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5

SAG AND TENSION CALCULATION

5.1 INTRODUCTION

When a perfectly flexible conductor of uniform cross section and material


is suspended between two supports, it takes the form of a natural curve known
as catenary under the influence of its weight. The difference in level between
the attachment points of supports and the lowest point on the curve is known
as the sag. This should be determined for the particular lines in order to
maintain an adequate ground clearance of the conductors at maximum
temperature and minimum loading conditions.
The line conductor should not break under most severe conditions of ice
and wind loadings, which are, assume to act on it. It should be strung with a
predetermined tension so that under the conditions of maximum wind and,
possibly, ice loading at minimum temperature, it is not stressed to the values
greater than its ultimate tensile strength divided by the factor of safety.
However the maximum stress will occur on the line when the temperature is
minimum. Normally two conditions should be investigated, when making sag -
tension calculations
a) At minimum temperature : The lowest sag and maximum tension in
conductor section occurs when the temperature is minimum and maximum
wind loading on the conductor. Under these conditions, tension on the
conductor should not exceed the breaking strength of the conductor divided by
a factor of safety of 2.5 as prescribed.i.e.
Tmax Tper

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ultimate tensile strength
Tper =
safety factor
b) At maximum temperature : On the other hand maximum sag occurs when
temperature is maximum in still air conditions ( no wind, no ice ).
The standard conductors, especially these of non ferrous metal, after being
erected with an initial tension gets elongated which is not in accordance to
Hock,s law. This phenomena is called creepage of the conductor, as a result of
which the erected conductor will be elongated to a value larger than that
calculated by Hock's law. The creepage phenomena causes reduction in the
stringing tension and therefore the sag will be more which may result in
exceeding the specified clearance between conductors and ground.

5.2 SAG OF THE CONDUCTOR

The sag of the conductor plays an important role in the design of overhead
lines. It is disadvantageous to provide either too high sag or too low sag. In the
case the sag is too high, more conductor material is required, more weight on
the supports is to be supported, higher supports are necessary and there is a
chance of greater swing due to wind load. On the other hand for too low sags,
there is more tension in the conductor and thus it is liable to break if any
additional stress is to be taken due to line vibration of all in temperature.
The sag or dip of the conductor depends on :
1.Weight of the conductor : This affects the sag directly. Heavier the
conductor greater will be the sag. In locations where ice formation takes place
on the conductor, this will also cause increase in the sag.
2.Length of the span : Sag is directly proportional to the square of the span
length. Hence longer span will have much greater sag with the other
parameters (weight, working tension, temperature...etc) remaining same.
3.Working tensile strength : The sag is inversely proportional to the working
tensile strength of the conductor if other parameters remain same. This
depends upon the type of conductor used for overhead lines.
4.Temperature : Metallic bodies expand with the rise in temperature, thus, as
temperature rises the length of the conductor increases and so does the sag.
Knowing the permissible tension, span, and the loadings, as well as the
position of the supports and the difference in their levels if any, the sag in the
particular span of the line can be calculated.

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(a) Supports at the same level

Figure 5.1 shows a conductor pulled between the equal level supports A
and B with a certain tension and O is the lowest point of the conductor.

Figure 5.1 Supports at same level

Let, l - Span length,metre ; T0 - Horizontal tension,Kg ; Tp - Tension of point


P,Kg ; Tx - Horizontal component,Kg ; Ty -Vertical component,Kg ; -
Angle,the tangent makes at point P with the horizontal,degrees ; OP = L -
length of the conductor from the lowest point O to the point P, metres ; dL -
small length of the conductor,metres ; dx - Horizontal component of dL ; dy -
Vertical components of dL ; Y = S - Sag of the conductor, metres ; W -
Weight of the conductor per unit length,Kg/m ; WL -Weight of the conductor
length OP, acting downwards and at the centres of the length OP,Kg.
For balance, the vertical component Ty at point P should balance the
downward acting weight WL and the horizontal component of tension Tx must
balance the horizontal tension T0 acting at the lowest point.
Thus : T0 = Tx
and WL = Ty
dy T y WL
tan = = =
dx Tx T0 (5.1)
dL = (dx )2 + (dy )2
2 2
dL dy W L
= 1 + ( )2 = 1 + 2
dx dx T0

