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Example for sag & tension

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5.1 INTRODUCTION

is suspended between two supports, it takes the form of a natural curve known

as catenary under the influence of its weight. The difference in level between

the attachment points of supports and the lowest point on the curve is known

as the sag. This should be determined for the particular lines in order to

maintain an adequate ground clearance of the conductors at maximum

temperature and minimum loading conditions.

The line conductor should not break under most severe conditions of ice

and wind loadings, which are, assume to act on it. It should be strung with a

predetermined tension so that under the conditions of maximum wind and,

possibly, ice loading at minimum temperature, it is not stressed to the values

greater than its ultimate tensile strength divided by the factor of safety.

However the maximum stress will occur on the line when the temperature is

minimum. Normally two conditions should be investigated, when making sag -

tension calculations

a) At minimum temperature : The lowest sag and maximum tension in

conductor section occurs when the temperature is minimum and maximum

wind loading on the conductor. Under these conditions, tension on the

conductor should not exceed the breaking strength of the conductor divided by

a factor of safety of 2.5 as prescribed.i.e.

Tmax Tper

Transmission & Distribution Power Systems

ultimate tensile strength

Tper =

safety factor

b) At maximum temperature : On the other hand maximum sag occurs when

temperature is maximum in still air conditions ( no wind, no ice ).

The standard conductors, especially these of non ferrous metal, after being

erected with an initial tension gets elongated which is not in accordance to

Hock,s law. This phenomena is called creepage of the conductor, as a result of

which the erected conductor will be elongated to a value larger than that

calculated by Hock's law. The creepage phenomena causes reduction in the

stringing tension and therefore the sag will be more which may result in

exceeding the specified clearance between conductors and ground.

The sag of the conductor plays an important role in the design of overhead

lines. It is disadvantageous to provide either too high sag or too low sag. In the

case the sag is too high, more conductor material is required, more weight on

the supports is to be supported, higher supports are necessary and there is a

chance of greater swing due to wind load. On the other hand for too low sags,

there is more tension in the conductor and thus it is liable to break if any

additional stress is to be taken due to line vibration of all in temperature.

The sag or dip of the conductor depends on :

1.Weight of the conductor : This affects the sag directly. Heavier the

conductor greater will be the sag. In locations where ice formation takes place

on the conductor, this will also cause increase in the sag.

2.Length of the span : Sag is directly proportional to the square of the span

length. Hence longer span will have much greater sag with the other

parameters (weight, working tension, temperature...etc) remaining same.

3.Working tensile strength : The sag is inversely proportional to the working

tensile strength of the conductor if other parameters remain same. This

depends upon the type of conductor used for overhead lines.

4.Temperature : Metallic bodies expand with the rise in temperature, thus, as

temperature rises the length of the conductor increases and so does the sag.

Knowing the permissible tension, span, and the loadings, as well as the

position of the supports and the difference in their levels if any, the sag in the

particular span of the line can be calculated.

Sag and Tension calculations

(a) Supports at the same level

Figure 5.1 shows a conductor pulled between the equal level supports A

and B with a certain tension and O is the lowest point of the conductor.

P,Kg ; Tx - Horizontal component,Kg ; Ty -Vertical component,Kg ; -

Angle,the tangent makes at point P with the horizontal,degrees ; OP = L -

length of the conductor from the lowest point O to the point P, metres ; dL -

small length of the conductor,metres ; dx - Horizontal component of dL ; dy -

Vertical components of dL ; Y = S - Sag of the conductor, metres ; W -

Weight of the conductor per unit length,Kg/m ; WL -Weight of the conductor

length OP, acting downwards and at the centres of the length OP,Kg.

For balance, the vertical component Ty at point P should balance the

downward acting weight WL and the horizontal component of tension Tx must

balance the horizontal tension T0 acting at the lowest point.

