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ADIGRAT UNIVERSITY CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

ADIGRAT UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
COURSE TITLE: MASS AND THERMAL UNIT OPERATION
LABORATORY
COURSE CODE: ChEg 3115
LABORATORY REPORT ON SOLID-LIQUID EXTRACTION (LEACHING)
BY NETWORK 7 & 8
S. No
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GROUP MEMBERS
DANAYT MESELE
HAILEMARIAM ASEGEDOM
KINFE GIRMAY
MELES HAGOS
SEID ARAGAW
SELAMAWIT LEMMA
TEKESTE MULAW
TEKLAY GODEFAY
TEMESGEN ABREHALEY
TEMESGEN TEKLU
TESFAMARIAM HADUSH
TESFAYE BAYILE

ID NUMBERS
RET 0364 /06
RET 0748/06
RET 0934/06
RET 1071/06
RET 1285/06
RET 1293/06
RET 1418/06
RET 1429/06
RET 1464/06
RET 1469/06
RET 1477/06
RET 1499/06

SECTION
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE
ONE

SUBMITTED TO: INSTRUCTOR SOLOMON AREGAWI


SUBMISSION DATE MONDAY JANUARY 16, 2016

EXPERIMENT No #3

LAB REPORT ON SOLID- LIQUID EXTRACTION

NETWORK 7&8

ADIGRAT UNIVERSITY CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

SOLID-LIQUID EXTRACTION (LEACHING)

LAB REPORT ON SOLID- LIQUID EXTRACTION

NETWORK 7&8

ADIGRAT UNIVERSITY CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

1. TITLE: SOLID-LIQUID EXTRACTION (LEACHING)


2. SUMMARY/ABSTRACT
The experiment Solid-liquid extraction was carried out in a way, where potassium hydrogen
carbonate (KHCO3) was extracted from aluminum oxide (Al 2O3) by using the continuous
overflow extraction through a fixed solid bed method. Distilled water was used as the solvent to
extract the potassium hydrogen carbonate. Calibration was done in order to determine the solute
composition. Density and solute composition of affluent and reboiler were measured at different
time intervals in order to study the effect of time on solute composition. In the end the total
amount of solvent extracted was calculated and the effect of different components like
temperature and solvent flow rate on the overall extraction were studied.

3. OBJECTIVES
3.1 General Objectives

To separate Potassium hydrogen carbonate (KHCO3) using distilled water was extracted
from aluminum oxide (Al2O3) or Potassium hydrogen carbonate solid mixture using solid
liquid extraction.

4. THEORY
Solid-liquid extraction (Leaching) is the dissolving of one or more constituents of a solid mixture
by contact with liquid solvent.
Solid-Liquid extraction (Leaching) is the preferential solution of one or more constituents of a
solid mixture by contact with a liquid solvent. This unit operation, one of the oldest in the
chemical industries, has been given many names, depending to some extent upon the technique
used for carrying it out. Leaching originally referred to percolation of the liquid through a fixed
bed of the solid, but is now used to describe the operation generally, by whatever means it may
be done.

LAB REPORT ON SOLID- LIQUID EXTRACTION

NETWORK 7&8

Page 1

ADIGRAT UNIVERSITY CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


There are particular requirements of the solvent

Selectivity
Solubility
Chemical reaction properties
Boiling properties

CHEMICAL AND APPARATUS


Apparatus

Electronic balance
Beaker
Dropper/Bottle for water
Container/bowel

Chemicals
Aluminum oxide (Al2O3)
Potassium hydrogen carbonates (KHCO3)
Distilled water

7. PROCEDURE
First, some gram weight of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) was weighed. Secondly, some gram of
potassium hydrogen carbonate (KHCO3) was weighed. After weighed these two compounds
were mixed in the material feeder. Thirdly, the mixtures were mixed with some liter of distilled
water or some liter of distilled water was added to the mixtures. Fourthly, left the solution for
around 24 hour. After 24 hours thermal heat was given to the solutions and the result were
recorded for respectively two minute differences with constant temperature or varying
temperature (T1,T2) and Constant flow rates or varying flow rate (C 1, C2). Finally, the excess
residual solution was shaken off. The aluminum oxide (Al2O3)/Potassium hydrogen carbonate
solid mixture (Extract material) prepared can be dried in the ambient air (for example on backing
tray) or in an oven if required.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION

LAB REPORT ON SOLID- LIQUID EXTRACTION

NETWORK 7&8

Page 2

ADIGRAT UNIVERSITY CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


Result: The final results are the extract and residue
Extract: Potassium hydrogen carbonate (KHCO3) and water (H2O)
Residue: small amount of Potassium hydrogen carbonate (KHCO3), Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and
water (H2O)

Discussion: The reaction for solid liquid extraction;


Solute (Transferring or transition component) + carrier solid (insoluble)
Therefore, Solid mixture

Solid mixture

Al2O3 + KHCO3

The solvent = Water (H2O)


Solvent + solute

Extract

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


Conclusion
To conclude, potassium hydrogen carbonate was extracted by water solvent from aluminum
oxide. The experiment was very helpful and we learned about two units, the
extraction unit. The amount of extracted solid can be increased by using high
selectivity solvent if it is available. Adding agitator to the extraction unit may
increase the solubility of potassium hydrogen carbonate in the solvent. Using
more accurate balance may decrease the results error.
Finally, as the temperature of the solvent increase, the extraction efficiency also increases and as
time increase the extraction efficiency also increase until steady state operation is reached and
the particle size decreases, the surface area increases then extraction efficiency also increases.
As the concentration of the solvent increases, the extraction efficiency also increases. As the
number of stage increases, the extraction efficiency proportionally increases.

Recommendation
LAB REPORT ON SOLID- LIQUID EXTRACTION

NETWORK 7&8

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ADIGRAT UNIVERSITY CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

The device should get enough power to work effectively.


The device needs good operator and continuous maintenance services.

The solvent that selected should be taker on; to attain the desired amount of extracted

solid.

LAB REPORT ON SOLID- LIQUID EXTRACTION

NETWORK 7&8

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