a type of analytical research. Its
common methodological characteristics include
(i)

Identifying a research topic that addresses past events,

(ii)

Review of primary and secondary data

(iii)

Systematic collection and objective evaluation of data related to past occurrences with the
help of techniques of criticism for historical searches and evaluation of the information.
(iv) synthesis and explanation of findings in order to test hypothesis concerning causes,
effects or trends of these events that may help to explain present events and anticipate future
events.
Historical studies attempt to provide information and understanding of past historical,
legal and policy events. The historical method consists of the techniques and guidelines by
which historians use historical sources and other evidences to research and then to write
history.
Steps of conducting Historical Research
A systematic approach to the process of historical research requires the following five
basic steps
a) Definition of a Problem
b) Formulation of Research Questions, Objectives or Hypothesis.
c) Systematic Collection of Data
d) Evaluation of Data and Making Inferences
e) Report Writing.

3.4 Methodology of Research


Any project work can be fruitful only if conducted by proper method in a systematic
manner. The investigator has adopted the Survey Method. For conducting the project work
24

students of different schools are surveyed with the help of questionnaire. This helped the
investigator to get detailed information. The tool helped to have face to face contact with the
student which is appropriate for this project .The Historical Method would not have been
appropriate as the current problems faced by the children are considered.
Similarly the Experimental Method was also not suitable as it was not practically feasible to
conduct experiment for each child. Due to the time constraint this method could not be
selected.
Hence the best suited method was the Survey Method, which was selected.

3.5 Action Research:Action Research is associated with hands-on, small-scale research projects. It is also
known as decision-oriented research since it necessitates that the researcher is the same
person as the practitioner who will make and implement the decision based on the findings of
the action research. It is concerned with those practical issues, problems, concerns and needs
of teachers or principals, which arise as a routine part of activity in the real world. Action
research therefore is applied research conducted by teachers or school/college administrators
themselves for dealing with their day-to-day problems and improving educational and/or
managerial practices. It thus applies the scientific method to the solution of day-to-day
school/college problems.
According to Picciano, Action research studies problems at the local level. It usually
focuses on the development, implementation and testing of a new product, programme, plan
or procedure in a school building.
It is an approach in which teachers or administrators study their own problems or
concerns in their own classrooms or schools.
According to Frost, Action research is a process of systematic reflection, enquiry
and action carried out by individuals about their own professional practice.
It is also known Teacher Research.

Purpose of Action Research

25

1. It is aimed at improving the quality of educational or managerial practices and working


conditions.

2. It is aimed at helping a teacher or a group of teachers to change or improve a practice or to


help them understand issues or problems for themselves.
3. Its focus is on solving practical issues of importance to teachers.
4. It enables teachers and principals to cope with the challenges and problems posed by the
internal and/ or external factors and bring about innovations.
5. It enables teachers and principals to develop a more comprehensive view of their situation, to
develop action strategies to bring about improvements and to evaluate the outcomes of their
efforts.
For this study the Survey Method was selected as it is the most suitable method
to collect data.

First the subject or the problem for the research is selected by researcher.

A well thought out and planned questionnaire was prepared taking into consideration the
problem of fatigue faced by the students in school.

After the approval of the questionnaire the learner listed the schools to be visited.

The students of 11th standard were considered for this questionnaire, hence the learner went
to each class

The students were given an idea about the purpose of this questionnaire and the questions
were explained to them.

Later on the students were given the questionnaires and asked to fill up the relevant details.

The gathered data was fed into the excel sheet.


For this study the learner has met many students . It needed proper planning and it also gave
an opportunity to have face to face contact with the students.

3.6 Population of research

Population is any group of individual that has one or more characteristics in common that

is interested to the research.


The population is very big and it is difficult to study the whole population. So the Dnyan

Ganga Junior College been selected for the research.


