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A DISSSERTATION SYNOPSIS

ON

An Experimental Study on effect of jaggery on


strength properties of concrete
SUBMITTED BY

FOUZIYA QURESHI
M.TECH (CTM) THIRD SEM
ENROLLMENT NO- 0103CE15MT11

GUIDED BY
DR. A.K.SAXENA (PROFESSOR)

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

LAXMI NARAYAN COLLEGE OF TCHNOLOGY, BHOPAL (M.P.)

CONTENTS

1. Introduction03
2. Brief Literature Survey..09
3. Objective ...15
4. Methodology...20
5. Flowchart22
6. References...24

INTRODUCTION

1. INTRODUCTION
Concrete is a composite material, where coarse and fine aggregates are filler material and cement
paste are binding material. Concrete is composite of sand, gravel, crushed rock, or other
aggregate held together by a hardened paste of hydraulic cement and water. The thoroughly
mixed ingredients, when properly proportioned, make a plastic mass which can be cast or
molded into a predetermined size and shape. Upon hydration of the cement by the water,
concrete becomes stone like in strength and hardness and has utility for many purposes. Concrete
is a most popular construction material in the world. It is made by mixing coarse and fine
aggregates, water, cement, and additives in a certain prescribed proportion.
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Concrete has found use in hearty all types of construction form highway, canal, linings, bridge,
and dams to the most beautiful and artistic of buildings. With the addition of reinforcement to
supply needed tensile strength, advances in structural design, and the use of pre-stressing and
post tensioning, it has become the foremost structural material. The maximum properties of
concrete and workability of concrete depend on aggregate. J.W. Kelly(2001) said, One would
not think of using wood for a dam, steel for pavement, or asphalt for a building frame, but
concrete is used for each of these and for many other uses than other construction materials.
Even where another material is the principal component of a structure, concrete is usually used
with it for certain portions of the work. It is used to support, to enclose, to surface, and to fill.
More people need to know more about concrete than about other specialized materials.
The first concrete like material produced in history was obtained when Greek and roman builders
discovered that by mixing claimed limestone, lime, water, sand and crashed stone together, a
hardening mix could be produced. For a very long time engineers have explored the versatility of
materials with such characteristics as to be moulded in a plastic state and later be hardened into a
strong and durable commodity. The performance of such construction materials is dependent on the
individual characteristics of its components. Concrete is a composite material which is mixture of
cement, coarse and fine aggregate, water and admixture. Concrete has found use in all types of
construction form highway, canal, linings, bridge, and dams. Information about concrete has
improved and grown with the time and with new findings. At the end of the 19th century, ordinary
concrete was used which is placed in dry condition and is compacted by temping. At that time the
reinforcement in concrete was not used.
Concrete should be durable to work satisfactorily under different condition, which give it protection
from disintegration in severe exposure condition. Water tightness is essential for a hydraulic
structure, but strength and rigidity are obviously the primary structural requisite for the building.
Concrete is made up of fine aggregate (sand), coarse aggregate (gravel or crushed stones etc.),
cement and water to make a hardened paste. These material are mixed in proper proportion to make a
plastic mass which can be moulded into any pre- defined shape as per IS standard. After hydration of
cement by water, the concrete shows hardness as that of stone and provide greater strength of the
member. Due to this concrete plays a key role in the construction of building elements. It is initially a
plastic, workable mixture which can be molded into a wide variety of shapes when wet. The strength
is developed from the hydration due to the reaction between cement and water.

