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Appendix

A1 Properties of areas.*
*Symbols used are:
r = radius of gyration = I/A
J = polar moment of inertia
Zp = polar section modulus

A = area
I = moment of inertia
S = Section modulus
Circle

D2
= R2
4
D4
I=
64
D3
S=
32

A=
R
D

D R
=
4
2

D4
32
D3
Zp =
16
Circumference = D = 2R

Hollow circle (tube)


A=
d D

r=

(D2 d2)
4

(D4 d4)
64
(D4 d4)
S=
32D
I=

J=

r=

D2 + d2
4

(D4 d4)
32
(D4 d4)
Zp =
16D
J=

Square

A = s2

X s
s/2
s

Rectangle

Ix =

s4
12

Sx =

s3
6

rx =

Y
A = bh

s
12

Ix =

h/2

Iy =

bh3
12
hb3
12

Sx =

bh2
6

Sy =

hb2
6

h
12
b
ry =
12

rx =

b/2

Y
b

690

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Appendix

691

692

Appendix

A2 Preferred basic sizes.

Metric (mm)
Fractional (in)

Untitled-1.indd 2

Decimal (in)

First

1
64
1
32
1
16
3
32
1
8

0.015 625
0.031 25
0.062 5
0.093 75
0.125 0

5
5 14
5 12
5 34
6

5.000
5.250
5.500
5.750
6.000

0.010
0.012
0.016
0.020
0.025

2.00
2.20
2.40
2.60
2.80

8.50
9.00
9.50
10.00
10.50

5
32
3
16
1
4
5
16
3
8

0.156 25
0.187 5
0.250 0
0.312 5
0.375 0

6 12
7
7 12
8
8 12

6.500
7.000
7.500
8.000
8.500

0.032
0.040
0.05
0.06
0.08

3.00
3.20
3.40
3.60
3.80

11.00
11.50
12.00
12.50
13.00

7
16
1
2
9
16
5
8

0.437 5
0.500 0
0.562 5
0.625 0

9
9 12
10
10 12

9.000
9.500
10.000
10.500

0.10
0.12
0.16
0.20

4.00
4.20
4.40
4.60

13.50
14.00
14.50
15.00

11
16
3
4
7
8

0.687 5
0.750 0
0.875 0

11
11 12
12

11.000
11.500
12.000

0.24
0.30
0.40

4.80
5.00
5.20

15.50
16.00
16.50

1
1 14
1 12
1 34

1.000
1.250
1.500
1.750

12 12
13
13 12
14

12.500
13.000
13.500
14.000

0.50
0.60
0.80
1.00

5.40
5.60
5.80
6.00

17.00
17.50
18.00
18.50

2
2 14
2 12
2 34

2.000
2.250
2.500
2.750

14 12
15
15 12
16

14.500
15.000
15.500
16.000

1.20
1.40
1.60
1.80

6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00

19.00
19.50
20.00

3
3 14
3 12
3 34

3.000
3.250
3.500
3.750

16 12
17
17 12
18

16.500
17.000
17.500
18.000

4
4 14
4 12
4 34

4.000
4.250
4.500
4.750

18 12
19
19 12
20

18.500
19.000
19.500
20.000

1
1.2
1.6
2
2.5

6
8

Second
1.1
1.4
1.8
2.2
2.8
3.5
4.5
5.5
7
9

First
10
12
16
20
25
30
40
50
60
80

Second
11
14
18
22
28
35
45
55
70
90

First
100
120
160
200
250
300
400
500
600
800
1000

Second
110
140
180
220
280
350
450
550
700
900

05/02/15 6:37 PM

Appendix





693

A3 Screw threads.
(a) American Standard thread dimensions, numbered sizes
Coarse threads: UNC

Size

Basic major
diameter, D
(in)

0
1
2
3

Fine threads: UNF

Threads
per inch, n

Tensile
stress area
(in2)

Threads
per inch, n

Tensile
stress area
(in2)

0.060 0
0.073 0
0.086 0
0.099 0

64
56
48

0.002 63
0.003 70
0.004 87

80
72
64
56

0.001 80
0.002 78
0.003 94
0.005 23

4
5
6

0.112 0
0.125 0
0.138 0

40
40
32

0.006 04
0.007 96
0.009 09

48
44
40

0.006 61
0.008 30
0.010 15

8
10
12

0.164 0
0.190 0
0.216 0

32
24
24

0.014 0
0.017 5
0.024 2

36
32
28

0.014 74
0.020 0
0.025 8

(b) American Standard thread dimensions, fractional sizes


Coarse threads: UNC
Basic major
diameter, D
(in)

Threads
per inch, n

Tensile
stress area
(in2)

Threads
per inch, n

1
4
5
16
3
8
7
16
1
2

0.225 0
0.312 5
0.375 0
0.437 5
0.500 0

20
18
16
14
13

0.031 8
0.052 4
0.077 5
0.106 3
0.141 9

28
24
24
20
20

0.036 4
0.058 0
0.087 8
0.118 7
0.159 9

9
16
5
8
3
4
7
8

0.562 5
0.625 0
0.750 0
0.875 0

12
11
10
9

0.182
0.226
0.334
0.462

18
18
16
14

0.203
0.256
0.373
0.509

1
1 18
1 14
1 38

1.000
1.125
1.250
1.375

8
7
7
6

0.606
0.763
0.969
1.155

12
12
12
12

0.663
0.856
1.073
1.315

1 12
1 34
2

1.500
1.750
2.000

6
5
4 12

1.405
1.90
2.50

12

1.581

Size

Untitled-1.indd 3

Fine threads: UNF


Tensile
stress area
(in2)

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Appendix

695

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05/02/15 6:37 PM

in4
5.36
20.8
47.6
98.9
178
12.51
48.5
111.1
231
415
76.3
193
393
697
264
536
951
679
1204
1458

mm2
3.39 103
5.32 103
7.01 103
8.95 103
10.88 103
7.90 103
12.42 103
16.39 103
20.90 103
25.42 103
19.55 103
26.65 103
33.74 103
40.84 103
36.32 103
46.00 103
55.68 103
58.26 103
70.52 103
85.35 103

in2
5.25
8.25
10.87
13.87
16.87
12.25
19.25
25.4
32.4
39.4
30.3
41.3
52.3
63.3
56.3
71.3
86.3
90.3
109.3
132.3

mm
38 89
38 140
38 184
38 235
38 286
89 89
89 140
89 184
89 235
89 286
140 140
140 191
140 241
140 292
191 191
191 241
191 292
241 241
241 292
292 292

1.5 3.5
1.5 5.5
1.5 7.25
1.5 9.25
1.5 11.25
3.5 3.5
3.5 5.5
3.5 7.25
3.5 9.25
3.5 11.25
5.5 5.5
5.5 7.5
5.5 9.5
5.5 11.5
7.5 7.5
7.5 9.5
7.5 11.5
9.5 9.5
9.5 11.5
11.5 11.5

24
26
28
2 10
2 12
44
46
48
4 10
4 12
66
68
6 10
6 12
88
8 10
8 12
10 10
10 12
12 12

2.23 106
8.66 106
19.8 106
41.2 106
74.1 106
5.21 106
20.2 106
46.2 106
96.1 106
172 106
31.8 106
80.3 106
164 106
290 106
110 106
223 106
396 106
283 106
501 106
607 106

mm4

Moment of inertia, Ix

in

Area of section

Nominal
size

Actual size

A4 Properties of standard wood beams.

3.06
7.56
13.14
21.4
31.6
7.15
17.65
30.7
49.9
73.9
27.7
51.6
82.7
121
70.3
113
165
143
209
253

in3

50.1 103
124 103
215 103
351 103
518 103
117 103
289 103
503 103
818 103
1211 103
454 103
846 103
1355 103
1983 103
1152 103
1852 103
2704 103
2343 103
3425 103
4146 103

mm3

Section modulus, Sx

696

q
r
s

m
n
o
p

i
j
k
l

e
f
g
h

a
b
c
d

Ref.

28.8
14.9
23.5
12.2
12.7
6.58
11.1
5.75
9.35
4.89
7.70
4.09
4.65
3.21
1.67

L442
1
L444
1
L432
1
L434

L332
1
L334
1
L322
1
L324

L228
1
L224
1
L228

L664
3
L668
3
L644
3
L648

(in)
51.3
26.7
37.6
19.7

(in)

Weight
per foot
(lb/ft)

L881
1
L882
L841
1
L842

(in)

Shape

1.37
0.944
0.491

2.75
1.44
2.26
1.20

3.75
1.93
3.25
1.69

8.46
4.38
6.90
3.58

15.1
7.84
11.10
5.80

Area, A
(in2)

0.476
0.346
0.189

2.20
1.23
1.92
1.09

5.52
3.00
5.02
2.75

28.1
15.4
24.4
13.4

89.1
48.8
69.7
38.6

Ix
(in4)

A5 Properties of steel angles (L-shapes) U.S. Customary units.

0.348
0.244
0.129

1.06
0.569
1.00
0.541

1.96
1.03
1.87
0.988

6.64
3.51
6.23
3.30

15.8
8.36
14.00
7.48

Sx
(in3)

Axis X-X

0.632
0.586
0.534

0.929
0.836
1.08
0.980

1.18
1.08
1.32
1.22

1.77
1.62
2.08
1.94

2.36
2.17
3.03
2.84

y
(in)

Centroid
X

0.476
0.346
0.189

2.20
1.23
0.667
0.390

5.52
3.00
2.40
1.33

28.1
15.4
8.63
4.84

89.1
48.8
11.6
6.75

Iy
(in4)

0.348
0.244
0.129

1.06
0.569
0.470
0.258

1.96
1.03
1.10
0.585

6.64
3.51
2.95
1.58

15.8
8.36
3.94
2.15

Sy
(in3)

Axis Y-Y

Section properties

x Y

0.632
0.586
0.534

0.929
0.836
0.580
0.487

1.18
1.08
0.822
0.725

1.77
1.62
1.08
0.940

2.36
2.17
1.04
0.854

x
(in)

0.386
0.387
0.391

0.580
0.585
0.425
0.431

0.776
0.783
0.633
0.639

1.17
1.19
0.857
0.871

1.56
1.59
0.844
0.863

r
(in)

45.0
45.0
45.0

45.0
45.0
22.4
23.6

45.0
45.0
28.5
29.2

45.0
45.0
23.2
24.1

45.0
45.0
13.9
14.9


(deg.)

Centroid

Axis Z-Z

Y Z

x Y

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L
L
L
L

L 51  51  9.5
L 51  51  6.4
L 51  51  3.2

m
n
o
p

q
r
s

76  12.7
76  6.4
51  12.7
51  6.4
6.92
4.78
2.48

13.9
7.28
11.5
6.09

18.9
9.79
16.5
8.56

L 102  102  12.7


L 102  102  6.4
L 102  76  12.7
L 102  76  6.4

i
j
k
l

76 
76 
76 
76 

42.9
22.2
35.0
18.2

L 152  152  19
L 152  152  9.5
L 152  102  19
L 152  102  9.5

e
f
g
h

(mm)

76.3
39.7
55.9
29.3

(mm)

Shape

L 203  203  25.4


L 203  203  12.7
L 203  102  25.4
L 203  102  12.7

(mm)

a
b
c
d

Ref.

Mass
per m
(kg/m)

67.9
46.9
24.4

136
71.4
112
59.7

185
96.0
162
83.9

420
217
343
178

749
390
549
288

Weight
per m
(N/m)

884
609
317

1770
929
1460
774

2420
1250
2100
1090

5460
2830
4450
2310

9740
5060
7160
3740

Area, A
(mm2)

A5(SI) Properties of steel angles (L-shapes) SI units.

1.98E05
1.44E05
7.87E04

9.16E05
5.12E05
7.99E05
4.54E05

2.30E06
1.25E06
2.09E06
1.14E06

1.17E07
6.41E06
1.02E07
5.58E06

3.71E07
2.03E07
2.90E07
1.61E07

Ix
(mm4)

5.70E03
4.00E03
2.11E03

1.74E04
9.33E03
1.64E04
8.87E03

3.21E04
1.69E04
3.06E04
1.62E04

1.09E05
5.75E04
1.02E05
5.41E04

2.59E05
1.37E05
2.29E05
1.23E05

Sx
(mm3)

Axis X-X

16.1
14.9
13.6

23.6
21.2
27.4
24.9

30.0
27.4
33.5
31.0

45.0
41.1
52.8
49.3

59.9
55.1
77.0
72.1

y
(mm)

Centroid
X

1.98E05
1.44E05
7.87E04

9.16E05
5.12E05
2.78E05
1.62E05

2.30E06
1.25E06
9.99E05
5.54E05

1.17E07
6.41E06
3.59E06
2.01E06

3.71E07
2.03E07
4.83E06
2.81E06

Iy
(mm4)

5.70E03
4.00E03
2.11E03

1.74E04
9.33E03
7.70E03
4.23E03

3.21E04
1.69E04
1.80E04
9.59E03

1.09E05
5.75E04
4.84E04
2.59E04

2.59E05
1.37E05
6.46E04
3.52E04

Sy
(mm3)

Axis Y-Y

Section properties

x Y

16.1
14.9
13.6

23.6
21.2
14.7
12.4

30.0
27.4
20.9
18.4

45.0
41.1
27.4
23.9

59.9
55.1
26.4
21.7

x
(mm)

9.80
9.83
9.93

14.7
14.9
10.8
10.9

19.7
19.9
16.1
16.2

29.7
30.2
21.8
22.1

39.6
40.4
21.4
21.9

45.0
45.0
45.0

45.0
45.0
22.4
23.6

45.0
45.0
28.5
29.2

45.0
45.0
23.2
24.1

45.0
45.0
13.9
14.9


(deg.)

Axis Z-Z

Centroid

r
(mm)

Y Z

x Y

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697

698

C
C
C
C

C
C
C
C

C
C
C
C

m
n
o
p

q
r
s
t

5.51
3.38
4.33
2.87

3.83
2.40
2.64
1.97

2.13
1.59
1.76
1.21

8  18.75
8  11.5
7  14.75
7  9.8

6  13
6  8.2
59
5  6.7

4  7.25
4  5.4
36
3  4.1

8.82
5.88
5.88
4.41

C 10  30
C 10  20
C 9  20
C 9  15

e
f
g
h

i
j
k
l

14.7
11.8
8.82
7.35

Area, A
(in2)

C 15  50
C 15  40
C 12  30
C 12  25

(lb/ft)

Shape

(in)

a
b
c
d

Ref.