For this research the 11th standard students of Dnyan Ganga Junior College,Thane is the
population of this research and the total number of students is 52.
26

3.7 Sample
Sample is a portion of which is selected from the entire population under study. The
population has to be sampled for effective carryout of project work. In the study the reliable
conclusions are drawn regarding the properties of the surveyed group. Such a group is called
population. To collect required information for the study from every factor in the population
is very expensive. It is more time consuming, expensive and laborious work under such
circumstances, a sub-group works as the representative of the population.

Definition of Sampling
1. Sampling means methods used for drawing a sample from the population.

2. The representative proportion of the population is called Sample.


Types of Sampling 1. Random sampling : Random sampling is a process of selecting a sample in such
a way that all individuals in the defined population have an equal and independent
chance of being selected for the sample.
In this method every factor from the population has equal independent opportunity of
selection. This method is more useful when the population is homogeneous.
2. Stratified sampling : Stratified sampling is the process of selecting sample in
such a way that identified sub-groups in the population are represented in the same
preparation that they exist in the population.
When we want to select a sample from each level the stratified sampling method is
more useful. In this method since the sample is selected from each level, the sample is
more representative and accurate.
3. Cluster Sampling: When out of the total population group of the fundamental
factors from the population having identical properties is called cluster.
In cluster sampling, the cluster is selected from the other clusters only by random
sampling method, and all the factors of the selected cluster are included in the
sample, classroom, school, family, village etc.

Important points regarding Sample:

27

1. Sample is the part of population which indicated the exact population.


2. Every factor of the sample is from the population only.
3. Sample procedures provide generalization on the basis of a relatively small proportion of
the population.
4.

Similarity between the conclusions drawn from the sample and from studying
populations depends on the methods used for selecting samples.

3.8 Tools of Research


Questionnaire: - A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of
questions and other prompts asked to individuals to obtain statistically useful information
about a given topic. The questionnaire provides a standardized data-gathering procedure.
Points to be kept in mind while forming a questionnaire
1. Keep the language simple Analyse the audience and write as per their level.
2. Keep the questions short Long questions tend to become ambiguous and confusing.
3. Keep the number of questions to a minimum Ask questions that will contribute to
your survey.
4. Limit each question to one idea or a concept A question consisting of more than one
idea may confuse the respondent and lead to a meaningless answer.
5. Do not ask leading questions These questions are worded in a manner that suggests
an answer.
6. Avoid subjective terms such as good, fair and bad These terms mean different
things to different people.
7. Allow for all possible answers Respondents who cannot find their answer among
your list will be forced to give an invalid reply or possibly, become frustrated and
refuse to complete the survey.
8. Avoid emotional or morally charged questions The respondent may feel your survey
is getting a bit too personal.
9. Formulate your questions and answers to obtain exact information and to minimize
confusion Try to alleviate conflicts.
10. Organize the pattern of the questions Arrange the questions properly.
11. Pre-test the questionnaire This is the most important step in preparing your
questionnaire.

28

12. Have your questionnaire neatly produced on quality paper A professional looking
product will increase your return rate.

Advantages of a Questionnaire
1.

Questionnaires are relatively inexpensive in terms of both money and time, as they do
not require training interviewers as is done in interviewing.
2. They do not require as much effort from the questioner as verbal or telephone
surveys.
3. They often have standardized answers that make it simple to compile data.
4. They enable the researcher to maintain the respondents privacy.
5. They can be administered simultaneously to large groups whereas.

Disadvantages of a Questionnaire
1. There is the problem of non-returns, which refers to questionnaires, or individual
questions that are not answered by the people to whom they were sent.
2. There is the problem of misinterpretation especially when the respondent does not
understand either the research instructions or the questions in the tool.
3. There is the problem of validity.

3.9 Method Of Marks


The questions have been divided into three important factors.
The expected answer can be one of these:Always, Frequently, Never

Statement

Always

Often

Never

Positive

Negative

3.10 Mathematical / Statistical Technique


A statistical technique has contributed greatly in gathering, organizing, analyzing and
interpreting data. The processing of numerical data through statistical method and for
29

understanding the concept that underline there development and their application the learner
must know the strength and the weakness of the statistical methods which he uses so that he
may not mislead or be mislead by such methods.
The learner has drawn some important statements from questionnaire of the students,
teachers and students. Learner has taken out the percentage of response of students. Separate
tables for different factors have been made and according to this bar graphs are drawn
separately.

