Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 105

OSHA 30-Hour Construction

Study Guide

30 Hour OSHA Study Guide


Copyright 2009 by 360training.com
Printed in the United States of America
360training.com
113801 North Mopac Expressway, Suite 100
Austin, Texas 78727

360training.com print publications may be purchased in


quantity at discounted pricing. For more information about
quantity purchases, please contact the sales department.

Sales: 888-360-TRNG / sales@360training.com


Support: 800-442-1149 / support@360training.com

Version History / Print Date: April 2009

The 360training.com logo is a registered trademark of 360training.com, Inc.


While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, 360training.com,
Inc. and the author assume no responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages
resulting from the use of the information contained herein.

1
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

No written part of the material may be reproduced in whole or in part without express
permission. This information is provided for educational purposes only. This publication
is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject
matter covered. It is provided with the understanding that the author is not engaged in
rendering legal, accounting, or other professional services. If legal advice or other expert
assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought.

2
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Table of Contents
Lesson 1a -

Introduction to the OSHA

Lesson 2 -

Recordkeeping

Lesson 3a -

Basic Safety Orientation

Lesson 3b -

General Safety & Health

Lesson 4 -

Health Hazards in Construction - Communication

Lesson 5 -

Health Hazards in construction -Hazardous Material

Lesson 6 -

Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous

Lesson 7 -

Personal Protective Equipment

Lesson 8 -

Fire Protection

Lesson 9 -

Materials Handling

Lesson 10 -

Hand and Power Tools

Lesson 11 -

Welding and Cutting

Lesson 12 -

Electrical Safety

Lesson 13 -

Struck By And Caught in Between

Lesson 14 -

Fall Protection

Lesson 15 -

Cranes and Rigging

Lesson 16 -

Motor Vehicles

Lesson 17 -

Excavations

Lesson 18 -

Concrete and Masonry

Lesson 19 -

- Stairways and Ladders

Lesson 20 -

Confined Space Entry

Lesson 21 -

Lead Safety in the Workplace


3

30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Lesson 22 -

Use of Explosives in the Workplace

Lesson 23 -

23 Scaffolding

4
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

OSHA 30 Hr. Construction Training Program


Study Guide
The Purpose and Design of the Study Guide
U.S. OSHA created the Outreach Training Program for the purpose of expanding the
knowledge base of employers and employees across the country relative to their
standards and guidelines, thereby enhancing safety and health in the American
workplace. OSHA requires four specific topics to be included in every program.
1. Introduction to the OSHA and Basic Safety Orientation
2.Recordkeeping
3a. Basic Safety Orientation
3b. General Safety & Health
4. Health Hazards in Construction - Communication
5. Health Hazards in construction -Hazardous Material
6. Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous
7. Personal Protective Equipment
8. Fire Protection
9. Materials Handling
10. Hand and Power Tools
11. Welding and Cutting
12. Electrical Safety
13. Struck By And Caught in Between
14. Fall Protection
15. Cranes and Rigging
16. Motor Vehicles
17. Excavations
18. Concrete and Masonry
19. Stairways and Ladders
20. Confined Space Entry
21. Lead Safety in the Workplace
22. Use of Explosives in the Workplace
23. Scaffolding
The purpose of this study guide is to provide a thorough review of the 360training
OSHA 30 Hr. Construction Training Program. Each module corresponds to those in the
series and contains bulleted highlights, followed by a note taking section.

5
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

LESSON ONE
INTRODUCTION TO OSHA (Occupational Safety and
Health Administration)
This review covers the basic overview of OSHA, OSH Act, and OSHAs role in the
prevention and elimination of work-related illnesses and injuries as well as information
about employer and employee rights, responsibilities, and the inspection process.

Lesson 1: Key Terms

Administer: Manage; give out especially in doses


Billboard: Surface for displaying advertising bills
Competent Person: One able to identify existing and predictable workplace
hazards that are unsanitary, hazardous, or risky, and who has the authority to
promptly correct or eliminate them
Federal: Of or constituting a government with power distributed between a
central authority and constituent units
Hazards: Sources of danger
Terrain: Features of the land
Trench: Long narrow cut in land
Virtually: Being in effect but not in fact or name

About OSHA
The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) of 1970 was passed by Congress "to
assure so far as possible every working man and woman in the Nation safe and healthful
working conditions and to preserve our human resources." Under the OSH Act, OSHA
(Occupational Safety and Health Administration) was established within the Department
of Labor and was authorized to regulate health and safety conditions for all employers
with few exceptions.
OSHA can be contacted by calling 1-800-321-6742 (OSHA), going to its website at
http://www.osha.gov, or writing to:
The U.S. Department of Labor
6
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Occupational Safety and Health Administration


200 Constitution Avenue
Washington, DC 20210

Who is Covered by the OSHA Act?


OSHA covers all employees and their employers under Federal government authority.
Coverage is provided either directly by Federal OSHA or through an OSHA-approved
state program.

OSHA Standards
General Duty Clause
Each employer "shall furnish . . . a place of employment which is free from recognized
hazards that are causing, or are likely to cause, death or serious physical harm to
employees." OSHA standards cover general industry, construction, maritime and some
agricultural activities.
Recordkeeping & Maintenance of Recordkeeping Forms
Employers of 11 or more employees must maintain records of occupational injuries and
illnesses. Recordkeeping forms must be maintained on a calendar year basis, and a
summary of the records for the previous year must be posted from February through
April. Records must be maintained for five years at the establishment and must be
available for inspection by OSHA, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH), and BLS.
Inspections
OSHA is authorized to conduct workplace inspections to enforce its standards. Nearly all
inspections are conducted without any advance notice. Listed in their order of
importance, as determined by OSHA:
1. Imminent Danger - Imminent danger situations are given top priority. An
imminent danger is any condition where there is reasonable certainty that a danger
exists that can be expected to cause death or serious physical harm immediately or
before the danger can be eliminated through normal enforcement procedures.
2. Catastrophic and Fatal Accidents - Second priority is given to the investigation of
fatalities and catastrophes resulting in the hospitalization of three or more
employees.
3. Employee Complaints - Each employee has the right to request an OSHA
inspection when the employee feels that he or she is in imminent danger from a
hazard, or when he or she feels that there is a violation of an OSHA standard that
threatens physical harm.
4. Programmed High Hazard Inspections - OSHA establishes programs of inspection
aimed at specific high hazard industries, occupations, or health hazards.
5. Re-Inspections - Establishments cited for alleged serious violations may be reinspected to determine whether the hazards have been corrected.
7
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Employers and Workers Rights and Responsibilities


Citations must be posted for three working days, or until the violation is corrected, and
must be posted at or near the place where each violation occurred.
If employers agree with the citations, they must correct the violations and pay any
penalties.
If they do not agree, they have 15 working days to contest in writing the citation,
penalty, and/or the abatement dates.
Anti-Discrimination Provisions and Whistleblower Rights
The OSH Act prohibits employment retaliation against an employee who complains to an
employer, files a complaint related to workplace safety or health conditions, initiates a
proceeding, contests an abatement date, requests information from OSHA, or testifies
under the Act. The U.S. Department of Labor has established the Whistleblower Rights
Program to assist workers who have experienced retribution from employers after
reporting unsafe working conditions.
Keeping Employees Informed
Employers are responsible for keeping employees informed about OSHA and the various
safety and health matters with which they are involved. OSHA requires that each
department within an organization post certain materials at a prominent location in the
workplace. These include:
Job Safety and Health Protection (workplace poster, OSHA 2203) informing
employees of their rights and responsibilities under the OSH Act.
Summaries of petitions for variances from standards or record-keeping
procedures.
Copies of OSHA citations for violations of standards.
Workers Responsibilities & Rights
Read the OSHA poster.
Follow the employers safety and health rules and wear or use all required gear
and equipment.
Follow safe work practices for your job, as directed by your employer.
Report hazardous conditions to a supervisor or safety committee.
Report hazardous conditions to OSHA if employers do not fix them.
Cooperate with OSHA inspectors.
Along with their responsibilities, workers have the following rights:
Identify and correct problems in their workplaces, working with their employers
whenever possible.
Complain to OSHA about workplace conditions threatening their health or safety
in person, by telephone, by fax, by mail or electronically through OSHAs web
site.
8
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

NOTES:

9
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

LESSON TWO
RECORDKEEPING
This review covers the OSHA requirements for recordkeeping. Employers are required to
post certain records in the event of an accident at work. Employers must maintain records
of personnel illnesses and injuries that have occurred on the job and even report specific
cases to OSHA.

Lesson 2: Key Terms

Asbestosis: An incurable restrictive lung disease often linked to occupational


exposure.

BLS: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

HCP: Health Care Professional.

OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

PLHCP: Physician or other Licensed Health Care Professional.

Silicosis: An occupational lung disease, this is a respiratory disease caused by the


inhalation of silica.

TB: Tuberculosis.

The Rule: Recording Criteria


Keep in mind, that recording or reporting a work-related injury, illness, or fatality does
not mean the employer or employee was at fault, an OSHA rule has been violated, or that
the employee is eligible for workers compensation or other benefits. This is just the
OSHA rule.
Some employers are partially exempt from OSHA recordkeeping requirements because
of their size or industry. However, they must report fatalities and hospitalization incidents
of three or more employees, participate in the annual OSHA injury and illness survey (if
specifically requested to do so by OSHA) and participate in the Bureau of Labor &
Statistics (BLS) annual survey (if specifically requested to do so by BLS).
Covered employers must record each fatality, injury, or illness that is work related, is a
new case, and meets the recording criteria as being serious enough to record.
10
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

What is Work Related? What is Not?


A case is considered work related if an event or exposure in the work environment either
caused or contributed to the resulting condition, or if an event or exposure in the work
environment significantly aggravated a pre-existing injury or illness. However there must
be a discernable cause for it to be work related. Work relatedness is presumed for injuries
and illnesses resulting from events or exposures occurring in the work environment.
Work Relatedness Exceptions
A worker is present in the work environment as a member of the general public.
Injury or illness involves signs or symptoms arising in the work environment that
are solely due to a non-work-related event or exposure.
Injury or illness results from voluntary participation in a wellness program or in a
medical, fitness, or recreational activity such as blood donation, physical
examination, flu shot, etc.
Injury or illness that is solely the result of eating, drinking, or preparing food or
drink for personal consumption.
Injury or illness is solely the result of employee doing personal tasks outside
assigned working hours.
Injury or illness is caused by a motor vehicle accident in parking lot/access road
during commute.
Injury or illness is solely the result of personal grooming, self-medication for nonwork-related condition, or intentionally self-inflicted.
An employee is afflicted by the common cold or flu.
An employee is afflicted by mental illness, unless the employee voluntarily
provides an opinion from an HCP stating the employee has a mental illness that is
work related.
An injury or illness that occurs while an employee is on travel status is work related if it
occurred while the employee was engaged in work activities in the interest of the
employer.
Injuries and illnesses that occur while an employee is working at home are work related if
they:
Occur while the employee is performing work for pay or compensation in the
home.
Are directly related to the performance of work rather than the general home
environment.
An injury or illness must be recorded if it results in one or more of the following:
Death.
Days away from work.
Restricted work activity or transfer to another job.
11
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Medical treatment beyond first aid.


Loss of consciousness.
A significant injury or illness diagnosed by a physician or other licensed health
care professional.
Work-related needlesticks and cuts from sharp objects that are contaminated with
another persons blood or other potentially infectious material.
Splashes or other exposures to blood or other potentially infectious materials not
caused by a cut or scratch where they result in a diagnosis of a bloodborne disease
or meet the general recording criteria.
Work-related hearing loss cases.

Reporting
Employers must enter each recordable case on reporting forms within seven (previously
six working days) calendar days of receiving information that a recordable case has
occurred. Names of the employees are not entered on OSHA Form 300 for privacy
concern cases. Enter instead, privacy case.
The following employee cases are recordable:
All employees on payroll including:
o Labor
o Executive
o Hourly
o Salary
o Part-time
o Seasonal
o Migrant
Employees not on payroll who are supervised on a day-to-day basis.
The self-employed and partners should be excluded.
Temporary help agencies should not record cases experienced by temporary
workers who are supervised by the hiring firm.
At the end of each calendar year an employer must:
Review the OSHA Form 300 for completeness and accuracy and correct any
deficiencies.
Create an annual summary of injuries and illnesses recorded on the OSHA Form
300A.
Certify the summary.
Post the summary.
An employer must save all of the following forms for five years. An employer must
update stored OSHA 300 Logs.