Concrete is an inevitable material in the human beings life, because of its superior
characteristics like strength and durability, but in certain situations it cant be used in all places
because setting time of concrete. Retarders are used in the concrete composition to improve the
setting time and also to increase the temperature of the composition with different type of
admixtures. It is observed that an old Monuments in Gandikota at Kadapa dist, where bonding
between the stones was achieved by mortar with combination of lime, sand and jaggery juice.
Concrete made with admixtures like sugar and jaggery can be utilised in particular situations.
Usage of these admixtures will decrease the segregation and bleeding. Sugar is a carbohydrate, a
substance composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. Jaggery is made from the product of sugar
cane. So, both are useful to add as an admixtures in the concrete composition.
ADMIXTURE
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A material other than water, aggregates, or cement that is used as an ingredient of concrete or
mortar to control setting and early hardening, workability, or to provide additional cementing
properties.
Admixture is characterized as a material other than cement, water and aggregate, that is utilized
as element of concrete and is added to the batch quickly before or during mixing. Added
substance is a material which is included at the season of grinding cement clinker at the cement
plant. Nowadays concrete is being utilized for wide mixed bags of purposes to make it suitable in
different condition
In 1930 added substances and admixture however utilized were not consider an imperative piece
of concrete innovation. There has been increased used of admixture. It must be recollected, that
admixture are not a viable replacement for good cementing particles. Be that as it may, a couple
sort of admixture called water reducer or high water reducer and by and large plasticizer and
super plasticizer. They are particularly developed in Japan and Germany in 1970. They are made
prevalent in USA and Europe even in center east and Far East. There are numerous explanations
behind disapproval for more extensive clients of plasticizers in India. Plasticizers were not made
in India. They were to be imported. Also, thus unreasonable, we were accustomed to making by
and large low quality concrete of sort M15 toM30, which don't generally require the utilization
of plasticizer.

Types of Admixtures
Chemical admixtures - Accelerators, Retarders, Water-reducing agents, Super plasticizers, Air
entraining agents etc.
Mineral admixtures - Fly-ash Blast-furnace slag, Silica fume and Rice husk Ash etc

JAGGERY
Jaggery is a traditional non-centrifugal cane sugar consumed in Asia, Africa and some countries
in America. It is a concentrated product of date, cane juice, or palm sap (see palm sugar) without
separation of the molasses and crystals, and can vary from golden brown to dark brown in
colour. It contains up to 50% sucrose, up to 20% invert sugars, and up to 20% moisture, with the
remainder made up of other insoluble matter, such as wood ash, proteins, and bagasse fibres.
Jaggery is mixed with other ingredients, such as peanuts, condensed milk, coconut, and white
sugar, to produce several locally marketed and consumed delicacies.
Concrete is an inevitable material in the human beings life, because of its superior
characteristics like strength and durability, but in certain situations it cant be used in all places
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because setting time of concrete. Retarders are used in the concrete composition to improve the
setting time and also to increase the temperature of the composition with different type of
admixtures. It is observed that an old Monuments in Gandikota at Kadapa dist, where bonding
between the stones was achieved by mortar with combination of lime, sand and jaggery juice.
Concrete made with admixtures like sugar and jaggery can be utilised in particular situations.
Usage of these admixtures will decrease the segregation and bleeding. Sugar is a carbohydrate, a
substance composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. Jaggery is made from the product of sugar
cane. So, both are useful to add as an admixtures in the concrete composition.

LITERATURE
SURVEY

2. Brief literature survey:

Giridhar, Gnaneswar and Kishore Kumar Reddy (2013) reported that This paper
emphasizes the effect of Sugar and Jaggery on strength properties of concrete. The
experimentation has been carried out for evaluating the strength properties of
concrete using Sugar and Jaggery as admixtures into the concrete composition. Based
on the literature, the main function for usage of Sugar and Jaggery is to extend the
initial setting time of concrete. Usually these type of admixtures used in the special
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cases like large piers and long piles. Three different percentages of admixtures (Sugar
and Jaggery) are chosen in the experimentation as 0, 0.05 and 0.1% by weight of
cement. Finally it was concluded that workability and compressive strength of
concrete enhanced when admixtures like Sugar and Jaggery added into the concrete
composition.

V. PAVAN KUMAR, B. VENKATESH, B. B. C. O. PRASAD (2015) reported that


Concrete is a most necessary material in human life because almost all civil
engineering structures are constructed with concrete. In transportation generally rigid
pavements are laid by concrete. Because of its rapid usage many number of
researches are taking place to improve the properties of concrete & to suggest
replaceable materials for concrete. This report emphasis that by using locally
available materials like sugar & jaggery, can improve the properties of concrete. The
admixtures (sugar & jaggery) are added into concrete at the dosage levels of
0,0.025,0.05,0.1% and check the properties improvements in concrete. And also sugar
cane ash which is the waste released from sugar industries during preparation of sugar
can be used as replaceable material for cement. At different proportions like 5.10,15,
20, 25% Ash is replaced with cement and suggested that it is replaceable up to 15% to
improve the various properties of concrete.

