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DESIGN GUIDE FOR HOTELS

Hotel must also address variety of needs:


Location
Market demand
Competition
Quality level
Operational features
Restaurant concepts
Staffing
Budget
FACILITIES PROGRAMMING

Typical figures for early estimates


Motor Inn* Commercial* Convention* Super luxury*
Number of 150 300 600 250
guest rooms
Net guest room 310 (29) 330(31) 330(31) 400(37)
area
Gross guest 420(39) 460(43) 480(45) 580(54)
room area
Total guest 63,000 138,000 288,000 145,000
room area (5860) (12,835) (26,785) (13,485)
Guest room 80 75 70 75
percentage
Total Project 78,750 184,000 412,000 192,500
area (7,325) (17,110) (38,315) (17,900)
Total area/ 525 (49) 6159(57) 685(64) 770(72)
room
* Area figures in Square feet (square meters) excluding parking and recreational facilities

Factors which greatly influence the space requirements:


Architectural configuration
Number of floors
Location of food and beverages outlets (may require various satellite kitchens)
Location of ball room (may require pantry; also establish column free zone that
affects guest room tower placement)
Availability of basement space
Ratio of land to gross building area (affects stacking of public areas, duplication
of circulation areas and lobbies, and need for parking structure)
Detailed Hotel Program Checklist

SIZE OF HOTEL (No. of rooms)


Space 200 500 1000
Guestroom (number of rooms)
King (43%) 86 215 430
Double-Doubles 199 250 500
(50%)
Handicapped (2%) 4 10 20
Suites (5%) 10 25 50
Corridor support:
o Elevators
o Linen
storage
o Vending ice

SIZE OF HOTEL (No. of rooms)


Space 200 500 1000
Lobby (Square feet)
Flow area 2000 4000 7000
Seating 200 500 1000
Retail 100 800 2000
Assistant manager 0 100 100
support: 50 50 50
o Bellman
station
o Telephones
o Toilets

SIZE OF HOTEL (No. of rooms)


Space 200 500 1000
Food and beverages outlets (Square feet)
Coffee shop 2400 3500 4400
Specially restaurant 0 2800 0
Theme restaurant 0 0 4000
Roof top restaurant 0 0 3000
Deli 0 0 750
Snack Bar 0 0 0
Cocktail Lounge 1600 1920 2400
Lobby Bar 800 2000 2000
Entertainment Lounge 0 3150 0
Night club 0 0 5000
Pool bar support: 0 0 0
o Performers 0 0 250
dressing room
o Bar Storage 75 100 100
o Toilet, coats,
telephones

SIZE OF HOTEL (No. of rooms)


Space 200 500 1000
Function areas (Square feet)
Ballroom 3500 8000 20000
Ballroom foyer 900 2000 5000
Junior ballroom 0 4000 12000
Junior Ballroom foyer 0 1000 3000
Banquet Rooms 0 2400 6000
Meeting Rooms 1200 2400 6000
Boardroom 0 600 1200
Lecture Theatre 0 1200 1500
Exhibit hall Support: 0 0 15000
o Function Room Storage 500 2500 5000
o Audiovisual Equipment 0 100 200
Storage
o Convention registration 0 0 200
o Projection booth 0 250 400
o Translation Booth 0 0 0
o Banquet Captains Office 0 100 200
o Toilets,coats,telephones

SIZE OF HOTEL (No. of rooms)


Space 200 500 1000
Administration (Square feet)
FRONT OFFICE
Front Desk 160 250 420
Front Office Manager 120 120 120
Assistant Manager 0 120 120
Credit Manager 100 100 100
Director of Rooms 0 150 150
Reception/Secretary 100 100 100
Reservations Area 80 200 250
Reservations Manager 0 120 120
Telephone Operators 80 150 200
Fire Control Room 80 120 120
Bellman Storage 30 60 60
Safe Deposit Boxes 0 120 120
Count Room 125 150 200
Work Area Mall 40 100 150
Storage Executive Office 40 80 120
Reception Waiting 200 250 300
General Manager 150 200 300
Executive assistant manager 0 180 180
Resident manager 0 0 180
Food and beverages manager 120 150 175
Secretary 100 150 200
Conference room 0 200 250
Copying and storage 40 100 100
Sales and Catering
Reception Waiting 150 200 300
Director of sales 150 150 200
Sales representative 0 330 550
Director of public relation 0 150 150
Secretary 0 225 375
Catering manager 0 150 200
Banquet manager 0 150 175
Banquet representatives 0 100 200
Function book room 0 80 100
Beverage manager 0 120 120
Convention services 0 120 240
Secretary 0 150 225
Copying and Storage 50 150 200
Accounting
Reception waiting 0 100 100
Controller 120 150 180
Assistant controller/ auditor 0 100 100
Accounting work area 150 600 800
Payroll manager 120 120 150
Secretary 0 100 100
Copying and Storage 100 200 300
Computer Room 0 100 150
Dead files 100 125 175