12
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Each employer is responsible for recording and reporting injuries and illnesses only for
that period of the year during which he or she owned the establishment. The old owner
must transfer records to the new owner. The new owner must retain prior records but is
not required to update or correct records of the prior owner.
Employees and their representatives must be involved in the recordkeeping system in
several ways:
The employer must inform each employee of how to report an injury or illness.
The employer must set up a way for employees to promptly report work-related
injuries and illnesses.
The employer must tell each employee how to report work-related injuries and
illnesses to the employer.
An employer must provide limited access to injury and illness records of current
employees, former employees, and personal/authorized representatives.
An employer must avoid discriminating against an employee for reporting a work-related
fatality, injury, or illness. The employee, who files a safety and health complaint, asks for
access to Part 1904 records, or who otherwise exercises any rights afforded by the OSH
Act, is protected by law.
State-Plan states must have the same requirements as Federal OSHA for determining
which injuries and illnesses are recordable and how they are recorded.
Employers must report orally, within eight hours, any work-related fatality or incident
involving three or more in-patient hospitalizations to the area office of OSHA, U.S.
Department of Labor, nearest to the site of the incident by telephone or in person.
An employer must provide copies of records within four business hours when requested
by an authorized government representative such as:
A representative of the Secretary of Labor conducting an inspection or
investigation under the Act.
A representative of the Secretary of Health and Human Services conducting an
investigation under section 20(b) of the Act.
A representative of a State agency responsible for administering a State plan
approved under section 18 of the Act.
An employer should provide access during the business hours of the
establishment where the records are located, if records are kept in a location
within a different time zone.

13
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

NOTES:

14
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

LESSON THREE (A)


BASIC SAFETY ORIENTATION
This review covers an overview of some basic safety and health hazards that employees
may be exposed to while on the job, and ways employees can protect themselves from
these potential hazards.

Lesson 3a: Key Terms

Bloodborne Pathogens: Infectious microorganisms found in human blood can


cause diseases such as Hepatitis B and C and the Human Immunodeficiency
Virus. (HIV)

Guardrail: A protective railing enclosing an elevated platform.

Hazardous Chemical: A chemical that can cause physical harm or be a health


hazard.

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS): A document that contains hazard-related


information about a specific chemical or formulation.

Oxygen Deficient Atmosphere: An atmosphere containing less than 19.5 percent


oxygen by volume.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): All types of protective equipment such


as hard hats, gloves, boots, and eye protection, along with respiratory aids.

Scaffold: A temporary platform on which workers can sit or stand when


performing tasks at heights above the ground.

Parts of the Hazard Communication Program


Container Labels
Containers must be labeled with appropriate warning signs.
Labels must display information regarding the contents of the containers and the
hazards associated with them.
Employees are required to read and understand the warnings written on labels
before they handle the containers and their contents.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
Contains complete safety information regarding a hazardous chemical and must
be created by the manufacturer, importer, or distributor of that chemical.
15
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Contains information on physical and chemical properties of the material, its


acute or chronic health effects, along with exposure limits and handling
instructions.
At a worksite, there must be an MSDS for each hazardous chemical present and
these must be immediately accessible to all employees.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)


All employers must evaluate the chemicals used at the worksite in order to determine the
type of PPE that should be worn by the employees. Also, employers must train
employees to properly handle and use their personal protective equipment. Examples
include:
Eye and Face Protection Safety glasses or goggles and face shield or shoulderlength chemical splash hoods.
Head protection Hardhats that protect from falling objects, electrical shock, etc.
Hand and Foot Protection Rubber, neoprene or latex gloves for hands; steel toe
boots, metatarsal guards, and chemical resistant boots for foot protection
Chemical Protective Clothing Puncture- and wear-resistant clothing to provide
protection against hazardous materials.
Respiratory Protection To avoid any toxic fumes at the worksite or if the oxygen
level in the atmosphere is low, respirators are worn. Two basic types of
respirators used are air-purifying respirators and atmosphere-supplying
respirators.
Hearing Protection Earplugs or earmuffs, or a combination of both.

Workplace Hazards and Protection


Most common workplace hazards include:
Electrical Hazards
o Employers must ensure that there is adequate lighting in the work area.
o They must keep all electricity-conducting equipment and all unauthorized
personnel away from any exposed live parts or circuits.
o All ladders used must be made from non-conductive material.
Fall Protection
o Employees must be using Personal Fall Arrest Systems such as a body harness
that is worn around the torso, an overhead anchor to which the lanyard is
connected. The lanyard connects the harness to the anchor.
Lockout/Tagout
o Procedures by authorized personnel include affixing locks and tags on energy
sources.
o All switches must be checked to ensure that the equipment cannot be started.
Confined Space Hazards
o Limited entry and exit ways which are difficult to ventilate.
o May include toxic or oxygen-deficient environments.
16
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

o Employees must disconnect or block all piping; check atmosphere; wear PPE;
ensure clear communication channels before entering space
Fire Prevention
o Ensuring that proper wiring has been installed at the workplace.
o Making sure that all equipment at the work site is in good condition and does
not have any defects.
o Confirming that all flammable chemicals and substances are stored properly in
proper containers.
Basic First Aid
o All employees must be trained to perform basic first aid procedures.
Bloodborne Pathogens
o DO NOT come in contact with any blood or body fluids.
o If need to handle such fluids, wear PPE such as gloves and safety glasses.
o Properly dispose of all sharps, such as needles and syringes, to avoid getting
punctured.
Temperature Stress
o Heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke are heat related stresses which
can affect employees.
o Frostbite and hypothermia are cold exposure disorders that can affect
employees.

17
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

NOTES:

18
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

LESSON THREE (B)


GENERAL SAFETY AND HEALTH
This course provides an overview of the OSHA 29 CFR 1926 Subpart C, General Safety
and Health Provisions. Topics covered in this course include safety training and
education, first aid, fire protection, and employee emergency action plans.

Lesson 3b: Key Terms

ANSI: American National Standards Institute.

Authorized Person: A person assigned by the employer to perform a duty or to


be at a particular job site.

Competent Person: Has authorization to take corrective action and is able to


recognize existing and predictable hazards.

Employer: A contractor or subcontractor.

Qualified: One who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or


professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training, and experience,
has successfully demonstrated the ability to solve or resolve problems relating to
the subject matter, the work, or the project.

Contractor Requirements and Accident Prevention Responsibilities


Contractor Requirements
Under the general safety and health provisions covered in the OSHA standard,
contractors have specific requirements pertaining to the health and safety of their
employees. Laborers and mechanics performing contract work should never be required
by contractors to work under conditions that are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to
their health and safety.

Accident Prevention Responsibilities


In order to decrease the risk of accidents and injuries in the workplace, employers should
provide frequent and regular inspections of the job site, materials, and equipment used by
employees Inspections of the job site, materials, and equipment should be conducted by
competent persons. A competent person is defined as a person who is capable of
identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions
19
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization
to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate the existing and predictable hazards.
Employer Responsibilities
When working in an industrial environment, accidents are inevitable at the workplace.
These unsafe conditions can be greatly reduced when employers educate and train
employees on how to avoid accidents and exposures. Employers have responsibilities
under OSHA standards to educate and train employees to recognize and avoid unsafe
conditions in the workplace, and to control and eliminate any hazards or exposures to
illness or injury.
Confined and Enclosed Spaces
Confined or enclosed spaces are spaces having a limited means of egress, which is
subject to the accumulation of toxic or flammable contaminants, or which has an oxygen
deficient atmosphere. Confined or enclosed spaces include, but are not limited to, storage
tanks, process vessels, bins, boilers, ventilation or exhaust ducts, sewers, underground
utility vaults, tunnels, pipelines, and open top spaces more than four feet in depth such as
pits, tubs, vaults, and vessels.

Major Program Elements


A safety program can be divided into four sections:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Management Commitment and Employee Involvement


Worksite Analysis
Hazard Prevention and Control
Training and Education

Assignment of Responsibility
The following information applies to the assignment of responsibility:

Safety designee on site; the safety designee should be knowledgeable and


accountable.
Supervisors (including foremen) should understand safety and health
responsibilities.
Employees should adhere to safety rules.
Fire Protection and Prevention

The employer is responsible for the development and maintenance of an effective fire
protection and prevention program at the job site throughout all phases of the
construction, repair, alteration, or demolition work. One responsibility of the employer is
to ensure the availability of the fire protection and suppression equipment.

20
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Means of Egress
Exits for buildings or structures shall be arranged and maintained to provide free and
unobstructed egress from all parts of the building or structure at all times when the
building is occupied. No lock or fastening preventing free escape from the inside of any
building shall be installed except in mental, penal, or corrective institutions where
supervisory personnel are continually on duty and effective provisions are made to
remove occupants in case of fire or other emergency.

21
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

NOTES:

22
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

LESSON FOUR
HEALTH HAZARDS IN CONSTRUCTION
The Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) provides information to workers and
employers about various chemical hazards that exist in the workplace and what protective
measures they can take in order to prevent the adverse effects of such hazards.

Lesson 4: Key Terms

Chemical: An element or a compound produced by chemical reactions on a large


scale for direct industrial and consumer use or for reaction with other chemicals.

Combustible: A material having a flashpoint of 100 degrees F. or above.

Flammable: A material having a flashpoint below 100 degrees F.

HazCom: Hazard Communication Standard.

Inhalation: Breathing in an airborne substance that may be in the form of gases,


fumes, mists, vapors, dusts, or aerosols.

MSDS: Material Safety Data SheetIt is a document containing the chemical


hazard and safe handling information pertaining to a specific chemical or
compound and is prepared in accordance with the OSHA Hazard Communication
Standard.

OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

Training: A course of study in which employees are trained to identify and work
safely with hazardous materials.

The Need Of A Hazard Communication Standard (Hcs)


According to OSHA, over 650,000 hazardous chemical products exist and hundreds of
new ones are being introduced annually. More than 32 million workers are potentially
exposed to one or more chemical hazards in more than 3 million American workplaces.

The Concept of Hazard Communication Standard (HCS)


The simple idea behind the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) is that workers have
both a need and a right to know about the hazards and identities of the chemicals they are
exposed to when performing their tasks and duties.
23
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

The Hazard Communication Standard Coverage


Implementation of HCS for all those companies who import, produce, distribute, or use
hazardous chemicals in the United States is mandatory. They must provide proper
information and training to all of their affected employees.
The Hazard Communication Standard covers both physical (such as explosive,
flammable) and health (acute and chronic) hazards. Being a worker or an employer, it is a
need and a right to know how you can perform your job responsibilities safely.

Hazardous Materials
Hazardous and toxic materials are those chemicals which may be present in a workplace
that have a capacity to cause harm. Mixtures, fuels, solvents, paints, and dusts are all
considered hazardous substances or materials.

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)


A Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) provides detailed information about a specific
hazardous material. Although labels are a good way to provide information about
hazardous chemicals, sometimes you need more information about the chemical but it
may not be possible to provide all the information on a label.
An MSDS must be maintained in the facility for use of personnel while the material is in
the facility, and will be retained for a period of 30 years upon discontinuation of use of
the material the MSDS represents.

24
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

NOTES:

25
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

LESSON FIVE
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
This course is designed for people working in the Construction Industry and who are
exposed to health hazards and chemicals during the course of their work. Topics include
definitions, the Hazard Communication Standard, asbestos standards, MDA, lead, worker
protection programs, process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals, and
cadmium. This course focuses on the topics covered in OSHA 29 CFR 1926 Subpart D.

Lesson 5: Key Terms

Article: A manufactured item other than a fluid or particle:


 Which is formed to a specific shape or design during manufacture
 Which has end use function(s) dependent in whole or in part upon
its shape or design during end use and
 Which under normal conditions of use does not release more than
very small quantities, e.g., minute or trace amounts of a hazardous
chemical and does not pose a physical hazard or health risk to
employees.

Chemical: Any element, compound, or mixture of elements and/or compounds.

Container: Any bag, barrel, bottle, box, can, cylinder, drum, reaction vessel,
storage tank, or the like that contains a hazardous chemical.

Explosive: A chemical that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous release of


pressure, gas, and heat when subjected to sudden shock, pressure, or high
temperature.