4.0
4.0
3.0
3.0

6.0
6.0
5.0
5.0

8.0
8.0
7.0
7.0

10.0
10.0
9.0
9.0

15.0
15.0
12.0
12.0

Depth, d
(in)

0.321
0.184
0.356
0.170

0.437
0.200
0.325
0.190

0.487
0.220
0.419
0.210

0.673
0.379
0.448
0.285

0.716
0.520
0.510
0.387

Web
Thickness, tw
(in)

1.72
1.58
1.60
1.41

2.16
1.92
1.89
1.75

2.53
2.26
2.30
2.09

3.03
2.74
2.65
2.49

3.72
3.52
3.17
3.05

Width, bf
(in)

0.296
0.296
0.273
0.273

0.343
0.343
0.320
0.320

0.390
0.390
0.366
0.366

0.436
0.436
0.413
0.413

0.650
0.650
0.501
0.501

Thickness, tf
Average (in)

Flange

A6 Properties of American Standard steel channels (C-shapes) U.S. Customary units.

4.58
3.85
2.07
1.65

17.3
13.1
8.89
7.48

43.9
32.5
27.2
21.2

103
78.9
60.9
51.0

404
348
162
144

Ix
(in4)

Sx
(in3)

2.29
1.92
1.38
1.10

5.78
4.35
3.56
2.99

11.0
8.14
7.78
6.07

20.7
15.8
13.5
11.3

53.8
46.5
27.0
24.0

Axis X-X

0.425
0.312
0.300
0.191

1.05
0.687
0.624
0.470

1.97
1.31
1.37
0.957

3.93
2.80
2.41
1.91

11.0
9.17
5.12
4.45

Iy
(in4)

0.337
0.277
0.263
0.196

0.638
0.488
0.444
0.372

1.01
0.775
0.772
0.617

1.65
1.31
1.17
1.01

3.77
3.34
2.05
1.87

Sy
(in3)

Flange

0.459
0.457
0.455
0.437

0.514
0.512
0.478
0.484

0.565
0.572
0.532
0.541

0.649
0.606
0.583
0.586

0.799
0.778
0.674
0.674

x
(in)

X
Centroid

Web

Axis Y-Y

Section properties

Depth

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0.730
0.584
0.438
0.365

0.438
0.292
0.292
0.219

0.274
0.168
0.215
0.143

0.190
0.120
0.128
0.102

0.106
0.0788
0.0876
0.0598

C 250  45
C 250  30
C 230  30
C 230  22

C 200  27.9
C 200  17.1
C 180  22
C 180  14.6

C 150  19.3
C 150  12.2
C 130  13
C 130  10.4

C 100  10.8
C 100  8
C 80  8.9
C 80  6.1

e
f
g
h

i
j
k
l

m
n
o
p

q
r
s
t

Wt/m
(KN/m)

C 380  74
C 380  60
C 300  45
C 300  37

(kg/m)

Shape

(mm)

a
b
c
d

Ref.

1370
1020
1140
777

2470
1550
1700
1270

3560
2180
2790
1850

5690
3790
3790
2850

9480
7610
5690
4740

Area, A
(mm2)

102
102
76.2
76.2

152
152
127
127

203
203
178
178

254
254
229
229

381
381
305
305

Depth, d
(mm)

8.15
4.67
9.04
4.32

11.1
5.08
8.26
4.83

12.4
5.59
10.6
5.33

17.1
9.63
11.4
7.24

18.2
13.2
13.0
9.83

Web
Thickness, tw
(mm)

43.7
40.2
40.5
35.8

54.8
48.8
47.9
44.5

64.2
57.4
58.4
53.1

77.0
69.6
67.3
63.1

94.4
89.4
80.5
77.4

Width, bf
(mm)

7.52
7.52
6.93
6.93

8.71
8.71
8.13
8.13

9.91
9.91
9.30
9.30

11.1
11.1
10.5
10.5

16.5
16.5
12.7
12.7

Thickness, tf
(mm)

Flange

A6 (SI) Properties of American Standard steel channels (C-shapes) SI units.

1.91E06
1.60E06
8.62E05
6.87E05

7.20E06
5.45E06
3.70E06
3.11E06

1.83E07
1.35E07
1.13E07
8.82E06

4.29E07
3.28E07
2.53E07
2.12E07

1.68E08
1.45E08
6.74E07
5.99E07

Ix
(mm4)

Sx
(mm3)

3.75E04
3.15E04
2.26E04
1.80E04

9.47E04
7.13E04
5.83E04
4.90E04

1.80E05
1.33E05
1.28E05
9.95E04

3.39E05
2.59E05
2.21E05
1.85E05

8.82E05
7.62E05
4.43E05
3.93E05

Axis X-X

1.77E05
1.30E05
1.25E05
7.95E04

4.37E05
2.86E05
2.60E05
1.96E05

8.20E05
5.45E05
5.70E05
3.98E05

1.64E06
1.17E06
1.00E06
7.95E05

4.58E06
3.82E06
2.13E06
1.85E06

Iy
(mm4)

Section properties

Depth

Flange

5.52E03
4.54E03
4.31E03
3.21E03

1.05E04
8.00E03
7.28E03
6.10E03

1.66E04
1.27E04
1.27E04
1.01E04

2.70E04
2.15E04
1.92E04
1.66E04

6.18E04
5.47E04
3.36E04
3.06E04

11.7
11.6
11.6
11.1

13.1
13.0
12.1
12.3

14.4
14.5
13.5
13.7

16.5
15.4
14.8
14.9

20.3
19.8
17.1
17.1

x
(mm)

X
Centroid

Web

Sy
(mm3)

Axis Y-Y

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699

700

22.4
20.1
21.5
16.7

16.2
11.8
12.6
7.69

19.1
8.79
4.71

17.60
8.84
3.54

11.70
6.16
2.96

4.43
3.55

5.54
4.68
3.83

W 24  76
W 24  68
W 21  73
W 21  57

W 18  55
W 18  40
W 14  43
W 14  26

W 12  65
W 12  30
W 12  16

W 10  60
W 10  30
W 10  12

W 8  40
W 8  21
W 8  10

W 6  15
W 6  12

W 5  19
W 5  16
W 4  13

e
f
g
h

i
j
k
l

m
n
o

p
q
r

s
t
u

v
w

x
y
z

Area, A
(in2)

51.0
31.7
43.1
30.0

(lb/ft)

W 30  173
W 30  108
W 27  146
W 27  102

(in)

a
b
c
d

Ref.

Shape

5.15
5.01
4.16

5.99
6.03

8.25
8.28
7.89

10.2
10.5
9.87

12.1
12.3
12.0

18.1
17.9
13.7
13.9

23.9
23.7
21.2
21.1

30.4
29.8
27.4
27.1

Depth, d
(in)

0.270
0.240
0.280

0.230
0.230

0.360
0.250
0.170

0.420
0.300
0.190

0.390
0.260
0.220

0.390
0.315
0.305
0.255

0.440
0.415
0.455
0.405

0.655
0.545
0.605
0.515

Web
Thickness, tw
(in)

5.03
5.00
4.06

5.99
4.00

8.07
5.27
3.94

10.1
5.81
3.96

12.0
6.52
3.99

7.53
6.02
8.00
5.03

8.99
8.97
8.30
6.56

15.0
10.5
14.0
10.0

Width, bf
(in)

0.430
0.360
0.345

0.260
0.280

0.560
0.400
0.205

0.680
0.510
0.210

0.605
0.440
0.265

0.630
0.525
0.530
0.420

0.680
0.585
0.740
0.650

1.070
0.760
0.975
0.830

Thickness, tf
(in)

Flange

A7 Properties of steel wide-flange shapes (W-shapes) U.S. Customary units.

26.2
21.3
11.3

29.1
22.1

146
75.3
30.8

341
170
53.8

533
238
103

890
612
428
245

2100
1830
1600
1170

8230
4470
5660
3620

Ix
(in4)

Sx
(in3)

10.2
8.51
5.46

9.72
7.31

35.5
18.2
7.81

66.7
32.4
10.9

87.9
38.6
17.1

98.3
68.4
62.7
35.3

176
154
151
111

541
299
414
267

Axis X-X

Axis Y-Y

Flange
Web

9.13
7.51
3.86

9.32
2.99

49.1
9.77
2.09

116
16.7
2.18

174
20.3
2.82

44.9
19.1
45.2
8.91

82.5
70.4
70.6
30.6

598
146
443
139

Iy
(in4)

Section properties

Depth

3.63
3.00
1.90

3.11
1.50

12.2
3.71
1.06

23.0
5.75
1.10

29.1
6.24
1.41

11.9
6.35
11.3
3.54

18.4
15.7
17.0
9.35

79.8
27.9
63.5
27.8

Sy
(in3)

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1.109
0.993
1.066
0.832

0.803
0.584
0.628
0.380

0.949
0.437
0.233

0.876
0.439
0.176

0.579
0.307
0.146

0.221
0.175

0.276
0.233
0.189

W 610  113
W 610  101
W 530  109
W 530  85

W 460  82
W 460  60
W 360  64
W 360  39

W 310  97
W 310  44.5
W 310  23.8

W 250  89
W 250  44.8
W 250  17.9

W 200  59
W 200  31.3
W 200  15

W 150  22.5
W 150  18

W 130  28.1
W 130  23.8
W 100  19.3

e
f
g
h

i
j
k
l

m
n
o

p
q
r

s
t
u

v
w

x
y
z

2.525
1.576
2.131
1.489

Wt/m
(KN/M)

W 760  257
W 760  161
W 690  217
W 690  152

(kg/m)

Shape

(mm)

a
b
c
d

Ref.

3570
3020
2470

2860
2290

7550
3970
1910

11 400
5700
2280

12 300
5670
3040

10 500
7610
8130
4960

14 500
13 000
13 900
10 800

32 900
20 500
27 800
19 400

Area, A
(mm2)

131
127
106

152
153

210
210
200

259
267
251

307
312
305

460
455
348
353

607
602
538
536

772
757
696
688

Depth, d
(mm)

6.86
6.10
7.11

5.84
5.84

9.14
6.35
4.32

10.7
7.62
4.83

9.91
6.60
5.59

9.91
8.00
7.75
6.48

11.2
10.5
11.6
10.3

16.6
13.8
15.4
13.1

Web
Thickness, tw
(mm)

128
127
103

152
102

205
134
100

257
148
101

305
166
101

191
153
203
128

228
228
211
167

381
267
356
254

Width, bf
(mm)

A7(SI) Properties of steel wide-flange shapes (W-shapes) SI units.

10.9
9.14
8.76

6.60
7.11

14.2
10.2
5.21

17.3
13
5.33

15.4
11.2
6.73

16.0
13.3
13.5
10.7

17.3
14.9
18.8
16.5

27.2
19.3
24.8
21.1

Thickness, tf
(mm)

Flange

1.09E07
8.87E06
4.70E06

1.21E07
9.20E06

6.08E07
3.13E07
1.28E07

1.42E08
7.08E07
2.24E07

2.22E08
9.91E07
4.29E07

3.70E08
2.55E08
1.78E08
1.02E08

8.74E08
7.62E08
6.66E08
4.87E08

3.43E09
1.86E09
2.36E09
1.51E09

Ix
(mm4)

Sx
(mm3)

1.67E05
1.39E05
8.95E04

1.59E05
1.20E05

5.82E05
2.98E05
1.28E05

1.09E06
5.31E05
1.79E05

1.44E06
6.33E05
2.80E05

1.61E06
1.12E06
1.03E06
5.79E05

2.88E06
2.52E06
2.47E06
1.82E06

8.87E06
4.90E06
6.79E06
4.38E06

Axis X-X

Web

3.80E06
3.13E06
1.61E06

3.88E06
1.24E06

2.04E07
4.07E06
8.70E05

4.83E07
6.95E06
9.07E05

7.24E07
8.45E06
1.17E06

1.87E07
7.95E06
1.88E07
3.71E06

3.43E07
2.93E07
2.94E07
1.27E07

5.95E04
4.92E04
3.11E04

5.10E04
2.46E04

2.00E05
6.08E04
1.74E04

3.77E05
9.42E04
1.80E04

4.77E05
1.02E05
2.31E04

1.95E05
1.04E05
1.85E05
5.80E04

3.02E05
2.57E05
2.79E05
1.53E05

1.31E06
4.57E05
1.04E06
4.56E05

Sy
(mm3)

Flange

Axis Y-Y

2.49E08
6.08E07
1.84E08
5.79E07

Iy
(mm4)

Section properties

Depth

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701

702

S
S
S
S

S
S
S
S
S

r
s
t
u
v

6.76
5.40
5.06
3.66

2.93
2.79
2.26
2.20
1.66

8  23
8  18.4
6  17.25
6  12.5

5  10
4  9.5
4  7.7
3  7.5
3  5.7

14.6
10.2
10.3
7.45

S 12  50
S 12  35
S 10  35
S 10  25.4

j
k
l
m

n
o
p
q

20.5
16.0
14.7
12.6

S 18  70
S 18  54.7
S 15  50
S 15  42.9

f
g
h
i

Area, A
(in2)

35.5
26.5
28.2
22.0
19.4

(lb/ft)

S 24  121
S 24  90
S 20  96
S 20  75
S 20  66

(in)

a
b
c
d
e

Ref.

Shape

5.00
4.00
4.00
3.00
3.00

8.00
8.00
6.00
6.00

12.0
12.0
10.0
10.0

18.0
18.0
15.0
15.0

24.5
24.0
20.3
20.0
20.0

Depth, d
(in)

0.214
0.326
0.193
0.349
0.170

0.441
0.271
0.465
0.232

0.687
0.426
0.594
0.311

0.711
0.461
0.550
0.411

0.800
0.625
0.800
0.635
0.505

Web
Thickness, tw
(in)

3.00
2.80
2.66
2.51
2.33

4.17
4.00
3.57
3.33

5.48
5.08
4.94
4.66

6.25
6.00
5.64
5.50

8.05
7.13
7.20
6.39
6.26

Width, bf
(in)

0.326
0.293
0.293
0.260
0.260

0.425
0.425
0.359
0.359

0.659
0.544
0.491
0.491

0.691
0.691
0.622
0.622

1.090
0.870
0.920
0.795
0.795

Thickness, tf
(in)

Flange

A8 Properties of American Standard steel beams (S-shapes) U.S. Customary units.