SIZE OF HOTEL (No. of rooms)


Space 200 500 1000
Food Preparation (Square feet)
Main Kitchen 2000 9000 13000
Banquet Pantry 0 1200 2000
Coffee shop pantry 0 0 0
Specially restaurant 0 1200 1200
pantry
Bake shop 0 850 1000
Room service area 75 300 500
Chefs office 100 120 120
Dry food storage 300 1000 1800
Refrigerated food 200 800 1200
storage
Beverage Storage 150 500 1000
Refrigerated 100 250 400
beverage storage
China, sliver, glass 200 500 1000
storage
Food controller 100 120 120
storage
Toilets 100 150 150

SIZE OF HOTEL (No. of rooms)


Space 200 500 1000
Receiving and Storage (Square feet)
Loading dock 200 400 800
Receiving area 250 500 1200
Receiving office 120 150 150
Purchasing office 120 175 200
Locked storage 125 175 200
Empty bottle 100 125 150
storage
Thrash holding area 150 200 250
Refrigerated 80 100 120
garbage
Can wash 100 120 120
Compactor 150 200 200
Grounds equipment 200 300 400
storage
General storage 1000 2000 4000

SIZE OF HOTEL (No. of rooms)


Space 200 500 1000
Employee areas (Square feet)
Personnel
Time keeper 100 120 120
Security 0 120 120
Personnel reception 120 150 200
Personnel manager 120 140 160
Assistant personnel 0 120 120
manager
Interview room 100 100 200
Training room 0 225 250
Files and storage 50 80 100
First aid 80 100 150
Employee facilities
Mens locker/toilets 400 900 1700
Womens 400 1200 2300
locker/toilets
Banquet staff 0 400 600
lockers
Employee cafeteria 400 1000 1800

SIZE OF HOTEL (No. of rooms)


Space 200 500 1000
Laundry and House keeping (Square feet)
Laundry
Soiled linen room 100 150 250
Laundry 1000 2500 4000
Laundry supervisor 0 100 120
Valet Laundry 100 150 200
Supplies storage 50 125 175
House keeping
House keeper 100 125 150
Assistant house keeper 0 100 120
Secretary 0 100 100
Linen storage 500 1500 3000
Uniform issue/storage 250 500 800
Supplies storage 0 100 200
Lost and found 100 150 200
Sewing room 0 100 200

SIZE OF HOTEL (No. of rooms)


Space 200 500 1000
Engineering (Square feet)
Engineer 100 125 150
Assistant engineer 0 100 100
Secretarial 0 100 100
Carpentry shop 0 200 250
Plumbing shop 0 200 250
Electrical shop 0 200 250
Paint shop 100 200 250
TV repair shop 100 150 200
Key shop 60 80 100
Energy management 0 120 120
computer
Engineering 300 800 1000
storeroom

SIZE OF HOTEL (No. of rooms)


Space 200 500 1000
Mechanical areas (Square feet)
Mechanical plant 1200 3000 6000
Transformer room 150 1000 1500
Emergency 0 300 500
generator
Meter room 50 100 150
Fire pumps 0 100 200
Electrical 200 750 1000
switchboard
Elevator machine 100 400 800
room
Telephone 100 500 800
equipment room

SIZE OF HOTEL (No. of rooms)


Space 200 500 1000
Recreation (Square feet)
Swimming pool 800 1200 1500
Pool including deck 2000 3000 4000
Whirlpool 0 100 200
Lockers, toilets, 300 500 1000
sauna
Exercise room 0 500 800
Game room 300 300 500
Managers office 0 100 200
Attendant 0 80 100
Equipment storage 100 250 400
Pool pump/filter 100 200 200
Racquetball/squash 0 1200 2400
Golf/tennis club 0 0 0
Childrens playroom 0 0 500
PLANNING OBJECTIVES:

Orientation of the building and plan configuration selected not only to enhance
views but to reduce energy expenses for heating and air conditioning.
Minimize the impact of lateral wind loading on the structure.
Reduce as much as possible the walking distances for both guest and the house
keeping staff.
Adequate number of linen storage and vending areas, and small electrical and
phone equipment rooms.
Plan types range in shape from long, double-loaded corridor plans, to compact
vertical towers, to flamboyant atrium structures or a large lobby space so that
some of the rooms look into the hotel interior.
Choice of a plan type is the result of a balanced consideration of site,
environment, and space requirements.

We should include following planning and architectural considerations in their analysis


and eventual selection of the plan configuration for a particular hotel.