Thus : T0 = Tx

and WL = Ty

dy T y WL

tan = = =

dx Tx T0 (5.1)

dL = (dx )2 + (dy )2

2 2

dL dy W L

= 1 + ( )2 = 1 + 2

dx dx T0

Transmission & Distribution Power Systems

dx dL

1 W 2L

2 2

T0

Integrating both sides of the equation,

WL

X = T0 sinh -1 +C

W T0

Where C is the integration constant

At the point X = 0 , L = 0 so C = 0

WL

X = T0 sinh-1

W T0

T0

L sinh WX (5.2)

W T0

Substituting for L into equation (5.1) from equation (5.2) we have

dy W T0 WX WX

= sinh = sinh

dx T0 W T0 T0

WX

dy = sinh dx

T0

Integrating both sides of the equation

WX

y = T0 cosh + C1

W T0

gives C1= - T0/W

WX

Thus y = T0 (cosh -1) m

W T0 (5.3)

Expression (5.3) is the equation of a catenary. Expanding equation (5.3) and

eliminating fourth and higher order terms

y WX

2

m (5.4)

2T0

Which is the equation of a parabola used to obtain approximate sag result.

The sag S can be found by putting X= l/2 in equation (5.3) and (5.4) giving

Sag and Tension calculations

Wl

S = T0 (cosh -1) m

W 2 T0

W l2 2

W

S= [1 + ( l )( )2 + ...]

8 T0 48 T0 (5.5)

S WL

2

m (5.6)

8T0

(b) Supports at different levels

If the supports are at unequal levels as shown in figure (5.2) and the lowest

point is at distance X1 from the support B, the distance (sag) S1 would be

given by equation (5.5) on substituting the value of L as X1 .

Thus T0 [cosh W X1 - 1]

S1 = m

W 2 T0 (5.7)

and the vertical distance referred to support A is given by S1+h.

Where h is the difference in level between the two supports.

Thus S2 = S1 + h

Thus T0 [cosh W(L - X1) - 1]

S2 = S1 + h =

W 2 T0 (5.8)

Dr. Abdulaziz Salem Bahaidara 127

Transmission & Distribution Power Systems

The sag S2 and S1 can be calculated using equation (5.6)

W le2

S2 =

8 T0 (5.9 a)

W (2X I ) 2

S1 =

8T0 (5.9.b)

The difference in level between the two supports can be calculated with

equations (5.9 a) and (5.9 b)

W 2 2

h = S 2 - S1 = [l e - (2X I ) ]

8T0

le

X1= l -

2 (5.10)

The length of the equivalent span le can be obtained from the solution of

equation (5.10) with respect to le

2 T0 h

le = l +

wl (5.11)

For the case of unequal level supports equation (5.6) (parabolic equation)

is applied to find the sag as

W L2

Sc =

8 Tc cos (5.12)

Where tan -1 h

l

cos = T0 _ T0 = Tc cos

Tc

Example 5.1

weighs 0.604 Kg/metre. Calculate the maximum sag if the ultimate tensile

strength of conductor is 5758 Kg. Assume a factor of safety equals to 2.

Solution :

Sag and Tension calculations

Weight of conductor per metre length,W=0.604 Kg/m

ultimate tensile strength of the conductor=5758 Kg

Factor of safety = 2

Allowable maximum tension,

Ultimate strength 5758

T= = = 2879Kg

Factor of safety 2

2

W l 2 0.604x(220 )

Sag, S = = = 1.27metres

8 T0 8x2879

Example 5.2

244 m. The allowable tension is 3.56x104 N. Find a)sag in still air condition

with no ice covering b)vertical sag when there is an ice covering of 0.96 cm

thickness and a horizontal wind pressure of 382 Newton per square metre of

projected area. Ice weighs 8920 N/m. c)the line is carried by insulator strings

1.43 m long. What should be the height of lowest cross arm to give a

minimum ground clearance of 7.62 m under bad weather conditions? The

conductor weight is 0.847 Kg/m.