Hazardous Chemical: Any chemical that poses a physical or health hazard.

Physical Hazard: A chemical for which there is scientifically valid evidence that
it is a combustible liquid, a compressed gas, explosive, flammable, an organic
peroxide, an oxidizer, pyrophoric, unstable (reactive), or water-reactive.

Trade Secret: Any confidential formula, pattern, process, device, information, or


compilation of information that is used in an employer's business, and gives the
employer an opportunity to obtain an advantage over competitors who do not
know or use it.

Workplace: An establishment, job site, or project at one geographical location


containing one or more work areas.
26

30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Asbestos
Asbestos is the generic term for a group of naturally occurring, fibrous minerals with
high tensile strength, flexibility, and resistance to heat, chemicals, and electricity.
In the construction industry, asbestos is found in installed products such as sprayed-on
fireproofing, pipe insulation, floor tiles, cement pipe and sheet, roofing felts and shingles,
ceiling tiles, fire-resistant drywall, drywall joint compounds, and acoustical products.
Because very few asbestos-containing products are being installed today, most worker
exposures occur during the removal of asbestos and during the renovation and
maintenance of buildings and structures containing asbestos.

Classification of Asbestos
Class I is the most potentially hazardous class of asbestos job and involves the removal
of thermal system insulation and sprayed-on or troweled-on surfacing asbestoscontaining materials.
Class II includes the removal of other types of asbestos-containing materials that are not
thermal system insulation, such as resilient flooring and roofing materials containing
asbestos.
Class III focuses on repair and maintenance operations where asbestos- containing or
presumed asbestos-containing materials are disturbed.
Class IV pertains to custodial activities where employees clean up asbestos-containing
waste and debris.

General Compliance Requirements


For any employee exposed to airborne concentrations of asbestos, the employer must
provide and ensure the use of protective clothing, such as coveralls or similar full-body
clothing, head coverings, gloves, foot coverings, face shields, vented goggles, or other
appropriate protective equipment wherever the possibility of eye irritation exists. The
employer must also provide and ensure the use of respirators where necessary. The
employer must provide medical examinations for workers who, for 30 or more days per
year, engage in Class I, II, or III work or experience related to asbestos.

What Kinds of Building Materials May Contain Asbestos?


Exposure to asbestos dust can occur at major construction job sites, in shipyards, in
industry, and during construction or renovation of commercial buildings. Even workers'
families and friends can be at risk, as asbestos can often be carried on clothing. It is
27
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

important to note that workers are not always told they are working around asbestos, and
even single exposures to very low doses of fibers can result in harm.
There are many products containing asbestos. The following list gives an idea of the
widespread use of asbestos, even though more products than those listed here may
contain asbestos.

MDAMethylenedianiline
MDA is a light-brown crystalline solid with a faint amino-like odor. It is slightly soluble
in water and very soluble in alcohol and benzene. It is used mainly for making
polyurethane foams, which have a variety of uses, such as insulating materials. It is also
used for making coating materials, epoxy glues, Spandex fiber, dyes, and rubber.
Routes of exposure to MDA include skin absorption, inhalation, and ingestion. Shortterm (acute) overexposure to MDA produces symptoms such as fever, chills, loss of
appetite, vomiting, and/or jaundice. Short-term contact with MDA may irritate the skin,
eyes, and mucous membranes, and sensitization to MDA may also occur. Long-term
(chronic) overexposure may cause cancer as well as damage to the liver, kidneys, blood,
and spleen.

Respiratory Protection
Employers must provide (at no cost to the employee) and ensure the use of respirators
when engineering and work practice controls are being installed; when engineering and
work practice controls are not sufficient to reduce exposure to or below the PEL; when
engineering controls are not feasible in repair or maintenance and spray application
processes; and during emergencies. Keep in mind that engineering controls MUST BE
USED to the fullest extent feasible.

Lead
Pure lead (Pb) is a heavy metal at room temperature and pressure. As a basic chemical
element, lead can combine with various other substances to form numerous lead
compounds. Lead has been poisoning workers for thousands of years. Lead can damage
the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, reproductive system, hematological
system, and kidneys. When absorbed into the body in high enough doses, lead can be
toxic. In addition, a workers lead exposure can harm the development of the workers
children.

28
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

NOTES:

29
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

LESSON SIX
PROCESS SAFETY MANAGEMENT (PSM)
The primary concern of process safety management (PSM) of highly hazardous
chemicals is to protect exposed employees from unwanted releases of hazardous
chemicals.

Lesson 6: Key Terms

Atmospheric tank: A storage tank which has been designed to operate at


pressures from atmospheric through 0.5 p.s.i.g. (pounds per square inch gauge).

Catastrophic release: A major uncontrolled emission, fire, or explosion,


involving one or more highly hazardous chemicals, that presents serious danger to
employees in the workplace.

Chemical: An element or a compound produced by chemical reactions on a


large scale for either direct industrial and consumer use or for reaction with other
chemicals.

Facility: The buildings, containers, or equipment which contain a process

Highly hazardous chemical: A substance possessing toxic, reactive, flammable,


or explosive materials/chemicals.

Hot work: Work involving electric or gas welding, cutting, brazing, or similar
flame or spark-producing operations.

Normally unoccupied remote facility: A facility which is operated, maintained,


or serviced by employees who visit the facility only periodically to check its
operation and to perform necessary operating or maintenance tasks.

The Need for Process Safety Management (PSM)


Many incidents resulting from the unexpected release of toxic, reactive, or flammable
liquids and gases in processes involving the use of highly hazardous chemicals occur in
various industries each year. To eliminate or minimize these incidents, OSHA sets
standards that are called Process Safety Management (PSM) standards.

30
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

OSHA Standards Application


(A) The standard mainly applies to manufacturing industries, particularly those
pertaining to chemicals, transportation equipment, and fabricated metal products.
Other affected sectors include natural gas liquids, farm product warehousing,
electric, gas, sanitary services, and wholesale trade. The standard also applies to
both pyrotechnics and to explosives manufacturers covered under other OSHA
rules, and has special provisions for contractors working in covered facilities.
Furthermore, PSM standards apply to all those companies of each industry that deal with
any of more than 130 specific toxic and reactive chemicals in listed quantities; they also
include flammable liquids and gases in quantities of 10,000 pounds (4,535.9 Kg) or more
except for:
(B) Hydrocarbon fuels used solely for workplace consumption as a fuel when not
used within a process containing another highly hazardous chemical.
Flammable liquids stored in atmospheric tanks or transferred which are kept below their
normal boiling point without benefit of chilling or refrigeration.

Process Safety Information


According to the OSHA standards, employers are responsible for the mandatory
compilation of written process safety information before conducting any process hazard
analysis. Written process safety information will help employers and employees
recognize the various hazards posed by those processes involving highly hazardous
chemicals. Furthermore the process safety information must include information about
the dangers of the highly hazardous chemicals used by and produced in the process,
information pertaining to the technology of the process, and information on the
equipment used in the process.

According to OSHA 1910.119 and 1926.64(d)(1) Information pertaining to the hazards


of the highly hazardous chemicals in the process, must include at least the:

Toxicity.
Permissible exposure limits.
Physical data.
Reactivity data..
Corrosivity data.
Thermal and chemical stability data.
Hazardous effects of the inadvertent mixing of different materials.
31

30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Operating Procedures
Employers must develop and implement written operating procedures that take the
process safety information into consideration and clearly communicate this information
to employees, so that workers are as safe as possible when engaged in processes covered
by the procedures. According to OSHA, it is vital that tasks and procedures related to the
covered process be appropriate, clear, consistent, and most importantly, well
communicated to the employees.

Initial Training
Implementing an effective training program for the employees who are engaged in a
process is essential to enhancing the work quality and safety of those employees. Process
safety management requires that each employee who is engaged in operating a process be
trained to work safely and that, before being assigned to a new process, employees be
trained in an overview and the operating procedures of that process. The training must
include:

Specific safety and health hazards of the process


All emergency operations, including shutdown
Other safe work practices related to their duties

32
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

NOTES:

33
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

LESSON SEVEN
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
The life of every human being is precious. Yet due to negligence and improper safety
measures, thousands of workers die each year alone in the construction industry. To
minimize or eliminate casualties and fatalities, OSHA requires employers to protect their
employees from workplace hazards through proper and effective engineering or work
practice controls. When these controls are not feasible, the use of personal protective
equipment (PPE) is required.

Lesson 7: Key Terms

Contaminant: Any material which by reason of its action upon, within, or to a


person is likely to cause physical harm.

dBA: Adjusted decibels.

Radiant Energy: A kind of energy that travels outward in all directions from its
sources.

The Need Of Personal Protective Equipment (Ppe)


It is imperative that employers provide PPE to employees if:

Hazards exist or are likely to be present in a work environment.


During work, employees might come into contact with hazardous chemicals,
radiation, or mechanical irritants.
The employer is unable to eliminate workplace hazards by engineering, work
practice, or administrative controls.

Analysis
A hazard analysis is required by the employer in order to observe the work environment,
observe how employees are performing their tasks and duties, and to look for potential
hazards. Some sources of potential injuries are:

Objects that might fall from above.


Exposed pipes or beams at work level.
Exposed liquid chemicals.
Sources of heat, intense light, noise, or dust.
34

30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Equipment or materials that could produce flying particles.

35
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

NOTES:

36
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

LESSON EIGHT
FIRE PROTECTION FOR CONSTRUCTIONBASIC
This course has been designed to deliver firsthand information about fires and fire
protection measures. After completing this course, you will be able to identify different
types of fires and how safety measures can be taken to avoid a disastrous situation. We
will also discuss the different types of fire extinguishers in use, and we will discover how
careful planning and precautionary measures can be taken to save lives and property.

Lesson 8: Key Terms

Approved: For the purpose of this course, the word approved means
equipment that has been listed or approved by a nationally recognized testing
laboratory or by Federal agencies.

Closed Container: A container so sealed by means of a lid or other device that


neither liquid nor vapor will escape from it at ordinary temperatures.

Combustible Liquids: Any liquid having a flash point between 140F and 200F.

Combustion: Burning of a material, i.e., a chemical change accompanied by the


production of heat and light.

Flammable: Means capable of being easily ignited, capable of burning intensely,


or having a rapid rate of flame spread.

Flammable Liquids: Means any liquid having a flash point below 140F and
having a vapor pressure not exceeding 40 pounds per square inch (absolute) at
100F.

Flash Point: The lowest temperature at which the vapors of a liquid can catch
fire.

Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG): A material which is composed primarily of


any of the following hydrocarbons or mixtures of them, such as propane,
propylene, butane, and butylenes.

Portable Tank: Means a closed container having a liquid capacity more than 60
U.S. gallons and not intended for fixed installation.

37
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Safety Can: Means an approved closed container of not more than five gallons
capacity, having a flash-arresting screen, spring-closing lid and spout cover, and
so designed that it will safely relieve internal pressure when subjected to fire
exposure.

Fires
The event of something burning (often destructive) is called a fire.
The following are the different types of fires:

Class A: Ordinary Combustible


Class A fires involve ordinary combustible materials such as wood, paper, rags, rubbish,
and other solids.

Class B: Combustible / Flammable Liquids


Class B fires occur due to flammable and combustible liquids such as gasoline, fuel oil,
paint thinner, hydraulic fluids, flammable cleaning solvents, and other hydrocarbon fuels.

Class C: Electrical Fires


Class C fires involve energized electrical equipment such as power outlets, circuit
breakers, defective wiring, and overloaded circuits.

Class D: Flammable / Combustible Metal Fires


Class D fires occur in combustible metals such as magnesium, aluminum powder, and
alkali metals.
Extinguishers must be placed in an easily accessible location and should be in good
operating condition. Extinguishers should be placed in a normal path of travel. At a
minimum, fire extinguishers must be placed at all points of egress on construction
projects and in close proximity of combustible/flammable materials stored on the site.
The proper class must be marked on the extinguisher, so that it can be used according to
the class of fire.

38
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Fire Safety Alarms


Smoke Alarms
In case of a building fire, the first step is to warn the occupants and to evacuate the
building as soon as possible. Early fire warnings can be given by means of active smoke
alarms installed in strategic locations throughout a building.
The two primary types of smoke alarms in use are ionization and photoelectric alarms.