PLANNING EFFICIENCY: Maximum Guestroom Area

Maximize the percentage of floor area devoted to guest room and keep to a
minimum amount of circulation and service space.
Some configuration yield more efficient solutions than other, the choice of one
configuration over another can mean a saving of 20% in gross area of the guest
room tower and of nearly 15% in the total building. Example the three principal
plan alternatives-the double loaded slab, the rectangular tower, and the atrium
using the same net guestroom dimensions, will vary from 460 to 575 gross square
feet per room.
The following sections contain a description, for each of the basic guestroom
configuration, of the planning decisions that have the most influence on creating
and economical plan i.e. no. of rooms per floor, location of the elevator core.
In general the most efficient configurations are those where circulation space is
kept to a minimum with either double-loaded corridors or compact centre-core
towers.

PLANS
The configuration includes those plans that are primarily horizontal, including
both single and double-loaded corridor schemes.
DIAGRAM
The following points must be kept in mind while designing:-
o Corridor loading- In given site conditions, the single loaded rooms
are appropriate.
o Shape- shapes like Straight, L-Shaped, Courtyard or other
configurations best meets site and building constraints.
o Core location- Public and the service cores either are combined or
separated and where in the tower should they be positioned.
o Core layout- public and service elevators, linen storage, chutes and
vending should be best organized.
o Stair location- fire staircase should be located properly.
Efficiency of the slab plan is based primarily on the double loading of the
corridors, single-loaded schemes require 4 to 6% more floor area for same
number of rooms.
The offset slab plan is especially economical because the public and service
cores are combined.
The plan at angles creates interestingly shaped elevator lobbies, provides
compact service areas, and breaks up the slabs long corridors.
The core design is to connect the public elevators to the lobby and the service
elevators to the housekeeping.
One common objective is to position the elevator in the middle so as to limit
walking distances.
The placement of the fire stairs is to locate them at both ends of the corridor
and one limiting factor is that there should be not more than 200 ft. between
stairs exits.

SINGLE-LOADED PLAN
DOUBLE- LOADED PLAN

DOUBLE- LOADED OFFSET PLAN


DOUBLE-LOAED L-SHAPED

TOWER PLANS
A second major category of guestroom floor plans are the vertically oriented
towers.
The planning considerations for tower:
Number of rooms: How many number of guestrooms economically
fit for a particular layout?
Shape: Which shape is most efficient and permits the desired mix of
rooms?
Corridor: How is hallway access to corner rooms arranged?
Core layout: How the elevators, linen storage, and stair are
organized?
Unlike the other plan configurations, selection of tower shape creates specific
limitations on the number of rooms per floor. For the most part, tower contains 16
to 24 rooms, depending upon the guest room dimensions, the number of floors
and optimum core size. With 16 rooms, the core is barely large enough for two or
three elevators, fire stairs, and minimum storage. On other hand, design with more
than 24 rooms is so large at the perimeter that they contain too much central core
area to be efficient.
The fewer the number of rooms per floor, the more efficient the layout becomes,
because the core by necessity must be compact and as a result, the amount of
corridor area kept bare minimum.

PINWHEEL PLAN SQUARE PLAN


CIRCULAR TOWER CROSS-SHAPED PLAN

TRIANGULAR TOWER

ATTRIUM PLANS
A third major category of guestroom floor plans is atrium design. The true
atrium configurations has the guest rooms arranged along single- loaded
corridors much like open balconies over looking the lobby space.
The following issue must be addressed:-
Shape: configuration to be used for guest room structure.
Public elevators: scenic or standards elevators to be arranged.
Service core & stairs: location of these.
All atrium hotels feature scenic or glass elevators, which provide views of the
lobby as well as add animation to the space.
Service elevators, the house keeping support functions, and the exit stairs
generally located at both ends of the wings.
One technique that is successful in several hotels is to combine an atrium
space with double loaded wings, which effectively and appropriately draws
together the architectural excitement of the atrium space.

MODIFIED ATRIUM

SQUARE ATRIUM

GUESTROOM MIX
The guest room program requirements must be shaped and modified, if
necessary, to fit the architectural concept.
The number or percentage of guest rooms furnished with a king bed, with a
double beds, with convertible sofa or whatever define the room mix.