12.3
6.8
6.05
2.91
2.50

64.7
57.5
26.2
22.0

303
228
147
123

923
801
485
446

3160
2250
1670
1280
1190

Ix
(in4)

Axis X-X

4.90
3.38
3.03
1.94
1.67

16.2
14.4
8.74
7.34

50.6
38.1
29.4
24.6

103
89.0
64.7
59.4

258
187
165
128
119

Sx
(in3)

1.19
0.887
0.748
0.578
0.447

4.27
3.69
2.29
1.80

15.6
9.84
8.30
6.73

24.0
20.7
15.6
14.3

83.0
44.7
49.9
29.5
27.5

Iy
(in4)

Section properties

Depth

0.795
0.635
0.562
0.461
0.383

2.05
1.84
1.28
1.08

5.69
3.88
3.36
2.89

7.69
6.91
5.53
5.19

20.6
12.5
13.9
9.25
8.78

Sy
(in3)

Axis Y-Y

Web

Flange

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1.766
1.314
1.401
1.095
0.963

1.022
0.799
0.730
0.626

0.730
0.511
0.511
0.371

0.336
0.269
0.252
0.182

0.146
0.138
0.113
0.110
0.083

S 460  104
S 460  81.4
S 380  74
S 380  64

S 300  74
S 300  52
S 250  52
S 250  37.8

S 200  34
S 200  27.4
S 150  25.7
S 150  18.6

S 130  15
S 100  14.1
S 100  11.5
S 80  11.2
S 80  8.5

f
g
h
i

j
k
l
m

n
o
p
q

r
s
t
u
v

Wt/m
(KN/m)

S 610  180
S 610  134
S 510  143
S 510  112
S 510  98.2

(kg/m)

Shape

(mm)

a
b
c
d
e

Ref.

1890
1800
1460
1420
1070

4360
3480
3260
2360

9420
6580
6650
4810

13 200
10 300
9480
8130

22 900
17 100
18 200
14 200
12 500

Area, A
(mm2)

127
102
102
76.2
76.2

203
203
152
152

305
305
254
254

457
457
381
381

622
610
516
508
508

Depth, d
(mm)

5.4
8.3
4.9
8.9
4.3

11.2
6.9
11.8
5.9

17.4
10.8
15.1
7.9

18.1
11.7
14.0
10.4

20.3
15.9
20.3
16.1
12.8

Web
Thickness, tw
(mm)

76.2
71.1
67.6
63.8
59.2

106
102
90.7
84.6

139
129
125
118

159
152
143
140

204
181
183
162
159

Width, bf
(mm)

8.3
7.4
7.4
6.6
6.6

10.8
10.8
9.1
9.1

16.7
13.8
12.5
12.5

17.6
17.6
15.8
15.8

27.7
22.1
23.4
20.2
20.2

Thickness, tf
(mm)

Flange

A8(SI) Properties of American Standard steel beams (S-shapes) SI units.

5.12E06
2.81E06
2.52E06
1.21E06
1.04E06

2.69E07
2.39E07
1.09E07
9.16E06

1.26E08
9.49E07
6.12E07
5.12E07

3.84E08
3.33E08
2.02E08
1.86E08

1.32E09
9.36E08
6.95E08
5.33E08
4.95E08

Ix
(mm4)

Sx
(mm3)

8.03E04
5.54E04
4.97E04
3.18E04
2.74E04

2.66E05
2.36E05
1.43E05
1.20E05

8.29E05
6.24E05
4.82E05
4.03E05

1.69E06
1.46E06
1.06E06
9.74E05

4.23E06
3.06E06
2.70E06
2.10E06
1.95E06

Axis X-X

Web

4.95E05
3.69E05
3.11E05
2.41E05
1.86E05

1.78E06
1.54E06
9.53E05
7.49E05

6.49E06
4.10E06
3.45E06
2.80E06

9.99E06
8.62E06
6.49E06
5.95E06

1.30E04
1.04E04
9.21E03
7.56E03
6.28E03

3.36E04
3.02E04
2.10E04
1.77E04

9.33E04
6.36E04
5.51E04
4.74E04

1.26E05
1.13E05
9.06E04
8.51E04

3.38E05
2.05E05
2.28E05
1.52E05
1.44E05

Sy
(mm3)

Flange

Axis Y-Y

3.45E07
1.86E07
2.08E07
1.23E07
1.14E07

Iy
(mm4)

Section properties

Depth

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703

704

0.465
0.233
0.465
0.233
0.233

0.465
0.233
0.233
0.233

0.465
0.233

0.233

0.233
0.233
0.233

(in) (in) (in)

HSS 8  8  1/2
HSS 8  8  1/4
HSS 8  4  1/2
HSS 8  4  1/4
HSS 8  2  1/4

HSS 6  6  1/2
HSS 6  6  1/4
HSS 6  4  1/4
HSS 6  2  1/4

HSS 4  4  1/2
HSS 4  4  1/4

HSS 4  2  1/4

HSS 3  3  1/4
HSS 3  2  1/4
HSS 2  2  1/4

Ref.

a
b
c
d
e

f
g
h
i

j
k

m
n
o

Shape

Design
wall
thickness
tw
(in)

8.78
7.08
5.38

8.78

21.5
12.2

35.1
19.0
15.6
12.2

48.7
25.8
35.1
19.0
15.6

Weight
per foot
(lb/ft)

2.44
1.97
1.51

2.44

6.02
3.37

9.74
5.24
4.30
3.37

13.5
7.10
9.74
5.24
4.30

Area, A
(in2)

3.02
2.13
0.747

4.49

11.9
7.80

48.3
28.6
20.9
13.1

125
70.7
71.8
42.5
28.5

Ix
(in4)

2.01
1.42
0.747

2.25

5.97
3.90

16.1
9.54
6.96
4.37

31.2
17.7
17.9
10.6
7.12

Sx
(in3)

Axis X-X

A9 Properties of steel structural tubing (HSS-shapes) U.S. Customary units.

1.11
1.04
0.704

1.36

1.41
1.52

2.23
2.34
2.20
1.97

3.04
3.15
2.71
2.85
2.57

rx
(in)

3.02
1.11
0.747

1.48

11.9
7.80

48.3
28.6
11.1
2.21

125
70.7
23.6
14.4
2.94

Iy
(in4)

2.01
1.11
0.747

1.48

5.97
3.90

16.1
9.54
5.56
2.21

31.2
17.7
11.8
7.21
2.94

Sy
(in3)

Axis Y-Y

Section properties

1.11
0.751
0.704

0.779

1.41
1.52

2.23
2.34
1.61
0.810

3.04
3.15
1.56
1.66
0.827

ry
(in)

5.08
2.52
1.31

3.82

21.0
12.8

81.1
45.6
23.6
6.55

204
111
61.1
35.3
9.36

J
(in4)

3.52
2.23
1.41

3.05

11.2
6.56

28.1
15.4
10.1
4.70

52.4
28.1
24.4
13.6
6.35

C
(in3)

Torsional constants

Z01_MOTT8498_05_SE_APP.QXD 4/3/08 1:17 AM Page 704 TEAM-B 103:PEQY138:Appendix:

Shape

11.8
5.92
5.92
5.92

11.8
5.92
5.92

5.92
5.92
5.92

HSS 152  152  12.7


HSS 152  152  6.4
HSS 152  102  6.4
HSS 152  51  6.4

HSS 102  102  12.7


HSS 102  102  6.4
HSS 102  51  6.4

HSS 76  76  6.4
HSS 76  51  6.4
HSS 51  51  6.4

f
g
h
i

j
k
l

m
n
o

(mm)

11.8
5.92
11.8
5.92
5.92

(mm)

HSS 203  203  12.7


HSS 203  203  6.4
HSS 203  102  12.7
HSS 203  102  6.4
HSS 203  51  6.4

(mm)

a
b
c
d
e

Ref.

Design
wall
thickness
tw
(mm)

13.1
10.5
8.01

32.0
18.2
13.1

52.2
28.3
23.2
18.2

72.5
38.4
52.2
28.3
23.2

Mass
per m
(kg/m)

128
103
78.5

314
178
128

512
277
228
178

711
377
512
277
228

Weight
per m
(N/m)

1570
1271
974

3880
2170
1570

6280
3380
2770
2170

8710
4580
6280
3380
2770

Area
A
(mm2)

1.26E06
8.87E05
3.11E05

4.95E06
3.25E06
1.87E06

2.01E07
1.19E07
8.70E06
5.45E06

5.20E07
2.94E07
2.99E07
1.77E07
1.19E07

Ix
(mm4)

A9(SI) Properties of steel structural tubing (HSS-shapes) SI units.

3.29E04
2.33E04
1.22E04

9.78E04
6.39E04
3.69E04

2.64E05
1.56E05
1.14E05
7.16E04

5.11E05
2.90E05
2.93E05
1.74E05
1.17E05

Sx
(mm3)

Axis X-X

28.2
26.4
17.9

35.8
38.6
34.5

56.6
59.4
55.9
50.0

77.2
80.0
68.8
72.4
65.3

rx
(mm)

1.26E06
4.62E05
3.11E05

4.95E06
3.25E06
6.16E05

2.01E07
1.19E07
4.62E06
9.20E05

5.20E07
2.94E07
9.82E06
5.99E06
1.22E06

Iy
(mm4)

3.29E04
1.82E04
1.22E04

9.78E04
6.39E04
2.43E04

2.64E05
1.56E05
9.11E04
3.62E04

5.11E05
2.90E05
1.93E05
1.18E05
4.82E04

Sy
(mm3)

Axis Y-Y

Section properties

28.2
19.1
17.9

35.8
38.6
19.8

56.6
59.4
40.9
20.6

77.2
80.0
39.6
42.2
21.0

ry
(mm)

2.11E06
1.05E06
5.45E05

8.74E06
5.33E06
1.59E06

3.38E07
1.90E07
9.82E06
2.73E06

8.49E07
4.62E07
2.54E07
1.47E07
3.90E06

J
(mm4)

5.77E04
3.65E04
2.31E04

1.84E05
1.08E05
5.00E04

4.61E05
2.52E05
1.66E05
7.70E04

8.59E05
4.61E05
4.00E05
2.23E05
1.04E05

C
(mm3)

Torsional constants

Z01_MOTT8498_05_SE_APP.QXD 4/3/08 1:17 AM Page 705 TEAM-B 103:PEQY138:Appendix:

705

706

10.00
10.00
12.00
12.00

C 10  6.136
C 10  8.360
C 12  8.274
C 12  11.822

q
r
s
t

8.00
8.00
9.00
9.00

4.147
5.789
4.983
6.970

8
8
9
9

C
C
C
C

m
n
o
p

2.834
4.030
3.205
4.715

6
6
7
7

C
C
C
C

i
j
k
l

6.00
6.00
7.00
7.00

4.00
4.00
5.00
5.00

1.738
2.331
2.212
3.089

C
C
C
C

e
f
g
h

2.00
2.00
3.00
3.00

Depth, A
(in)

4
4
5
5

(lb/ft)

Shape

0.577
1.071
1.135
1.597

(in)

2
2
3
3

C
C
C
C

a
b
c
d

Ref.

3.50
4.25
4.00
5.00

3.00
3.75
3.25
4.00

2.50
3.25
2.75
3.50

2.00
2.25
2.25
2.75

1.00
1.25
1.50
1.75

Width, B
(in)

5.218
7.109
7.036
10.053

3.526
4.923
4.237
5.927

2.410
3.427
2.725
4.009

1.478
1.982
1.881
2.627

0.491
0.911
0.965
1.358

Area
(in2)

0.41
0.50
0.47
0.62

0.35
0.41
0.35
0.44

0.29
0.35
0.29
0.38

0.23
0.29
0.26
0.32

0.13
0.26
0.20
0.26

Flange
Thickness, t1
(in)

0.25
0.31
0.29
0.35

0.19
0.25
0.23
0.29

0.17
0.21
0.17
0.21

0.15
0.19
0.15
0.19

0.13
0.17
0.13
0.17

Web
Thickness, t
(in)

83.22
116.15
159.76
239.69

37.40
52.69
54.41
78.31

14.35
21.04
22.09
33.79

3.91
5.21
7.88
11.14

0.288
0.546
1.41
1.97

Ix
(in4)

A10 Properties of Aluminum Association standard channels U.S. Customary units.

16.64
23.23
26.63
39.95

9.35
13.17
12.09
17.40

4.78
7.01
6.31
9.65

1.95
2.60
3.15
4.45

0.288
0.546
0.94
1.31

Sx
(in3)

Axis X-X

3.99
4.04
4.77
4.88

3.26
3.27
3.58
3.63

2.44
2.48
2.85
2.90

1.63
1.62
2.05
2.06

0.766
0.774
1.21
1.20

rx
(in)

6.33
13.02
11.03
25.74

3.25
7.13
4.40
9.61

1.53
3.76
2.10
5.13

0.60
1.02
0.98
2.05

0.045
0.139
0.22
0.42

Iy
(in4)

x
Y

Sy
(in3)

2.56
4.47
3.86
7.60

1.57
2.82
1.89
3.49

0.90
1.76
1.10
2.23

0.45
0.69
0.64
1.14

t1

1.10
1.35
1.25
1.60

0.96
1.20
1.02
1.27

0.80
1.05
0.88
1.13

0.64
0.72
0.72
0.88

0.303
0.391
0.47
0.55

1.02
1.34
1.14
1.61

0.93
1.22
0.93
1.25

0.79
1.12
0.84
1.20

0.65
0.78
0.73
0.95

0.298
0.471
0.49
0.62

x
(in)

X
Centroid

ry
(in)

Axis Y-Y

0.064
0.178
0.22
0.37

Section properties

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41.37
58.8
46.8
68.8

60.5
84.5
72.7
101.7

89.6
122.0
120.8
172.6

4.217
6.00
4.77
7.02

C 152 
C 152 
C 178 
C 178 

C 203  6.17
C 203  8.61
C 229  7.41
C 229  10.37

C 254  9.13
C 254  12.44
C 305  12.31
C 305  17.59

i
j
k
l

m
n
o
p

q
r
s
t

25.37
34.03
32.29
45.09

2.586
3.468
3.291
4.596

C 102 
C 102 
C 127 
C 127 

e
f
g
h

8.42
15.63
16.57
23.31

0.859
1.594
1.689
2.376

51 
51 
76 
76 

Wt/m
(N/m)

C
C
C
C

(kg/m)

Shape

(mm)

a
b
c
d

Ref.

254
254
305
305

203
203
229
229

152
152
178
178

102
102
127
127

51
51
76
76

Depth, A
(mm)

89
108
102
127

76
95
83
102

64
83
70
89

51
57
57
70

25
32
38
44

Width, B
(mm)

3367
4587
4540
6486

2275
3176
2734
3824

1555
2211
1758
2587

954
1279
1214
1695

317
588
623
876

Area
(mm2)

10.4
12.7
11.9
15.7

8.9
10.4
8.9
11.2

7.4
8.9
7.4
9.7

5.8
7.4
6.6
8.1

3.3
6.6
5.1
6.6

Flange
Thickness, t1
(mm)

6.4
7.9
7.4
8.9

4.8
6.4
5.8
7.4

4.3
5.3
4.3
5.3

3.8
4.8
3.8
4.8

3.3
4.3
3.3
4.3

Web
Thickness, t
(mm)

A10(SI) Properties of Aluminum Association standard channels SI units.