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dx dL
1 W 2L
2 2
T0
Integrating both sides of the equation,
WL
X = T0 sinh -1 +C
W T0
Where C is the integration constant
At the point X = 0 , L = 0 so C = 0
WL
X = T0 sinh-1
W T0
T0
L sinh WX (5.2)
W T0
Substituting for L into equation (5.1) from equation (5.2) we have
dy W T0 WX WX
= sinh = sinh
dx T0 W T0 T0
WX
dy = sinh dx
T0
Integrating both sides of the equation
WX
y = T0 cosh + C1
W T0

To find the integration constant C1 , at point O , Y = 0, when X = 0 , which


gives C1= - T0/W
WX
Thus y = T0 (cosh -1) m
W T0 (5.3)
Expression (5.3) is the equation of a catenary. Expanding equation (5.3) and
eliminating fourth and higher order terms
y WX
2
m (5.4)
2T0
Which is the equation of a parabola used to obtain approximate sag result.
The sag S can be found by putting X= l/2 in equation (5.3) and (5.4) giving

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Wl
S = T0 (cosh -1) m
W 2 T0
W l2 2
W
S= [1 + ( l )( )2 + ...]
8 T0 48 T0 (5.5)
S WL
2
m (5.6)
8T0
(b) Supports at different levels
If the supports are at unequal levels as shown in figure (5.2) and the lowest
point is at distance X1 from the support B, the distance (sag) S1 would be
given by equation (5.5) on substituting the value of L as X1 .

Figure 5.2 Supports at different levels

Thus T0 [cosh W X1 - 1]
S1 = m
W 2 T0 (5.7)
and the vertical distance referred to support A is given by S1+h.
Where h is the difference in level between the two supports.
Thus S2 = S1 + h
Thus T0 [cosh W(L - X1) - 1]
S2 = S1 + h =
W 2 T0 (5.8)
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The sag S2 and S1 can be calculated using equation (5.6)
W le2
S2 =
8 T0 (5.9 a)
W (2X I ) 2
S1 =
8T0 (5.9.b)
The difference in level between the two supports can be calculated with
equations (5.9 a) and (5.9 b)
W 2 2
h = S 2 - S1 = [l e - (2X I ) ]
8T0
le
X1= l -
2 (5.10)
The length of the equivalent span le can be obtained from the solution of
equation (5.10) with respect to le
2 T0 h
le = l +
wl (5.11)

For the case of unequal level supports equation (5.6) (parabolic equation)
is applied to find the sag as
W L2
Sc =
8 Tc cos (5.12)
Where tan -1 h
l
cos = T0 _ T0 = Tc cos
Tc
Example 5.1

An overhead transmission line has a span of 220 metres. The conductor


weighs 0.604 Kg/metre. Calculate the maximum sag if the ultimate tensile
strength of conductor is 5758 Kg. Assume a factor of safety equals to 2.

Solution :

Span length, L=220 metres

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Weight of conductor per metre length,W=0.604 Kg/m
ultimate tensile strength of the conductor=5758 Kg
Factor of safety = 2
Allowable maximum tension,
Ultimate strength 5758
T= = = 2879Kg
Factor of safety 2
2
W l 2 0.604x(220 )
Sag, S = = = 1.27metres
8 T0 8x2879

Example 5.2

An overhead line has ACSR conductor of 1.95 cm diameter and a span of


244 m. The allowable tension is 3.56x104 N. Find a)sag in still air condition
with no ice covering b)vertical sag when there is an ice covering of 0.96 cm
thickness and a horizontal wind pressure of 382 Newton per square metre of
projected area. Ice weighs 8920 N/m. c)the line is carried by insulator strings
1.43 m long. What should be the height of lowest cross arm to give a
minimum ground clearance of 7.62 m under bad weather conditions? The
conductor weight is 0.847 Kg/m.

