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DMAMethodologyReport

Pressure&LeakageManagementProgram
ContractNo.LWW/0902/XLP03
Date:01/11/2010
Preparedby: WideBayWaterCorporation

DRAFT

DMAMethodologyReport13/08/2014

Contents

1DMADefinition..................................................................................................................................4
2DMAData...........................................................................................................................................5
3DMAAugmentations.........................................................................................................................5
4DMABoundaryValves.......................................................................................................................5
5DMAMeterPointDetails..................................................................................................................5
5.1PRVSelection.............................................................................................................................5
5.2FlowMeterSelection.................................................................................................................6
5.3FlowMeterandPRVPitDetails.................................................................................................6
6DMAPressureMonitoringPoint.......................................................................................................6
7DMABoundaryIntegrityTest............................................................................................................6
8DMAFlowandPressureProfilesandSummaryData.......................................................................7
8.1Baselinedefinition.....................................................................................................................7
8.2MNF&AZPBaselinemeasurement...........................................................................................7
8.3N1Definition...............................................................................................................................8
8.4NightDayFactor(NDF)Definition..............................................................................................8
8.5NDF:N1RelationDefinition......................................................................................................10
8.6AverageN1(N1StepTest)........................................................................................................10
8.7BaselineNDFDefinition............................................................................................................11
9DMALeakingSavingSummaryandReductionSchedule.................................................................11
10DMAFireFlowTest.......................................................................................................................12
11DMASCADAValidation.................................................................................................................12
12DMACosts.....................................................................................................................................12
13DMACommissionSteps................................................................................................................13
14Acknowledgement........................................................................................................................13
AppendixA:BoundaryIntegrityTest................................................................................................14
AppendixB:BaselineLEAKSSuite.....................................................................................................15

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AppendixC:ReviewofLoganN1test...............................................................................................16
AppendixD:SavingsWorksheet.......................................................................................................17
AppendixE:FireFlowTest................................................................................................................18

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1DMADefinition

MWH Australia was commissioned in 2005 to create District Meter Areas (DMA) within
KimberleyParkwatersupplyzoneforLoganWater(1).Thestudywasextendedin2007to
includethefollowingwatersupplyzones:Springwood,MarsdenandGreenbank.

DMAsshouldalwaysincludemeasurementsofinflowsand pressures.AstheLoganWater
DMAsalsoincludepressuremanagementfacilities,amoredefinitiveandappropriateterm
forthem,basedona2010WSSAStudy,wouldbePressureManagementZones(PMZs).
However, the term DMAs is used in this Methodology Report for continuity withprevious
reportsonthisstudy.

All the different DMAs were designed by MWH using the H2OMap Suite 6 (update #2)
hydraulicmodel.

Wide Bay Water Corporation (WBWC) was commissioned in May 2007 to physically
implementthem.

MonthlyprogressmeetingswereheldbetweenMWH,LoganWaterandWBWCtoreview
theDMAdesignand40DMAs(plussevenexistingHighLevelZones)werefinallycreated.

EachDMAwaspresentedbyMWHtoLoganWaterasanImplementationPackwiththe
followinginformation:

DMA Network Plan: a detail network plan with the boundaries, feeders and
boundary valves. As specified by Logan Water, each DMA was designed with two
feeders(justoneDMAwasdesignedwithtreefeeders).

Augmentations:alistofneededaugmentationstofulfilmaximumhourandfireflow
demandswithpreciselocationsandproposedpipediameterandlength

BoundaryValves:alistofalltheboundaryvalvesthatmustbeclosedtoisolateeach
DMA.

Criticalcustomerslist.

PRV&FlowMeterlocations

Flowandpressurepredictedbythemodel.

CriticalPressurePoint&AverageZonePressurePointlocations.

(1)"Logan Water" refer to Allconnex Water's central district, know asLogan Waterunder the Logan City
CouncilpriortoJuly2010

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2DMAData

WBWChadaccesstoLoganWatersbillingsystemandstudiedbillingdatafortheprevious
sixquarters.Thestandardandlargerconsumersandtheirrespectiveconsumptions,withina
DMA,wereassessed.ConsumptioncategoriesusedbyLoganWaterare:

I.
Medium:consumptionbetween1and10Ml/Year
II.

Large1:consumptionsbetween10and20Ml/Year

III.

Large2:consumptionsgreaterthan20Ml/Year

WBWCalsorevaluatedMWHslistofalltheCriticalCustomersinsideeachDMA.

The mains pipe material, size and year of installation, and the numbers of services
connections and meters for each DMA were obtained from Logan Waters GIS/DMA
information.Serviceconnectionmaterialswerenotavailable.