3.46E07
4.83E07
6.65E07
9.98E07

1.56E07
2.19E07
2.26E07
3.26E07

5.97E06
8.76E06
9.19E06
1.41E07

1.63E06
2.17E06
3.28E06
4.64E06

1.20E05
2.27E05
5.87E05
8.20E05

Ix
(mm4)

2.73E05
3.81E05
4.36E05
6.55E05

1.53E05
2.16E05
1.98E05
2.85E05

7.83E04
1.15E05
1.03E05
1.58E05

3.20E04
4.26E04
5.16E04
7.29E04

4.72E03
8.95E03
1.54E04
2.15E04

Sx
(mm3)

Axis X-X

101.3
102.6
121.2
124.0

82.8
83.1
90.9
92.2

61.98
62.99
72.39
73.7

41.40
41.15
52.07
52.32

19.46
19.66
30.73
30.48

rx
(mm)

2.63E06
5.42E06
4.59E06
1.07E07

1.35E06
2.97E06
1.83E06
4.00E06

6.37E05
1.56E06
8.74E05
2.14E06

2.50E05
4.25E05
4.08E05
8.53E05

1.87E04
5.79E04
9.16E04
1.75E05

Iy
(mm4)

Section properties

x
Y

Sy
(mm3)

Axis Y-Y

4.20E04
7.33E04
6.33E04
1.25E05

2.57E04
4.62E04
3.10E04
5.72E04

1.48E04
2.88E04
1.80E04
3.65E04

7.38E03
1.13E04
1.05E04
1.87E04

1.05E03
2.92E03
3.61E03
6.06E03

27.94
34.29
31.75
40.64

24.38
30.48
25.91
32.26

20.32
26.67
22.35
28.70

16.26
18.29
18.29
22.35

7.70
9.93
11.94
13.97

ry
(mm)

25.9
34.0
29.0
40.9

23.6
31.0
23.6
31.8

20.1
28.4
21.3
30.5

16.5
19.8
18.5
24.1

7.57
12.0
12.4
15.7

x
(mm)

X
Centroid

t1

Z01_MOTT8498_05_SE_APP.QXD 4/3/08 1:17 AM Page 707 TEAM-B 103:PEQY138:Appendix:

707

708

Shape

8.00
8.00
9.00

10.00
10.00
12.00
12.00

I 8  6.181
I 8  7.023
I 9  8.361

I 10 
I 10 
I 12 
I 12 

i
j
k

l
m
n
o

8.646
10.286
11.672
14.292

5.00
6.00
6.00
7.00

3.700
4.030
4.692
5.800

I
I
I
I

e
f
g
h

5
6
6
7

I
I
I
I

a
b
c
d

3.00
3.00
4.00
4.00

Depth, A
(in)

1.637
2.030
2.311
2.793

(in) (lb/ft)

3
3
4
4

Ref.

6.00
6.00
7.00
7.00

5.00
5.00
5.50

3.50
4.00
4.00
4.50

2.50
2.50
3.00
3.00

Width, B
(in)

7.352
8.747
9.925
12.153

5.256
5.972
7.110

3.146
3.427
3.990
4.932

1.392
1.726
1.965
2.375

Area
(in2)

0.41
0.50
0.47
0.62

0.35
0.41
0.44

0.32
0.29
0.35
0.38

0.20
0.26
0.23
0.29

Flange
Thickness, t1
(in)

0.25
0.29
0.29
0.31

0.23
0.25
0.27

0.19
0.19
0.21
0.23

0.13
0.15
0.15
0.17

Web
Thickness, t
(in)

132.09
155.79
255.57
317.33

59.69
67.78
102.02

13.94
21.99
25.5
42.89

2.24
2.71
5.62
6.71

Ix
(in4)

A11 Properties of Aluminum Association standard I-beam shapes U.S. Customary units.

26.42
31.16
42.60
52.89

14.92
16.94
22.67

5.58
7.33
8.50
12.25

1.49
1.81
2.81
3.36

Sx
(in3)

Axis X-X

4.24
4.22
5.07
5.11

3.37
3.37
3.79

2.11
2.53
2.53
2.95

1.27
1.25
1.69
1.68

rx
(in)

14.78
18.03
26.90
35.48

7.30
8.55
12.22

2.29
3.10
3.74
5.78

0.52
0.68
1.04
1.31

Iy
(in4)

Section properties

B
R
t

4.93
6.01
7.69
10.14

2.92
3.42
4.44

1.31
1.55
1.87
2.57

0.42
0.54
0.69
0.87

Sy
(in3)

Axis Y-Y

1.42
1.44
1.65
1.71

1.18
1.20
1.31

0.85
0.95
0.97
1.08

0.61
0.63
0.73
0.74

ry
(in)

X A

t1

Z01_MOTT8498_05_SE_APP.QXD 4/3/08 1:17 AM Page 708 TEAM-B 103:PEQY138:Appendix:

Shape

54.01
58.83
68.49
84.66

90.22
102.5
122.0

126.2
150.1
436.5
233.5

5.506
5.997
6.982
8.630

I 127 
I 152 
I 152 
I 178 

I 203  9.197
I 203  10.45
I 229  12.44

I 254  12.87
I 254  15.31
I 305  44.50
I 305  23.80

e
f
g
h

i
j
k

l
m
n
o

23.90
29.63
33.73
40.77

2.436
3.021
3.439
4.156

Wt/m
(N/m)

I 76 
I 76 
I 102 
I 102 

(mm) (kg/m)

a
b
c
d

Ref.

254
254
305
305

203
203
229

127
152
152
178

76
76
102
102

Depth, A
(mm)

152
152
178
178

127
127
140

89
102
102
114

64
64
76
76

Width, B
(mm)

4744
5644
6404
7841

3391
3853
4587

2030
2211
2574
3182

898
1114
1268
1532

Area
(mm2)

10.4
12.7
11.9
15.7

8.9
10.4
11.2

8.1
7.4
8.9
9.7

5.1
6.6
5.8
7.4

Flange
Thickness, t1
(mm)

6.4
7.4
7.4
7.9

5.8
6.4
6.9

4.8
4.8
5.3
5.8

3.3
3.8
3.8
4.3

Web
Thickness, t
(mm)

A11(SI) Properties of Aluminum Association standard I-beam shapes SI units.

5.50E07
6.48E07
1.06E08
1.32E08

2.48E07
2.82E07
4.25E07

5.80E06
9.15E06
1.06E07
1.79E07

9.32E05
1.13E06
2.34E06
2.79E06

Ix
(mm4)

4.33E05
5.11E05
6.98E05
8.67E05

2.45E05
2.78E05
3.72E05

9.15E04
1.20E05
1.39E05
2.01E05

2.44E04
2.97E04
4.61E04
5.51E04

Sx
(mm3)

Axis X-X

107.7
107.2
128.8
129.8

85.60
85.60
96.27

53.59
64.26
64.26
74.93

32.26
31.75
42.93
42.67

rx
(mm)

6.15E06
7.50E06
1.12E07
1.48E07

3.04E06
3.56E06
5.09E06

9.53E05
1.29E06
1.56E06
2.41E06

2.16E05
2.83E05
4.33E05
5.45E05

Iy
(mm4)

Section properties

B
R
t

8.08E04
9.85E04
1.26E05
1.66E05

4.79E04
5.61E04
7.28E04

2.15E04
2.54E04
3.06E04
4.21E04

6.88E03
8.85E03
1.13E04
1.43E04

Sy
(mm3)

Axis Y-Y

36.07
36.58
41.91
43.43

29.97
30.48
33.27

21.59
24.13
24.64
27.43

15.49
16.00
18.54
18.80

ry
(mm)

X A

t1

Z01_MOTT8498_05_SE_APP.QXD 4/3/08 1:18 AM Page 709 TEAM-B 103:PEQY138:Appendix:

709

710

PIPE 1/2 STD


PIPE 3/4 STD
PIPE 1 STD
PIPE 1-1/4 STD
PIPE 1-1/2 STD

PIPE 2 STD
PIPE 2-1/2 STD
PIPE 3 STD
PIPE 3-1/2 STD
PIPE 4 STD

PIPE 5 STD
PIPE 6 STD
PIPE 8 STD
PIPE 10 STD

12 in
16 in
18 in

d
e
f
g
h

i
j
k
l
m

n
o
p
q

r
s
t

12.750
16.000
18.000

5.563
6.625
8.625
10.750

2.375
2.875
3.500
4.000
4.500

0.840
1.050
1.315
1.660
1.900

0.405
0.540
0.675

11.938
15.000
16.876

5.047
6.065
7.981
10.020

2.067
2.469
3.068
3.548
4.026

0.622
0.824
1.049
1.380
1.610

0.269
0.364
0.493

Inside
Diameter
(in)

0.406
0.500
0.562

0.258
0.280
0.322
0.365

0.154
0.203
0.216
0.226
0.237

0.109
0.113
0.133
0.140
0.145

0.068
0.088
0.091

Wall
thickness,
tw
(in)

15.745
24.347
30.788

4.300
5.581
8.399
11.908

1.075
1.704
2.228
2.680
3.174

0.250
0.333
0.494
0.669
0.799

0.072
0.125
0.167

Area, A
(in2)

NOTE: All values shown are for standard schedule 40 steel pipe.
Rows dq conform to AISC standards for dimensions of standard weight pipe. Rows ac and rt do not.
Many other sizes of round hollow structural sections (HSS) are available. See AISC Manual.

Schedule 40 pipe
1/8 in
1/4 in
3/8 in

Nominal size
(in)

a
b
c

Ref.

Outside
Diameter
(in)

A12 Properties of steel pipe U.S. Customary units.

300.2
731.9
1171

15.16
28.14
72.49
160.7

0.6657
1.530
3.017
4.788
7.233

1.71E-02
3.70E-02
8.73E-02
0.1947
0.3099

1.06E-03
3.31E-03
7.29E-03

I
(in4)

47.09
91.49
130.2

5.451
8.496
16.81
29.90

0.5606
1.064
1.724
2.394
3.214

4.07E-02
7.05E-02
0.1328
0.2346
0.3262

5.25E-03
1.23E-02
2.16E-02

S
(in3)

4.367
5.483
6.168

1.878
2.245
2.938
3.674

0.787
0.947
1.164
1.337
1.510

0.261
0.334
0.421
0.540
0.623

0.122
0.163
0.209

r
(in)

1.331
3.059
6.034
9.575
14.47

3.42E-02
7.41E-02
0.1747
0.3894
0.6198

2.13E-03
6.62E-03
1.46E-02

J
(in4)

600.4
1464
2343

94.18
183.0
260.3

10.90
16.99
33.62
59.81

1.121
2.128
3.448
4.788
6.429

8.14E-02
0.1411
0.2657
0.4692
0.6524

1.05E-02
2.45E-02
4.32E-02

Zp
(in3)

Torsional constants

30.32
56.28
145.0
321.5

Section properties

Z01_MOTT8498_05_SE_APP.QXD 4/3/08 1:18 AM Page 710 TEAM-B 103:PEQY138:Appendix:

PIPE 13 STD
PIPE 19 STD
PIPE 25 STD
PIPE 32 STD
PIPE 38 STD

PIPE 51 STD
PIPE 64 STD
PIPE 75 STD
PIPE 89 STD
PIPE 102 STD

PIPE 127 STD


PIPE 152 STD
PIPE 203 STD
PIPE 254 STD

305 mm
406 mm
457 mm

d
e
f
g
h

i
j
k
l
m

n
o
p
q

r
s
t

323.9
406.4
457.2

141.3
168.3
219.1
273.1

60.33
73.03
88.90
101.6
114.3

21.34
26.67
33.40
42.16
48.26

10.29
13.72
17.15

303.2
381.0
428.7

128.2
154.1
202.7
254.5

52.50
62.71
77.93
90.12
102.3

15.80
20.93
26.64
35.05
40.89

6.83
9.25
12.52

Inside
Diameter
(mm)

10.31
12.70
14.27

6.55
7.11
8.18
9.27

3.91
5.16
5.49
5.74
6.02

2.77
2.87
3.38
3.56
3.68

1.73
2.24
2.31

Wall
Thickness,
tw
(mm)

10 158
15 708
19 863

2774
3601
5419
7683

693.2
1099
1438
1729
2048

161.5
214.6
318.6
431.3
515.8

46.45
80.62
107.7

Area, A
(mm2)

NOTE: All values shown are for standard schedule 40 steel pipe, converted to SI units.
Rows dq conform to AISC standards for dimensions of standard weight pipe. Rows ac and rt do not.
Many other sizes of round hollow structural sections (HSS) are available. See AISC Manual.

Schedule 40 pipe
3.2 mm
6.4 mm
9.5 mm

Nominal size
(mm)

a
b
c

Ref.

Outside
Diameter
(mm)

A12(SI) Properties of steel pipe SI units.