Solution :

T0=3.56x104 N

a) S=(Wl2)/(8T0)=(8.31x244x244)/(8x3.56x104)=1.74 m

b) d=1.95x10-2 m , t=0.96x10-2 m

D=d+2t=3.87x10-2 m

Ww=382D=382x387x10-2=14.78 N/m

Ft W Wi Ww

2

8.31 7.82

2 0.5 2

14.78

2 0.5

21.88 N/m

2

Ft l 21.88.(244 )2

S 4.57 m

8T 8 x3.56x10 4

14.78

tan 1[Ww /(W Wi )] tan 1 42.5

8.31 7.82

Vertical sag = S x cos = 3.37 m

(c) Height of lowest cross arm = minimum ground clearance + vertical sag +

Dr. Abdulaziz Salem Bahaidara 129

Transmission & Distribution Power Systems

length of insulator string = 7.62 + 3.37 + 1.43 =12.42 m

Example 5.3

crossing, from two towers whose heights are 33.6 m and 29 m above water

level. The weight of conductor is 8.33 N/m and tension in the conductor is not

to exceed 3.34x104 N. Find a)clearance between the lowest point on the

conductor and water b)horizontal distance of this point from the lower

support.

Solution :

Referring to Fig.5.2

le=l+2Th/wl=336+2x3.34x104(33.6-29)/(8.33x336)=445.79 m

a) S=wle/8T=(8.33x445.79x445.79)/(8x3.34x104)=6.195 m

The lowest point O is 6.195 m below support B which is 33.6 m above

water level. Therefore the clearance between point O and water is 33.6-

6.195=27.405 m.

b) Distance of point O from higher support B

=0.5x445.79=222.89 m

Distance of point O from lower support=336-222.89=113.11 m

Example 5.4

55 m above water level. The horizontal distance between towers is 300 m. The

tension in the conductor is 2000 Kg and weight of conductor is 0.85 Kg/m

a)Find the minimum clearance between conductor and water b)Determine the

position of minimum clearance.

Solution :

a)Referring to Fig.5.2.

l=300 m, h=5 m, T=2000x9.81=19.62x103 N

W=0.85x9.81=8.34 N/m

le=l+2Th/Wl=300+2x19.62x103x5/8.34x300=378.4 m

S=Wle/8T=8.34x378.4x378.4/8x19.62x103=7.61 m

The lowest point on the conductor is 7.61 m below the higher support B

Sag and Tension calculations

which is 55 m above water level. Therefore minimum clearance between

conductor and water is 55-7.61=47.39 m

b)Distance of point O (position of minimum clearance) from support B

,i.e.,higher support=0.5x378.4=189.2 m

Distance of point O from support A,i.e.,lower support =

= 300-189.2=110.8 m

When the towers and lines are constructed, the lines are under tension and

the length of the conductor in the span is the stretched length under that

tension. The exact equation (5.2) for part of length of the conductor OC is .

T0 sinh WX

Lx =

W T0 (5.13)

The length of the conductor for half of span Ob and Oa can be obtained from

equation (5.13) by , putting X = l/2 .

T0 sinh Wl

Lob = Loa =

W 2 T0 (5.14)

The length of the conductor for the entire span is two times LOb and is

calculated by the following equation.

2T0

L sin Wl (5.15)

W 2T0

Expanding equation (5.15)

2 Wl 1 1 Wl 3 1 Wl 5 1

L = T0 [( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ...] (5.16)

W 2 T0 1! 2 T0 3! 2 T0 5 !

2 T0 W1 W13 1

L= ( + 3

) ,m

W1 2 T0 8 T0 6

2 3

W

L = l + 1 l2

24 T0 (5.17)

This equation can be written in terms of sag as given below

Transmission & Distribution Power Systems

8 S2

L = l+

8l

2

W

Where, S = 1 l

8 T0 (5.18)

5.4 EQUATION OF STATE IN SPAN

atmospheric conditions. The variations of parameters of atmospheric condition

provoke variation of stress and sag of the conductor. Equation, which permits

at given stress in the conductor, temperature of air and mechanical load to

determine the stress in the conductor at new values of temperature and

mechanical load, is called equation of state of the conductor. The conductors

of an overhead line are operated at varied atmospheric conditions which

causes variation of tension and sag, the regulations require that sag should be

calculated for worst probable conditions and minimum ground clearance must

be maintained for these conditions. Initially the temperature of air varies from

tm to tn which causes change in the length of the conductor from Lm to Ln1 .