3DMAAugmentations

WBWCstudiedMWHsproposedaugmentationsandproducedadetaildesignofeachone.
Following that, WBWC prepared a Bill of Quantities to be part of the tender document.
Logan Water tendered the works and different contractors were selected, with WBWC
assistance, to implement them. WBWC was responsible for management of the
constructionphase.

4DMABoundaryValves

AspartoftheDMAdesign,MWHdefinedthedifferentboundaryvalvesforeachDMA.They
werereviewedbyWBWCaspartofitsduties.

The new valves were installed by the different contractors as part of their augmentation
contract.Existingvalvesweretestedindividually(thistestconsistsin openingthehydrant
withinthevalvetobecheckedandtheclosestvalvetoconfirmtheabsenceofflow)oras
partoftheBoundaryIntegrityTest.Thosethatdidnotworkproperlywerereplaced.

5DMAMeterPointDetails

5.1PRVSelection

TheflowsandpressurespredictedbyMWHsmodelatbothinletsofeachDMAwereused
bythepressurereductionvalve(PRV)suppliertodeterminethemostappropriatePRVsize
andmodelforeachinlet.

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5.2FlowMeterSelection

Theflowmeter(FM)sizewaslaterdefinedtomatchthePRVsizewithspecialconsideration
totheperformanceoftheflowmeteratlowflows.However,becauseoftheverylowflows
thatoccurredinsomeoftheBaselineDefinitionTest,seeSection8.1,recordedflowswere
oftenbelowtheManufacturesQminvalue.

5.3FlowMeterandPRVPitDetails

FollowingthePRVandFMsizeselection,WBWCdesignedtheirrespectivepitsbasedonthe
locationdefinedbyMWH,thesizeselectedbythePRVsupplierandfurtherdiscussionswith
Logan Water. The pit construction tender was issued by Logan Water, with WBWC
assistance,andthephysicalexecutionwasmanagedbyWBWC.

Logan Water designed the control system with Parsons Brickenhoff (PB) assistance. Logan
Watertenderedandmanagedthecontracttosupplyandinstalltelemetryoutstationstoall
theDMAspits.

6DMAPressureMonitoringPoint

The two Pressure Monitoring Points: Critical Pressure Point (CPP) and the Average Zone
PressurePoint(AZP)weredefinedbyMWHaspartoftheDMAdesignusingtheirhydraulic
model.LoganWaterconstructedapermanentmonitoringpointforeachoneoftheminall
thedifferentDMAs.Thesepermanentmonitoringpointsconsistofasmallchamberwitha
tappingsuitabletoinstalladataloggeronanasrequiredbasis.

7DMABoundaryIntegrityTest

WBWCinstalledbetweenfiveandtendataloggers,readingflowandpressure,atstrategic
locationsinsideandoutsideofeachDMAwithareadingintervalsettingofoneminute.The
testwasdoneatnight;whileLWmanipulatethePRVtoreducetheCPPpressureby10m,
WBWCandtwoLoganWatertechnicianscheckedthevaluesofthedataloggersandverified
that the differences between the pressures inside and outside the Zone confirmed the
integrityoftheDMAboundary.

Afulldescriptionofthetest,WorkMethodStatementonBoundaryIntegrity,isattached
atAppendixA.

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8DMAFlowandPressureProfilesandSummaryData

8.1Baselinedefinition

WBWC and Logan Water agreed to determine four Baselines to manage the flow and
pressureatanyDMA,eachonewiththefollowingdefinition:

Baseline1:

This Baseline is before Leak Detection and Repairs by the Utility (and possibly by customers), and
beforePressureControl.

WBWCstaffthensearchedforleaksandrequestedtheirrepairtoLoganWater.

Baseline2:

This Baseline is after Leak Detection and Repairs by the Utility (and possibly by customers), and
beforePressureControl.

Baseline3:

ThisBaselineisafterLeakDetectionandRepairsbytheUtility(andpossiblybycustomers),andafter
FirstStagePressureControlwhichusuallyconsistedinflowmodulatedtoachieve30montheCPPat
theMinimumNightFlow.

Baseline4

This projected scenario values are at the Final Stage of pressure management (with flow
modulationandminimumnightpressureof220KPaattheCPP).

AfterWBWCandLoganWaterhadagreedabouttheFirstStagepressurereductionlevelat
eachDMA,thepressurereductionatthePRVwasdonebyWBWCstaffandcheckedinthe
fieldbyLoganWatercrews.

8.2MNF&AZPBaselinemeasurement

ForeachBaselinetheMinimumNightFlow(MNF)volumeandAZPpressurewasmeasured
during at least 7 days. The measurement was done by WBWC and recorded with data
loggers.