Fire Sprinklers
Fire sprinklers provide 24-hour protection by detecting and extinguishing fires before
they can become a threat to lives or property.

Injuries and First Aid


The majority of fire-related deaths (50-80 percent) are caused by smoke inhalation.
Actual flames and burns are second to smoke inhalation in the cause of deaths in fires.

General Requirements
The following are some general requirements for a fire protection plan:

It is the employers responsibility to develop a fire protection plan that can be


implemented and enforced throughout a company or workforce.

The employer is also responsible for providing any and all firefighting equipment
and for providing immediate access to such equipment at all times.

Firefighting equipment must be conspicuously located and maintained in good


operating condition at all times. Any defective equipment must be immediately
replaced.

The employer should consult with a professional fire protection organization should
assistance be needed in implementing an effective fire protection plan.

Fire Alarm Devices


The following information applies to fire alarm devices:

An alarm system, telephone system, siren, etc., should be established by the


employer so that the employees on the site, as well as the local fire department,
can be alerted during an emergency.

39
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

The alarm code and reporting instructions should be posted at or near phones and
employee entrances.

Fire walls and exit stairways, which are required for completed buildings, should
be given construction priority.

Fire cutoffs must be retained in buildings undergoing alterations or demolition


until operations necessitate their removal.

40
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

NOTES:

41
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

LESSON NINE
MATERIALS HANDLING FOR CONSTRUCTIONBASIC
This module introduces the hazards that are involved in the handling and storage of
materials. Different methods of handling and storage are discussed, the hazards they pose
to workers, and the methods by which these hazards can be reduced or eliminated from
the workplace.

Lesson 9 Key Terms

ANSI: American National Standards Institute.

Conveyor: A mechanical apparatus for moving articles or bulk material from


place to place, like an endless moving belt or a chain of receptacles.

Crane: A large, sometimes mobile, machine that is used to transport men and/or
material from one point to anotherusually in a vertical directioncommonly
used in the construction of buildings and ships.

Forklift: A type of powered industrial truck that is used to transport material,


clearly identified by the large forks (capable of vertical motion) that are installed
at the front.

Powered industrial trucks: Trucks that are used for the transport of material.
They may be modified to operate in hazardous conditions.

Screw conveyor: Screw conveyors are designed to convey flowable solid


materials.

Bulkiness and Weight of Materials


There are two major hazards involved in handling and storing materials:

Bulkiness
Weight of Materials

Often, handling heavy and bulky objects results in back and spinal injuries. Workers that
lift these objects are likely to suffer from acute and chronic back pains.

42
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Methods Of Prevention
If the worker has to manually handle an object, he or she must ask for assistance when a
load is:
Bulky to the extent that it cannot be grasped or lifted properly.
Bulky to the extent that she or he cannot see around or over it.
One that cannot be handled safely.

Load Weight and Mechanical Moving Equipment


Workers must never overload mechanical moving equipment. All types of material
handling equipment have maximum weight specifications which must be adhered to. As
such, the type of equipment used to move a load from one point to another must be
dictated by the specifications of the load itself.

Conveyors
The following risks are associated with using conveyors:

Workers hands can get caught at points where the conveyor runs over support
members.
If the conveyor passes over a work area, workers can be struck by falling
materials.
A worker can become caught and drawn into the conveyor.

Cranes
It is very important to note that only qualified, competent persons must be allowed to
operate cranes. Operators must know the specifications of all loads they lift (such as what
is actually being lifted and its weight). Each crane has a rated capacity that is determined
by the length of its boom and the boom radius.

Powered Industrial Trucks


New, powered industrial trucks (e.g., tow motors, forklifts, fork trucks, cherry-pickers,
etc.) ,must meet the design and construction requirements of the American National
Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks, Part II, ANSI b56.1-1969. New powered
industrial trucks (P.I.T.s) also must have some identifying mark indicating that they have
been inspected and accepted by some nationally accepted testing laboratory.

43
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Ergonomic Safety and Health Principles


Ergonomics is a principle that states that jobs must be adapted to fit the person, rather
than the person being forced to fit the job. As such, the study of ergonomics attempts to
provide the most conducive environment possible to fit the employees needs and lead to
the greatest possible productivity.

Aisles and Passageways


Sufficient clearance must be allowed in passageways and aisles for the movement of
materials mechanically, particularly at loading docks, through doorways and wherever
turns must be made. Providing sufficient clearance will prevent the possibility that
workers will get pinned down. Also, sufficient clearance will reduce the risk that a load
will strike an obstruction and fall on an employee. As such, all passageways and aisles
must be kept clear of obstructions and tripping hazards. Materials should never be stored
in aisles.

44
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

NOTES:

45
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

LESSON TEN
HAND AND POWER TOOLSBASIC
Hand and power tools are a part of our everyday lives. These tools help us to perform
tasks that otherwise would be difficult or impossible. However, even simple tools can be
hazardous and have the potential for causing severe injuries when used or maintained
improperly. Special attention toward hand and power tool safety is necessary in order to
reduce or eliminate these hazards.

Lesson 10: Key Terms

Hazard: Danger or risk.

OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

PPE: Personal Protective Equipment.

P.S.I.: Pounds per square inch.

Training: Process of teaching or learning a skill, etc.

Safe Use Of Hand And Power Tools


Hazards
Workers using hand and power tools may be exposed to these hazards:

Falling or flying objects which can be abrasive, or may splash.


Harmful dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, and gases.
Frayed or damaged electrical cords, hazardous connections, and improper
grounding.

Basic Tool Safety Rules


Basic tool safety rules include the following:

Perform maintenance regularly


Use the right tool for the job
Inspect tools before use
Operate according to manufacturers instructions
Use the right personal protective equipment (PPE)
46

30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Use guards

Hazards of Hand and Power Tools


Hand Tool Hazards
Hazards are usually caused by misuse and improper maintenance.
Do not use:

Wrenches when jaws are sprung.


Impact tools (chisels and wedges) when heads have mushroomed.
Tools with loose, cracked, or splintered handles.
A screwdriver as a chisel.
Tools with taped handlesthey may be hiding cracks.

Electric ToolsGood Practices


Good practices for the use of electric tools include:
Operate within design limits.
Use gloves and safety shoes. (Care must be exercised when using gloves with
rotating power tools. In some cases using gloves can become more dangerous
due to than possibly contacting the rotating parts and drawing the hand into the
tool.)
Store in a dry place.
Dont use in wet locations unless approved for those conditions.
Keep work areas well lit.
Ensure cords dont present a tripping hazard.

General Safety Precautions


Employees who use hand and power tools and who are exposed to the hazards of falling,
flying, abrasive, and splashing objects, or exposed to harmful dusts, fumes, mists, vapors,
or gases, must be provided with the personal protective equipment necessary to protect
them from the hazard.
All hazards involved in the use of power tools can be prevented by following five basic
safety rules:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Keep all tools in good condition with regular maintenance


Use the right tool for the job
Examine each tool for damage before use
Operate according to the manufacturer's instructions
Provide and use the proper protective equipment
47

30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

NOTES:

48
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

LESSON ELEVEN

WELDING AND CUTTING FOR CONSTRUCTION


This module attempts to discuss the two most common types of welding and cutting (gas
and arc), the dangers that are involved in working with them, and the safety measures that
can be undertaken to minimize and prevent the occurrence of their associated hazards.
The course goes on to study fire prevention techniques and the danger of preservative
coatings when welding or cutting.
.

Lesson 11: Key Terms

Acetylene: Acetylene forms explosive mixtures with oxygen or air. When


dissolved in acetone it is non-explosive and so is stored dissolved in acetone
under pressure in steel cylinders for commercial use.

Beryllium: A steel-gray, light, strong, brittle, toxic, bivalent metallic element


used chiefly as a hardening agent in alloys.

Cadmium: A bluish-white malleable ductile toxic bivalent metallic element used


especially in protective plating and in bearing metals.

Chromium: A blue-white metallic element found naturally only in combination


and used especially in alloys and in electroplating.

Grounding: To connect electrically with a ground.

p.s.i.: Pounds per square inch.

Ultraviolet rays: Situated beyond the visible spectrum at its violet endused to
describe radiation having a wavelength shorter than wavelengths of visible light
and longer than those of X-rays.

Valve: Device for controlling the flow of fluids (liquids and gases).

49
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

GAS WELDING AND CUTTING


Transporting, Moving, and Storing Compressed Gas Cylinders
Certain precautions must be established when transporting, moving, or storing the
compressed gas cylinders that are used in welding and cutting. To minimize chances of
injury:

Valve protection caps must be in place and properly secured.


Cylinders must not be hoisted or transported using magnets or choker slings.
Cylinders may only be hoisted if secured on a cradle, slingboard, or pallet.
When moving the cylinders the workers must be careful no to drop them or to
allow them to be struck violently.
Individual cylinders should be moved by tilting and rolling them along their
bottom edges.

Use of Fuel Gas


Employers must instruct their workers in the safe and judicious use of fuel gas. The
following safety precautions must be followed.

Prior to connecting a cylinder valve, the valve must be opened slightly and then
closed immediately. This is known as cracking. The intention is to ensure that
the valve is clear of dust or dirt. The person cracking the valve must ensure that
he or she is standing to one side of the valve and not directly in front of it.
Furthermore, the worker must ensure that while cracking the valve, no gas will
reach sparks, flames, or other source of ignition.

Cylinder valves must always be opened slowly to prevent damage to the


regulator. Furthermore, valves should not be opened more than one and a half
turns to enable workers to quickly close the valve, if need be. Should the valve
require a special wrench to close the valve, the wrench will be left in position on
the stem of the valve. Workers must ensure that nothing is left on top of the fuel
gas cylinder that may damage the safety device or interfere with the hasty closing
of a valve.

50
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

WELDING SAFETY: PREVENTION, VENTILATION, AND


PROTECTION
Arc Welding and Cutting
Manual Electrode Holders
Any manual electrode holder that is used must be capable of handling the
maximum rated current. Furthermore, only those manual electrodes that have
been specifically manufactured for arc welding and cutting may be used.
Any current-carrying parts coming into contact with the holders must be fully
insulated against the maximum voltage.
Mechanical Ventilation
Mechanical ventilation will consist of either general mechanical or local exhaust
ventilation systems. General ventilation must be sufficient to create the necessary number
of air changes required to maintain welding fumes and smoke within safe limits for the
activity undertaken (see 1926.353(d) for safe limit details). Local ventilation must consist
of freely moving hoods that can be placed by the welder as close as is practicable to the
work being performed. The idea is to remove smoke and fumes at the source to keep the
breathing zone within safe limits. Contaminated air that has been exhausted from the
working area must be discharged into an open area or otherwise kept clear from the
source of intake air. All air replacing contaminated air that has been withdrawn must be
clean and breathable.
Fire Prevention
When possible, all objects that are to be welded or cut are to be moved to a safe
location. If the object cannot be moved, then all fire hazards in the area of the
object must either be moved or shielded prior to the welding or cutting. No
welding or cutting should be performed where the possibility of flammable paints
or other compounds creating a hazard exists.
The work area must be equipped with suitable fire extinguishing equipment that
has been properly maintained and can be instantaneously used.
If while welding or cutting it is determined that conventional fire prevention
methods are not sufficient, additional personnel must be assigned to guard against
the possibility of fire.

51
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

NOTES:

52
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

LESSON TWELVE

ELECTRICAL SAFETY FOR CONSTRUCTION


OSHAs electrical standards address electrical workplace hazards. Employees working
on, near, or around electricity may be exposed to dangers such as, electric shock,
electrocution, burns, fires, and explosions. The objective of the standard is to minimize
the potential hazard by specifying design characteristics of safety when installing and
using electrical equipment and systems.

Lesson 12 Key Terms

Amperes or Amps: The volume of the current flow.

AWG: American wire gauge (AWG), which is one measurement standard used to
size wire.

Circuit: Completion of the path of the current; including a voltage source,


conductors, and the load (such as, a lamp, tool, or heater).

Conductors: Materials that contain free electrons that allow current to flow
through the material.

Current: Electron flow (measured in amperes).

Electric Shock: The physical effect nerve stimulation and/or muscle contraction
caused by the flow of current through the body.

Electrocution: Death caused by electrical shock.