Statistical Instrument
Learner used the statistical instrument in which bar graph is used for analysis. The bar
graph which can be arranged either horizontally or vertically representing data by bar of
equal width drawn to scale length the numerical data may be lettered within the bar of
outside it. A grade may be used to help quantity of the graphic representation of the
components off a whole unit is one bar.
Horizontal bar graphs are used to compare components at a particular time comparison at
different times.

3.11 Bibliography
1. Research Methodology by Best and Khan
2. Research methodology by Shahu and Garret
3. Lokesh Koal

30

CHAPTER IV

DATA COLLECTION ANALYSIS


AND INTERPRETATION

31

Chapter IV

Data Collection Analysis and Interpretation

4.1

Introduction

4.2

Descriptive and Inferential Analysis

4.3

Testing of Hypothesis

32

Chapter IV
Descriptive and Inferential Analysis
4.1 Introduction
Analysis is the computation of certain indices or measures along with searching for
patterns of relationship that exit among the data groups.
Descriptive analysis is largely the study of distributions of one variable. This study
provides us with profiles of companies, workshops, persons and other subjects on any of the
multiple characteristics such as size, composition, efficiency, preference.
The analysis may be in respect of two variables or in respect of more than two
variables or in respect of two variables to work out various measures that show the size and
shape of distribution (s) along with the study of measuring relationship between two or more
variables.

4.2Inferential analysis:Inferential analysis is concerned with the various tests of significance for testing
hypotheses in order to determine with what validity data can be said to indicate some
conclusion or conclusions. It is also concerned with the estimation of population values. It
mainly on the basis of inferential analysis that the task of interpretation ( i.e. the task of
drawing inferences and conclusions) is performed.
Inferential analysis is often known as statistical analysis. Inferential statistics is
concern with the process of generalization. Inferential statistics is also known as sampling
statistics and are mainly concerned with two major types of problems
(i) The estimation of population parameters.
(ii) The testing of statistical hypotheses.

33

4.3 Tools of inferential analysis:4.3.1 Measure of central tendency


Measures of central tendency point about which item have a tendency to cluster.
Such a measures is considered as the most representative figure for the entire mass of
data. It is also known as statistical average.
Types of measures of central tendency
1. Mean
2. Median

3. Mode

1. Mean
Mean is known as arithmetic average, is the most common measures of central
tendency. It can be defined as the value which we get by dividing the total of the value which
we get by dividing the total of the values of various given items in a series by the total
number of items.

Mean or X =

fX
---------N

Where,
X

= Mean

= Symbol of summation

fX

= Value of the i th items X


i= 1,2,n

= total number of items


34

2. Median
Median is a positional average and is used only in the context of qualitative
phenomena. Median is the value of the middle items of series when it arranged in
ascending or descending order of magnitude. It divides the series into two half; in one
half all items are less than median, where as in the other half all the items have values
higher than median.
Median

l + N /2-- F

*i

f
Where,
l = Lower limit of the interval in which the median falls
F = No. of cases below median interval
f = frequency
N = frequency total

i = size of the class interval


3. Mode
The mode is a distribution is that item around which there is maximum
concentration.
Mode is the size of the item which has the maximum frequency but at items such
as item may not be mode on account of the effect of the frequencies of neighbouring
items.

Measures Of Dispersion
Standard deviation
Standard deviation is most widely used measure of dispersion of a series and is
commonly denoted by the symbol

(pronounced as sigma).

35

Standard deviation is defined as the square-root of the average of square of


deviations, when such deviations for the values of individual items in a series are
obtained from arithmetic average i.e mean.

