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- -

-1
/
:
2
i i = 1 (i
) ( a; b 2
a + ib : (ii
(iii
ID * :
/
' b =b ' a = a ' a + ib = a '+ ib )' ( a '; b 2
) ( a; b 2


* ' a = a ' a + ib = a '+ ib ' b = b
* ' a + ib = a '+ ib i ( b b ') = a ' a
a ' a
=i ' b b
'b b
a ' a
)' ( a '; b 2
) ( a; b 2

'b b
i i
' b = b a ' a = 0 a ' = a
/
* z = a + ib ( a; b ) 2
a . Re ( z ) = a
b Im ( z ) = b
z z = a + ib ( a; b ) 2



z
z = 17 / z = 5i 3 /z = 2 3i / z = 2 3i /
/
)' ( a '; b 2
) ( a; b 2
z = a + ib ' z = a '+ ib
z + z ' = ( a + a ') + ( b + b ') i *
z z ' = ( aa ' bb ' ) + ( ab '+ a ' b ) i *

( a + ib )( a ib ) = a 2 + b 2 ( a ib )2 = ( a 2 b2 ) 2abi ) ( a + ib * = ( a 2 b 2 ) + 2abi
2

1 1 a bi a bi
= = 2 = 2 2 *
z a + bi a + b 2
a +b 2
a + b2
z ) a bi ( a + bi )( a ' b ' i
z ' 0 = = *
z ' a '+ b ' i a '2 + b '2
* i
n
i n = i n = 4k + 1 k i n = 1 n = 4k k
i n = i n = 4k + 3 k i n = 1 n = 4k + 2 k

1

2i ) (1 2i
2
3 2i 1
+ ; ; -1
3i i 2+i 2 3i
1 2 + 3i 2 + 3i 2 3
= = = + i
2 3i ( 2 3i )( 2 + 3i ) 4 + 9 13 13
3 2i ( 3 2i )( 2 i ) 6 2 3i 4i 4 7
= = = i
2+i ) ( 2 + i )( 2 i 5 5 5

2i ) (1 2i ) 2i ( 3 + i
2
3 1 21 18
+ = i (1 4 4i ) = i + 3i 4 = + i
3i i 10 5 5 5 5
-2 (1 + i ) 2 ) (1 + i
230

(1 + i ) 2 = 2i
) (1 + i ) 230 = ( 2i
115
= 2115 i 428+3 = 2115 i
z -3 2iz 3i + 2 = z + i
2iz 3i + 2 = z + i (1 + 2i ) z = 2 + 4i
2 + 4i 2 (1 2i )(1 2i ) 6 8
=z = = + i
1 + 2i 5 5 5
6 8
S = + i
5 5
-2 -
) . ( O; e1 ; e2 ) ( P
) M ( a; b ) ( P . z = a + ib ) M ( z
) z = aff ( M z = a + ib ) . M ( a; b
) u ( a; b . z = a + ib ) u ( z
) u ( a; b ) z = aff (u ) ( a; b 2
z = a + ib


*
*

2
* - AB
A B z A = a + ib ' z B = a '+ ib
) A ( a; b )' B ( a '; b ) AB ( a ' a; b ' b

) (
aff AB = ( a ' a ) + i ( b ' b ) = ( a '+ ib ') ( a + ib ) = zB z A
z B z A ) A ( z A ) B ( z B AB
* - u + v u
) u ( a; b )' v (a '; b ) ' u + v ( a + a '; b + b ) aff ( u + v ) = aff ( u ) + aff ( v

) aff ( u + v ) = aff ( u ) + aff ( v u v


) aff ( u ) = aff ( u

A B C z A = 2
z B = 1 + 4i zC = 3i u 1 + 3i
* -
) A ( z A ) B ( z B ) C ( z C / AB = AC
) (
/ aff AB = aff AC ( )
/ ) z B z A = ( zC z A
zB z A
/ =
zC z A
zB z A

zC z A
zB zA
C ( z C ) ) A ( z A ) B ( z B
zC z A
* -
) A ( z A ) B ( z B ) G ( zG + 0
( + ) zG = z A + zB ) ( A; ) ( B; G