Ln1=Lm[1+(tn-tm)] ,m (5.19)

Also there is another change in the length due to variation in mechanical

loading (tension) as a result of which the length will change from Ln1 to Ln.

Substituting Ln1 from equation (5.19) in (5.20) we get

Ln=Lm[1+(tn-tm)][1+(n-m)] (5.21)

other terms, the following equation is obtained.

Sag and Tension calculations

2 3 2 3

Wm l W

Where Lm = l + , Ln = l + n l2

24 m

2

24 n

Substituting these values in equation (5.22) the equation of state can be found

as

:

2 2

Wnl Wml

2

2

n- =m- - ( tn - tm )

24 n

2

24 m

2

(5.23)

parameters : tm , m and Wm, suffix n is used for the new operating condition.

In case that the terrain is inclined, the equation of state will be :

W n l cos W m l cos

2 2 2 2

n- = m - - ( tn - tm )

24 2n 24 2m

l

where, cos =

l inc (5.24)

linc - length of inclined span , m

1. The tension in the conductors for all normal operating conditions to be not

more than permissible value.

2. At variation of atmospheric conditions prescribed distances from the

conductors to ground and equipments, it is necessary that the conductor be

erected with exact specified tension and corresponding sag. The erection of

the conductors is implemented at still air condition ( no ice and no wind or

wind with very small speed ) and the acting load is only from its own weight

(W1).

The tension at erection of conductor is calculated with equation of state in

span. Erection condition "n" is with parameters n =e , Wn = W1 and tn = te .

2 2 2 2

W1 l E Wm l E

e - = m - - E( t e - t m)

24 e2 24 2m

(3.25)

The known condition "m" for equation (5.25) has the parameters m, Wm

Dr. Abdulaziz Salem Bahaidara 133

Transmission & Distribution Power Systems

and tm - parameters for the worst probable condition.

In equation (5.25) erection temperatures are assigned values from te = tmin to

te = tmax at intervals of 5C and for each value e is calculated for span l .

The sag at erection condition Se is calculated with the following equation,

for each value of te .

2

W1 l

Se = ,m

8 e

As we take into consideration the creepage phenomena, which causes

reduction in the stringing tension and therefore the sag will be more which

may result in exceeding the specified clearance between conductors and

ground. In order to take the creepage phenomena into account, it is necessary

to increase the value of the stringing tension to a new value in the following

manner

Where, ci - the stringing tension with creepage taken into account and ei - the

stringing tension calculated by the equation of state. K = 1.05 for steel

conductors, K = 1.07 for copper conductors, K = 1.12 for aluminium

conductors, 1.1Kv1.2 for steel aluminium conductors depending on the

construction of the conductors.

Therefore the corrected value of the sag at erection will be

2

Se W1 li

Sci = = ,m

K 8 ci

(5.28)

From functions ci = f(te) and Sci = f(te) at parameter l the stringing charts can

be made. Figure 5.3 shows the stringing charts.

Sag and Tension calculations

Example 5.5

40C in still air conditions. It is desired that a factor of safety of 2 should be

maintained under bad weather conditions when the temperature is 10C and

wind load is 378 N/m2 of projected area. The data for the ACSR conductor

used for the line is as under : diameter 1.95 cm, area 2.25 sq.cm., weight =

8.31 N/m, breaking load 77900 N, coefficient of linear expansion 18.44x10-6

per degree C, Young's modulus 91.4x103 N/mm2. Find the sag and tension

under erection conditions.