Measure Of Asymmetry
1) Skewness:Skewness is a measure of asymmetry and shows the manner in which the items are
clustered around the average. In skew distribution the balance is thrown to one side. The
amount by which the balance exceeds on one side measures the skewness of the series.
In position skewness,
Z<M<X
In negative skewness
X<M<Z
Where,
Z = Skewness
X= Mean
M= Median
Usually skewness is measure as
Skewness =X Z
With co-efficient (j) as
j= X-Z

2) Kurtosis:Kurtosis is the measure of flat- Toppedness of a curve. A bell shaped curve or the
normal curve is Mesokurtic because it is kurtic in the centre. If the curve is relatively more
peaked than the normal curve , it is called Leptokurtic and the curve is more flate than the

36

normal curve it is called Platykurtic. Kurtosis is the humpedness of the curve and points to
the nature of distribution of items in the middle of class.

4.1: Score according to pre- test of total student of Absenteeism


Table 4.1
Score of Absenteeism among total student according to pre- test
No

Part

Pre-test

Sample

52

Median

41.54

Interpretation:From the above table shows that pre test sample is 52 & their Pre test median is 41.54. It
shows that

Findings:1. Available opportunities for entertainment like malls, movie halls etc is the reason for
increasing absenteeism in class.
2. Most of the students find that their interest does not match with the course opted.
3. Many students are so much pampered in family that they dont want to attend the classes;
they like to stay home only.
4. Many students stay away from school because they think that their teachers teaching skills
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

are not upto mark.


Most of the students feel lack of confidence thats why they avoid college.
Ragging is also the reason of absenteeism sometimes.
Sometimes. Lack of allied activities also causes absenteeism.
As canteen facility is not proper, so students bunk the classes or not come to college.
Library is also not so big that cant afford for more than 20 students one time due to this

reason also students prefer to study at home.


10. In days of examination students prefer to study at friend home or their own home.
11. Most of the time students form groups to freak out , that also cause absenteeism.
12. Students are not interested in studies.
13. Due to irregularities students could not complete their class work & home work.
14. Students feel school is boring.

Remedies: 37

1. Guidance on punctuality and regularity of each student is take care by teachers.


2. Value education should include in syllabus to avoid absenteeism among students.
3. Teaching methods should improve by the teachers, so that students feel interested to attend
the classes
4. Students should given the choice to choose their subject according to their interest.
5. Canteen facilities should be improved. Nutritious food should be provided.
6. Library sitting arrangement should be improved.
7. Ragging sometimes cause absenteeism in starting of the session, so staff should keep watch
on these activities.
8. There should be system of conveying the message to the parents of the students, if any
student is absent for 7 to 10 days without any prior intimation.
9. There should be extracurricular activities at college so that students feel enthusiastic in
college.
10. There should be award for the regular students.
11. Internal marks weightage should be there for the regular students.
12. Activities should be arranged by making the groups of students who are friends... as G.K
competitions, Group Discussions etc.
13. There should be seminars or guest lecturers to boost the confidence of the students.
14. Parents should understand the value of the study and they should not pamper their children
for not attending the college.
15. If any student is having problem to understand any subject, there should be teachers who can
understand their problem, and arrange the special classes for the students.

4.2: Score according to Post- test of total student Absenteeism


38

Table 4.2
Score of Absenteeism among total student according to pre- test

No

Part

Post-test

Sample

52

Median

25.32

From the above table 4.2, It shows that post test sample is 52 & their median is 25.32. It
shows that there is a drastic improvement on students Absenteeism after providing the above
said remedies to the students.

Score according to Pre-test and Post- test of total student Absenteeism


Table 4.3
Score according to Pre- test and Post- test of total student Absenteeism

No

Part

Test
Pre test

Difference

Post test
39

Sample

52

52

Median

41.54

25.32

16.22

From the above table4.3, it shows that pre-test sample is 52 & their median is 41.54%. It
shows after understanding problem of Absenteeism among student research has suggested
remedies. In post test researcher got median of 25.32% means there is improvement in
presence in class among students and the difference is 16.22.