THE GUEST ROOM DESIGN

HOTEL GUEST CHARACTERSTICS


Guest Characteristics Purpose For Travel Guestroom Design
Factors
Business
Group Single or double Conventions, King, twin, double-
occupancy, 2-4 conference, double, bath with
night stay. 75% professional dressing area.
men, 25% women, associations, sales
some what price and training
intensive. meetings.
Individual Single occupancy, Corporate business, King, standard bath
1-2 night stay, 85% sales, conventions, with shower, lounge
men, 15% women, conferences. area with
very price intensive. exceptional work
area.
Pleasure
Family Double-plus Family vacations, Double-double, king
occupancy (include sightseeing, sports, sofa, or adjoining
children), 1-4 night family activity. rooms lounge area
stay, longer in resort and television,
areas, budget or mid generous;
price. compartmentalized
bath, balcony, deck,
outside access.
Couples Double occupancy, Tours, clubs, King, dining, work
1-7 night stay, mid associations, surface, moderate
price to upscale. sightseeing, theatre, storage,
sports, weekend compartmentalized
packages, shopping, bath.
vacation.
Singles Single occupancy, Tours, clubs, Queen, work
young professionals, associations, surface, standard
mid-price to cultures, arts, bath.
upscale. theatre, shopping.

FURNISHINGS
One basic approach is to use fewer individual pieces of furniture or to scale
them slightly smaller so as to give the perception of a larger or luxurious
room.
Queen or 72-inch king size bed: - beds smaller than 78-inches create
more open space.
Convertible sofa or wall bed: - these provide more open space and
flexibility.
Adequate luggage/ clothes space: - sufficient drawers, luggage racks,
and closet space reduce the clutter of cloth throughout the room.
Armoire: - combining drawer space with a television cabinet and possibly
a pullout writing ledge in a single unit estimates the need for two or three
separate pieces.
Lounge/desk-chairs: - lounge chairs designed to be used at the work
surface eliminate the straight desk-chair.
Mirrors: - they enlarge the space visually.
Wall mounted bed side lamps: - these permit a smaller night table.
Bathrooms: - design suites expand the counter top, mirror, and lighting as
much as possible and compartmentalized the tub or toilet.

Guestroom bed types


Type Size
Twin 2 twin beds 39 x 80in. (1 x 2m)
Double-double 2 double beds 54 x 80in. (1.35 x 2m)
Queen 1 queen bed 60 x 80in. (1.5 x 2m)
King 1 king bed 78 x 80in. (2 x 2m)
California king 1 king bed 72 x 80in. (1.8 x 2m)
Oversized twin 2 twin beds 45 x 80in. (1.15 x 2m)
Queen-queen 2 queen beds
Double-studio 1 double bed and convertible sofa
Queen-studio 1 queen bed and convertible sofa
King-studio 1 king bed and convertible sofa
Parlor 1 convertible sofa
Wall-bed 1 wall bed

Guest Room Mix For Different Hotel Types


Percent of total guestroom
Type of hotel Double- king King Parlor Comments
double studio
Budget inn 100 0 0 0
Motor inn 60 28 10 2 Trend away from all double-
double
Conference centre 40 40 15 5 Single occupancy except
needs couples weekend
business
All-suite 10 90 0 100 All rooms connect with a
parlor
Super luxury 20 70 0 10 Double-double replaced with
oversized twins
Commercial 20 60 10 10 Limited double occupancy
Resort/ family 80 8 10 2 Provide rooms for cots
Resort/couples 20 70 5 5
Convention 55 35 5 5 Trend towards replacing
double-double with oversized
twin
Mega-hotel 55 35 5 5 Double-double provides
greatest flexibility for family/
group business markets
Casino-hotel 40 50 0 10 Depends on strength of tour
markets.

Guest room dimensions


Living area Bathroom Total guestroom
Dimensions, area Dimensions, area Dimensions, area
feet(meters) feet(meters) feet(meters)
Budget 116x15 172 5 x 5 25 116 x 206 236
(3.5 x 4.5) (16) (1.5 x 1.5) (2.3) (3.5 x 6.2) (21.9)
Mid-price 12 x 18 216 5 x 76 37 12 x 26 312
(3.6 x 5.5) (20.1) (1.5 x 2.3) (3.4) (3.6 x 6.6) (29)
First class 136 x 19 256 56 x 86 47 136 x 286 378
(4.1 x 5.8) (23.8) (1.7 x 2.6) (4.4) (4.1 x 8.6) (35.2)
luxury 15 x 20 300 76 x 9 71 15 x 30 450
(4.5 x 6.1) (27.9) (2.3 x 2.7) (6.6) (4.5 x 9.1) (41.8)
BUDJECT INN-DOUBLE-DOUBLE TYPICAL DOULE-DOUBL

KING ROOM LUXURY ROOM


TYPICAL DOUBLE-DOUBLE KING STUDIO

RESERVED LAYOUT LUXURY KING ROOM

Different types of suites


Suite type Living room Bedrooms Keys Bays Percent
Mini-suite One bay Alcove 1 1.5 2
Conference suite One bay 1 2 2 3
Junior suite One bay 2 3 3 4
Executive suite Two bay 2 3 4 1
Deluxe suite Three bay 2 2 5 0.5
Percentage of total rooms, i.e., two mini suites per 100 rooms