1.25E08
3.05E08
4.88E08

6.31E06
1.17E07
3.02E07
6.69E07

2.77E05
6.37E05
1.26E06
1.99E06
3.01E06

7114
15416
36355
81044
1.29E05

442.7
1379
3035

I
(mm4)

7.72E05
1.50E06
2.13E06

89327
1.39E05
2.75E05
4.90E05

9187
17 436
28 253
39 228
52 676

666.9
1156
2177
3844
5346

86.07
201.0
354.0

S
(mm3)

110.9
139.3
156.7

47.70
57.04
74.62
93.32

19.99
24.06
29.55
33.95
38.34

6.637
8.475
10.68
13.71
15.81

3.087
4.135
5.308

r
(mm)

J
(mm4)

2.50E08
6.09E08
9.75E08

1.26E07
2.34E07
6.03E07
1.34E08

5.54E05
1.27E06
2.51E06
3.99E06
6.02E06

14 228
30 831
72 710
1.62E05
2.58E05

1.54E06
3.00E06
4.27E06

1.79E05
2.78E05
5.51E05
9.80E05

18 374
34 873
56 506
78 457
1.05E05

1334
2312
4354
7688
10 691

172.1
402.1
708.0

Zp
(mm3)

Torsional constants

885.4
2757
6069

Section properties

Z01_MOTT8498_05_SE_APP.QXD 4/3/08 1:18 AM Page 711 TEAM-B 103:PEQY138:Appendix:

711

712

17
14
16
10

16
10
16
10

10
5
10
5

10
5
5
1

5
1
5
1

1
1

112
112
2
2

212
212
3
3

312
312
4
4

412
412
5
5

e
f
g
h

i
j
k
l

m
n
o
p

q
r
s
t

Wall gage

a
b
c
d

1
2
1
2

OD (in)

4.500
4.500
5.000
5.000

3.500
3.500
4.000
4.000

2.500
2.500
3.000
3.000

4.060
3.900
4.560
4.400

3.232
3.060
3.560
3.400

2.232
2.060
2.732
2.560

1.370
1.232
1.870
1.732

0.384
0.334
0.870
0.732

Inside
Diameter
(in)

0.220
0.300
0.220
0.300

0.134
0.220
0.220
0.300

0.134
0.220
0.134
0.220

0.065
0.134
0.065
0.134

0.058
0.083
0.065
0.134

2.958
3.958
3.304
4.430

1.417
2.267
2.613
3.487

0.996
1.576
1.207
1.921

0.293
0.575
0.395
0.786

0.081
0.109
0.191
0.365

Area, A
(in2)

6.791
8.773
9.456
12.281

2.010
3.062
4.682
6.007

0.699
1.034
1.241
1.868

0.0756
0.135
0.185
0.344

0.00200
0.00246
0.0210
0.0350

I
(in4)

3.018
3.899
3.782
4.912

1.149
1.750
2.341
3.003

0.559
0.827
0.828
1.245

0.101
0.181
0.185
0.344

0.00800
0.00983
0.0419
0.0700

S
(in3)

1.515
1.489
1.692
1.665

1.191
1.162
1.339
1.312

0.838
0.810
1.014
0.986

0.508
0.485
0.685
0.661

0.158
0.150
0.331
0.310

r
(in)

13.583
17.546
18.911
24.562

4.020
6.125
9.364
12.013

1.398
2.067
2.483
3.736

0.151
0.271
0.370
0.687

0.00400
0.00491
0.0419
0.0700

J
(in4)

6.037
7.798
7.564
9.825

2.297
3.500
4.682
6.007

1.119
1.654
1.655
2.490

0.202
0.361
0.370
0.687

0.0160
0.0197
0.0839
0.140

Zp
(in3)

Torsional constants

7:01 PM

1.500
1.500
2.000
2.000

0.500
0.500
1.000
1.000

Outside
Diameter
(in)

Section properties

6/8/10

Ref.

Nominal size

Wall
thickness,
tw
(in)

A13 Properties of steel mechanical tubing U.S. Customary units.

Z01_MOTT8490_05_SE_APP.QXD
Page 712

OD (mm)

12.7
12.7

25.4
25.4

38.1
38.1
50.8
50.8

63.5
63.5
76.2
76.2

88.9
88.9
101.6
101.6

114.3
114.3
127.0
127.0

a
b

c
d

e
f
g
h

i
j
k
l

m
n
o
p

q
r
s
t

5
1
5
1

10
5
5
1

10
5
10
5

16
10
16
10

114.30
114.30
127.00
127.00

88.90
88.90
101.60
101.60

63.50
63.50
76.20
76.20

38.10
38.10
50.80
50.80

25.40
25.40

12.70
12.70

103.124
99.060
115.824
111.760

82.093
77.724
90.424
86.360

56.693
52.324
69.393
65.024

34.798
31.293
47.498
43.993

22.098
18.593

9.754
8.484

Inside
Diameter
(mm)

5.588
7.620
5.588
7.620

3.404
5.588
5.588
7.620

3.404
5.588
3.404
5.588

1.651
3.404
1.651
3.404

1.651
3.404

1.473
2.108

1908
2554
2131
2858

914.2
1463
1686
2250

642.6
1017
778.4
1240

189.1
371.0
254.9
506.8

123.2
235.2

51.96
70.15

Area, A
(mm2)

2.83E06
3.65E06
3.94E06
5.11E06

8.37E05
1.27E06
1.95E06
2.50E06

2.91E05
4.30E05
5.17E05
7.77E05

3.15E04
5.64E04
7.71E04
1.43E05

8726
1.46E04

833
1023

I
(mm4)

4.95E04
6.39E04
6.20E04
8.05E04

1.88E04
2.87E04
3.84E04
4.92E04

9166
1.35E04
1.36E04
2.04E04

1651
2959
3034
5632

687.1
1147

131.1
161.1

S
(mm3)

38.5
37.8
43.0
42.3

30.3
29.5
34.0
33.3

21.3
20.6
25.8
25.0

12.9
12.3
17.4
16.8

8.42
7.87

4.00
3.82

r
(mm)

Section properties

5.65E06
7.30E06
7.87E06
1.02E07

1.67E06
2.55E06
3.90E06
5.00E06

5.82E05
8.60E05
1.03E06
1.55E06

6.29E04
1.13E05
1.54E05
2.86E05

1.75E04
2.91E04

1665
2045

J
(mm4)

9.89E04
1.28E05
1.24E05
1.61E05

3.76E04
5.74E04
7.67E04
9.84E04

1.83E04
2.71E04
2.71E04
4.08E04

3303
5918
6068
1.13E04

1374
2294

262.3
322.1

Zp
(mm3)

Torsional constants

7:01 PM

16
10

17
14

Wall gage

Outside
Diameter
(mm)

Wall
thickness,
tw
(mm)

6/8/10

Ref.

Nominal size

A13(SI) Properties of steel mechanical tubing SI units.

Z01_MOTT8490_05_SE_APP.QXD
Page 713

713

714

Appendix

A14 Typical properties of carbon and alloy steels.*

Material
AISI no.
1020
1020
1020
1040
1040
1040
1040
1040
1040
1040
1080
1080
1080
1080
1080
1141
1141
1141
1141
1141
1141
4140
4140
4140
4140
4140
5160
5160
5160
5160
5160

Ultimate
strength, su

Yield
strength, sy

Condition

ksi

MPa

ksi

MPa

Percent
elongation

Annealed
Hot-rolled
Cold-drawn
Annealed
Hot-rolled
Cold-drawn
WQT 700
WQT 900
WQT 1100
WQT 1300
Annealed
OQT 700
OQT 900
OQT 1100
OQT 1300
Annealed
Cold-drawn
OQT 700
OQT 900
OQT 1100
OQT 1300
Annealed
OQT 700
OQT 900
OQT 1100
OQT 1300
Annealed
OQT 700
OQT 900
OQT 1100
OQT 1300

57
65
75
75
90
97
127
118
107
87
89
189
179
145
117
87
112
193
146
116
94
95
231
187
147
118
105
263
196
149
115

393
448
517
517
621
669
876
814
738
600
614
1303
1234
1000
807
600
772
1331
1007
800
648
655
1593
1289
1014
814
724
1813
1351
1027
793

43
48
64
51
60
82
93
90
80
63
54
141
129
103
70
51
95
172
129
97
68
60
212
173
131
101
40
238
179
132
103

296
331
441
352
414
565
641
621
552
434
372
972
889
710
483
352
655
1186
889
669
469
414
1462
1193
903
696
276
1641
1234
910
710

36
36
20
30
25
16
19
22
24
32
25
12
13
17
23
26
14
9
15
20
28
26
12
15
18
23
17
9
12
17
23

*Other properties approximately the same for all carbon and alloy steels:
Modulus of elasticity in tension = 30 000 000 psi (207 GPa)
Modulus of elasticity in shear = 11 500 000 psi (80 GPa)
Density = 0.283 lbm/in3 (7680 kg/m3)
OQT means oil-quenched and tempered. WQT means water-quenched and tempered.

Untitled-1.indd 5

05/02/15 6:37 PM

Magnesiumcast
ASTM AZ 63A-T6
Zinccast-ZA 12

C54400 bronze,

C36000 brass,

C17200 Beryllium copper,

Copper and its alloys


C14500 copper,

Stainless steels
AISI 301 annealed
AISI 301 full hard
AISI 430 annealed
AISI 430 full hard
AISI 501 annealed
AISI 501OQT 1000
17-4PH H900
PH 13-8 Mo H1000

Material and
condition

soft
hard
soft
hard
soft
hard
hard

40
58

32
48
72
195
44
70
68

110
185
75
90
70
175
210
215

ksi

276
400

221
331
496
1344
305
480
469

758
1280
517
621
483
1210
1450
1480

MPa

Ultimate
strength, su

19
47

10
44
20
145
18
35
57

40
140
40
80
30
135
185
205

ksi

131
324

69
303
138
1000
124
240
393

276
965
276
552
207
931
1280
1410

MPa

Yield
strength, sy

A15 Typical properties of stainless steels and nonferrous metals.

5
5

50
20
20
4
20
4
20

60
8
30
15
28
15
14
13

Percent
elongation

0.066
0.218

0.318

0.308

0.298

0.323

0.290
0.290
0.280
0.280
0.280
0.280
0.281
0.279

lb/in3

Density

1830
6030

8800

8530

8250

8940

8030
8030
7750
7750
7750
7750
7780
7720

kg/m3

110
117

16  106
17  106

45
83

131

19  106

6.5  106
12  106

117

193
193
200
200
200
200
197
203

GPa

17  106

28  106
28  106
29  106
29  106
29  106
29  106
28.5  106
29.4  106

psi

Modulus of
elasticity, E

Z01_MOTT8498_05_SE_APP.QXD 4/3/08 1:18 AM Page 715 TEAM-B 103:PEQY138:Appendix:

715

716
1205

550
690

80
100

1170

170

175

1280

185

640
614
448

345

50

93
89
65

448

65

This can be used as specific weight or mass density in lbm  in3.

Nickel-based alloys
N06600annealed
70F (21C)
800F (427C)
1200F (649C)
N0611040% cold worked
70F (21C)
500F (260C)
800F (427C)
N04400annealed [At 70F (21C]
Annealed
Cold drawn

Titanium and its alloys


Pure alpha Ti-65A
Wrought
Alpha alloy Ti-0.2Pd
Wrought
Beta alloy Ti-3Al-13V-11Cr
Aged
Alpha-beta alloy Ti-6A1-4V
Aged

A15 (continued )

30
75

150
130
120

37
30
27

155

175

40

55

207
517

1034
896
827

255
207
186

1070

1210

276

379

50
30

18
18
18

45
49
39

20

18

0.318

0.302

0.304

0.160

0.176

0.163

0.163

8800

8330

8420

4432

4875

4515

4515

207

181

26  106

114

16.5  106

30  106

110

16.0  106

207

103

14.9  106

30  106

103

15  106

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717

Appendix

A16 Properties of structural steels.


Material
ASTM no. and products
A36Carbon steel: shapes,
plates, and bars
A 53grade B-pipe
A242HSLA corrosion resistants:
shapes, plates, and bars
34 in thick
3
1
4 to 12 in thick
1
12 to 4 in thick

A500Cold-formed structural tubing


Round, grade B
Round grade C
Shaped, grade B
Shaped, grade C
A501Hot-formed structural tubing,
round or shaped
A514Quenched and tempered
alloy steel; plate
212 in thick

212 to 6 in thick

A572HSLA columbium-vanadium
steel: shapes, plates and bars
Grade 42
Grade 50
Grade 60
Grade 65
A913HSLA, grade 65: shapes
A992HSLA: W-Shapes only

Ultimate
strength, su*

Yield
strength, sy*

ksi

MPa

ksi

MPa

Percent
elongation
in 2 in

58
60

400
414

36
35

248
240

21

70

483

50

345

21

67

462

46

317

21

63

434

42

290

21

58
62
58
62

400
427
400
427

42
46
46
50

290
317
317
345

23
21
23
21

58

400

36

248

23

110

758

100

690

18

100

690

90

620

16

60
65
75
80
80
65

414
448
517
552
552
448

42
50
60
65
65
50

290
345
414
448
448
345

24
21
18
17
17
21

*Minimum values; may range higher.


HSLA-High strength low-alloy
The American Institute of Steel Construction specifies E  29  106 psi (200 GPa) for structural steel.

718
Appendix



A17 Typical properties of cast iron.*
Yield
strength

Ultimate strength
su

Material type
and grade
Gray iron ASTM A48
Grade 20
Grade 40
Grade 60
Ductile iron ASTM A536
60-40-18
80-55-6
100-70-3
120-90-2
Austempered ductile iron (ADI)
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4
Malleable iron ASTM A220
45008
60004
80002

suc

syt

sus

ksi

MPa

ksi

MPa

ksi

MPa

ksi

MPa

20
40
55

138
276
379

80
140
170

552
965
1170

32
57
72

221
393
496

60
80
100
120

414
552
690
827

180

1240

57
73

393
503

40
55
70
90

276
379
483
621

125
150
175
200

862
1034
1207
1379

80
100
125
155

552
690
862
1069

65
80
95

448
552
655

240
240
240

1650
1650
1650

49
65
75

338
448
517

45
60
80

310
414
552

Modulus of
elasticity, E
psi

GPa

Percent
elongation

12.2 106
19.4 106
21.5 106

84
134
148

<1
<0.8
<0.5

24
24
24
23

106
106
106
106

165
165
165
159

18
6
3
2

24
24
24
24

106
106
106
106

165
165
165
159

10
7
4
1

26 106
27 106
27 106

170
186
186

8
4
2

*The density of cast iron ranges from 0.25 to 0.27 lb /in3 (6920 to 7480 kg/m3).
m

Minimum values; may range higher.


Approximate values; may range higher or lower by about 15%.

A18 Typical properties of aluminum alloys.*


Yield
strength, sy

Ultimate
strength, su

Shear
strength, sus

Alloy
and
temper

ksi

MPa

ksi

MPa

Percent
elongation

ksi

MPa

1100-H12
1100-H18
2014-0
2014-T4
2014-T6
3003-0
3003-H12
3003-H18
5154-0
5154-H32
5154-H38
6061-0
6061-T4
6061-T6
7075-0
7075-T6

16
24
27
62
70
16
19
29
35
39
48
18
35
45
33
83

110
165
186
427
483
110
131
200
241
269
331
124
241
310
228
572

15
22
14
42
60
6
18
27
17
30
39
8
21
40
15
73

103
152
97
290
414
41
124
186
117
207
269
55
145
276
103
503

25
15
18
20
13
40
20
10
27
15
10
30
25
17
16
11

10
13
18
38
42
11
12
16
22
22
28
12
24
30
22
48

69
90
124
262
290
76
83
110
152
152
193
83
165
207
152
331

29
59
30

200
405
207

8
6
10

Casting alloys
(permanent mold castings)
204.0T4
206.0T6
356.0T6

48
65
41

331
445
283

Modulus of elasticity E for most aluminum alloys, including 1100, 3003, 6061, and 6063, is 10 106 psi
(69.0 Gpa). For 2014, E = 10.6 106 psi (73.1 GPa). For 5154, E = 10.2 106 psi (70.3 GPa). For 7075,
E = 10.4 106 psi (71.7 GPa). Density of most aluminum alloys is approximately 0.10 lbm/in3 (2770 kg/m3).