Graph 4.1
Graph according to Pre- test and Post- test of total student
Absenteeism

40

Median
45
40
35
30
Median

25
20
15
10
5
0
Pre Test

Post Test

41

CHAPTER - V

FINDINGS AND
SUGGESTIONS

Chapter V
Findings and Suggestions

42

5.1

Summary

5.2

Findings

5.3

Remedies

5.4

Suggestion for Further studies

Chapter V
Finding & Suggestions
5.1 Introduction
Education is not merely the delivery of knowledge, skills and information from
teachers to students. what is really important about being and becoming educated. Being an
educated person means you have access to optimal states of mind regardless of the situation

43

you are in. You are able to perceive accurately, think clearly and act effectively to achieve
self-selected goals and aspirations
The study of absenteeism is very important for any college. The word absenteeism
means the absence of student from class when he is scheduled to be present at school/college.
When teacher has no information in advance, that the student will not reputed for class if he
has taken leave to which he is entitled or on ground of sickness or in case of accident. Thus
absence may authorize or unauthorized wilful or caused by circumstance beyond teacher's
control.
Attendance is an important factor in school success among children and youth.
Studies show that better attendance is related to higher academic achievement for students of
all backgrounds, but particularly for children with lower socio-economic status. Beginning
in kindergarten, students who attend school regularly score higher on tests than their peers
who are frequently absent.3
Chronic truancy (frequent unexcused absence) is a strong predictor of undesirable
outcomes in adolescence, including academic failure, dropping out of school, substance
abuse, gang involvement, and criminal activity.
Many factors can contribute to student absenteeism. Family health or financial concerns,
poor school climate, drug and alcohol use, transportation problems, and differing community
attitudes towards education are among the conditions that are often associated with a childs
frequent absence from school.6

Statement of Problem
To study the reasons of Absenteeism of XI std student and find out the remedies.

Definition of Variable
Absenteeism, according to Casio (2003), is any failure of an employee to report for or
to remain at work as scheduled, regardless of reason (pg. 45); Strickland (1998) writes that
absenteeism is a period of not attending school. Truancy, according to Bell et. al (1994), is an
unexcused and unlawful absence from school without parental knowledge and consent.

Objectives of research
1.To find out root cause of Absenteeism among 11th standard students If proper guidance
is provided to the
students, the
2.To find out remedies for the students Absenteeism.
problem will be

Hypothesis of research

Research

design:

44

The researcher has selected experimental method because present subject is related
to future problems. So in this research, researcher intension is to search problems of
Absenteeism among students and to find out remedies. So the researcher ha selected
experimental method for Research.

Samples:1. Research has selected thane city as the place for her research as step one.
2. In second step, Research has selected Dnyan Ganga Junior College for her research
3. In third step, Research has selected 52 students for her research.

Tools used for research:


This is to study problem of indiscipline among 11th standard students and to find out
remedies. Researcher has the printed questionnaire.
In this research, there are 20 questions and options are
1. Always
2.

Sometimes

3. Never.

Marking Scheme:
There are 5 negative statements in the questionnaire and the other 15 are positive
statements.

Statement

Positive

Always

Sometimes

1
45

Never

Negative

Data Analysis:
The data collecting analysis and interpretation : The researcher has selected central
tendencies for her research.

1. Descriptive Analysis
B) Central tendencies:
1. Mean
2. Median

Scope of research

The researcher has selected 11th commerce class for her research
The researcher has selected Dnyan Ganga Junior college for her research
The researcher has selected Thane city as a place of research
The researcher has selected the academic year 2012-2013
3. Mode

Limitation of research
The researcher has not selected 12th standard or any other Degree class for her research
The researcher has not selected 11th (Science) standard or any other Degree class for her
research
The researcher has not selected Dnyan sadna junior College, St. Xavier Senior secondary
School for her research.
The researcher has not selected Kalva, Mulund, Airoli as a place of research.
The researcher has selected the academic year 2010-2011, 2011-2012.