Solution :

W=0.847x9.81=8.31 N/m l=244 m


T0=3.56x104 N
a) S=(Wl2)/(8T0)=(8.31x244x244)/(8x3.56x104)=1.74 m
b) d=1.95x10-2 m , t=0.96x10-2 m
D=d+2t=3.87x10-2 m
Ww=382D=382x387x10-2=14.78 N/m

Ft W Wi Ww
2
8.31 7.82
2 0.5 2
14.78
2 0.5
21.88 N/m
2
Ft l 21.88.(244 )2
S 4.57 m
8T 8 x3.56x10 4
14.78
tan 1[Ww /(W Wi )] tan 1 42.5
8.31 7.82
Vertical sag = S x cos = 3.37 m
(c) Height of lowest cross arm = minimum ground clearance + vertical sag +
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length of insulator string = 7.62 + 3.37 + 1.43 =12.42 m
Example 5.3

An overhead line has a span of 336 m. The line is supported, at a water


crossing, from two towers whose heights are 33.6 m and 29 m above water
level. The weight of conductor is 8.33 N/m and tension in the conductor is not
to exceed 3.34x104 N. Find a)clearance between the lowest point on the
conductor and water b)horizontal distance of this point from the lower
support.

Solution :

Referring to Fig.5.2
le=l+2Th/wl=336+2x3.34x104(33.6-29)/(8.33x336)=445.79 m
a) S=wle/8T=(8.33x445.79x445.79)/(8x3.34x104)=6.195 m
The lowest point O is 6.195 m below support B which is 33.6 m above
water level. Therefore the clearance between point O and water is 33.6-
6.195=27.405 m.
b) Distance of point O from higher support B
=0.5x445.79=222.89 m
Distance of point O from lower support=336-222.89=113.11 m

Example 5.4

A transmission line at a river crossing is supported by two towers 50 m and


55 m above water level. The horizontal distance between towers is 300 m. The
tension in the conductor is 2000 Kg and weight of conductor is 0.85 Kg/m
a)Find the minimum clearance between conductor and water b)Determine the
position of minimum clearance.

Solution :

a)Referring to Fig.5.2.
l=300 m, h=5 m, T=2000x9.81=19.62x103 N
W=0.85x9.81=8.34 N/m
le=l+2Th/Wl=300+2x19.62x103x5/8.34x300=378.4 m
S=Wle/8T=8.34x378.4x378.4/8x19.62x103=7.61 m
The lowest point on the conductor is 7.61 m below the higher support B

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which is 55 m above water level. Therefore minimum clearance between
conductor and water is 55-7.61=47.39 m
b)Distance of point O (position of minimum clearance) from support B
,i.e.,higher support=0.5x378.4=189.2 m
Distance of point O from support A,i.e.,lower support =
= 300-189.2=110.8 m

5.3 TOTAL LENGTH OF THE CONDUCTOR IN THE SPAN

When the towers and lines are constructed, the lines are under tension and
the length of the conductor in the span is the stretched length under that
tension. The exact equation (5.2) for part of length of the conductor OC is .
T0 sinh WX
Lx =
W T0 (5.13)

The length of the conductor for half of span Ob and Oa can be obtained from
equation (5.13) by , putting X = l/2 .
T0 sinh Wl
Lob = Loa =
W 2 T0 (5.14)

The length of the conductor for the entire span is two times LOb and is
calculated by the following equation.
2T0
L sin Wl (5.15)
W 2T0
Expanding equation (5.15)
2 Wl 1 1 Wl 3 1 Wl 5 1
L = T0 [( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ...] (5.16)
W 2 T0 1! 2 T0 3! 2 T0 5 !

If fifth and higher order terms are neglected


2 T0 W1 W13 1
L= ( + 3
) ,m
W1 2 T0 8 T0 6
2 3
W
L = l + 1 l2
24 T0 (5.17)
This equation can be written in terms of sag as given below

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8 S2
L = l+
8l
2
W
Where, S = 1 l
8 T0 (5.18)
5.4 EQUATION OF STATE IN SPAN

The conductors of overhead line operate at permanently changed


atmospheric conditions. The variations of parameters of atmospheric condition
provoke variation of stress and sag of the conductor. Equation, which permits
at given stress in the conductor, temperature of air and mechanical load to
determine the stress in the conductor at new values of temperature and
mechanical load, is called equation of state of the conductor. The conductors
of an overhead line are operated at varied atmospheric conditions which
causes variation of tension and sag, the regulations require that sag should be
calculated for worst probable conditions and minimum ground clearance must
be maintained for these conditions. Initially the temperature of air varies from
tm to tn which causes change in the length of the conductor from Lm to Ln1 .