Untitled-1.indd 6

05/02/15 6:37 PM

719

Untitled-1.indd 7

05/02/15 6:37 PM

Type and grade


Douglas fir2 to 4 in
thick, 6 in and wider
No. 1
No. 2
No. 3
Hemlock2 to 4 in thick,
6 in and wider
No. 1
No. 2
No. 3
Southern pine 2 to 4
in thick, 6 in and wider
No. 1
No. 2
No. 3
9.6
6.9
4.5

1400
1000
650

5.7
4.0
2.6

5.7
4.7
2.6

825
675
375

9.6
7.9
4.3

1400
1150
625
825
575
375

7.2
5.9
3.3

MPa

1050
850
475

psi

12.1
10.0
5.5

MPa

Tension
parallel
to grain

1750
1450
800

psi

Bending

A19 Typical properties of wood.

80
70
70

75
75
75

95
95
95

psi

0.55
0.48
0.48

0.52
0.52
0.52

0.66
0.66
0.66

MPa

Horizontal
shear

Allowable stress

270
230
230

245
245
245

385
385
385

psi

1.86
1.59
1.59

1.69
1.69
1.69

2.65
2.65
2.65

MPa

850
550
400

1000
800
500

5.86
3.79
2.76

6.90
5.52
3.45

8.62
6.90
4.14

MPa

Parallel
to grain

1250
1000
600

psi

Compression
Perpendicular
to grain

1600
1300
1300

1500
1400
1200

1800
1700
1500

ksi

11.0
9.0
9.0

10.3
9.7
8.3

12.4
11.7
10.3

GPa

Modulus of
elasticity

720

Dry
50% R.H.
Medium-impact
High-impact
General-purpose
Standard
High-impact
Rigid

Nylon 66
30% Glass
ABS

21.0
15.0
6.0
5.0
9.0
10.5
5.4
6.0

(ksi)
146
102
41
34
62
72
37
41

(MPa)

25% graphite
5.7
39
powder filler
Glass-fiber filler
27.0
186
Laminate
50.0
345
Acetal
Copolymer
8.0
55
Polyurethane
Elastomer
5.0
34
Phenolic
General
6.5
45
Polyester with glass-fiber mat reinforcement (approx. 30% glass by weight)
Lay-up, contact mold
9.0
62
Cold press molded
12.0
83
Compression molded
25.0
172

Polyimide

PVC

Polycarbonate
Acrylic

Type

Material

Tensile
strength

A20 Typical properties of selected plastics.

410
100
1100

1200
800
360
250
340
430
220
350

(ksi)

2830
690
7580

8700
5500
2480
1720
2340
2960
1520
2410

(MPa)

Tensile
modulus

88
345
483
90
4
62
110
152
69

50.0
70.0
13.0
0.6
9.0
16.0
22.0
10.0

79
55
76
110
48

11.5
8.0
11.0
16.0
7.0

12.8

221

(MPa)

32.0

(ksi)

Flexural
strength

5520
8960
8960

7580

1100
800
1300
1300

22 400
27 580
2590

6210

2140
1790
2070
3170
1590
2070

7900

(MPa)

3250
4000
375

900

310
260
300
460
230
300

1100

(ksi)

Flexural
modulus

17.0
13.0
1.3
No break
0.3

4.0
7.0
12.0
0.4
1.2
0.420.0
(varies widely)
0.25

Impact
strength IZOD
(ft1b/in
of notch)

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721

Appendix

A21 Design stress guidelines.


Direct Normal StressesGeneral machine and structural design
Manner of
loading
Static loads
Repeated loads
Impact or shock

Ductile Materials
(% Elongation 5%)

Brittle Materials
(% Elongation 5%)

sd  sy 2
sd  su 8
sd  su 12

sd  su 6
sd  su 10
sd  su 15

Direct Normal StressesStatic loads on steel members of building-like structures


sd  sy 1.67  0.60 sy or sd  su 2.00  0.50 su
Whichever is lower.

AISC Code:

Direct Normal StressesStatic loads on aluminum members of building-like structures


Aluminum Association:

sd  sy 1.65  0.61 sy or sd  su 1.95  0.51 su


Whichever is lower.

Design Shear StressesFor direct shear and for torsional shear stresses
Based on maximum shear stress theory of failure:
td  sys N  0.5 sy N  sy 2N
Manner of
loading
Static loads
Repeated loads
Shock or impact

Design
factor

Design
shear stress

Use N  2
Use N  4
Use N  6

td  sy 4
td  sy 8
td  sy 12

Estimates for the Ultimate Strength in Shear


Formula

Material

sus  0.65 su
sus  0.82 su
sus  0.90 su
sus  1.30 su

Aluminum alloys
SteelPlain carbon and alloy
Malleable iron and copper alloys
Gray cast iron

Allowable Bearing Stress


SteelFlat surfaces or the projected area of pins in reamed, drilled, or bored holes:
sbd  0.90 sy
Allowable Bearing Load, Ra,Steel roller on flat steel plate
U.S. Customary Units
SI Metric Units
Ra  (sy 13) (0.03 dL)
Ra  (sy 90) (3.0  10 5dL)
Where: Ra  Allowable bearing load in kips or kN
sy  Yield strength of steel in ksi or MPa
d  Roller diameter in inches or mm
L  Length of roller in inches or mm

(continued)

Z01_MOTT8498_05_SE_APP.QXD 4/3/08 1:18 AM Page 722 TEAM-B 103:PEQY138:Appendix:

722

Appendix

A21 (continued)0

Allowable bearing stresses on masonry and soils for use in this book.
Allowable bearing stress, bd
Material

psi

MPa

Sandstone and limestone


Brick in cement mortar
Solid hard rock
Shale or medium rock
Soft rock
Hard clay or compact gravel
Soft clay or loose sand

400
250
350
140
70
55
15

2.76
1.72
2.41
0.96
0.48
0.38
0.10

Concrete:
Where:

sbd = Kf c = 10.342A2 >A12f c

(But maximum sbd = 0.68 f c)

f c  Rated strength of concrete


A1  Bearing area
A2  Full area of the support
.70
.60

K = 0.34 A2/A1

.50
.40
.35
1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

A2/A1
F

F
Steel

Steel

Concrete
A2/A1 = 1.0

Concrete
A2/A1 > 1.0

A1 = Bearing area
A2 = Support area

Z01_MOTT8490_05_SE_APP.QXD

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Page 723

723

Appendix

A21 (continued)

Allowable Bearing Stresses on Masonry and Soils


Allowable bearing stress, sbd
Material
Sandstone and limestone
Brick in cement mortar
Solid hard rock
Shale or medium rock
Soft rock
Hard clay or compact gravel
Soft clay or loose sand
Concrete:

sbd = Kf c = (0.34 2A2>A1)f c

psi

MPa

400
250
350
140
70
55
15

2.76
1.72
2.41
0.96
0.42
0.38
0.10

(But maximum sbd = 0.68f c)

Where: f c 5 Rated

strength of concrete
A1 5 Bearing area
A2 5 Full area of the support
Design Bending StressesGeneral machine and structural design
Manner of
loading
Static loads
Repeated loads
Impact or shock

Ductile Materials
(% Elongation .5%)

Brittle Materials
(% Elongation ,5%)

sd 5 sy /2
sd 5 su /8
sd 5 su /12

sd 5 su /6
sd 5 su /10
sd 5 su /15

Design Bending StressesAISC specifications for structural steel carrying static loads on buildinglike structures
sd 5 sy /1.5 5 0.66 sy
Design Bending StressesAluminum Association specifications for aluminum carrying static
loads on building-like structures
sd 5 sy /1.65 5 0.61 sy
or
sd 5 su /1.95 5 0.51 su
Whichever is lower.
Design Shear Stresses for Beams in Bending
Rolled structural steel beam shapesallowable web shear stress (AISC)
td 5 0.40 sy
General ductile materials carrying static loads: Based on yield strength of the material in shear
with design factor, N 5 2:
td 5 sys /N 5 0.5 sy /N 5 sy /2N 5 sy /2(2) 5 sy /4 5 0.25 sy

Z01_MOTT8498_05_SE_APP.QXD 4/4/08 3:19 AM Page 724 TEAM-B 103:PEQY138:Appendix:

724

Appendix

A22 Stress Concentration Factors


A221 Axially loaded grooved round bar in tension.
2.5
D/dg = 2.0

2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0

D/dg = 1.2

1.9
Kt

D/dg = 1.1

1.8
1.7

D/dg = 1.05

1.6

r = Groove radius

1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2

dg

max = Kt nom
nom = F/(d2g/4)

1.1
1.0
0

0.05

0.10

0.15
r/dg

0.20

0.25

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725

Appendix

A222 Axially loaded stepped round bar in tension.

2.5
2.4

2.3

r = Fillet radius
max = K
t nom
nom = F/(d2g/4)

2.2
2.1

D/d = 3.0

2.0
1.9
Kt

D/d = 2.0

1.8
1.7

D/d = 1.1

D/d = 1.2

1.6
1.5
D/d = 1.05
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0

0.05

0.10

0.15
r/d

0.20

0.25

Z01_MOTT8498_05_SE_APP.QXD 4/4/08 3:19 AM Page 726 TEAM-B 103:PEQY138:Appendix:

726

Appendix

A223 Axially loaded stepped flat plate in tension.


3.4

Thickness = t
F

3.0

2.6
Kt

max = Kt nom
nom = F = F
Amin t h

2.2

1.8

H/h = 2.0
1.2

1.4

1.1
1.01

1.0
0

0.04

0.08

0.12

0.16
r/ h

0.20

0.24

0.28

0.32

Z01_MOTT8498_05_SE_APP.QXD 4/4/08 3:19 AM Page 727 TEAM-B 103:PEQY138:Appendix:

727

Appendix

A224 Flat plate with central hole in tension and bending


5.0
Thickness = t

4.0

Basic geometry
Kt

max = Kt nom

3.0

nom based on
net section

2.0
C

1.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

d/w
Curve A

Curve B

Curve C

Direct tension
on plate

Tension load
applied through
a pin in the hole

Bending in
the plane of
the plate

nom = F = F
Anet (w d)t

nom = F = F
Anet (w d)t

nom = Mc = 6Mw
3
3
Inet (w d )t

F
M
F

F = total load

Note: Kt = 1.0 for d/w < 0.5

Z01_MOTT8498_05_SE_APP.QXD 4/4/08 3:20 AM Page 728 TEAM-B 103:PEQY138:Appendix:

728

Appendix

A225 Round bar with transverse hole in tension, bending, and torsion.
BA C

11.0
10.0
d
9.0

8.0

Basic geometry

7.0
A
Kt

6.0
C

5.0
4.0

B
3.0
2.0
1.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

d/D
Note: Ktg is based on the nominal stress in a round
bar without a hole (gross section).

max=Kt gross
g

tmax=Kt tgross
g

Curve A
Tension
F

Curve B
Bending

Curve C
Torsion

F
M
gross = F = F
A D2/4

M
gross = M = M
S
D3/32

T
tgross = T = T
Zp D3/16

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729

Appendix

A226 Grooved round bar in torsion.


2.5
r = Groove radius

2.4

2.3

T
D

dg

2.2
2.1
tmax=Kt tnom

tnom=T / (dg3/16)

2.0
1.9
1.8
D/dg = 2.0
Kt 1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4

D/dg = 1.2

1.3
1.2

D/dg = 1.05

1.1
1.0

0.05

0.10

0.15
r/dg

0.20

0.25

Z01_MOTT8498_05_SE_APP.QXD 4/4/08 3:20 AM Page 730 TEAM-B 103:PEQY138:Appendix:

730

Appendix

A227 Stepped round bar in torsion.


T

r = Fillet radius

tmax=Kt tnom
tnom=T / (dg3/16)

2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
D = 2.5
d

Kt 1.5

D = 1.67
d

1.4
D = 1.11
d

1.3

D = 1.25
d

1.2
1.1
1.0

0.05

0.10

0.15
r/dg

0.20

0.25

Z01_MOTT8498_05_SE_APP.QXD 4/3/08 1:18 AM Page 731 TEAM-B 103:PEQY138:Appendix:

731

Appendix

A228 Grooved round bar in bending.


2.5

r = Groove radius
M

2.4
2.3

dg

2.2
smax = Kt snom
snom = M/( d 3g /32)

2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
Kt

D/dg = 2.0
1.7
D/dg = 1.2
1.6
D/dg = 1.05
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0

0.05

0.10

0.15
r/dg

0.20

0.25

Z01_MOTT8498_05_SE_APP.QXD 4/4/08 3:21 AM Page 732 TEAM-B 103:PEQY138:Appendix:

732

Appendix

A229 Stepped round bar in bending.


2.5
M

M
2.4
d

D
2.3

r = Fillet radius
2.2
smax = Kt snom
snom = M/(p d 3/32)

2.1

D/d = 3.0

2.0
1.9

D/d = 2.0
1.8

D/d = 1.50

Kt
1.7

D/d = 1.2
1.6

D/d = 1.10
D/d = 1.05

1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0

0.05

0.10

0.15
r/d

0.20

0.25

Z01_MOTT8490_05_SE_APP.QXD

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Page 733

733

Appendix

A2210 Stepped flat plate in bending.


3.4
Thickness = t
smax = Kt snom

3.0
H

h
snom =

2.6

M
M
=
Smin t h2/6

M
r

Kt

2.2

1.8

H/h = 2.0

1.4

1.2
1.05

1.01
1.0
0

0.04

0.08

0.12

0.16

0.20

0.24

r/h

A2211 Shafts with keyseats


bending and torsion.
Type of keyseat

K*t

Sled-runner
Profile

1.6
2.0

*Kt is to be applied to the stress computed for


the full nominal diameter of the shaft where the
keyseat is located.