5.2 Findings:1. Available opportunities for entertainment like malls, movie halls etc is the reason for
increasing absenteeism in class.
2. Most of the students find that their interest does not match with the course opted.
3. Many students are so much pampered in family that they dont want to attend the
classes, they like to stay home only.
46

4. Many students stay away from school because they think that their teachers teaching
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

skills are not upto mark.


Most of the students feel lack of confidence thats why they avoid college.
Ragging is also the reason of absenteeism sometimes.
Sometimes . Lack of allied activities also causes absenteeism.
As canteen facility is not proper, so students bunk the classes or not come to college.
Library is also not so big that cant afford for more than 20 students one time due to

this reason also students prefer to study at home.


10. In days of examination students prefer to study at friend home or their own home.
11. Most of the time students form groups to freak out , that also cause absenteeism.
12. Students are not interested in studies.
13. Due to irregularities students could not complete their class work & home work.
14. Students feel school is boring.

5.3 Remedies: 1. Guidance on punctuality and regularity of each student is take care by teachers.
2. Value education should included in syllabus to avoid absenteeism among students.
3. Teaching methods should improve by the teachers, so that students feel interested to attend
the classes
4. Students should given the choice to choose their subject according to their interest.
5. Canteen facilities should be improved. Nutritious food should be provided.
6. Library sitting arrangement should be improved.
7. Ragging sometimes cause absenteeism in starting of the session, so staff should keep
watch on these activities.
8. There should be system of conveying the message to the parents of the students, if any
student is absent for 7 to 10 days without any prior intimation.
9. There should be Extracurricular activities at college so that students feel enthusiastic in
college.
10. There should be award for the regular students.
47

11. internal marks weightage should be there for the regular students.
12. Activities should be arrange by making the groups of students who are friends.. as G.K
competitions , Group Discussions etc.
13. There should be seminars or guest lectures to boost the confidence of the students .
14. Parents should understand the value of the study and they should not pamper their
children for not attending the college.
15. If any student is having problem to understand any subject, there should be teachers who
can understand their problem, and arrange the special classes for the students.

5.4 SuggeAstion for further studies:


1. A study problem of Absenteeism among 12th standard students and to find out
remedies.
2. A study of Absenteeism among college students and to find out remedies.
3. A study of Absenteeism among school students and to find out remedies.

48

Annexure

49

Annexure:
Enclosures:
QUESTIONAIRRE
I am absent from class because

Always

1. Lack of Subject Interest


2. Lack of Personal Interest in studies.
3. Available opportunities for entertainment like
malls, movie halls etc.
4. The mental capacity of a students does not
matches with the the course opted.
5. Too much Pampering from family.
6. The poor teaching skills of a teacher also
keep away student from the school.
7. Lack of confidence
8. Ragging also cause absenteeism
9. Lack of allied activities also causes
absenteeism like no sports program, no
freshers or farewell parties ,no annual day
celebration etc.
10.Poor food of canteen may also be consider
as one of the reason for absenteeism.

11.Poor infrastructure facility in school such as


no place in a library to sit is also one of the
reason of absenteeism.

50

Sometime

Never

12. Most of the students are doing private


coaching s for their entrance examinations such
as medical engineering or are preparing for
their board exams through private tuition causes
absenteeism in school & college.
13 Excess of homework and sometimes fear
from examination keep away students from
school/college.
14 Preparation for the participation in TV
shows in dance musical or acting, G.K. contest
programs also increase the percentage of
absenteeism.
15. Preparation for examination causes
absenteeism.
16. If school or college is far off the percentage
of absenteeism may increase.
17. Over expectation of parents also deteriorate
the attendance of a student when s/he is unable
to cope with parent nature of making
comparison among their own children of with
the friends of their child.
18. Too much socialization causes absenteeism.
It mostly happens during teen age and college
when the students form a group to freak out.
19 .When more than desired facilities are
provided by parents such as CAR, Mobiles,
High Amount of Money as Pocket Money the
student start enjoying those facilities and
becomes absent.
20. Inferiority complex within student causes
absenteeism.

51

52