Jaibeer Chand, Sangeeta Dhyani (2015) reported that Concrete blocks are mostly
used for covering or coating on a structure or material, load bearing purposes all
around the world. This paper gives special importance or value to the effect of sugar
on strength of concrete. This experiment determines the effect of admixtures (sugar)
on the compressive strength of concrete block. Based on books and literature the main
function of sugar to increase the initial setting time of concrete. Usually three
different percentage of sugar admixtures are taken as 0.0, 0.06, ands0.08% by weight
of cement. Finally compressive strength and workability of concrete. The
compressive strength of concrete blocks increasing it by 16.02% at 28 days as
compared to ordinary concrete blocks.

Dinesh Kumar (2015) reported that This paper emphasizes the effect of molasses the
byproduct from sugar industries. By using molasses as an admixture in concrete it
will enhance the initial and final setting time of the concrete, the workability and
compressive strength of concrete is also increased when molasses is used as
admixture in composition of concrete. The binding properties of molasses will reduce
the water content in concrete mix to enhance the properties of concrete. In urban
areas where the construction is mainly carried out by masons with their experience.
They can also use the molasses as this can easily available in the market and they are
well known to the masons. Being cheaper in cost it can be usec in low budget
construction.

Shilu Kurian Joseph, Annie Sonia Xavier (2014) reported that Admixtures are used
to alter the properties of concrete. Admixtures are substances introduced into a batch
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of concrete, during or immediately before its mixing. There are numerous benefits
available through the use of admixtures such as: improved quality, colouring, greater
concrete strength, increased flow for the same water-cement ratio, enhanced frost and
sulphate resistance, improved fire resistance, cracking control, acceleration or
retardation in setting time, lower density and improved workability. The specific
effects of an admixture generally vary with the type of cement, mix proportion and
dosage. Starch can be used in concrete as admixture. Starch changes the setting time
of concrete. In this particular study, starches used aretapioca and maize.The setting
time of concrete is tested using vicat apparatus. The workability of concrete is tested
using slump test. The starch is added for testing with different percentages of cement.
Thesetting timeand workability of concrete/cement increases with the addition of
starch admixtures.Compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength of
concrete increases gradually up to an addition of 1.5% of maize and 2% of tapioca.
Further increase in the addition of starch admixtures reduces the compressive
strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength.The starch admixtures such as
maize and tapioca can replace the use of chemical admixtures. It also reduces the
additional cost of using chemical admixtuers.

SUMAN RANA (2014) reported that The use of sugar to delay setting of cement at
construction site seems reasonable as it is cheap and readily available. But, addition
of sugar has inevitable implications not only on setting time but also on compressive
strength of cement paste. So, its effect needs to be well-understood for better control
over its use. Test samples prepared by using 53 grade OPC cement and sugar in
increasing proportion did not show a fixed result. Addition of sugar 0.07% by weight
of cement resulted in 3 hours and 35 minutes delay in total setting time and around
4% increase in strength of cement. But, sugar content above 0.13% by weight of
cement reduced setting time and sample was marked with cracks at the surface while
hardening.

OBJECTIVE

3. Objectives:To determine An Experimental Study on effect of jaggery on strength properties of concrete.


The experimentation has been carried out for evaluating the strength properties of concrete using
Jaggery as admixtures into the concrete composition. Based on the literature, the main function
for usage of Jaggery is to extend the initial setting time of concrete. Usually these type of
admixtures used in the special cases like large piers and long piles. Three different percentages of
admixtures (Jaggery) are chosen in the experimentation as 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% by weight of
cement.
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The main objectives of this study are: Study on effect of jaggery on strength properties of concrete. and casted cubes M20
(1:1:2) & M25 (1:1:2) grade
Test of strength using NDT technique
Determine Compressive strength of cubes and compare the result of different cubes
with normal conventional concrete.