0.28

0.32

Z01_MOTT8490_05_SE_APP.QXD

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Page 734

734

Appendix

yB = ymax =

L/2
A

- PL3
at center
48EI

Between A and B:

- Px
(3L2 - 4x2)
48EI

y =

(a)

Pab(L + b)23a(L + b)
27EIL

y max =

at x1 = 2a(L + b)3
a>b

c
b

a
x1

yB =

Between A and B (the longer segment):

- Pa2b2
at load
3EIL

- Pbx 2
(L - b2 - x2)
6EIL

y =

Between B and C (the shorther segment):


-Pav 2
(L - v 2 - a2)
6EIL

y =

At end of overhang at D:
yD =

(b)

yE = ymax =
P

a
A

yB = yC =

a
C

-Pa
(3L2 - 4a2) at center
24EI
-Pa2
(3L - 4a) at loads
6EI

Between A and B:

x
L

Pabc
(L + a)
6EIL

y =

-Px
(3aL - 3a2 - x2)
6EI

Between B and C:
(c)

y =

-Pa
(3Lx - 3x 2 - a2)
6EI

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Appendix

A23 (continued)
yB = ymax =
Total load = W = wL
w = uniformily distributed load
B

A
x

- 5wL4
=
384EI

Between A and B:
C
a

L/2

- wx 3
(L - 2Lx 2 + x 3)
24EI

y =

At D at end:
yD =

(d )

wL3a
24EI

Between A and B:

w = uniformily
distributed load

- 5WL3
at center
384EI

y =

C
a

- wx 2
[a (2L - a)2 - 2ax 2(2L - a) + Lx 3 ]
24EIL

Between B and C:

y =

(e)

- wa2(L - x)
(4Lx - 2x 2 - a 2)
24EIL
MB = concentrated moment at B

Between A and B:

y
x

MB

y =
C

B
a

Between B and C:

y =

(f)

RA

yC =

- Pa2
(L + a)
3EI

At D, maximum upward deflection:

RB
L

(g)

MB
x3
3a2
c 3a2 + 3x 2 - a2L +
bx d
6EI
L
L

At C at end of overhang:

x
0.577L

-MB
3a2
x3
c a6a d
- 2Lbx 6EI
L
L

yD = 0.06415

PaL2
EI

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Appendix

A23 (continued)
At C at center:

Total load = W = wL
w = uniformly distributed load
A

y =
E
a

At A and E at ends:

y =

(h)

-W(L - 2a)3 5
24
a2
c (L - 2a) a
bd
384EI
L
L L - 2a

2
3
-W(L - 2a)3a
a
a
c - 1 + 6a
b + 3a
b d
24EIL
L - 2a
L - 2a

At C at center:

P
D

y =

a
L /2

PL2a
8EI

At A and E at ends at loads:

y =

(i)

w = uniformly distributed load

- Pa2
3
aa + Lb
3EI
2

At B:
y = 0.03208

0.577L
L
( j)

wa2L2
EI

At D at end:
y =

- wa3
(4L + 3a)
24EI

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737

Appendix

At B at end:
y

yB = ymax =

L
A

- PL3
3EI

Between A and B:

y =

(a)

- Px2
(3L - x)
6EI

At B at load:
- Pa3
3EI

yB =
At C at end:

L
P

yC = ymax =

b
B

- Pa2
(3L - a)
6EI

Between A and B:

y =

- Px 2
(3a - x)
6EI

Between B and C:
y =

(b)

- Pa2
(3x - a)
6EI

W  total load  wL
At B at end:

L
w  uniformly distributed load

yB = ymax =

- WL3
8EI

Between A and B:

-Wx2
[2L2 + (2L - x)2]
24EIL

y =

(c)

MB  concentrated moment at end


At B at end:

B
x

(d)

MB

yB = ymax =

- MB L2
2EI

Between A and B:
y =

- MB x 2
2EI

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Appendix

P
L/2
A
MA

11
RA 16

L/2
C

D
0.447L

Deflections
At B at load:

5
RC 16

yB =

ymax is at v = 0.447L at D:

11
P
16

Shearing
force,V

- 7 PL3
768 EI

yD = ymax =

- PL3
107EI

0
16 P
5

5PL
 MB
32
Bending
moment,
M

Between A and B:
y =

- Px2
(9L - 11x)
96EI

Between B and C:
3PL
 MA
16

y =

(a)

- Pv
(3L2 - 5v2)
96EI

Reactions
Pb

RA =

P
A

Pa2

RC =

2L3

2L3

RA

RA

Shearing
force,V

RC

- Pab
Pa2b
2L3

(b + L)

(b + 2L)

Deflections
At B at load:

0
MB

Bending
moment,
M

2L2

MB =

(b + 2L)

Moments

MA =
MA

(3L2 - b2 )

RC

yB =

- Pa3b2
12EIL3

(3L + b)

Between A and B:
0

y =
MA

- Px2b
12EIL3

(3C1 - C2x)

C1 = aL(L + b); C2 = (L + a)(L + b) + aL


Between B and C:
(b)

y =

- Pa2v
12EIL3

[3L2b - v 2(3L - a)]

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Appendix

A25 (continued)
Ractions
RA =

w = uniformly distributed load

A
MA

5
W
8
3
RB = W
8

W = total load = wL

L/2
0.579L

RA

D C

B
RB

Moments
MA = - 0.125WL

x
Shearing
force, V

ME = 0.0703WL

RA
3
8L

RB

yC = ymax =

ME = Mmax

L/
4

Bending
moment,
M

Deflections
At C at x  0.579L:
- WL3
185EI

At D at center:

yD =
MA

- WL3
192EI

Between A and B:
y =

(c)

RA
MA

-Wx 2(L - x)
(3L - 2x)
48EIL

Reactions

P
a

L
A

RA =

B
RB

- 3Pa
2L

RB = Pa1 +
P

Shearing
force, V

Moments
0
RA

MA =

MA
Bending
moment,
M

Pa
2

MB = - Pa

Deflection
At C at end:
MB

(d )

3a
b
2L

yC =

- PL3 a2
a3
a 2 +
b
EI
4L
3L3

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740

Appendix

A25 (continued)
L
y

Moments

P
L/2
A
MA

RA = P/2

RC = P/2

MA = MB = MC =
MC

Deflections
At B at center:

x
Shearing
force, V

RA
0
L/
4

Bending
moment,
M

PL
8

yB = ymax =

RC

MB = PL/8

- PL3
192EI

Between A and B:

0
MC

MA

- Px2
(3L - 4x)
48EI

y =

(e)

Reactions
RA =
RC =
L
a
(a > b)

A
x

MA

RA

Pb2
L3
Pa2
L3

b
B

C
v

x1

MA =

RC

MB =

MC

RA

- Pab2
L2
2Pa2b2
L3
- Pa2b
L2

Deflections
At B at load:

yB =
RC

At D at x1 =

MB
Bending
0
moment,
MA
M

(3b + a)

Moments

MC =
Shearing
force, V

(3a + b)

3EIL3

2aL
3a + b
yD = ymax =

MC

- Pa3b3

- 2Pa3b2
3EI(3a + b)2

Between A and B (longer segment):


y =

- Px 2b2
6EIL3

[2a(L - x) + L(a - x)]

Between B and C (shorter segment):


(f)

y =

- Pv 2a2
6EIL3

[2b(L - v) + L(b - v)]

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Appendix

A25 (continued)
L

Moments

W = total load = wL

y
A

MA

C
RC = W/2

Deflections
At B at center:

RA
Shearing
force, V

WL
24

MB =

MC

L/2
RA = W/2

-WL
12

MA = MC =

w = uniformly distributed load

yB = ymax =

- WL3
384EI

Between A and C:

y =

RC

- wx 2
(L - x)2
24EI

MB
Bending
moment,
M

MC

MA
(g)

Reactions
w = uniformly distributed load
A

x1

RA = RC =
C

x1

RB = 1.25wL

RA

RB

RC

Shearing forces
VA = VC = RA = RC =

VB
Shearing
force, V

VA

VB =

0
VC

VB

MB = - 0.125wL2

ME

Deflections
At x1  0.4215L from A or C:

0
A

D
MB

ymax =

- wL4
185EI

Between A and B:

B
(h)

5wL
8

Moments

3L
8

MD

3wL
8

MD = ME = 0.0703wL2

3L
8

Bending
moment,
M

3wL
8

y =

-w 3
(L x - 3Lx 3 + 2x4)
48EI

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Appendix

A25 (continued)
y

Reactions
w = uniformly distributed load
A

B
L

C
L

RA

RA = RD = 0.4wL

RB = RC = 1.10wL

RB

RC

RD

Moments
ME = MF = 0.08wL2

0.6wL

0.5wL

0.4wL
Shearing
force, V 0

MB = MC = - 0.10wL2 = Mmax

0.5L

0.4L

0.4L
0.4wL

0.5wL

0.6wL

ME

Bending
moment,
M

MG = 0.025wL2

MF
MG

MB

MC

(i)

Reactions
w = uniformly distributed load
A

RB

RA

RA = RE = 0.393wL
RB = RD = 1.143wL

E
L

RC

RD

RC = 0.928wL

RE

Shearing forces
+VB

0.39L
+VA
Shearing
force, V

VA = + 0.393wL

+VD
0.39L

+VC

- VB = - 0.607wL

0.54L

+ VB = + 0.536wL

0
0.54L
VB

VC

- VC = + 0.464wL

VE

VD

+ VC = + 0.464wL
- VD = - 0.536wL

MF

Bending
moment,
M

MI
MG

+ VD = + 0.607wL
- VE = - 0.393wL

MH

Moments

MB = MD = - 0.1071wL2 = Mmax
MF = MI = 0.0772wL2

MC
MB
( j)

MD

MC = - 0.0714wL2
MG = MH = 0.0364wL2

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743

Appendix

A26 Conversion factors.


Standard SI unit: Kilogram (kg). Equivalent unit: Ns2/m.

Mass
14.59 kg
slug

32.174 lbm
slug

2.205 lbm
kg

453.6 grams
lbm

2000 lbm
tonm

1000 kg
metric tonm

Standard SI unit: Newton (N). Equivalent unit: kgm/s2.

Force

105 dynes
N

4.448 * 105 dynes


lbf

224.8 lbf
kN

1000 lb
K

39.37 in
m

12 in
ft

25.4 mm
in

1.609 km
mi

5280 ft
mi

144 in2

10.76 ft2

645.2 mm2

106 mm2

ft2

m2

in2

m2

43,560 ft2
acre

104 m2
hectare

3.785 L
gal

35.3 ft3

4.448 N
lbf
Length
3.281 ft
m
Area

Volume
1728 in3

231 in3
gal

ft3

7.48 gal

264 gal

ft3

m3

m3

Section Modulus
1.639 * 104 mm3

109 mm3

in3

m3

Moment of Inertia or Second Moment of an Area


4.162 * 105 mm4

1012 mm4

in4

m4

Density (Mass/Unit Volume)


515.4 kg m3
slug ft3

1000 kgm3
gramcm3

32.17 lbmft3
slug ft3

16.018 kg m3
lbmft3

Specific Weight (Weight/Unit Volume)


157.1 Nm3
lbfft3

1728 lbft3
lbin3

Bending Moment or Torque


8.851 lbin
Nm

1.356 Nm
lbft
Standard SI unit: Pascal (Pa). Equivalent units: N  m2 or kg  ms2.

Pressure, Stress, or Loading


144 lbft2
lbin2

Energy
1.356 J
lbft
Power
745.7 W
hp

47.88 Pa

6895 Pa

1 Pa

lbft2

lbin2

Nm2

6.895 MPa
ksi

1.055 kJ
Btu

3.600 kJ
Whr

778 ftlb
Btu

1.356 W
lbfts

3.412 Btu hr


W

1.341 hp
kW

Standard SI unit: Joule (J). Equivalent units: Nm or kgm2  s2.


1.0 J
Nm

8.85 lbin
J

Standard SI unit: Watt (W). Equivalent unit: J/s or Nm/s.


1.0 W
Nms

550 lbfts
hp

General approach to application of conversion factors: Arrange the conversion factor from the table in such a manner that, when multiplied by
the given quantity, the original units cancel out, leaving the desired units. See examples on next page.

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744

Appendix
Example 1. Convert a stress of 36 ksi to MPa.
s = 36 ksi *

6.895 MPa
= 248 MPa
ksi

Example 2. Convert a stress of 1272 MPa to ksi.


s = 1272 MPa *

1.0 ksi
= 184 ksi
6.895 MPa

A27 Review of the fundamentals of statics.


Introduction
The study of strength of materials depends on accurate knowledge of the forces acting on
the load-carrying member being analyzed or designed.
It is expected that readers of this book have completed the study of a course in statics
in which the principles of physics mechanics are used to determine the forces and moments
acting on members of a structure or a machine.
Presented here is a brief review of the principles of statics to help readers recall
fundamental principles and problem-solving techniques.

Forces
A force is a push or pull effort applied to a structure or a member of the structure. If the
force tends to pull a member apart, it is called a tensile force. If the force tends to crush the
member, it is called a compressive force. See Figure A271 for examples of these kinds of
forces applied in line with the axis of the members. These are called axial forces.
Forces on members in static equilibrium are always balanced in such a way that the
member will not move. Thus in the two cases in Figure A271, the two axial forces, F,
are equal in magnitude but they act in opposite directions so they are balanced. You should
also note that every part of these members experiences an internal force equal to the externally applied force, F. Figure A272 shows this principle by illustrating a part of the tensile member cut anywhere between its ends. The force on the left is the externally applied
force, F. The force on the right is the total internal force acting on the material of the member across its cross section.

Moments
A moment is the tendency for a force to cause rotation of a member about some point or
axis. Figure A273 shows two examples. Each of the forces shown would tend to rotate
the member on which they act about the point identified as A.
The magnitude of the moment of a force is the product of the force times the perpendicular distance from the line of action of the force to the point about which the
moment is being computed. That is,
M = Force times distance = F * d
The direction is simply observed from the figure to be clockwise or counterclockwise.

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745

Appendix

FIGURE A271
Types of axial forces.

F
(a) Tensile force
F
(b) Compressive force

FIGURE A272
Internal force.

Cut at any section


F
External force

F
Internal force

FIGURE A273
Illustrations of
moments.