3


* -
) A ( z A ) B ( z B ) I ( z I
z A + zB
= zI I ] [ A; B
2

1
C ) A (1 + i ) B (1 + 3i 2i
2


1 3 6i
) 2i (1 + i ( 3 6i )(1 2i ) 3 + 6i 6i 12 3
2 = 2 = = =
) ( 2 + 3i ) (1 + i 1 + 2i ) 2 (1 + 2i )(1 2i 10 2
A B C
-3
/
. ) ( a; b 2
z = a + ib
. z = a ib * z = a ib z = a + ib
2 2
z = zz = a + b . z = a + ib * zz


) M ' ( z * ) M ( z

* z = a + ib z z = a 2 + b 2
/
)' ( a '; b 2
) ( a; b 2
z = a + ib ' z = a '+ ib

' z + z ' = ( a + a ') + ( b + b ') i = a + a ' ( b + b ' ) i = a ib + a ' ib ' = z + z


' z z ' = ( aa ' bb ') + ( ab '+ a ' b ) i = aa ' bb ' ab ' i a ' bi = a ( a ' b ' i ) bi ( a ' b ' i ) = ( a bi )( a ' b ' i ) = z z
1 1 a bi a b
= = 2 2 = 2 + 2 i
z a + bi a + b 2
a + b2 a +b 2
a + b2
1 1 a b
= = 2 + 2 i
z a ib a + b 2
a + b2
1 1
=
z z
4
z 1 1 1 z
= = z = z = z
z' z' z' 'z' z

n *
) ' ( z; z 2

z=z *
) z + z = 2 Re ( z ; z z = 2 Im ( z ) i *
* z z =z
* z i z = z
z z
)(
n
= z' 0 z = .z zn = z ' z . z ' = z. z * 'z + z' = z + z
' z' z

) A ( z A ) B ( z B ) . ( O; e1 ; e2

OA = z A AB = AB = z B z A

n *
( z; z ' ) 2
*z = 0 z = 0
z = z = z *
z z n
z' 0 = zn = z * ' z. z ' = z z
'z 'z
* 'z + z' z + z

) M(z
z 2 = z + 2i - 2 z 1 + i = 2 i 5 -1
-4
/
) ( P
) ( O; e1 ; e2
) ( a; b 2
z = a + ib

(
. e1 , OM ) M ,
z
. arg z ] [ 2

a *
arg a ] [ 2 a *+
arg a 0 ] [ 2 *

b i *
arg b ] [ 2 b i *+
arg b ] [ 2 *
2 2
/
) ( a;b r 2
* - z = a + ib

z = r = a 2 + b 2

) z = r ( cos + i sin cos = a ; sin = b


r r
arg z ] [ 2
z = r( cos +isin z ] z=[r, )

5

2 2
1 + i = 2 +i = 2 cos + i sin = 2;
2 2 4 4 4

15 = [15;0] 2i = 2;
2
3 1 5 5 5
3 i = 2 i = 2 cos + i sin = 2;
2 2 6 6 6
/
z'=[r','] z=[r, ]
( cos + i sin )( cos '+ i sin ') = ( cos cos ' sin sin ') + i ( sin cos '+ cos sin ')
( cos + i sin )( cos '+ i sin ') = cos ( + ') + i sin ( + ')
z z ' = r ( cos + i sin ) r ' ( cos '+ i sin ' ) = rr ' ( cos ( + ') + i sin ( + ') ) = [ rr '; + ']
1 1 1 1 cos i sin 1 1
= = = ( cos ( ) + i sin ( ) ) = ;
z r cos + i sin r cos + sin r
2 2
r
z 1 1 r
== z = [ r ; ] ; ' = ; '
z' z' r ' r'
z = r ( c os + i sin ) = r ( c os i sin ) = r ( cos ( ) + i sin ( ) ) = [ r , ]
z = r ( c os i sin ) r ( c os ( + ) + i sin ( + ) ) = [ r , + ]
( z; n ) z n = r n ; n
*

z = [ r ; ]