GFCI: Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupter. A device which detects current


imbalance between the circuit conductors and reference to the grounding
conductor. If an imbalance or leak occurs as small as 5 milliamps (.005 amps)
for as little as 1/40th of a second this device will interrupt the circuit, preventing a
shock which most people would not feel.

Grounding: An intentional conductive connection to the earth that provides a


path back to the source from any conductive portion of the load device or
equipment for any fault current that may occur in a circuit.

Insulators: Materials with few free electrons. Current does not easily flow
through insulators, if at all.
53

30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Resistance: Opposition to current flow.

Volts: The electrical pressure (measure of electrical force).

Watts: Measurement work produced by the electrical circuit.

Wire Gauge: System used to measure the physical size of wire.

ElectricityThe Dangers
The following are some of the dangers associated with electricity:
More than five workers are electrocuted every week.
Electricity causes 12 percent of young worker deaths in the workplace.
It takes very little current flow to cause harm to a person who comes in direct
contact with an electrical circuit.
There is a significant risk of fires due to electrical malfunctions.

Electrical Injuries
The following are the main types of electrical injuries:

Direct
Indirect

Direct
The following are considered to be direct electrical injuries:

Electrocution (death due to electrical shock)


Electrical shock and related symptoms resulting from it (e.g., bone fractures,
neurological disorders, etc.)
Burns
Arc flash/blast (usually resulting in burns, concussion injuries, etc.)

Indirect
The following are considered to be indirect electrical injuries:

Falls
Back injuries
Cuts to the hands

54
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Electrical HazardsOther Preventive Measures


Grounding
Grounding creates a low-resistance path from a tool to the earth to disperse unwanted
current.
When a short or lightning occurs, energy flows to the ground, protecting you from
electrical shock, injury, and death.

ControlGround Tools and Equipment


The following should be taken into consideration when working with tools and
equipment:

Properly ground power supply systems, electrical circuits, and electrical equipment.
Frequently inspect electrical systems to insure that the path to ground is continuous.
Inspect electrical equipment before use.
Dont remove ground prongs from tools or extension cords.
Ground exposed metal parts of equipment.

Tool Safety Tips


The following are some safety tips to consider when using tools:
Use gloves and appropriate footwear when using tools.
Store tools in a dry place when not in use.
Dont use tools in wet/damp conditions.
Keep working areas well lit.
Ensure that tools are not a tripping hazard.
Dont carry a tool by the cord.
Dont yank the cord to disconnect the tool from the electrical source.
Keep cords away from heat, oil, and sharp edges.
Disconnect tools when not in use and when changing accessories such as, blades
and bits.
Remove damaged tools from use.

Preventing Electrical HazardsTools


The following measures should be taken to prevent electrical hazards associated with the
use of tools:

Inspect tools before use.


Use the right tool correctly.
55

30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Protect your tools.


Use double insulated tools.

Locking Out and Tagging Out of Circuits


The following steps must be performed when locking out and tagging out circuits:

Apply locks to the power source after de-energizing.


Verify circuit is de-energized by testing with known functioning meters.
Tag deactivated controls and power sources.
Tag de-energized equipment and circuits at all points where they can be energized.
Tags must identify equipment or circuits being worked on.

Safety-Related Work Practices


To protect workers from electrical shock:
Use barriers and guards to prevent passage through areas of exposed energized
equipment.
Pre-plan work, post hazard warnings, and use protective measures.
Keep working spaces and walkways clear of cords.
Use special insulated tools when working on fuses with energized terminals.
Dont use worn or frayed cords and cables.
Dont fasten extension cords with staples, hang the cords from nails, or suspend the
cords using wire.

56
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

NOTES:

57
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

LESSON THIRTEEN
STRUCK BY AND CAUGHT IN BETWEEN HAZARDS
This course provides an overview of construction-related struck by and caught in between
hazards. It identifies the types of operations that most often cause these hazards.
Additionally, the course discusses the engineering controls that should be followed and
lists the personal protective equipment that should be used to limit or eliminate struck by
and caught in between injuries.

Lesson 13: Key Terms

Audible backup alarms: These devises must be installed on heavy construction


vehicles and maintained in proper working order. They sound an alarm to nearby
workers that a dangerous vehicle is backing up.

Chock: A wedge or block used to keep a vehicle parked on an incline from


rolling.

Excavation work: Excavation-related work is a major cause of caught in between


hazards. In 2005, the vast majority of caught in between hazard citations were
related to excavation operations.

Limited access zone: The area adjacent to masonry wall construction that clearly
limits access by all but essential employees.

PSI: Pressure per square inch -- used to measure compressed air.

Shoring: A structure like a metal hydraulic, mechanical, or timber shoring system


that supports the sides of an excavation and is used to prevent cave-ins.

Toeboards: A type of guard installed along the lower edge of scaffold platforms
and overhead walkways, designed to keep tools and other objects from falling and
injuring workers below. Installing toeboards is considered an engineering control.

What is the Struck By Hazard?


According to the U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health
Administration,
(http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/construction/struckby/falling_flying.html) being
struck by objects is a leading cause of construction-related deaths. OSHA estimates that
58
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

75 percent of struck-by fatalities involve heavy equipment like trucks or cranes. The
number of workers that die as a result of being struck by a vehicle was at a seven-year
high in 1998.
Safety and health programs must include ways to limit or eliminate the many ways
struck-by accidents can occur, since one of the major causes of construction-related death
is from being struck by objects.
Typically, struck by accidents are associated with:
Vehicles
Falling or flying objects
Masonry walls

The Danger From Heavy Vehicles


If vehicular safety practices are not followed at a work site, workers are at risk of being
pinned (caught) in between construction vehicles and walls or stationary surfaces, struck
by swinging backhoes, crushed beneath overturned vehicles, or many other similar
accidents. When working near a public roadway, workers are additionally exposed to
being struck by trucks, cars, or other vehicles.

Danger from Being Struck By Falling or Flying Objects


Workers are at risk from falling objects when they are required to work beneath cranes,
scaffolds, overhead electrical line work, etc.
There is a danger from flying objects when using power tools, or during activities like
pushing, pulling, or prying, that can cause objects to become airborne.

Ways to Avoid Being Struck By Falling or Flying Objects


Workers can be struck by falling or flying objects or by materials that slide, collapse, or
otherwise fall on them. To protect workers from these types of injuries, OSHA requires
that employers:
Require the use of hardhats/helmets when appropriate.
Train employees to stack materials to prevent sliding, falling, or collapse and
enforce such practices.
Install protective devices onsite such as toeboards on elevated platforms and on
walkways
Install debris nets beneath overhead work

Working Around Cranes and Hoists


It is extremely hazardous to work underneath heavy equipment, especially when it is
being operated. Heavy debris can fall from a swinging bucket. A crane can accidentally
59
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

break something loose and send it flying. If hoists break during use, their loads can
tumble down and strike workers.
Always follow these safe practices while working around cranes and hoists:

Never allow employees to work underneath loads being moved.


Barricade areas and post warning signs to keep non-essential employees and
outsiders away from overhead equipment.
Inspect cranes and hoists before each use to ensure components are in good
working condition.
Never exceed the lifting capacity of cranes and hoists.

Avoiding Struck By Hazards Related to Masonry Construction


Only essential workers should be allowed near this type of operation. To enforce this, set
up a limited access zone around operations. Additionally, be sure to:
Have concrete structures checked by qualified persons before placing loads.
Adequately shore or brace structures until they are permanently supported.
Secure unrolled wire mesh so it cannot recoil.
Never load a lifting device beyond its intended capacity.
Use automatic holding devices for backup support when using lifts.

What is the Caught in Between Hazard?


OSHAs website states that the top four causes of construction fatalities are a result of:
Falls
Struck by
Caught in between
Electrocution
This lesson discusses situations in which workers can be caught in between equipment,
moving loads, or even safety guards. This hazard exists in many of the same situations
where struck by hazards exist. For instance, a worker can be caught in between a falling
slab and a concrete foundation. Or, a worker can be caught (or pinned) in between a
vehicle and a structure. Finally, workers can be caught in between a collapsed trench that
is not properly braced, or warehoused construction materials that were not correctly
stacked to prevent sliding.

Preventing Caught In Between Hazards


Engineering controls like shoring, fall protection systems, and properly stacking building
materials will help to prevent caught in between hazards. Some of these practices are:
60
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Never allow workers to enter an unprotected trench (or excavation) that is 5 feet
or deeper unless an adequate protective system is in place; in some cases, trenches
less than 5 feet deep may also require such a system.
Ensure the trench (or excavation) is adequately protected either by sloping,
shoring, benching, or trench shield systems.
Follow fall protection guidelines per 1926.502 Subpart M Appendix E.
Always properly stack building materials so they are clear of work areas and so
they do not suddenly shift or slide onto a worker.

61
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

NOTES:

62
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

LESSON FOURTEEN
FALL PROTECTIONBASIC
This course gives you a basic understanding about OSHAs role in prevention and
elimination of work-related illnesses and injuries. The OSHA standard identifies areas or
activities where fall protection is needed.
It clarifies what an employer must do to provide fall protection for employees, such as
identifying and evaluating fall hazards and providing training. Under the standard,
employers are able to select fall protection measures compatible with the type of work
being performed.
OSHA places its rules for fall protection in several different subparts in the construction
standards, depending primarily on the nature of the work. The standard covers most
construction workers, except those inspecting, investigating, or assessing workplace
conditions prior to the actual start of work or after all work has been completed.

Lesson 14: Key Terms

Anchorage: A secure point of attachment for lifelines, lanyards, or deceleration


devices.

Body belt: A strap with means both for securing it about the waist and for
attaching it to a lanyard, lifeline, or deceleration device.

Body harness: Straps that may be secured about the person in a manner that
distributes the fall-arrest forces over at least the thighs, pelvis, waist, chest, and
shoulders with a means for attaching the harness to other components of a
personal fall arrest system.

Connector: A device that is used to couple (connect) parts of a personal fall


arrest system or positioning device system together.

Controlled access zone: A work area designated and clearly marked in which
certain types of work (such as overhand bricklaying) may take place without the
use of conventional fall protection systemsguardrail, personal arrest or safety
netto protect the employees working in the zone.

Deceleration device: Any mechanism, such as rope, grab, rip-stitch lanyard,


specially-woven lanyard, tearing or deforming lanyards, automatic self-retracting
lifelines/lanyardswhich serve to dissipate a substantial amount of energy during
63

30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

a fall arrest, or otherwise limits the energy imposed on an employee during fall
arrest.

Guardrail system: A barrier erected to prevent employees from falling to lower


levels.

Hole: A void or gap 2 inches (5.1 cm) or more in the least dimension in a floor,
roof, or other walking/working surface.

Lanyard: A flexible line of rope, wire rope, or strap that generally has a
connector at each end for connecting the body belt or body harness to a
deceleration device, lifeline, or anchorage.

Leading edge: The edge of a floor, roof, or formwork for a floor or other
walking/working surface (such as the deck) which changes location as additional
floor, roof, decking, or formwork sections are placed, formed, or constructed.

Lifeline: A component consisting of a flexible line for connection to an


anchorage at one end to hang vertically (vertical lifeline), or for connection to
anchorage at both ends to stretch horizontally (horizontal lifeline), and that serves
as a means for connecting other components of a personal fall arrest system to the
anchorage.

Low-slope roof: A roof having a slope less than or equal to 4 in 12 (vertical to


horizontal).

Opening: A gap or void 30 inches (76 cm) or more high and 18 inches (46 cm) or
more wide, in a wall or partition, through which employees can fall to a lower
level.

Personal fall arrest system: A system including, but not limited to, an
anchorage, connectors, and a body harness used to arrest an employee in a fall
from a working level. As of January 1, 1998, the use of a body belt for fall arrest
is prohibited.

Positioning device system: A body belt or body harness system rigged to allow
an employee to be supported on an elevated vertical surface, such as a wall, and
work with both hands free while leaning backwards.

Rope grab: A deceleration device that travels on a lifeline and automatically, by


friction, engages the lifeline and locks to arrest a fall.

Safety-monitoring system: A safety system in which a competent person is


responsible for recognizing and warning employees of fall hazards.
64

30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Self-retracting lifeline/lanyard: A deceleration device containing a drum-wound


line which can be slowly extracted from, or retracted onto, the drum under
minimal tension during normal employee movement and which, after onset of a
fall, automatically locks the drum and arrests the fall.