THE MINI-SUITE

THE JUNIOR SUITE


HOSPITALITY SUITE

PUBLIC SPACE DESIGN


All lobbies should establish contact with the shops, bar, and restaurants, and enable a
guest to feel like hes in the heart of hotel

The designer should assess the relative need for the following entrances:
Main hotel entrance
Ball room/banquet entrance
Restaurant/bar/night club/casino entrance
Tour bus/airport bus entrance
Suite or apartment entrance

ENTRANCES
The design requirements for the hotel entrances can be summarized:
Canopy: protect guest from clement weather; include lighting, sinages, heat; if
necessary ensure sufficient height for buses
Driveways: Predict amount of traffic congestion and provide space for waiting
taxis, loading and unloading of passengers and bags, and short-term standing
including valet-delivered cars and tour or airport buses
Parking: Make garage entrances convenient to and from the main entrance; if
there is valet parking, establish a location for attendants booth near the main
entrance
Side walks: Design pedestrian areas sufficiently wide for handling baggage carts,
and providing doorman or bellman station; at bus location provide space for
groups
Doors and Vestibules: Develop a weather vestibule with revolving or automatic
doors to limit temperature differences; include access into luggage storage from
curb; provide ramp if necessary for both disabled guests and luggage

LOBBY

Lobby must have two key factors i.e. visual impact and function. The lobby serves as the
main circulation space directing guests to the front desk, elevators, food and beverages
outlets, meeting and banquet facilities recreation complex, and other public areas.
Most hotels provide per guestroom between 6 to 10 square feet (.6 and .9 square meters)
of floor area in lobby, not including circulation to remote functions.
Locating bars, restaurants, and retail kiosks with in lobby is one way to increase apparent
size of space without adding to additional gross area.

The planning objectives:

Entrances: consider additional exterior entrances for main lobby, banquet


facilities, restaurants health club, or other high traffic areas
Front desk location: visible to hotel guest; in addition, have the front desk staff
visually oversee access to the passenger elevator
Office access: Provide entrance to the front office, safe deposit area, executive
offices, and sales and catering offices
Seating area: Provide a seating area near the desk and main entrance; the area may
also contiguous with lobby bar.
Circulation: Establish clear path to the front desk, elevators, restaurants and bars,
meeting and banquet areas; where possible, separate hotel guest traffic from
purely convention traffic.
Retail areas: Provide lease space convenient to the guest circulation areas
Bellman/luggage: Position bellman station near front desk, elevators, and front
entrance, with separate rooms for baggage, carts, and locked storage.
Support functions: Locate toilets, coats, house phones, public phones, directory,
and assistant managers desk conveniently in relation tom the other areas.
Size of desk: provide 6 feet (1.8m) long station for registration and cashier based on
number of guest rooms; assume two stations for first 150 rooms, one more for each
additional 100 rooms; also provide one mail/information station for each 600 rooms or
fraction
Queuing space: provide sufficient space in front of desk for guests to stand at one
counter; for convention hotels at least 20 feet (6.1m) clear of circulation
Assistant managers desk: if required, provide a desk, three chairs, and one storage near
the front desk for assistant manager
Bellman station: provide a bellman station near the front of desk and main entrance;
provide public phone, house phone, paging, and electrical outlet
Baggage storage: Provide a lockable storage area adjoining the bellman station with
shelving for checked luggage; provide direct access to curb
Telephone: include house phones close to the front desk and public phones convenient to
lobby; a minimum of 1 to 100 rooms
Directory/sinages: locate a directory with listing of all special functions and meeting near
the front entrance; provide clear sinages for all hotel areas
Furniture and fixtures: establish ambience of lobby area by providing special millwork
detailing and finishes, front desk, bellman station, assistant managers desk, and
furnishings (lounge seating, decorative lighting, artwork)

FOOD AND BEVERAGE OUTLETS

Generally, one or more restaurants and cocktail lounges are clustered conveniently
around hotel lobby.
The other more specialized type of food and beverages outlets- specialty, rooftop, and
theme restaurants, deli and snack bars, lobby, bar, and entertainment lounges.

The design of a hotel restaurant:


Cashier/hostess station: provide a combined station to control access to all the
sections of room, handle guest checks, and supervise coat check areas
Separate sections: divide restaurant in two or more areas so that portions can be
closed during periods of low occupancy
Flexible arrangement of tables: provide paired deuces, flip-top fours
Counter seating: provide about 10% of total seats at counter for singles
Buffet/display areas: provide an area for self service buffet or food display
Service stations: provide service stations for every 100+ seats to supply water,
coffee, linen, tableware, and soiled dish areas
Adaptable lighting: provide dimmers so that the mood can be changed from
breakfast to dinner
Back ground music: consider including soft music
Uniform and graphics: design to complement the coffee shop or hotel theme
Entry sequence: establish a foyer space to set the mood for the restaurant
Maitred: provide a host station at all entrances to the restaurant
Focal point: organize all seats to take advantage of some focal point, either inside
(food display, fountain) or outside the dining room
Seating areas: arrange dividers, level change to create intimate, semiprivate group
of tables
Table seating: provide clear definition to seating areas, separating them from
aisles, service, buffet, and host areas. Each table should have some privacy from
other tables
Exhibition cooking: based on the food concept, consider providing an area for
food preparation such as a grill, bakery