Solution :

d = 1.95 cm = 1.95x10-2 m

A = 2.25 sq.cm = 2.25x10-4 sq.m

E = 91.4x103 N/mm2 = 91.4x103x106

= 91.4x109 N/m2

For bad weather conditions (subscript 1)

Transmission & Distribution Power Systems

Ww = 378x1.95x10-2 = 7.37 N/m

Wt1 =(7.372+8.312)0.5 = 11.11 N/m

T1 =0.5x77900 = 38950 N

t1 = 10C

For erection conditions (subscript 2)

Wt1 = 8.31 N/m , T2 = ?

t2 = 40C

From equation (5.25)

2 2 2 2

W1 l E Wm l E

e - = m - - E( t e - t m)

24 e2 24 2m

But =T0/a

aE W t 22 l2 aE W t 12 l2

Then T 2 - = T1 - - aE( t 2 - t1)

24 T 22 24 T12

aE(t2-t1) = 18.44x10-6x2.25x10-4x91.4x109x30 = 11376.6

aE W t 12 l2 2.25x 10-6 x91.4x 109 (11.11)2 (250 )2

= = 4357.2

24 T12 24(38950 )2

aEWt2l2/24 = 2.25x10-4x91.4x109x8.312x2502/(24) = 36.99x1011

T2[T2-38950+11376.6+4357.2] = 36.99x1011

or T2(T2-23216.2) = 36.99x1011

or T2-23216.2 T2-36.99x1011 = 0

By hit and trial, T2 = 23800 N

8.31x250x2 50

Sag at erection = = 2.73 m

8x23800

The use of a sag template is essential to allocate the position and height of

the supports correctly on the profile. It is usually made of transparent

celluloid, perspex, or sometimes card board. The following curves are marked

on it : hot curve, cold curve, ground clearance curve and support - foot or

tower curve.

The hot curve is obtained by plotting the sages at maximum temperature

against span lengths. It shows where the supports must be located in order to

maintain the prescribed ground clearance.

The cold curve is obtained by plotting the sags at minimum temperature

Sag and Tension calculations

without wind or ice against span lengths. This curve is drawn to check

whether uplift of conductors occurs at any support. The uplift condition may

occur at low temperatures when one support is much lower than either one of

the adjoining ones.

The clearance curve is below the curve. It is drawn parallel to the hot curve

and at a vertical distance equal to the ground clearance as prescribed by the

regulations for the given line.

The support - footing curve is drawn for locating the position of the

supports for tower lines. It shows the height from the base of the standard

support to the point of attachment of the lowest conductor. This height

distance is the sum of minimum ground clearance and maximum sag obtained

at maximum temperature. Figure 5.4 shows the location of line supports by

use of sag template.

The above mentioned curves are first drawn on a squared paper on the

same scale as the line profile. The curves are then transferred to a transparent

celluloid or perspex, which is then cut along the hot curve.

For plotting hot curve :

Transmission & Distribution Power Systems

2

W 1l

Sag = S =

8T

2

W x

If x = l/2 then S = 1 = k 1 x2

2T

Where;

W1 - Weight of the conductor

T - Tension at maximum sag

x - Variable span length

Corresponding to various values of span length sages are obtained and the cold

curve can be obtained by plotting S versus x.

For plotting the cold curve :

2

W1 x

S= = k2 x2

2T Where, T' - maximum tension

Plotting ground clearance curve : The minimum ground clearance is

determined. This distance is plotted vertically with the hot curve is obtained as

shown in the sag template, figure 5.5

Plotting of the support - footing curve : The height from the base of the

standard support to the point of attachment of the lowest conductor is shown

by this curve. This height distance is the sum of minimum ground clearance

and the maximum sag.

1 Hot curve 2 Ground clearance curve

Dr Abdulaziz Salem Bahaidara 138

Sag and Tension calculations

3 Tower footing curve 4 Cold curve

Example 5.6

A 600 m span over a river is to have its two supports at the same level. The

conductor weighs 12 N/m and ice load is 14 N/m. The tension in the conductor

under the above conditions should not exceed 50000 N. Find the sag by

a)representing the line as a parabola b)representing the line as catenary and

compare the results.