Snap-hook: A connector consisting of a hook-shaped member with a normally


closed keeper, or similar arrangement, which may be opened to permit the hook to
receive an object and, when released, automatically closes to retain the object.

Steep roof: A roof having a slope greater than 4 in 12 (vertical to horizontal).

Toe-board: A low protective barrier that prevents material and equipment from
falling to lower levels, and protects personnel from falling.

Unprotected sides and edges: Any side or edge (except at entrances to points of
access) of a walking/working surface (e.g., floor, roof, ramp, or runway) where
there is no wall or guardrail system at least 39 inches (1 meter) high.

Walking/working surface: Any surface, whether horizontal or vertical, on which


an employee walks or works, including, but not limited to, floors, roofs, ramps,
bridges, runways, formwork, and concrete reinforcing steel. Does not include
ladders, vehicles, or trailers on which employees must be located to perform their
work duties.

Warning line system: A barrier erected on a roof to warn employees that they are
approaching an unprotected roof side or edge, and which designates an area in
which roofing work may take place without the use of guardrail, body belt, or
safety net systems to protect employees in the area.

Fall Prevention Measures


Select fall protection systems appropriate for given situations
Use proper construction and installation of safety systems
Supervise employees properly
Use safe work procedures
Train workers in the proper selection, use, and maintenance of fall protection
systems.

Areas Required to have Fall Protection


The following areas are required to have fall protection:

Unprotected sides and edges


65

30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Leading edges
Hoist areas
Holes
Formwork and reinforcing steel
Ramps, runways, and other walkways
Excavations
Dangerous equipment
Overhand bricklaying and related work
Roofing work on low-slope roofs
Steep roofs
Pre-cast concrete erection
Residential construction
Wall openings
Walking/working surfaces not otherwise addressed

Protection from Falling Objects


When employees are exposed to falling objects, the employer must have employees wear
hardhats and implement one of the following measures:

Erect toe-boards, screens, or guardrail systems to prevent objects from falling


from higher levels.

OR
Erect a canopy structure and keep potential fall objects far enough from the
edge so that those objects will not go over the edge if they are accidentally
displaced.
OR
Barricade the area to which objects could fall, prohibit employees from
entering the barricaded area, and keep objects that may fall far enough away
from the edge of a higher level so that those objects would not go over the
edge if they were accidentally displaced.

Types of Fall Protection Active Systems


Active systems include systems and components that require manipulation by employees
to make them effective in providing protection.

Active systems are designed to operate in free fall situations.


Active systems must be connected to other systems/components or activated to
provide protection.
Active systems are designed to protect employees from the following:
o Falls
o Forces that can cause injury
66

30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Types of Fall Protection Passive Systems


Passive systems are protective systems that do not involve the actions of employees. An
example of a passive system is a personal fall arrest system (PFAS).

PFAS shall not be attached to a guardrail system or hoists.


All components of a fall arrest system must be inspected before each use and after
impact. Defective components must be removed from service.

Action must be taken promptly to rescue fallen employees or be assured they can rescue
themselves

Safety Monitoring System


The employer must designate a competent person to monitor the safety of other
employees, and the employer has the duty to ensure that the safety monitor complies with
the following requirements:
He/she must be competent to recognize fall hazards.
He/she must warn the employee when it appears that the employee is unaware
of a fall hazard or is acting in an unsafe manner.
He/she must be on the same walking/working surface and within visual
sighting distance of employee being monitored.
He/she must be close enough to communicate orally with the employee.
He/she must not have other responsibilities which could take attention from
monitoring function.

67
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

NOTES:

68
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

LESSON FIFTEEN
CRANES AND RIGGING: BASIC
This course is intended for workers who want to learn more about cranes, derricks, hoists,
elevators, and/or conveyors. Topics include cranes and derricks, helicopters, basemounted drum hoists, overhead hoists, conveyors, and aerial lifts. This course covers the
topics included in OSHA 29 CFR 1926.55 Subpart N.

Lesson 15: Key Terms

Accident: Harmful event that is unexpected or without apparent cause.

Act: As a statute, decree, or enactment resulting from a decision by a legislative


body.

ANSI: American National Standards Institute.

Block: Sheaves or grooved pulleys in a frame with a hook, eye, and strap.

Boom: An inclined spar, strut, or other long member supporting the hoisting
tackle.

Boom angle indicator: An accessory device that measures the angle of the boom
base section centerline to horizontal load and the weight of the object being lifted
which includes load blocks and hooks, wire ropes, rigging, boom attachments,
and ancillary attachments.

Boom stops: A device used to limit the angle of the boom at its highest position.

Brake: To slow or stop motion by friction or power.

Counterweight: Weights used for balancing loads and the weight of the crane in
providing stability.

Crane: Consists of a rotating structure on rubber tires or crawler treads used for
lifting and lowering horizontally.

Deck: The revolving superstructure or turntable bed.

Drum: The spool or cylindrical member around which cables are wound for
raising and lowering loads.
69

30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Hoist: Used to lift and lower load.

Jib: Extension attached to the boom point to provide added boom length for
lifting specified loads.

OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

Outriggers: Support members attached to the cranes carrier frame that are used
to level and stabilize the crane.

PCSA: Power Crane and Shovel Association.

Pendants: Stationary wire ropes used to support the boom.

Radius: The horizontal distance from the axis of the rotation of the cranes
superstructure to the center of the suspended load.

Standards: Measure of comparison for quantitative or qualitative value; a


criterion.

Superstructure: The rotating frame, gantry, and boom or other operating


equipment.

Definition of Competent Person


A competent person is defined as being one who is capable of identifying working
conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees and who has the
authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate such hazards.

Crane Hazards
The following are examples of various crane hazards:
Improper load rating
Excessive speeds
No hand signals
Inadequate inspection and maintenance
Unguarded parts
Unguarded swing radius
Working too close to power lines
Improper exhaust system
Shattered windows
No steps/guardrails walkways
No boom angle indicator
Not using outriggers
70
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

NOTES:

71
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

LESSON SIXTEEN
MOTOR VEHICLES
This module is intended for workers who need to know about motor vehicles,
mechanized equipment, marine operations, rollover protective structures, overhead
protection, signs, signals, and/or barricades.
Topics include motor vehicles, mechanized equipment, marine operations, rollover
protective structures, overhead protection, signs, signals, and/or barricades
This course covers the topics included in OSHA 29 CFR 1926 Subparts O,; W Rollover
Protection;, and G Signs, Signals, and Barricades.

Lesson 16: Key Terms

Barricade: An obstruction to deter the passage of persons or vehicles.

ROPS: Rollover protective structures.

Signals: Moving signs, provided by workers, such as flagmen, or by devices, such


as flashing lights, to warn of possible or existing hazards.

Signs: Visual warnings of hazard, temporarily or permanently affixed to, or


placed at locations, where hazards exist.

Tags: Temporary signs, usually attached to pieces of equipment or structures, to


warn of existing or immediate hazards.

Subpart OMotor Vehicles


Motor vehicles covered by Subpart O of the OSHA regulations are those vehicles that
operate within an off-highway jobsite which is not open to public traffic.
All vehicles must have a service brake system, an emergency brake system, and a parking
brake system. These systems can utilize common components, and they always must be
maintained in operable condition.
All vehicles must be checked at the start of each shift to ensure that parts, equipment, and
accessories are in safe operating condition and are free of apparent damage that could
cause failure while in use. The components include:

Service brakesincluding trailer brake connections.


Parking system (hand brakes).
72

30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Emergency stopping system (brakes).


Tires.
Horn.
Steering mechanism.
Coupling devices.
Seat belts.
Operating controls.
Safety devices.

All defects must be corrected before the vehicles are placed in service.

Access Roadways and Grades


No employer must move or cause construction equipment or vehicles to be moved on any
access roadway or grade, unless the access roadway or grade is constructed and
maintained to safely accommodate such movement.
Every emergency access ramp and beam used by an employer must be constructed to
restrain and control runaway vehicles.

Audible Alarms

All bidirectional machines, such as rollers, compacters, front-end loaders,


bulldozers, and similar equipment, must be equipped with horns, distinguishable
from the surrounding noise levels.
These horns must be operated as needed when machines are moved in either
direction. They always must be kept operational.

Subpart GSigns, Signals, and Barricades


Signs and symbols shall be visible at all times when work is being performed and must be
removed or covered promptly when the hazards no longer exist.

73
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

NOTES:

74
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

LESSON SEVENTEEN
EXCAVATIONSBASIC
Cave-ins are considered the most dangerous trench and excavation hazard. Other
potentially fatal hazards also exist in excavations, such as asphyxiation due to lack of
oxygen in a confined space, inhalation of toxic fumes, flammable gases, falls, and water
accumulation that can cause drowning. The OSHA standards operate to protect workers
in trenches and excavations.

Lesson 17: Key Terms

Confined space: A space that, by design and/or configuration, has limited


openings for entry and exit, unfavorable natural ventilation, may contain or
produce hazardous substances, and is not intended for continuous employee
occupancy.

Excavation: A man-made cut, cavity, trench, or depression formed by earth


removal.

Hazardous atmosphere: An atmosphere that may cause death, illness, or injury


to persons exposed to it because it may be explosive, flammable, poisonous,
corrosive, oxidizing, irritating, oxygen-deficient, toxic, or otherwise harmful.

Shield: Structure able to withstand a cave-in and protect employees.

Shoring: A structure that supports the sides of an excavation and protects against
cave-ins.

Sloping: A technique that employs a specific angle of incline on the sides of the
excavation.

Trench: A narrow excavation made below the surface of the ground in which the
depth is greater than the width and the width does not exceed 15 feet.

Standards and Protection


The OSHA standards are applicable to all man-made open excavations in the earths
surface. Excavations by definition include trenches.

75
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

OSHA Standards Exemptions


House foundation/basement excavations (including those that become trenches by
definition when formwork, foundations, or walls are constructed) are exempt from the
OSHA requirements for protective systems if they meet following conditions:

The house foundation/basement excavation is less than seven and one-half feet in
depth or is benched for at least two (2) feet horizontally for every five (5) feet or
less of vertical height.
The minimum horizontal width (excavation face to formwork/wall) at the bottom
of the excavation is as wide as practicable but not less than two (2) feet.

There is no water, surface tension cracks, nor other environmental conditions present that
reduce the stability of the excavation.

HAZARDOUS CONDITIONS
Materials And Equipment
Employers are responsible for ensuring that materials and equipment are in good working
condition because damaged and defective materials and equipment could cause
excavation accidents.
To prevent accidents and hazards, the employer must ensure that:

Equipment and materials are not damaged or defective.


Manufactured equipment is stored according to the directions of the manufacturer
and in such a way that will prevent employees exposure to the hazards.
Any damaged equipment or defective material is removed from service and not
used until it is evaluated and approved or rejected by a registered professional
engineer.

Do Not Work Conditions


Employees must not be allowed to work in the following hazardous or toxic atmospheres:

Atmospheres where oxygen is less than 19.5% or higher than 23.5%


Atmospheres where combustible gas concentrations are greater than 20% of the
lower flammable limit
Atmospheres where threshold limit values for airborne contaminants exceed the
American Conference of Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) specified limit

76
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

NOTES:

77
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

LESSON EIGHTEEN
CONCRETE AND MASONRY CONSTRUCTION: BASIC
This course is designed for construction workers who want to learn about safely working
with concrete and masonry projects and addresses the requirements necessary to protect
all construction employees from the hazards associated with concrete and masonry
construction operations performed in workplaces covered under OSHA 29 CFR Part
1926.7. In addition to the requirements in Subpart Q, other relevant provisions in Parts
1910 and 1926 apply to concrete and masonry construction operations. Topics include
general requirements for formwork and masonry construction.

Lesson 18: Key Terms

Concrete: A mixture of cement, sand, aggregate, and water in specific


proportions that hardens to a strong stony consistency over varying lengths of
time

Jack: A portable device that uses a mechanical or hydraulic lifting system to raise
heavy objects, especially cars, a short distance.

Masonry: Stoneworkthe stone or brick parts of a building or other structure.

OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

Reinforcing: Strengthen something; to make something stronger by providing


additional external support or internal stiffening for it.

Scaffolds: Framework to support workers; a temporary framework of poles and


planks that is used to support workers and materials during the erection, repair, or
decoration of a building.