Entertainment: provide a small stage and dance floor or consider how the plan
might be modified to accommodate entertainment in future; table should be
organized according to the focal point

Restaurant and Bar capacities for different size of hotels


Number of guest rooms
200 300 400 500 750 1000
Coffee shop 150 225 200 200 250 275
Specialty - - 100 125 175 175
restaurant
Theme - - - - 125 125
restaurant
Deli/pastry - - - 50 50 75
shop
Cocktail 100 115 125 150 100 150
lounge/oyster
bar
Lobby bar - 35 50 75 75 100
Restaurant - - 25 25 25 25
holding bar
Entertainment - - - - 175 225
lounge

The design of a lobby bar:


Visibility: provide an open area that is obvious to hotel guest and visitors
Seating: furnish the bar primarily with lounge seating sofas, lounge chairs, end
tables- or with combination of lounge and bar seating; provide a few seats at a
service bar
Service bar: include a small bar for beverage service with nearby storage or
backup from kitchen
Entertainment: specify a location for piano or other limited entertainment
Food service: consider access for limited food service, especially continental
breakfast, and snack service

The design of an entertainment lounges:


Entry sequence: develop an enclosed entrance to maintain acoustics and visual
separation between the lounge and hotel circulation areas
Separate sections: establish distinct zones for bar, the entertainment/dancing area,
and quieter lounge area
Service bar: include a small bar for beverage service with nearby storage or
backup from kitchen
Bar (about 10% to 25% of the lounge area): provide a large bar that is visible
from the entrance and situated so that guest can view the performers; provide pick
up stations for the staff; provide bar storage adjoining the lounge
Entertainment area (about 50% to 65%): develop an integrated section with stage,
dance floor , and seating so that at least half of the guest are involved with the
entertainment; add platforms for the better views of the performers
Lounge area (about 20% to 30%): design a separate lounge area where guests can
sit quietly without being disturbed by the entertainment
Lighting: install flexible lighting, controlled at bar, including stage lighting and
dance floor lighting
Sound system: provide complete sound system for the performers with speakers
focused on the dance floor area

FUNCTION SPACES

FUNCTION ROOM CHARACTERISTICS


SPACE USES TYPE OF SEATING PRINCIPAL
HOTEL CAPACITY FEATURES
Ballroom Meeting, Motor inn, 1.5-2 x GR Divisibility,
banquets, resort, transient, .5-1.5 x GR High ceiling,
receptions, convention 2-2.5 x GR Direct food access,
exhibits No columns
Ballroom Reception, Motor inn, .2 x BR, Access to all ballroom
foyer Meeting transient .25 x BR, sections, toilets,
registration, Resort, .25- .3 x BR phones
flow convention
Meeting Meetings, Transient, Resort, .2-.4 x BR Built-in- A/V.
rooms Banquets convention .4 -.6 x BR Direct food access
Banquet Banquets, Transient, Resort, .2-.4 x BR Divisibility,
rooms Meetings, convention .4 -.6 x BR Direct food access,
Receptions
Boardroom Meetings, Transient, .05-.1 x GR Superior finishes,
Banquets convention Separate from other
meeting rooms
Exhibit hall Exhibition Convention 1-2 x BR Display access, high
ceiling, high lighting
level
Theatre Lectures, Convention .2-.4 x GR Stepped levels
A/V
presentation
* GR-number of Guest rooms; BR- capacity of ballroom

Schematic planning requirements:


AREA REQUIREMENTS FOR FUNCTION ROOMS
Space Reception Auditorium Banquet Class Board table
room
Ballroom 7 (.6) 8 (.7) 10 (.9) - -
[>10,000 sq ft
(929 sq. m.)]
Ballroom 8 ( .7) 8 (.7) 11 (1.0) 12 (1.1) -
[>3,000 sq ft
(278.7 sq. m.)]
Banquet room 9 ( .8) 10 (.9) 12 (1.1) 14 (1.3) -
[<3,000 sq ft
(278.7 sq. m.)]
Meeting room 9 (.8) 10 (.9) 12 (1.1) 14 (1.3) 16-20 (1.5-
1.9)
Board room 12 (1.1) - 15 (1.4) - 20-25 (1.9-
2.3)
Theatre - 8-12 (.7-1.1) - 12-15 -
(1.1-1.4)
Area given in sq ft and meters