Ln1=Lm[1+(tn-tm)] ,m (5.19)

Where is the temperature coefficient of linear expansion.


Also there is another change in the length due to variation in mechanical
loading (tension) as a result of which the length will change from Ln1 to Ln.

Ln=Ln1[1+(n- m)] ,m (5.20)

Where is the coefficient of elasticity.


Substituting Ln1 from equation (5.19) in (5.20) we get

Ln=Lm[1+(tn-tm)][1+(n-m)] (5.21)

After simplification and neglecting the term (tn-tm)( n-m), as compared to


other terms, the following equation is obtained.

Ln=Lm[1+(tn-tm)+( n-m)] (5.22)

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2 3 2 3
Wm l W
Where Lm = l + , Ln = l + n l2
24 m
2
24 n
Substituting these values in equation (5.22) the equation of state can be found
as
:
2 2
Wnl Wml
2
2
n- =m- - ( tn - tm )
24 n
2
24 m
2
(5.23)

Suffix m is used to refer to initial (known conditions with the following


parameters : tm , m and Wm, suffix n is used for the new operating condition.
In case that the terrain is inclined, the equation of state will be :

W n l cos W m l cos
2 2 2 2
n- = m - - ( tn - tm )
24 2n 24 2m
l
where, cos =
l inc (5.24)
linc - length of inclined span , m

5.5 STRINGING CHARTS (SAG AND TENSION CHARTS)

For operation of an overhead lines it is necessary that :


1. The tension in the conductors for all normal operating conditions to be not
more than permissible value.
2. At variation of atmospheric conditions prescribed distances from the
conductors to ground and equipments, it is necessary that the conductor be
erected with exact specified tension and corresponding sag. The erection of
the conductors is implemented at still air condition ( no ice and no wind or
wind with very small speed ) and the acting load is only from its own weight
(W1).
The tension at erection of conductor is calculated with equation of state in
span. Erection condition "n" is with parameters n =e , Wn = W1 and tn = te .
2 2 2 2
W1 l E Wm l E
e - = m - - E( t e - t m)
24 e2 24 2m
(3.25)
The known condition "m" for equation (5.25) has the parameters m, Wm
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and tm - parameters for the worst probable condition.
In equation (5.25) erection temperatures are assigned values from te = tmin to
te = tmax at intervals of 5C and for each value e is calculated for span l .
The sag at erection condition Se is calculated with the following equation,
for each value of te .
2
W1 l
Se = ,m
8 e
As we take into consideration the creepage phenomena, which causes
reduction in the stringing tension and therefore the sag will be more which
may result in exceeding the specified clearance between conductors and
ground. In order to take the creepage phenomena into account, it is necessary
to increase the value of the stringing tension to a new value in the following
manner

ci = K.ei , MPa (5.27)

Where, ci - the stringing tension with creepage taken into account and ei - the
stringing tension calculated by the equation of state. K = 1.05 for steel
conductors, K = 1.07 for copper conductors, K = 1.12 for aluminium
conductors, 1.1Kv1.2 for steel aluminium conductors depending on the
construction of the conductors.
Therefore the corrected value of the sag at erection will be
2
Se W1 li
Sci = = ,m
K 8 ci
(5.28)

From functions ci = f(te) and Sci = f(te) at parameter l the stringing charts can
be made. Figure 5.3 shows the stringing charts.

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Figure 5.3 Stringing charts


Example 5.5

An overhead line having a span of 250 m is to be erected at a temperature of


40C in still air conditions. It is desired that a factor of safety of 2 should be
maintained under bad weather conditions when the temperature is 10C and
wind load is 378 N/m2 of projected area. The data for the ACSR conductor
used for the line is as under : diameter 1.95 cm, area 2.25 sq.cm., weight =
8.31 N/m, breaking load 77900 N, coefficient of linear expansion 18.44x10-6
per degree C, Young's modulus 91.4x103 N/mm2. Find the sag and tension
under erection conditions.