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Date

MNF(1hourweekday,l/s)

AZP(kPa)

TheadoptedDMAweekdaymedianBaselineXvaluesare:

MNF(BX)=

AZNP(BX)=

8.3N1Definition

The IWAs (International Water Association) Water Loss Task Force recommends that the
mostphysicallymeaningfulandBestPracticeformofequationforrepresentingpressure:
leakflowrelationshipisthefollowingPowerLaw:

L1/L0=(P1/P0)N1

IfAverageZonePressureischangedfromP0toP1,flowratesthroughexistingleakschange
from L0 to L1, and the extent of the change depends on the ratio of the Average Zone
PressuresandtheexponentN1.

8.4NightDayFactor(NDF)Definition

To calculate the Average Daily Leakage (in volume/day) from the Night Leakage Rate (in
volume/hour),itisnecessarytomultiplytheNightLeakageRatebya'NightDayFactor'or
NDF. If the pressure at the Average Zone Point is constant during the 24 hours of any
particular day, then the Average Daily Leakage (in volume/day) would be 24 x the Night
LeakageRateinvolume/hour;andthe'NightDayFactor'wouldbe24hours/day.However,
the average pressure in distribution systems in normally not constant, but varies over 24
hourperiods.

The figure below shows System Inflow (split into customer use and leakage) and Average
Zone Pressure, for a system supplied by gravity. The Average Zone Pressure is highest at
night,butislowerduringtherestoftheday,resultinginareducedleakagerateformostof
the24hours.Itisevidentthat,inthissituation,iftheNightLeakageRateinvolume/hour
weretobemultipliedby24hours/day,theAverageDailyLeakagewouldbeoverestimated.
TheNightDayFactorforgravitysystemisthereforenormallylessthan24hours/day.

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The other figure below shows System Inflow (split into customer use and leakage) and
AverageZonePressure,forapressurecontrolledsystem,inwhichthepressureatnightis
deliberately reduced by pump scheduling, or by a pressure reducing valve with time
modulation or flow modulation. The Average Zone Pressure is now lower at night than
duringtherestoftheday,resultinginanincreasedleakagerateformostofthe24hours.It
is evident that, in this situation, if the Night Leakage Rate in volume/hour were to be
multipliedby24hours/day,theAverageDailyLeakagewouldbeunderestimated.

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In practice NDFs can range from less than 12 hours/day (for gravity system with high
frictionallosses)tomorethan36hours/day(forflowmodulatedsystems).

8.5NDF:N1RelationDefinition

The NDF depends upon the 24 hour pressure profile at the AZP and the assumed N1
exponent.
The LEAKS Suite software calculates, for each selected set of 24 hourly AZPs pressure
values,theNDFvaluesfordifferentN1andsummarizestheminthefollowingtable.

IfN1=
NDF=

0.50

0.75

1.00

1.25

1.50

AcopyoftherelevantpartoftheLEAKSSuiteisshowninAppendixB.

8.6AverageN1(N1StepTest)

ToobtaintheDMAsN1value,itisnecessarytoconductanightsteptesttorecordtheDMA
inflow and AZP values at different levels (until the 22m level will be reached at the CPP).
These sequences of values, introduced in the Point 8.3 Power Law, defined Calculated
valuesofN1.

The usual form of the calculation of N1 is shown in Table 8.3 Average N1 calculation
below.

Time

Begin

End

AZP
(kPa)

Start
Step1
Step2
Step3

Measured
Average
Zone
Inflow
l/sec l/hr

Customer
Night
Consumption
(l/hr)

Night
Leakage
Rate
(l/hr)

CalculatedValuesofN1

Step Step2 Step3


1

AverageN1=

Table8.3DMAAverageN1calculation

Logan low levels of leakage makes difficult to undertake reliable N1 tests (as it was
demonstrated in the N1 step test at DMA 1, 4, 13, 14 and 19 conducted by WBWC). A
review of these five tests by Allan Lambert (Water Loss Research and Analysis Ltd), in

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AppendixC,concludedthatindividualN1testswerenotjustifiableandanaveragedefault
N1valueof1.25shouldbeusedforallthebaselinescalculationsforalltheDMAs.

8.7BaselineNDFDefinition

AstheAverageN1wasdefinedearlier,theNDFselectedforeachBaselineistheonethat
matchitattheNDF:N1Relationtable(Point8.5).

9DMALeakingSavingSummaryandReductionSchedule

TheUtilityNightLeakageforeachofthedifferentBaselines,andthesavingsbetweenthe
differentBaselines,werecalculatedasfollow:

1. CustomerNightConsumption(CNC)wasselectedastheaverageoftwolimits:

a. Lower:avalueof1.0l/prop/hforresidentialand2.5l/prop/hfornonresidential
b. Upper:avalueof2.0l/prop/hforresidentialand5.0l/prop/hfornonresidential.