FITNESS FACILIES AREA REQUIREMENT


Activity Minimum overall size
Sq ft (sq m)
Swimming pool 800 (75)
Total including deck area 2400 (225)
Exercise room 600 (56)
Nautilus circuit 400 (37)
Exercycles 50/units (4.7)
Rowing machine 50/units (4.7)
Weight machines 50/units (4.7)
Aerobic classroom 800 (75)
Gym 2400 (225)
Health club
Whirlpool/hot-tub (single) 50/person (4.7)
Whirlpool/hot-tub (group) 20/person (1.9)
Sauna 20/person (1.9)
Steam bath 20/person (1.9)
Plunge (hot/cold) 20/person (1.9)
Swiss shower 30/person (2.8)
Loofah bath 100/person (9.3)
Herbal wrap 100/person (9.3)
Massage 100/person (9.3)
Facial 100/person (9.3)
Barber/hair dresser 70/person (6.5)
Manicure/pedicure 70/person (6.5)
Suntan 70/person (6.5)
Inhalator 20/person (1.9)
Rest area 100/person (9.3)
Medical/stress test 150/person (14)

Swimming pool:
Location: place the pool so that guest can reach it from guestroom elevators
without passing through the lobby; provide some guestrooms with views of the
pool; screen any exterior views towards the pool.
Orientation: position the pool so that it receives unobstructed sunlight from mid
morning to late afternoon.
Size: plan the pool to accommodate the swimming and sunbathing needs of the
guests but no less than about 20, 40 (6 x 12 m) with at least 10 feet (3m) of deck
space on all sides.
Support functions: Provide toilets, lockers where required, towel issue area, snack
bar or vending, equipment room, and furniture storage.
Safety: do not provide a diving board; include slip free deck surface. Depth
markings, under water lighting, safety or pool rules sinages.
Wading pool, whirlpool: include additional pools with in view of the swimming
pool but slightly separated.
Indoor pool: design either operable roof or glass walls to provide direct sunlight
and ventilations.
Health club:
Location: plan the club so that guest can reach it directly from the guestroom
elevators and members from the street or parking areas without passing through
lobby area.

PARKING

Parking analysis:
The provision of parking must recognize the sum of various components and
interrelationship of the peaks and valley over a 24-hour period.
Part I: determine the components of the parking requirements: overnight
guests, restaurant and bar patrons, meeting attendants, and other visitors.
Part II: calculate the maximum number of cars that might be reasonably
anticipated, planning to accommodate full demand on 80-85 percent of all
days. The overnight guest calculation is illustrated by the following example:
Number of rooms 400
Percent occupancy 85
People per room 1.4
Percent arriving by car 40
People per car 1.5
The equation for calculating the guests parking requirement is as follows:

(Rooms) x (% occupancy) x (people/room) x (% by car)


(People/car)

Example: 400 x 85 x 1.4 x .40 =127 cars


1.5

Part III: Develop a table showing hourly parking use factors. For example, the
parking facility needs to accommodate all (100 percent or 1) over night guest
cars from midnight to 4.00 AM, but, because of checkout, only 60 percent (.6)
during the mid-day.

MORNING AFTERNOON
midnight 4.00 8.00 noon 4.00 8.00
to to to to to to
4.00 8.00 noon 4.00 8.00 mid night
Hotel guest 1 .95 .6 .6 .9 .95
Restaurant and .05 .1 .1 .1 .2 .25
bar patrons
Meeting/banquet .05 - .1 .1 .4 .4
attendants
Health club - .2 .1 .2 .2 .05
members
Visitors - .1 .2 .1 .2 .4
employees .25 .25 .4 .4 .35 .35
Part IV: combine the parking requirements for each component (part II) with the use
table (part III) to calculate the total amount of parking necessary during each time
period. In this example guest would require 127 parking spaces (1 x 127) at midnight
but only 76 spaces (.6 x 127) at noon

SPECIALITY RESTAURANTS:

FUNCTIONAL AREAS:
Food Preparation and Storage
Receiving, trash, and general storage
Employee areas
Laundry and house keeping
Engineering and mechanical areas
Note:
These spaces vary from hotel to hotel depending on the type of property and its size and
location.