Solution :

d = 1.95 cm = 1.95x10-2 m
A = 2.25 sq.cm = 2.25x10-4 sq.m
E = 91.4x103 N/mm2 = 91.4x103x106
= 91.4x109 N/m2
For bad weather conditions (subscript 1)

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Ww = 378x1.95x10-2 = 7.37 N/m
Wt1 =(7.372+8.312)0.5 = 11.11 N/m
T1 =0.5x77900 = 38950 N
t1 = 10C
For erection conditions (subscript 2)
Wt1 = 8.31 N/m , T2 = ?
t2 = 40C
From equation (5.25)
2 2 2 2
W1 l E Wm l E
e - = m - - E( t e - t m)
24 e2 24 2m
But =T0/a
aE W t 22 l2 aE W t 12 l2
Then T 2 - = T1 - - aE( t 2 - t1)
24 T 22 24 T12
aE(t2-t1) = 18.44x10-6x2.25x10-4x91.4x109x30 = 11376.6
aE W t 12 l2 2.25x 10-6 x91.4x 109 (11.11)2 (250 )2
= = 4357.2
24 T12 24(38950 )2
aEWt2l2/24 = 2.25x10-4x91.4x109x8.312x2502/(24) = 36.99x1011
T2[T2-38950+11376.6+4357.2] = 36.99x1011
or T2(T2-23216.2) = 36.99x1011
or T2-23216.2 T2-36.99x1011 = 0
By hit and trial, T2 = 23800 N
8.31x250x2 50
Sag at erection = = 2.73 m
8x23800

5.6 SAG TEMPLATE

The use of a sag template is essential to allocate the position and height of
the supports correctly on the profile. It is usually made of transparent
celluloid, perspex, or sometimes card board. The following curves are marked
on it : hot curve, cold curve, ground clearance curve and support - foot or
tower curve.
The hot curve is obtained by plotting the sages at maximum temperature
against span lengths. It shows where the supports must be located in order to
maintain the prescribed ground clearance.
The cold curve is obtained by plotting the sags at minimum temperature

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without wind or ice against span lengths. This curve is drawn to check
whether uplift of conductors occurs at any support. The uplift condition may
occur at low temperatures when one support is much lower than either one of
the adjoining ones.
The clearance curve is below the curve. It is drawn parallel to the hot curve
and at a vertical distance equal to the ground clearance as prescribed by the
regulations for the given line.
The support - footing curve is drawn for locating the position of the
supports for tower lines. It shows the height from the base of the standard
support to the point of attachment of the lowest conductor. This height
distance is the sum of minimum ground clearance and maximum sag obtained
at maximum temperature. Figure 5.4 shows the location of line supports by
use of sag template.

Figure 5.4 Sag template and location of line supports

Preparation of sag template.


The above mentioned curves are first drawn on a squared paper on the
same scale as the line profile. The curves are then transferred to a transparent
celluloid or perspex, which is then cut along the hot curve.
For plotting hot curve :

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2
W 1l
Sag = S =
8T
2
W x
If x = l/2 then S = 1 = k 1 x2
2T
Where;
W1 - Weight of the conductor
T - Tension at maximum sag
x - Variable span length
Corresponding to various values of span length sages are obtained and the cold
curve can be obtained by plotting S versus x.
For plotting the cold curve :
2
W1 x
S= = k2 x2
2T Where, T' - maximum tension
Plotting ground clearance curve : The minimum ground clearance is
determined. This distance is plotted vertically with the hot curve is obtained as
shown in the sag template, figure 5.5
Plotting of the support - footing curve : The height from the base of the
standard support to the point of attachment of the lowest conductor is shown
by this curve. This height distance is the sum of minimum ground clearance
and the maximum sag.