Solution :

a) S=Wtl2/8T0

Total vertical load =12+14=26 N/m

Horizontal load = 0

S=26x600x600/(8x50000)=23.4 m

b) From equation (5.5)

2 2

Wt l W

S= [1 + l ( t )2]

8 T0 48 T0

26x600x600 600x600 26 2

= [1 + ( ) ] = 23.447m

8x50000 48 50000

It is seen that even for this long span the difference between the results of

exact and approximate formulae is only 0.2 %. Therefore the exact formulae

are seldom used in practice.

subjected to vibrations, which can be classified into the following types :

1.Resonant vibration.

2.Galloping.

3.Dancing and sleet jump.

Resonant vibration

Resonant vibration of conductors arises from the vortex phenomenon

produced behind the conductor by the action of low velocity winds. Due to the

formation of vortex, the velocity of the wind at the sides towards and away

from the conductor becomes unequal. The unequal velocity results in unequal

pressure, the pressure at the higher velocity side being lower. Air from the

Transmission & Distribution Power Systems

lower velocity side will, therefore, come to fill the rarefied space behind the

pressure of air. the conductor thus sets in motion in upward and downward

directions depending on the existing conditions. During its motion the

conductor leaves behind an empty space, which is then filled by vortex from

higher velocity side and the direction of motion changes. Thus, oscillation of

the conductor starts. When the frequency of vortex coincides with the natural

frequency of the conductor, resonant vibration of conductor results.

The change in velocity of direction of the wind, damps the original

vibration with the production of a new vibration. Such vibrations are in

vertical plane, and have the characteristic of high frequency and low

amplitude with the formation of nodes and loops. The normal maximum

amplitudes are of the order 25 mm and the frequency ranges between 5 - 100

Hz for wind velocities of 6 - 30 Km/h.

The frequency f is empirically given by

f = 50 , Hz (5.29)

d

d - Conductor diameter ,mm

The length of loop LL (half wave length) depends on tension T(N) and

conductor weight W(Kg/m) and is given by

1 T

LL = (5.30)

2f W

The high frequency oscillation may build up an amplitude, which produces

alternating stresses large enough to cause fatigue failure. The failure occurs

due to fatigue cracks caused by rapid bending of conductor up and down at the

point of attachment. The risk of vibration trouble is more for conductor with

diameter and high working tension used on large spans.

Galloping

Self-excited vibrations are produced on line conductor by aerodynamic

forces acting upon non-circular cross-section. The conductor takes a non-

circular section due to uneven coating of ice on its surface.

This low frequency (0.25 - 1.25 Hz).large amplitude oscillation of

conductor is called galloping. Galloping has been observed with wind

velocities ranging between 15 - 75 Km/h inclined to the line at an angle

between 10 - 90 .Both torsional and translational motions are set up in the

conductor - Abnormal stresses may be produced at the points of attachment to

Dr Abdulaziz Salem Bahaidara 140

Sag and Tension calculations

damage the conductor and fittings. Galloping also introduces the possibilities

of electrical contact between phase conductors or from conductor to earth. The

supply may thus be interrupted.

Dancing and sleet jump

Ice falling from a conductor throws it into violent oscillation of large period

and long amplitude. The oscillation die out quickly if the ends of dancing

spans are dead, otherwise the oscillations are transmitted in the adjoining

spans to a considerable distance of line.

As such dancing is not harmful from mechanical damage point of view, but

large amplitude vibrations may bring the conductors together resulting in short

circuit and burning of conductors. Conductor clashing may be reduced by

arranging the conductor in a horizontal configuration.

Prevention of vibration

Vibration can effectively be minimised or dominated by : Armour rods and

stock bridge damper.

a. Armour rods : These consist of layer of wires of roads warped spirally

around the conductor for a short distance on either sides of the point of

support. They provide reinforcements of conductor at suspension points and

reduce amplitude of vibration from 10 to 20 per cent. They relieve and

distribute the stresses at the support point. They also serve as a protection

against flashover burns.

b.Stockbridge damper : The stockbridge damper consists of two weights

joined together by a flexible steel wire. It is provided with a clamp at its

middle point to attach it to the conductor. Usually one damper is attached at

each end of the span,for spans up to 300 m. The number may be increased for

longer spans. Figure 5.6 shows a stockbridge damper.