Shoring: To support by or as if by a prop; a beam or timber propped against a


structure to provide support.

Sills: Building bottom of frame: The horizontal part at the bottom of a window or
door frame.

Slab: Architecture stone base for something; a flat rectangular base or foundation
of concrete or stone.

78
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Concrete and Masonry Construction


Employers must not place construction loads on a concrete structure or portion of a
concrete structure unless the employer determines, based on information received from a
person who is qualified in structural design, that the structure or portion of the structure is
capable of supporting the intended loads.

Personal Protective Equipment


Employees must not be permitted to apply a cement, sand, and water mixture through a
pneumatic hose unless they are wearing protective head and face equipment.

Bulk Concrete Storage


Bulk storage bins, containers, and silos must be equipped with conical or tapered
bottoms, and mechanical or pneumatic means of starting the flow of material.
Employees must not be permitted to enter storage facilities unless the ejection
system has been shut down, locked out, and tagged to indicate that the ejection system is
not to be operated.

Lockout/Tagout Procedures
No employee shall be permitted to perform maintenance or repair activity on equipment
(such as compressors, mixers, and screens or pumps used for concrete and masonry
construction activities) where the inadvertent operation of the equipment could occur and
cause injury, unless all potentially hazardous energy sources have been locked out and
tagged.

General Requirements for Formwork


Formwork must be designed, fabricated, erected, supported, braced, and maintained so
that it will be capable of supporting, without failure, all vertical and lateral loads that
might be applied to the formwork. Formwork that is designed, fabricated, erected,
supported, braced, and maintained in conformance with Appendix A of Subpart Q,29
CFR 1926 also meets the requirements of this paragraph.
Drawings or plans, including all revisions for the jack layout, formwork (including
shoring equipment), working decks, and scaffolds, must be available at the jobsite.

Materials
The most common material used for concrete forms is plywoodalthough hardboard,
79
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

strip boards (sheathing), steel, reinforced plastics, and other materials are also employed.
Grades of plywood range from "A" to "D"where "A" has a sound, tight veneer free of
knots and open defectsand "D" has solid knots up to 2-1/2". If plywood is labeled
"concrete form grade," it has been edge-sealed and mill-oiled.

80
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

NOTES:

81
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

LESSON NINETEEN
STAIRWAYS AND LADDERS
Stairways and ladders are major sources of workplace injuries and fatalities for
construction workers. According to OSHA estimates, there are 24,882 injuries and 36
fatalities per year due to falls from stairways and ladders used for construction purposes
in various industries. Almost half of these injuries are serious in nature and may result in
time away from the job.

Lesson 19: Key Terms

Double-cleat ladder: A ladder with a center rail to allow simultaneous two-way


traffic for employees ascending or descending.

Failure: Load refusal, breakage, or separation of components.

Fixed ladder: A ladder that cannot be readily moved or carried because it is an


integral part of a building or structure.

Handrail: A rail used to provide employees with a handhold for support.

Job-made ladder: A ladder that is fabricated by employees, typically at the


construction site and not commercially manufactured.

Point of access: All areas used by employees for work-related passage from one
area or level to another.

Portable ladder: A ladder that can be readily moved or carried.

Single-cleat ladder: A ladder consisting of a pair of side rails connected together


by cleats, rungs, or steps.

Stair rail system: A vertical barrier erected along the unprotected sides and edges
of a stairway to prevent employees from falling to lower levels.

Tread depth: The horizontal distance from front to back of a tread, excluding
nosing, if any.

82
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

OSHA Standards and Stairways


The OSHA standards are applicable to all stairways and ladders used in alteration,
construction, repair (including painting and decorating), and demolition of work sites
covered by OSHA's construction safety and health standards.

OSHA Standards Exemptions


The OSHA standards are not applicable to ladders that are purposely manufactured for
scaffolds access and egress, but they do apply to specifically built ladders intended for
general purpose use that are then used for scaffold access and egress.

Ladders and Training


Ladders must be kept in a safe and good working condition. The following points are
important to consider while using or working with ladders:

The area around the top and bottom of the ladder must be kept clean.
Always keep ladders away from slipping hazards.

Ensure that rungs are spaced 10 to 14 inches from each other. Also, ensure that cleats and
steps are uniformly spaced.
Always use ladders only for their designed purposes. Do not lash ladders together to
make a long ladder, unless they are designed for that purpose. Never try to over load
ladders beyond their capacities; the manufacturers rated capacity must be taken into
consideration.

83
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

NOTES:

84
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

LESSON TWENTY
CONFINED SPACES
This module encapsulates the safety regulation of the workers working in permit required
confined spaces. It instructs about the hazards that may occur during the work in confined
spaces.
OSHA is striving to provide safety to the workers in all required disciplines by providing
courses such as this one, which helps workers to learn about industry hazards, especially
in confined spaces.

Lesson 20: Key Terms

Acceptable entry conditions: Conditions that must exist in a permit space to


allow entry and to ensure that employees involved with a permit-required,
confined space entry can safely enter into, and work within, the space.

Attendant: An individual stationed outside one or more permit spaces who


monitors the authorized entrants and performs all attendants duties assigned in
the employers permit space program.

Authorized entrant: An employee who is authorized by the employer to enter a


permit space.

Emergency: Any occurrence (including any failure of hazard control or


monitoring equipment), or event, internal or external to the permit space that
could endanger entrants.

Entry permit: A written or printed document that is provided by the employer to


allow and control entry into a permit space and that contains the information
specified in section (f) of the standard.

Hot work permit: The employers written authorization to perform operations


for example: riveting, welding, cutting, burning, and heatingcapable of
providing a source of ignition.

Inerting: The displacement of the atmosphere in a permit space by a


noncombustible gas (such as nitrogen) to such an extent that the resulting
atmosphere is noncombustible.

85
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Non-permit confined space: A confined space that does not contain or, with
respect to atmospheric hazards, have the potential to contain any hazard capable
of causing death or serious physical harm.

Oxygen deficient atmosphere: An atmosphere containing less than 19.5 percent


oxygen by volume.

Oxygen enriched atmosphere: An atmosphere containing more than 23.5


percent oxygen by volume.

Permit-required confined space program (permit space program): The


employer's overall program for controlling, and, where appropriate, for protecting
employees from permit space hazards and for regulating employee entry into
permit spaces.

Retrieval system: The equipment (including a retrieval line, chest or full-body


harness, wristlets, if appropriate, and a lifting device or anchor) used for nonentry rescue of persons from permit spaces.

Testing: The process by which the hazards that may confront entrants of a permit
space are identified and evaluated. Testing includes specifying the tests that are to
be performed in the permit space.

Introduction to Confined Spaces


A confined space is a space which, by design, has limited openings for entry and exit, has
unfavorable natural ventilation that could contain or produce dangerous air contaminants,
and is not intended for continuous associate occupancy.
Confined spaces can be found in many industrial settings, from steel mills to paper mills,
from shipyards to farms, and from public utilities to the construction industry.
Confined spaces include, but are not limited to, the following:
Storage tanks
Compartments of ships
Process vessels
Pits
Silos
Vats
Wells
Sewers
Digesters
Degreasers
Reaction vessels
Boilers
Ventilation and exhaust ducts
86
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Tunnels
Underground utility vaults
Pipelines

Internal Configuration
Open Spacethere are no obstacles, barriers, or obstructions within the space. One
example of this type of space is a water tank.
Obstructed Spacethe permit space contains some type of obstruction that a rescuer
would need to maneuver around. An example of this type of space would be a baffle or
mixing blade.

Classification
Confined spaces may be classified into two categories:
1) Open-topped enclosures with depths which restrict the natural movement of
air. Examples include:
Degreasers.
Pits.
Selected types of tanks and excavations.
2) Enclosures with limited openings for entry and exit. Examples include:
Sewers.
Tanks.
Silos.
The hazards found in any confined space are determined by:

The material being stored or used.


The process taking place inside the space.
The effects of the external environment.

Worker entry into confined spaces may occur during construction activities or during
frequent necessary functions such as inspection, repair, or maintenance.

Prevention Program
The worker who is required to enter and work in a confined space may be exposed to a
number of hazards, ranging from an oxygen-deficient or toxic atmosphere to the release
of hazardous energy (electrical/mechanical/hydraulic/chemical). Therefore, it is essential
87
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

for employers to develop and implement a comprehensive, written confined-space entry


program.
The following elements are recommended as a guide in developing a confined space
program:
1. Identification of all confined spaces at the facility/operation
2. Posting a warning sign at the entrance of all confined spaces
3. Evaluation of hazards associated with each type of confined space
Performing a job safety analysis for each task to be performed in the confined space

Duties of Employers and Employees


All employees required to enter into confined or enclosed spaces must be instructed as to
the nature of the hazards involved, the necessary precautions to be taken, and in the use
of protective and emergency equipment required.

Duties of Attendants

Knows the hazards that may be faced during entry, including information on the
mode, signs or symptoms, and consequences of the exposure.

Is aware of possible behavioral effects of hazard exposure on authorized entrants.

Continuously maintains an accurate count of authorized entrants in the permit


space and ensures that the means used to identify authorized entrants is accurate
and effective.

Remains outside the permit space during entry operations until relieved by
another attendant.

Communicates with authorized entrants as necessary to monitor entrant status.

Monitors activities inside and outside of the space.

Entry supervisors must:

Know the hazards that may be faced during entry, including information on the
mode, signs or symptoms, and consequences of the exposure.

Verify, by checking that the appropriate entries have been made on the permit,
that all tests specified by the permit have been conducted and that all procedures
and equipment specified by the permit are in place before endorsing the permit.

88
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Verify that rescue services are available and that the means for summoning them
are operable.

Remove unauthorized individuals who enter, or who attempt to enter, the permit
space during entry operations.

Determine whenever responsibility for a permit space entry operation is


transferred and do so at intervals dictated by the hazards and operations
performed within the space.

89
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

NOTES:

90
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

LESSON TWENTY-ONE
LEAD SAFETY IN THE WORKPLACE
Lead is a very toxic substance. People who are exposed to lead or lead compounds may
become ill or even die due to lead poisoning. Our bodies remove lead from our systems at
a slow rate, so inhaling even small doses of lead for a long period of time can result in
lead poisoning. Workers who are required to work at or near sites that are contaminated
with lead are at a greater risk of lead poisoning.

Lesson 21: Key Terms

Action level: The level of lead particulates present in the air that signifies close
monitoring is required so that the PEL is not approached. The action level for lead
is 30 micrograms per cubic meter (ug/m3) for eight hours.

Permissible exposure limit (PEL): The maximum level of lead particles in air
that can be considered acceptable for normal workplace exposure. The PEL for
lead is 50 micrograms per cubic meter (ug/m3).

Toxic substance: A substance that can affect the proper functioning of an


organism resulting in a change in physiology through a chemical process.

Lead in the Construction Industry


Lead is abundantly used in the construction industry due to unique properties that render
it useful for the manufacture of structural materials. Some of these properties include:

Low melting point.


High molecular weight.
High density.
Very easy to shape (ductile).
Readily available.

Lead compounds are often applied to steel and iron structures in the form of paint primer.
Lead is also used for making different metal alloys that can be found in lead shielding in
walls and lead pipes.
Workers in the construction industry are at a greater risk of exposure to lead and lead
compounds. Continuous exposure can be extremely catastrophic if specific measures are
not taken.
91
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Health Hazards of Lead Exposure


Lead is a very toxic substance and can cause severe adverse health effects if there is longterm overexposure. Lead can severely damage your nervous, urinary, blood-forming, and
reproductive systems.
Lead can cause anemia as it hinders the formation of hemoglobin in the blood. It can also
cause damage to the cells in the kidneys, leading to kidney failure. Lead has also been
found to reduce sperm count in men and decrease their fertility.
If a pregnant woman is exposed to lead, the lead particles can pass from the mother to the
infant through the placenta.

Activities That Can Cause Lead Exposure


Construction workers may be exposed to lead while performing the following tasks:

Removing lead-based paints.


Melting and casting lead and babbitt metal.
Soldering with torches.
Reclaiming lead-acid batteries.
Grinding or sanding lead-containing materials.
Machining lead.
Cutting lead-containing materials with a torch.
Grinding lead-containing materials.