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METHODOLOGY

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4- Methodology:The objective of this study is to investigate the concrete strength using non-destructive and
destructive test equipments. The experimentation has been carried out for evaluating the strength
properties of concrete using Jaggery as admixtures into the concrete composition. Based on the
literature, the main function for usage of Jaggery is to extend the initial setting time of concrete.
Usually these type of admixtures used in the special cases like large piers and long piles. Three
different percentages of admixtures (Jaggery) are chosen in the experimentation as 0.1, 0.2 and
0.3% by weight of cement, used for concrete cubes and these cubes were tested on 7, 14 and 28
days. The compressive strength of these cubes were determined with the help of destructive and nondestructive test equipments. The cement used in all mixers is Portland pozzolana cement and natural
sand is used in the experiment. The particle size of sand is 2mm to 4.75 micron. It is assumed that the
compressive strength of concrete cubes at 7 days is 80% of the strength at 28 is days.
The ultrasonic pulse velocity and rebound hammer (non-destructive) test and universal test machine
(destructive) were performed on 24 specimens from different high strength concrete mixtures. In
order to determine the effect of crushed bricks and crushed coated bricks cube specimens with
standard dimensions were tested at 7, and 28 days. The determination of the strength of each mixture
and specimen ages are based on the average of 3 specimens.

Procedure adopted for Analysis and Design purpose:1. Starting the different type of admixture.
2. Prepare of topic and collection of material.
3. Develop mould size (150X150X150) mm
4. jaggery are mixed in different (cubes) with the percentage of 0.1% & 0.2% & 0.3% as
admixture.
5. Cube cast by M 20 grade (1:1.5:3) & M 25 (1:1:2) material is that mould, cement (PPC)
,fine sand (2 to 5mm) aggregate ( 60% 20mm coarse aggregate and 40% 10mm
aggregate), water .
6. Test beam on UTM machine and test of strength NDT technique and determine value of
compressive strength.
7. To compare the results of different cubes.

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FLOWCHART

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START

CEMENT, SAND,
AGGREGATE, WATER
cemecdxc

COLLECTION OF
MATERIAL

MOULD
PREPARATION

ADMIXTURE
(JAGGERY)

MOULD (SIZE
150X150X150MM
)

CASTING OF CUBES
(FILLING CONCRETE IN
MOULD) AND CURING 28

DAYS

TSET BY UTM MACHINE

RESULTS

COMPARE THE RESULT OF DIFFERENT


CUBES

STOP

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REFERENCES

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8. REFERENCES:A. JOURNALS TECHNICAL PAPERS:1. Giridhar, Gnaneswar and Kishore Kumar Reddy Effect of Sugar and Jaggery on Strength
Properties of Concrete The International Journal Of Engineering And Science (IJES) ||Volume||
2 ||Issue|| 10 ||Pages|| 01-06 ||2013|| ISSN (e): 2319 1813 ISSN (p): 2319 1805
2. V. PAVAN KUMAR, B. VENKATESH, B. B. C. O. PRASAD, Effect of Sugar, Jaggery &
Sugar Cane Ash on Properties of Concrete ISSN 2319-8885 Vol.04,Issue.51, December-2015,
Pages:11000-11006.
3. Jaibeer Chand, Sangeeta Dhyani. Effect of sugar on the compressive strength of concrete
International Journal of Advanced Technology & Engineering Research (IJATER) Volume 5,
Issue 4, July 2015
4. Dinesh Kumar, Sugarcane Molasses in Concrete as a Water Reducing-Retarding Admixture:
SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering (SSRG-IJCE) EFES April 2015
5. Shilu Kurian Joseph, Annie Sonia Xavier, Effect of Starch Admixtures on Fresh and
Hardened Properties of Concrete, International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Research
(IJSER), Volume 4 Issue 3, March 2016
6. Suman rana, Effect of Sugar on Setting-time and Compressive Strength of Ordinary Portland
cement Paste, 3rd World Conference on Applied Sciences, Engineering & Technology 27-29
September 2014, Kathmandu, Nepal
B .BOOKS:[1]. Concrete technology M.L Gambhir
[2]. Concrete technology M.S. Sheety

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