2. TheUtilityNightLeakage(UNL)foreachBaselinewasobtainedbydeductingtheCNC
fromtheMedianweekdayMNF.TheUtilityRealLosses(URL)werethencalculated
bymultiplyingtheUNLbytheNDFforthedayoftheselectedmedianweekdayMNF.

3. ThecalculatedsavingsbetweenBaseline2and1andBaseline3and2,arethe
differencebetweeneachoftheseBaselineURLs.

4. ThepredictedBaseline4isanextrapolationofthemedianMNFforBaseline3and
the assumption that the NDF will be the same as for Baseline 3. This prediction
shouldbecheckedatalaterdate.ThesavingsbetweenthepredictedBaseline4and
Baseline3followedthesameprocedurealreadydescribed.

Note:ForalltheBaselinecalculationsitwasdecidedtousemedianweekdayvaluesinstead
oftheweekendonesbecauseanalysishasshowntheyaremoreconsistentforthesetypes
ofcalculations.

TheentireSavingWorksheetisshowninAppendixC.

TheDMALeakageSavingSummaryandReductionSchedule,fromAppendixC,isasfollows:

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MedianMNF(l/s)

Baseline1

Baseline2(1)

Baseline3(2)

Baseline4(3)

AZP(kPa)

(4)

NDF

Savings(ReductioninMNF)(l/s)

Savings(m3/d)(5)

Table9DMA13Baselinesummaryandreductionschedule

(1)

Leakrepair

(2)

Leakrepairandfirststagepressuremanagement

(3)

Predicted,tobedonebyLW.THISPREDICTIONSHOULDBECHECKEDATALATERDATE,ASITISBASEDONANEXTRAPOLATION
OFTHEMEDIANMNFFORBASELINE3ANDTHEASSUMPTIONTHATTHENDFWILLBETHESAMEASFORBASELINE3.

(4)

ValueofAZNPforapressureof220kPaattheCPP

(5)

Estimatedvalueobtainedasanaverageofthebestestimatedhighandlowrangeofcustomernightconsumption

10DMAFireFlowTest

FollowingtheDepartmentofNaturalResourcesandMines(DNRM)regulation,WBWCrana
pressuretestattheCPPandatallthehighriskareas(industrial,commercial,etc)ata2/3of
peakhourdemand.ThetestresultswereforwardedtoLWfortheirapproval.

Afulldescriptionofthetest,WorkMethodStatementonFireFlowTest,isattachedat
AppendixD.

11DMASCADAValidation

WBWCinstalleddataloggersatthetwoDMAsinputspointstoreadflowandpressurefor
atleastoneweek.ThesevalueswerecomparedwiththeLoganWatersSCADAones,andin
caseofdiscrepancies,discussedwithLoganWaterandstatedattheHandoverReport.

12DMACosts

TheimplementationcostforeachDMAwasdividedintwoparts.

WBWC provided the contractor costs; including the civil works, engineer, design, as
constructeddrawingsandsiteinvestigation;andtheWBWCssupervisioncosts.

LoganWaterprovidedthecostsrelatedwithMWHsDMAdefinitionandLoganWatersleak
repairandmanagementcosts.

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13DMACommissionSteps

Theagreedcommissioningstepsarethefollowing:
1. Installflow&pressureloggers
2. FireflowtestbeforeDMAisolation
3. Shutboundaryvalves
4. FormalBoundaryIntegrityTest/ZeroPressureTest
5. FireflowtestafterDMAisolation&beforepressuremanagement
6. Validate Logan Waters SCADA data from both the Primary & the Secondary DMA
flowmeters&PRVs
7. Baseline1MNFandLeakageanalysis
8. Leaksurvey
9. Leakrepair
10. Baseline2MNFandLeakageanalysis
11. CommissionPRVand1ststagepressurereduction
12. Fireflowtestafterpressuremanagement
13. Pressurereductionnotificationstocriticalcustomers
14. CalculateN1exponentforallleakageonbothutilityandcustomersystemsbasedon
MNFminusassessedtoiletnightuse
15. Baseline3MNFandLeakageanalysis
16. Documentation&handover

14Acknowledgement

WBWCwouldliketoacknowledgethecontributionofAllanLambertofWaterLossResearch
andAnalysisLtdforhissupportingduringtheentireproject.

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AppendixA:BoundaryIntegrityTest

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AppendixB:BaselineLEAKSSuite

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AppendixC:ReviewofLoganN1test

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AppendixD:SavingsWorksheet

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AppendixE:FireFlowTest

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