V-string has also been used to minimise vibration of conductor. The

adjustment of end conditions at the support to change the natural frequency of

the system prevents the conductors from vibration.

Transmission & Distribution Power Systems

REVIEW QUESTIONS

2.What are the factors affecting the sag in a transmission line?

3.Mention the disadvantages of providing too low or too high sag while

constructing a transmission line.

4.What is the effect of temperature on sag?

5.Derive an expression for calculating the total length of the conductor in the

span.

6.Explain the necessity of a stringing chart for a transmission line and show

how such a chart can be constructed.

7.What is sag template ? What is its use?

8.Write short notes on the following :

a)Conductor vibration

Dr Abdulaziz Salem Bahaidara 142

Sag and Tension calculations

b) Equation of state.

Transmission & Distribution Power Systems

PROBLEMS

1. An overhead line has a span of 150 metres between level supports. The

conductor diameter is 0.94 cm and weighs 0.62 Kg per metre length. The

allowable tension is 586 Kg. Calculate the sag, if the wind pressure is 39.2 Kg

per square metre of the projected area. [Ans. 2.97 m]

2. A 132 Kv transmission line uses ACSR conductors whose data are Nominal

copper area 110 mm2 ,size 30+7/2.79 mm, weight 844 Kg/Km ,ultimate

strength 7,950 Kg. Calculate the height above ground at which the conductors

with a span of 300 metre should be supported, the factor of safety being 2.

Wind pressure 75 Kg/m2 of projected area. Ground clearance required is 7

metres. [Ans. 11.78 m]

3. An overhead stranded galvanised steel conductor has a 183 m span. The

conductor has 37 strands each of 0.259 cm. diameter. The weight of

conductor is 7.15 N/m and the breaking strength is 67700 N. The factor of

safety should be 2.5 Calculate the sag under ice and wind condition if the

radial thickness of ice is 0.96 cm and the wind load is 382 N/m2 of projected

area (coated with ice). The weight of ice is 8920 N/m3. [ Ans. 3.2 m]

4. An overhead line, over a river crossing, is supported by two towers 50 m

and 80 m above water level. The horizontal span is 300. If the weight of

conductor is 8.28 N/m and the tension in the conductor is 19620 N,find the

height of mid point of the line above water level. [Ans. 60.252 m]

5. An overhead line has a span of 152 m and is supported on level supports.

The conductor has an effective diameter of 2.068 cm, cross-sectional area

of 3.065 sq.cm and weighs 2.292 Kg/m. The line is subjected to a wind

pressure of 39.063 Kg/sq.m of projected area. Assuming a maximum stress of

1054.63 Kg/sq.cm, find sag under the given conditions. [Ans. 2.17m]

6. A transmission line conductor consists of hard drawn copper 240 mm2 cross

section (61/2.24 mm) and has a span of 160 metres, the supporting structures

being level. The conductor has an ultimate tensile stress of 42.2 Kg/mm2 and

the allowable tension is not to exceed 1/5th of ultimate strength. Find a) the

sag in still air b) the sag with a wind pressure of 1.35 Kg per metre and an ice

Dr Abdulaziz Salem Bahaidara 144

Sag and Tension calculations

coating of 1.25 cm c) the vertical sag in b). [Ans. a)3.38 m b)5.66 m c)5.25 m]

7. Find the erection sag and tension of a line whose particulars are as follows -

nominal span 275 metres; Conductor data: size 30+7/2.79 mm steel cored

aluminium, nominal copper area 110 mm2, weight per metre 0.844 Kg.

Ultimate strength 7,950 Kg, coefficient of linear expansion/C 18.44x10-8,

modulus of elasticity Kg/mm2 9.32x10-3 .The factor of safety based on worst

loading conditions (radial ice thickness 0.95 cm and wind pressure 39 Kg/m2

of projected area at -5.5C) is to be 2.The line is to be erected at 50C in still

air. Weight of ice is 913 Kg/m3.

[Ans. Tension=1,595 Kg ; Sag at erection=5 metres]

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