Figure 5.5 Sag Template


1 Hot curve 2 Ground clearance curve
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3 Tower footing curve 4 Cold curve

Example 5.6

A 600 m span over a river is to have its two supports at the same level. The
conductor weighs 12 N/m and ice load is 14 N/m. The tension in the conductor
under the above conditions should not exceed 50000 N. Find the sag by
a)representing the line as a parabola b)representing the line as catenary and
compare the results.
Solution :

a) S=Wtl2/8T0
Total vertical load =12+14=26 N/m
Horizontal load = 0
S=26x600x600/(8x50000)=23.4 m
b) From equation (5.5)
2 2
Wt l W
S= [1 + l ( t )2]
8 T0 48 T0
26x600x600 600x600 26 2
= [1 + ( ) ] = 23.447m
8x50000 48 50000
It is seen that even for this long span the difference between the results of
exact and approximate formulae is only 0.2 %. Therefore the exact formulae
are seldom used in practice.

5.7 CONDUCTOR VIBRATIONS

In addition to normal swinging in wind, overhead line conductors may be


subjected to vibrations, which can be classified into the following types :
1.Resonant vibration.
2.Galloping.
3.Dancing and sleet jump.
Resonant vibration
Resonant vibration of conductors arises from the vortex phenomenon
produced behind the conductor by the action of low velocity winds. Due to the
formation of vortex, the velocity of the wind at the sides towards and away
from the conductor becomes unequal. The unequal velocity results in unequal
pressure, the pressure at the higher velocity side being lower. Air from the

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lower velocity side will, therefore, come to fill the rarefied space behind the
pressure of air. the conductor thus sets in motion in upward and downward
directions depending on the existing conditions. During its motion the
conductor leaves behind an empty space, which is then filled by vortex from
higher velocity side and the direction of motion changes. Thus, oscillation of
the conductor starts. When the frequency of vortex coincides with the natural
frequency of the conductor, resonant vibration of conductor results.
The change in velocity of direction of the wind, damps the original
vibration with the production of a new vibration. Such vibrations are in
vertical plane, and have the characteristic of high frequency and low
amplitude with the formation of nodes and loops. The normal maximum
amplitudes are of the order 25 mm and the frequency ranges between 5 - 100
Hz for wind velocities of 6 - 30 Km/h.
The frequency f is empirically given by

f = 50 , Hz (5.29)
d

Where ' - The wind velocity ,Km/h.


d - Conductor diameter ,mm
The length of loop LL (half wave length) depends on tension T(N) and
conductor weight W(Kg/m) and is given by
1 T
LL = (5.30)
2f W
The high frequency oscillation may build up an amplitude, which produces
alternating stresses large enough to cause fatigue failure. The failure occurs
due to fatigue cracks caused by rapid bending of conductor up and down at the
point of attachment. The risk of vibration trouble is more for conductor with
diameter and high working tension used on large spans.
Galloping
Self-excited vibrations are produced on line conductor by aerodynamic
forces acting upon non-circular cross-section. The conductor takes a non-
circular section due to uneven coating of ice on its surface.
This low frequency (0.25 - 1.25 Hz).large amplitude oscillation of
conductor is called galloping. Galloping has been observed with wind
velocities ranging between 15 - 75 Km/h inclined to the line at an angle
between 10 - 90 .Both torsional and translational motions are set up in the
conductor - Abnormal stresses may be produced at the points of attachment to
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damage the conductor and fittings. Galloping also introduces the possibilities
of electrical contact between phase conductors or from conductor to earth. The
supply may thus be interrupted.
Dancing and sleet jump
Ice falling from a conductor throws it into violent oscillation of large period
and long amplitude. The oscillation die out quickly if the ends of dancing
spans are dead, otherwise the oscillations are transmitted in the adjoining
spans to a considerable distance of line.
As such dancing is not harmful from mechanical damage point of view, but
large amplitude vibrations may bring the conductors together resulting in short
circuit and burning of conductors. Conductor clashing may be reduced by
arranging the conductor in a horizontal configuration.
Prevention of vibration
Vibration can effectively be minimised or dominated by : Armour rods and
stock bridge damper.
a. Armour rods : These consist of layer of wires of roads warped spirally
around the conductor for a short distance on either sides of the point of
support. They provide reinforcements of conductor at suspension points and
reduce amplitude of vibration from 10 to 20 per cent. They relieve and
distribute the stresses at the support point. They also serve as a protection
against flashover burns.
b.Stockbridge damper : The stockbridge damper consists of two weights
joined together by a flexible steel wire. It is provided with a clamp at its
middle point to attach it to the conductor. Usually one damper is attached at
each end of the span,for spans up to 300 m. The number may be increased for
longer spans. Figure 5.6 shows a stockbridge damper.
V-string has also been used to minimise vibration of conductor. The
adjustment of end conditions at the support to change the natural frequency of
the system prevents the conductors from vibration.