FOOD PREPARATION AND STORAGE AREAS

Among the many planning requirements that the architect should address during the
conceptual design, the most important goal is to locate the receiving area, food storage,
kitchen and all the outlets i.e. restaurants and banquet areas. The following checklist
identifies the critical adjacencies:

ESSENTIAL
Food storage to the main kitchen
Main kitchens to restaurants
Room services area to service the rooms
Banquet pantry to ball room
FOOD & BEV. KITCHENS
STORAGE

RECIEVING EMPLOYEES
DINING

TRASH GENERAL
STORAGE

EMPLOYEE PERSONNEL
ENTERANCE

LOCKERS UNIFORM
ISSUE

ENGINEERING HOUSEKEEPING

MECHANICAL & LAUNDRY


ELECTRICAL

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

BALLROOM

ROOM SERVICE
BANQUET BANQUET SERVICES AREA ELEVATORS
ROOMS PANTRY

COFEE SHOP COFEE SHOP


PRE-FUNCTION PANTRY

MAIN
EMPLOYEES KITCHEN RESTAURANT
DINING

FOOD & BEV. COCKTAIL


STORAGE LOUNGE

TRASH RECIEVING

DESIGNING THE MAIN KITCHEN:


The kitchen planner usually approaches the design in two opposing ways: To locate
departments such as the bake shop or dish washing stations within the larger kitchen
space and to develop each work station by combining the equipment (range, fryer, broiler,
etc.) to meet the following overall objectives:
Provision of straight line flow of food from storage to serving.
Eliminate cross-traffic and back-tracking
Minimize distance between kitchen serving area and restaurant seating.
Arrange compact work centers.
Locate secondary storage near each work stations.
Place shared facilities centrally.
Consider sanitation and employee safety.
Provide the minimum of heat-generating equipment.
Plan efficient use of all utilities

In addition to the standards for lighting and finishes the detailed plan for the food service
areas must include the following features:
Provide automatic fire protection systems throughout
Depress floor slabs for refrigeration storage so that the kitchen floor is level to the
finished floor
Group all walk-in refrigerators and freezers together with the same wall so that they use
common compressors
Provide service vestibules between the kitchen and all outlet, banquet pantry and ball
rooms; baffles between service corridors and banquet halls
Locate soiled dish drop-off immediately inside doors from each restaurant
Provide security for each kitchen service bar

RECEIVING TRASH AND GENERAL STORAGE AREAS:

The hotels receiving and trash must be adjacent to the hotels back-of-house areas. In
addition to the major connection to the kitchens for incoming food and liquor and for out
going garbage, sufficient area must be available to move goods to the laundry, house
keeping, maintenance and general storage areas.
The overall planning requirements include the following:

RECEIVING
Raised dock area large enough to accommodate trucks
Enclose the receiving area to ensure security, odors, sound, etc
Include windows between the receiving areas and the docks
Arrange access areas to avoid cross-traffic

TRASH/GARBAGE
Separate the trash holding are with the receiving area
Enclose compactor area, yet allow accessibility at all times
AREA REQUIREMENTS:

Main Kitchen (total of the following)


6 sq ft (0.6sq m) / restaurant seat
2 sq ft (0.2 sq m) / ball room and banquet seat
1 sq ft (0.1 sq m) / cocktail lounge seat
1 sq ft (0.1 sq m) /hotel guestroom

Food and Beverage


0.3 - 0.5 main kitchen area

Storage Area Percent

Dry food storage 30


Refrigerated food storage 25
Frozen food storage 10
Beverage storage 15
Refrigerated beverage 5
Non food storage (china, silver, paper) 15

Employees Area Square Feet Square Meters


Personnel 1.5 - 2.5* 14 - 23*
Timekeeper/Security 0.3 - 0.5 0.03 - 0.05
Mens lockers/toilets 1.5 - 2 0.14 - 0.19
Womens locker/toilets 1.5 - 2.5 0.14 - 0.23
Employees dining 1.8 -2 0.17 - 0.19

Area requirements as per guest rooms

NUMBER OF DINERS WIDTH DEPTH SPACE REQUIRED


(CM) (CM) (M2)
Four people 130 2.6
Five people 180 3.8
Six people 180 195 3.9
Seven people 245 5.1
Eight people 260 5.2

ROUND TABLE = SEAT WIDTH (M) NUMBER OF PEOPLE


3.142
Hotel Size Coffee Shop, Caf Main Or Specialty Ethnic Or Gourmet
(a)
(rooms) Brasserie Restaurants Restaurant
(seats) (seats) (seats)
50 50 75 - -
150 80 60 -
250 100 60 50
Space Provision 1.6 m2 2.0 m2 2.0 m2
Per Seat(b)
excluding poolside, caf bar and other club facilities; are also usable for breakfast meals
with buffet or table service
the area required per seat, dictated mainly by size and spacing of furniture, proportion of
tables seating two persons arrangements for food service (buffet, table service, etc)

Area / Departments 200 rooms, in suburban 500 rooms in central


setting m2 per room location m2 per room
Restaurant 1.1 0.6
Coffee Bar 0.6 0.5
Bar 1 plus counter 0.9 0.4
Bar 2 plus counter 0.5 0.3
Kitchen Provisions 3.8 2.5
Staff dining room, WC, 1.0 1.1
changing rooms

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