Monitoring and Observing


If initial assessment indicates that the exposure is below the action level, your employer
is not required to assess the workplace unless the processes or controls are changed.
However, the company is required to perform monitoring at least every six months if the
exposure level is at or above the action level, but at or below the PEL. Monitoring must
be continued until at least two consecutive measurements, that have been taken at least
seven days apart, are below the action level.
Monitoring must be performed quarterly if the employee exposure is above the PEL.
When at least two consecutive measurements that have been taken at least seven days
apart are at or below the PEL, but at or above the action level, monitoring should be
continued every six months to get the exposure below the action level.

92
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Lead Control Measures


When performing lead-related tasks, your employer must make sure that lead control
measures and good work practices are used in order to minimize employee exposure to
lead. The permissible exposure level of lead is 50 ug/m3. Your employer must make sure
that exposure does not increase above this level for more than an eight-hour period.
Some control measures that can be adopted to reduce your exposure to lead include
exhaust ventilation, encapsulation, substitution, process modification, and isolation.

Personal Hygiene Practices


Your personal hygiene practices must focus on minimizing your exposure to lead. The
work area must have adequate washing facilities so that workers do not take
contaminants into uncontaminated areas. Your employer is responsible for providing
workers with clean changing areas. Furthermore, they must also provide noncontaminated eating areas that are separate from the work areas.

End-of-day Procedures
At the end of the workday you must follow certain procedures to minimize your exposure
to lead. These procedures include:

Placing disposable clothes and shoe covers into impermeable containers that are
assigned for lead waste and then properly sealed off.
Placing all lead-contaminated clothes, shoes, and personal protective equipment
in a closed container to be laundered by a professional.
Taking a shower and washing hair and skin.
Changing into regular street clothes.

93
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

NOTES:

94
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

LESSON TWENTY-TWO
USE OF EXPLOSIVES IN THE WORKPLACE
Explosives are used in many industrial operations, particularly in construction and
mining. If handled properly by experienced personnel, the use of explosives can be very
beneficial. However, if explosives are used by untrained workers, there is a great
potential for both fire and unwanted explosions.
.

Lesson 22: Key Terms

Blast area: The area where explosives are loaded and blasting operations are
carried out.

Blasting agent: Any material or mixture that consists of a fuel and oxidizer used
for blasting, but is not considered an explosive. The ingredients in the blasting
agent are also not classified as explosives.

Blasting cap: A metallic tube that is closed at one end and contains a charge of
detonating compounds that can be detonated from the flame of a safety fuse
placed into the open end of the tube.

Detonating cord: A flexible cord that is filled with high explosives. When
detonated, these explosives have enough strength to detonate other explosives
they contact.

Detonator: Blasting caps, electric blasting caps, delay electric blasting caps, and
non-electric delay blasting caps.

Electric blasting cap: A blasting cap designed for and capable of detonation by
means of an electric current.

Magazine: Any building or structure, other than an explosives manufacturing


building, used for the storage of explosives.

Primary blasting: The blasting operation by which an original rock formation is


dislodged from its natural location.

Safety fuse: A flexible cord that contains combustible matter which is used to
convey fire to blasting caps.

95
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Use of Explosives In The Workplace


More than 10 million pounds of explosives are used daily in mining and construction
operations throughout the United States. Although the volume of explosives being used is
immense, there havent been many accidents involving the use of explosive materials.
However, when such incidents do happen they are well publicized. This negative
publicity can have a great adverse effect on construction work. There have been many
projects that were delayed or halted due to a communitys concern about the potential
risks associated with blasting.
To prevent accidents employers must train their employees regarding the proper use of
explosives and the control measures that must be applied in order to reduce associated
risks.

Commercial Explosives
There are many explosives that are used for commercial purposes. These are divided into
the following categories:
Classification of explosives by the U.S. Department of Transportation is as follows:

Class A Explosives. Possessing detonating hazard, such as dynamite,


nitroglycerin, picric acid, lead azide, fulminate of mercury, black powder, blasting
caps, and detonating primers.
Class B Explosives. Possessing flammable hazard, such as propellant explosives,
including some smokeless propellants.
Class C Explosives. Include certain types of manufactured articles which contain
Class A or Class B explosives, or both, as components, but in restricted quantities.

Uses of Explosives in Construction

Explosives are regularly used in almost every phase of heavy construction,


especially in the construction of highways, dams, and pipelines. Excavations also
require a significant amount of explosive material. If not handled properly,
explosives may prove to be fatal. Therefore safety, economy, and controllability
are important factors in all projects involving explosives.

Even though all construction projects are different, most of them require the removal of a
considerable amount of material. In remote areas, where vibrations and flying rocks do
not present a threat, large, single blasts are used. In areas that are near population centers,
or other construction areas, delayed detonators with sequential timers are used in order to
96
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

keep the blasts small and easily manageable. Although small, these blasts are powerful
enough to carry out the task efficiently.

Potential Hazards of Explosives


If explosive blasts are not controlled properly, they can cause personal injury and
property damage due to heat, noise, blast, fumes, and flying debris. Personal injuries can
range from minor to fatal, with trauma, eye injury, lacerations, burns, and hearing
impairment among the potential hazards resulting from explosives. Similarly, the
potential for property damage also ranges from minor to major.
Explosive materials may increase the ambient temperature, which can increase the risk of
deflagration or detonation. Mechanical work that involves friction, impact, or electricity
can also initiate explosive materials. Focused laser light or chemical incompatibility can
also cause damage ranging from mild decomposition to detonation.

Transportation of Explosives
Employers must make sure to hire drivers who are licensed and are physically fit.
Employers must also test the drivers knowledge of local, state, and federal laws
governing the transportation of explosives before hiring them. It is also the responsibility
of the employer to ensure that no personnel are allowed to smoke, carry flame-producing
devices, or carry firearms when in, or near, a vehicle that is being used for transporting
explosives.
No explosives or blasting agents are to be transported along with other materials or cargo,
including blasting caps. The vehicle used for transportation of explosives must be in good
mechanical condition and should be strong enough to carry the explosives load. All
explosives must be transported in either their original, manufacturers containers or a
Class II magazine, and secured properly. Also, there must not be any exposed sparkproducing metal inside the cargo compartment that can come in contact with the
explosives. If there are any such exposed metals, they must be covered with wool or
wood.

Storage of Explosives
All employers are required to have special designated areas to store explosives and other
related materials. You must always store explosives and other blasting agents in their
approved facilities.
You must never store detonators, blasting caps, electric blasting caps, or cartridges in the
same magazine as other explosives or blasting agents. You should not smoke or use any
fire-producing device within 50 feet of the magazine where explosives are stored.

97
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Explosives or blasting agents must never be stored underground unless there are at least
two modes of exit. All hoists, shafts, and working areas must be located at least 300 feet
from the underground storage areas. Storage magazines containing detonators must be
located at least 50 feet away from the area where other explosives and blasting agents are
stored.

Initiation of Explosive Charges


You must not use electric blasting caps if any external electrical source is present.
Furthermore, the leg wires of all blasting caps must be kept short-circuited or shunted
until they are attached to the circuit for firing.
The blaster must carry out a survey of the blast area to make sure there is no external
current in the area and all extraneous currents must be eliminated before the holes are
loaded.
All electric blasting caps used in a blast must be of the same style or function, and
supplied by the same manufacturer. Blasters must follow the manufacturers instructions
or a contractors guidelines while using blasting circuits or power circuits

Firing the Blast


The blasting area must be cleared of all personnel before blasting operations are carried
out. Warning signs must be placed prominently where all employees can see them. The
blaster must give a loud warning signal before firing the blast. They must make sure that
there are no extra explosives in the area and that all employees, equipment, and vehicles
are at safe distances. While blasting operations are being carried out, a flagman must be
stationed on highways in the vicinity of the danger zone so that all incoming traffic is
warned. The blaster is then responsible to fix the time of the blast.

Misfires
It is the responsibility of the blaster to inspect the blasting area for any misfires. The
blaster must provide proper measures to vacate the area and inform all employees about
the danger zone. Only qualified employees may enter the danger zone to eliminate
misfire hazards.
You must not try to extract any explosives from a misfired hole. In cases of misfire, a
new primer must be placed in the hole and it must be blasted again. If the blaster
determines that blasting again could be hazardous, he or she may instruct workers to
remove the explosives from the hole by washing it with water. If the misfired hole is
under water, the explosives should be blown out using air.

98
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

NOTES:

99
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

LESSON TWENTY-THREE
SCAFFOLDS
This course attempts to provide a general overview of the safety measures that are
required when working on a scaffold. The course begins with an introduction into the
various types of scaffolds, and goes on to outline the OSHA safety requirements and
safety measures that can be taken to ensure that employees working on scaffolds are at
little risk of injury or death.

Lesson 23: Key Terms

Bearer (Putlog): A horizontal transverse scaffold member (which may be


supported by ledgers or runners) upon which the scaffold platform rests and
which joins scaffold uprights, posts, poles, and similar members.

Boatswains' Chair: A single-point adjustable suspension scaffold consisting of a


seat or sling designed to support one employee in a sitting position.

Body Harness: A design of straps which may be secured about the employee in a
manner to distribute the fall arrest forces over at least the thighs, pelvis, waist,
chest, and shoulders, with means for attaching the harness to other components of
a personal fall arrest system.

Brace: A rigid connection that holds one scaffold member in a fixed position with
respect to another member or to a building or structure.

Chimney Hoist: A multi-point adjustable suspension scaffold used to provide


access to work inside chimneys.

Coupler: A device for locking together the tubes of a tube and coupler scaffold.

Crawling Board (Chicken Ladder): A supported scaffold consisting of a plank


with cleats spaced and secured to provide footing; for use on sloped surfaces such
as roofs.

Lifeline: A component consisting of a flexible line that connects to an anchorage


at one end to hang vertically (vertical lifeline) or that connects to anchorages at
both ends to stretch horizontally (horizontal lifeline) and which serves as a means
for connecting other components of a personal fall arrest system to the anchorage.

100
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

Maximum Intended load: The total load of all persons, equipment, tools,
materials, transmitted loads, and other loads reasonably anticipated to be applied
to a scaffold or scaffold component at any one time.

Outrigger: The structural member of a supported scaffold used to increase the


base width of a scaffold in order to provide support for and increased stability to
the scaffold.

Outrigger Beam (Thrustout): The structural member of a suspension scaffold or


outrigger scaffold which provides support for the scaffold by extending the
scaffold point of attachment to a point out and away from the structure or
building.

What is a Scaffold?
A scaffold is a term used to describe any sort of temporary elevated platform that is used
to support either men, materials, or both. They are commonly used in the construction
field (usually in the construction of buildings); however, they are also used in other fields
such as ship construction and by cleaning services (to clean the outer windows of high
rises). The main purpose behind the use of scaffolds is to provide support and balance to
an employee and his or her materials as the employee conducts tasks in inaccessible or
otherwise difficult-to-reach areas.

Types of Scaffolds
Suspended Scaffolds
These are types of scaffolds that are suspended by a rope from a fixed overhead position
(usually placed at the top of a building, but it can be any fixed elevated structure.

Supported Scaffolds
These are scaffolds that consist of one or more platforms elevated on poles and beams
which are placed upon a solid ground.

Overview of OSHA Directives for the Construction of Scaffolds


Suspension Scaffolds
The regulations presented for the two-point scaffold are applicable to all other types of
suspension scaffolds, unless stated otherwise.

Supported Scaffolds
The regulations presented for the frame or fabricated scaffold is applicable to all other
types of supported scaffolds, unless stated otherwise.
101
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

How Do You Minimize the Risks?


One out of every three deaths in construction results from fatal falls. It is because of this
high rate that scaffold workers must be well protected against accidental falls. Generally,
precautions must be taken if the employee is expected to work at heights above six feet.
Working on scaffolds becomes even more risky when one considers that there is very
little space for a person to maneuver, especially when space is also taken up by the
various materials that the employee needs to complete her or his job.
There are various ways that employers can minimize the risk to their employees to a
sufficiently acceptable level.

Uniformity
Ensure that the scaffold has been constructed in accordance with the instructions of
the manufacturer.
Do not alter or modify any of the components of the scaffold; if you are faced with
a problem, contact the manufacturer.
If you have scaffolds from two or more manufacturers, do not under any
circumstances try to mix and match the components.
Do not use different metals for the components of the scaffold

102
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

NOTES:

103
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide

104
30 Hour OSHA Study Guide