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Transmission & Distribution Power Systems

Figure 5.6 Stock bridge damper

REVIEW QUESTIONS

1.What is sag ? Derive an approximate formulae for its calculation.


2.What are the factors affecting the sag in a transmission line?
3.Mention the disadvantages of providing too low or too high sag while
constructing a transmission line.
4.What is the effect of temperature on sag?
5.Derive an expression for calculating the total length of the conductor in the
span.
6.Explain the necessity of a stringing chart for a transmission line and show
how such a chart can be constructed.
7.What is sag template ? What is its use?
8.Write short notes on the following :
a)Conductor vibration
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Sag and Tension calculations
b) Equation of state.

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Transmission & Distribution Power Systems

PROBLEMS
1. An overhead line has a span of 150 metres between level supports. The
conductor diameter is 0.94 cm and weighs 0.62 Kg per metre length. The
allowable tension is 586 Kg. Calculate the sag, if the wind pressure is 39.2 Kg
per square metre of the projected area. [Ans. 2.97 m]
2. A 132 Kv transmission line uses ACSR conductors whose data are Nominal
copper area 110 mm2 ,size 30+7/2.79 mm, weight 844 Kg/Km ,ultimate
strength 7,950 Kg. Calculate the height above ground at which the conductors
with a span of 300 metre should be supported, the factor of safety being 2.
Wind pressure 75 Kg/m2 of projected area. Ground clearance required is 7
metres. [Ans. 11.78 m]
3. An overhead stranded galvanised steel conductor has a 183 m span. The
conductor has 37 strands each of 0.259 cm. diameter. The weight of
conductor is 7.15 N/m and the breaking strength is 67700 N. The factor of
safety should be 2.5 Calculate the sag under ice and wind condition if the
radial thickness of ice is 0.96 cm and the wind load is 382 N/m2 of projected
area (coated with ice). The weight of ice is 8920 N/m3. [ Ans. 3.2 m]
4. An overhead line, over a river crossing, is supported by two towers 50 m
and 80 m above water level. The horizontal span is 300. If the weight of
conductor is 8.28 N/m and the tension in the conductor is 19620 N,find the
height of mid point of the line above water level. [Ans. 60.252 m]
5. An overhead line has a span of 152 m and is supported on level supports.
The conductor has an effective diameter of 2.068 cm, cross-sectional area
of 3.065 sq.cm and weighs 2.292 Kg/m. The line is subjected to a wind
pressure of 39.063 Kg/sq.m of projected area. Assuming a maximum stress of
1054.63 Kg/sq.cm, find sag under the given conditions. [Ans. 2.17m]
6. A transmission line conductor consists of hard drawn copper 240 mm2 cross
section (61/2.24 mm) and has a span of 160 metres, the supporting structures
being level. The conductor has an ultimate tensile stress of 42.2 Kg/mm2 and
the allowable tension is not to exceed 1/5th of ultimate strength. Find a) the
sag in still air b) the sag with a wind pressure of 1.35 Kg per metre and an ice
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Sag and Tension calculations
coating of 1.25 cm c) the vertical sag in b). [Ans. a)3.38 m b)5.66 m c)5.25 m]
7. Find the erection sag and tension of a line whose particulars are as follows -
nominal span 275 metres; Conductor data: size 30+7/2.79 mm steel cored
aluminium, nominal copper area 110 mm2, weight per metre 0.844 Kg.
Ultimate strength 7,950 Kg, coefficient of linear expansion/C 18.44x10-8,
modulus of elasticity Kg/mm2 9.32x10-3 .The factor of safety based on worst
loading conditions (radial ice thickness 0.95 cm and wind pressure 39 Kg/m2
of projected area at -5.5C) is to be 2.The line is to be erected at 50C in still
air. Weight of ice is 913 Kg/m3.
[Ans. Tension=1,595 Kg ; Sag at erection=5 metres]

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