Line of
action of F1
a
12 in

Point A

F1 = 100 lb

b
8 in

F2 = 60 lb

Line of
action of F2
(a)

F1 = 3.0 kN

F2 = 4.0 kN

Line of
action of F3
F3 = 5.0 kN

c
0.8 m

Line of
action of F2
Point A

Line of
action of F1

a
0.5 m

b
0.6 m
(b)

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Appendix

Example from Figure A273(a)


Moment about A due to F1: MA = F1 * a = (100 lb)(12 in) = 1200 lbin Clockwise
Moment about A due to F2: MA = F2 * b = (60 lb)(8 in) = 480 lbin Counterclockwise
Example from Figure A273(b)
Moment about A due to F1: MA = F1 * a = (3.0 kN)(0.5 m) = 1.5 kNm Counterclockwise
Moment about A due to F2: MA = F2 * b = (4.0 kN)(0.6 m) = 2.4 kNm Clockwise
Moment about A due to F3: MA = F3 * c = (5.0 kN)(0.8 m) = 4.0 kNm Counterclockwise
Free-Body Diagrams
The ability to draw a complete free-body diagram of a structure and its members is an
essential element of static analysis. You must show all externally applied forces and moments
and determine all reaction forces and moments that will result in the structure being in
equilibrium.
Example from Figure A274
Show the free-body diagram for the complete structure and for each of the two members.
The applied force is F1 acting perpendicular to member BC.
See Figure A275 for the result. The following discussion summarizes the important
points.
a. The structure is comprised of members AB and BC that are connected by a pin joint
at B. AB is connected to the pin support at A. BC is connected to the pin support at C.
Pin joints can provide a reaction force in any direction but they cannot resist rotation.
We normally work with the horizontal and vertical components of the reaction forces
on a pin joint. Therefore, we show in Figure A275(a) the two components, Ax and
Ay, at A. Similarly, we show Cx and Cy at C.
b. Figure A275(b) is the free-body diagram of member AB. You should recognize that
the member would be in tension under the applied forces. The pin at B pulls down
and to the right. Therefore, the pin at A must pull up and to the left to keep AB in
equilibrium.
c. You should further recall that member AB is an example of a two-force member
because it is loaded only through pin joints. The resultant forces on a two-force
member always act along the line between the two pins. We label that force as AB.
Its components in the x and y directions are also shown. Note that the force system at
A is equal and opposite to that at B.

FIGURE A274
Support structure.

F1
20 =

a
0.3 m

b
0.5 m

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Appendix
Ay

FIGURE A275
Free-body diagrams of
structure and its
components.

Ax

F1
20 =

Cx

a
0.3 m

Cy

b
0.5 m

(a) Free-body diagram of entire structure


AB
ABy
20

ABx

ABx
20 =

ABy

AB

(b) Free-body diagram of member AB

F1

By

Cx

Bx
a

b
l

Cy

(c) Free-body diagram of member BC

d. Figure A275(c) is the free-body diagram of member BC. This member is called a
beam because it carries a load, F1, acting perpendicular to its long axis. There must be
an upward reaction force at both B and C to resist the downward force F1. We call
those forces By and Cy. Member AB exerts the supporting force on member BC at B.
That force acts upward and to the left. We call the horizontal component of that force
Bx. The total force at B is equal to the force AB described in (c). Finally, to balance the
horizontal forces, there must be a force Cx acting toward the right at C.
Static Equilibrium
When a structure or a member is in static equilibrium, all forces and moments are balanced
in such a way that there is no movement. The equations that describe static equilibrium are:
a Fx = 0
a Fy = 0
a M = 0 About any point

a Fz = 0

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Appendix

The first three equations state that the sum of all forces in any direction must add to zero.
We typically do the analysis in three perpendicular directions, x, y, and z. The fourth equation states that the sum of the moments about any point must be zero.
We use the equations of equilibrium to determine the values of unknown forces and
moments when certain forces and moments are known and when suitable free-body
diagrams are available.
Example from Figures A274 and A275
Determine the forces on all members and at all joints for the structure shown in Figure
A274. The given data are: F1  18.0 kN, a  0.3m, b  0.5m,   20.
Solution.
Step 1.

We use the free-body diagrams shown in Figure A275.


Use part (c) first. We sum moments about point C to find the force By.

a MC = 0 = F1 a - By l = (18.0 kN)(0.3 m) - By (0.8 m)


Then,
By = (18.0 kN)(0.3 m) (0.8 m) = 6.75 kN
We then sum moments about point B to find the force Cy.
a MB = 0 = F1b - Cy l = (18.0 kN)(0.5 m) - Cy (0.8 m)
Then,
Cy = (18.0 kN)(0.5 m)(0.8 m) = 11.25 kN
We can check to see if all vertical forces are balanced by summing forces in the vertical
direction.
a Fy = Cy + By - F1 = 11.25 kN + 6.75 kN - 18.0 kN = 0

(Check)

Step 2. Consider the forces acting at B. We know that By  6.75 kN. We also know
that the total resultant force, B, acts at an angle of 20 above the horizontal toward the left.
This is because it is applied through the pin by the force AB. The free-body diagram in
(b) indicates that AB acts along the direction of the member AB because it is a two-force
member. We can then say,
By = B sin 20
Bx = B cos 20
Then,
B = By (sin 20) = (6.75 kN) (sin 20) = 19.74 kN
Bx = B cos 20 = (19.74 kN)(cos 20) = 18.55 kN
Step 3. The forces acting at pin B on both member AB and member BC must be
equal and opposite because of the principle of action-reaction. Therefore, the axial force
on member AB is: AB  19.74 kN. The force AB acts at both A and B along the line between
the two pins in a manner that places the member AB in tension. The components of AB at
pin A are equal to the components at pin B, but they act in opposite directions.

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Appendix

Step 4. The only unknown now is Cx, the horizontal force acting at C on member
BC. We can use the free-body diagram of member BC again from part (c) of the figure.
a Fx = 0 = Cx - Bx
Then,
Cx = Bx = 18.55 kN
Equilibrium of Concurrent Force Systems
When the line of action of all forces acting on a member pass through the same point, the
system is called a concurrent force system. For static equilibrium to exist in such a system, the vector sum of all forces must add to zero. Two methods can be used to analyze a
concurrent force system to determine unknown forces.
The Component Method
This method calls for each force to be resolved into perpendicular components, usually
horizontal and vertical. Then the classic equations of equilibrium are applied.
Example Using Figure A276
Determine the force in each cable when the mass of the load is 1500 kg and the angle
  25

FIGURE A276
Load carried by three
cables showing force
analysis.

A
= 25
B

C
AB

ABy

ABx

BC

Load
BD

(b) Free-body diagram of B


with components of AB

(a) Cable system

AB
O
= 25

BC
BD

BD
(c) Free-body diagram of B with
vectors drawn to scale

AB

Intersection of
lines of action
of AB and BC

65
90

25
BC

(d) Vector triangle showing


vector sum BD + BC + AB

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Solution. There are three cables that we will call AB, BC, and BD. All three are
two-force members and pass through point B as shown in part (b). Therefore, they are
concurrent.
Step 1.

Determine the weight of the load. (See Section 15.)


w = mg = (1500 kg)(9.81 m s2) = 14 715 N = 14.7 kN

This is also the force in the cable BD.


Step 2. Draw the free-body diagram of point B and resolve each force into its x and
y components. This is done in part (b) of the figure.
Step 3.

Use Fy  0 to solve for the unknown force AB.


a Fy = 0 = ABy - BD

Then,
ABy = BD = 14.7 kN
But ABy is the vertical component of the cable force AB. Then,
ABy = AB sin u = AB sin 25
AB = ABy (sin 25) = (14.7 kN) (sin 25) = 34.8 kN
Step 4.

Use Fx  0 to find the unknown force BC.


a Fx = 0 = BC - ABx

Then,
BC = ABx = AB cos 25 = (34.8 kN)(cos 25) = 31.6 kN
Summary: The three cable forces are:
AB = 34.8 kN

BC = 31.6 kN

BD = 14.7 kN

The Vector Polygon Method


This method calls for the vector addition of all forces acting at a point. When the forces
are in equilibrium, the polygon created by the vectors will close, indicating that the vector
sum is equal to zero.
Example Using Figure A276(c)
Determine the force in each cable when the mass of the load is 1500 kg and the angle
  25
Solution. We must add the vectors, AB  BC  BD, as shown in part (d) of the figure. The graphical solution would call for drawing each vector in its proper direction and
with a length scaled to its magnitude. The vectors are connected tip to tail. We will sketch
a graphical vector diagram but solve for the required forces analytically.

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Step 1. The sum can be done in any order and we could start at any point, say point
O. We will actually sum the forces in the order BD  BC  AB. Lets first draw the known
vector BD vertically downward to scale. The value is BD  14.7 kN as found in the component method.
Step 2. Add vector BC from the tip of BD and acting horizontally to the right. Its
length is unknown at this time, but its line of action is known. Draw the line of indefinite
extent for now.
Step 3. Then, adding vector AB to the end of vector BC should cause the vector
polygon to close by having the tip of AB fall right on point O. We can pass a line through
point O in the direction of AB. Where this line crosses the line of action of vector BC establishes where the tip of BC is. Similarly, the tail of AB is also at that point.
Step 4. In the vector triangle thus formed, we know all three angles and the length
of one side, BD. We can use the law of sines to find the lengths of the other two sides.
BD
AB
=
sin 25
sin 90
Then,
AB = (BD)(sin 90)(sin 25) = (14.7 kN)(sin 90)(sin 25) = 34.8 kN
Also,
BD
BC
=
sin 25
sin 65
Then,
BC = (BD)(sin 65) (sin 25) = (14.7 kN)(sin 65) (sin 25) = 31.6 kN
Summary. The results for the cable forces are identical to those found from the component method.
AB = 34.8 kN

BC = 31.6 kN

BD = 14.7 kN

Law of Cosines Applied to Force Analysis


In some vector triangle solutions, you will know the magnitudes of two forces and the
angle between them. You can solve for the third force using the law of cosines.
Say for example, in Figure A276(d), you know the magnitudes of AB  34.8 kN,
BC  31.6 kN, and that the angle between them is 25. You could solve for the magnitude
of the force BD from:
(BD)2 = (AB)2 + (BC)2 - 2(AB)(BC) cos 25
= (34.8)2 + (31.6)2 - 2(34.8)(31.6) cos 25 = 216
Then,
BD = 1216 = 14.7 kN
You must carefully model the sides and angle to match the form of this equation.

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Trusses
A truss is a structure comprised of only straight members connected by pin joints with
loads applied only at joints. The result is that all members are two-force members carrying either tensile or compressive loads. Figure A277 shows an example. Next we
describe the method of joints for analyzing the forces in all members of a truss.
Example Using Figure A277
Find the forces in all members of the truss shown in Figure A277. Determine both the
magnitude and direction (tension or compression) for each force.
FIGURE A277
Forces on a truss and
its joints.

4 ft

4 ft

4 ft

6 ft

4 ft

F1 = 1200 lb

F2 = 1500 lb

(a) Complete truss with its supports


B

( ) = 33.7

= Tan1
4 ft
A

= 45

4 ft
= 33.7

4 ft
Ay

4
6

45

6 ft

Fx = 0

4 ft

F1 = 1200 lb

Fy

F2 = 1500 lb

(b) Free-body diagram of complete truss


BD
CD

AB

ABx

ABy
A

45

AD

CDy

BC

45

AD
ABy

ABx

AB

Ay

(e) FBD of Joint D


CF

CE

CFy
DE

EF

EF 45

CFx
F2 = 1500 lb
(f) FBD of Joint E

DE

F1 = 1200 lb

BD
(d) FBD of Joint B

(c) FBD of Joint A

33.7
CDx

Fy
(g) FBD of Joint F

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Analysis by Method of Joints


There are nine members in the truss. The general method for finding the forces in each
member is described next.
a. Solve for the reactions at the supports for the entire truss.
b. Isolate one joint as a free body and show all forces acting on it. The selected joint
must have at least one known force acting on it. It is recommended that there be no
more than two unknown forces.
c. When a member is in tension, the force pulls out on the joint at either end. Conversely,
a compression member pushes into a joint. Try to draw unknown forces in the proper
direction that will ensure that the joint is in equilibrium.
d. Use the equations of static equilibrium for forces in the horizontal and vertical directions to determine the unknown forces at the selected joint.
e. Forces found at the first joint become known forces for analyzing other joints. Move
to nearby joints and repeat steps b, c, and d repeatedly until the forces in all joints
have been found.
Completion of the Analysis of the Truss in Figure A277
Step 1. Using the entire truss as a free body, solve for the support reactions at joints
A and F. See part (b) of the figure.
Sum moments about support A to find support force Fy at point F.
a MA = F1(4 ft) + F2(10 ft) - Fy (14 ft) = (1200 lb)(4 ft) + (1500 lb)(10 ft) - Fy (14 ft)
Fy = [(4800 + 15 000) lb ft] 14 ft = 1414 lb
Upward
Sum moments about support F to find support force Ay at point A.
a MF = F1(10 ft) + F2(4 ft) - Ay (14 ft) = (1200 lb)(10 ft) + (1500 lb)(4 ft) - Ay (14 ft)
Ay = [(12 000 + 6000) lb ft] 14 ft = 1286 lb
Upward
Step 2. Isolate joint A as a free body. See part (c) of the figure. Work with components of the force AB. ABx  AB cos 45. ABy  AB sin 45.
a Fy = 0 = Ay - ABy
ABy = Ay = 1286 lb
Then,
AB = ABy (sin 45) = (1286 lb) (sin 45) = 1818 lb

Compression

a Fx = 0 = AD - ABx
AD = ABx = AB cos 45 = (1818 lb)(cos 45) = 1286 lb
Step 3.

Isolate joint B as a free body. See part (d) of the figure.


BD = 1286 lb
Tension
a Fx = 0 = ABx - BC = 1286 lb - BC
BC = 1286 lb
Compression

Tension

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Step 4.

Isolate joint D as a free body. See part (e) of the figure.

a Fy = 0 = 1200 lb - BD + CDy = 1200 lb - 1286 lb + CDy = CDy - 86 lb


CDy = 86 lb
Then,
CD = CDy (sin 33.7) = (86 lb)>(sin 33.7) = 155 lb
Compression
a Fx = 0 = DE - AD - CDx = DE - 1286 lb - (155 lb)(cos 33.7)
DE = 1286 lb + 130 lb = 1416 lb
Tension
Step 5.

Isolate joint E as a free body. See part (f) of the figure.


a Fy = 0 = 1500 lb - CE
CE = 1500 lb
Tension
a Fx = 0 = EF - DF = EF - 1416 lb
EF = 1416 lb
Tension

Step 6.

Isolate joint F as a free body. See part (g) of the figure.

a Fy = 0 = Fy - CFy = 1414 lb - CFy = 1414 lb - CF sin 45


CF = 1414 lb (sin 45) = 2000 lb
Compression
Summary of Forces in Members of the Truss
AB = 1818 lb (C)
BC = 1286 lb (C)
DE = 1416 lb (T)

AD = 1286 lb (T) BD = 1286 lb (T)


CE = 1500 lb (T) CD = 155 lb (C)
EF = 1416 lb (T) CF = 2000 lb (C)