( z; n ) *
z n = r n ; n
n = 0 1 = [1;0] = [1;0 ] z0 = 1 n = 0
z n +1 = r n +1 ; ( n + 1) z n = r n ; n
z n +1 = z z n = [ r ; ] r n ; n = r r n ; + n = r n +1 ; ( n + 1)
( z; n ) * z n = r n ; n
n n
1 1 1
z n = n = n = n ; ( n ) = r n ; n
z r ; n r
( z; n ) * z n = r n ; n

z'=[r','] z=[r, ]
z = z ' r = r ' et = ' *
z 1
arg arg z arg z ' [ 2 ] arg arg z [ 2 ] arg ( zz ') arg z + arg z ' [ 2 ] *
z' z
z r 1 1
= , ' = ; zz ' = [ rr ', + ']
z ' r ' z r
z = [ r , + ] z = [ r , ] arg ( z ) + arg z [ 2 ] arg ( z ) arg z [ 2 ] *
( z; n ) *
( )
arg z n n arg z [ 2 ] *

( z; n ) *
z n = r n ; n

6

v = 6 +i 2 u = 2 2i
-1 u v
cos 7 ; sin 7 -2 u
12 12 v

) D ( z D ) C ( zC ) A ( z A ) B ( z B
* - M OM = AB ) M ( z B z A

(
arg ( z B z A ) = e1 ; AB ) ] [ 2 arg ( z B z A ) = e1 ; OM ( ) ] [ 2
( AB; CD ) ( e1 ; CD ) ( e1 ; AB ) arg ( zD zC ) arg ( zB z A ) arg zzDB zzCA ] [ 2 *-


arg ( z B z A ) = e1 ; AB( ) ] [ 2 ) D ( z D ) C ( zC ) A ( z A ) B ( z B

( AB; CD ) arg zzDB zzCA ] [ 2




z zA
arg C (
AB; AC ) ] [ 2 ) A C ( zC ) A ( z A ) B ( z B
zB z A
/
C ( z C ) ) A (z A ) B (z B * :
z zA z zA zB zA
arg C ] [ 2 arg C 0 ] [ 2 A B C
zB z A zB z A zC z A

) D ( z D ) C ( zC * : ) A ( z A ) B ( z B
zC z D z zD z zD
) ( AB ) ( CD i *
arg C ] [ 2 ou arg C ] [ 2
zB z A zB z A 2 zB z A 2

) ( o;e1 ;e2 ...

.(1 ) A (6 + 2i ) B ( 1 + 3i C 72 3i )( BA; BC
.(2 ) E ( 2 + 3i ) F (1 + 2i ) G ( 1 ) ( FE; FG
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6 i 2
= u2 ; u1 = 1 i :
2
u2 u1 -1
u1
sin cos -2
12 12 u2
24
6+ 2 6 2
+ i -3 = 1
4 4

-1 u1 u2
2 2
u1 = 1 i = 2 i ; = 2
2 2 4
7
6 i 2 3 1
u2 = = 2 i = 2;
2 2 2 6
u
sin cos 1 -3
12 12 u2

2;
u1 4 2
= = ; + = 1;
u2 2 4 6 12
2;
6

u1 1 i ( 2 2i ) ( 6 +i 2 )
= =
u2 6 i 2 ( 6 i 2 )( 6 +i 2 )
2
6+ 2 6 2
= ( )i
4 4
6+ 2 6 2
1; 12 = 2
(
2
)i

6+ 2 6+ 2
cos = cos =
12 4 12 4

sin = 6 2 sin = ( 6 2 )
12 4 12 4
24
6+ 2 6 2
+ i = 1 -3
4 4
24 24
6+ 2 6 2 24

4
+
4
i = 1; = 1; = [1; 2 ] = 1
12 12

:
a = cos + i sin ; b = cos i sin ; c = cos i sin
a ' = sin + i cos ; b ' = sin i cos ; c ' = sin i cos ; d = sin + i cos


a = cos + i sin = cos ( ) + i sin ( ) = [1; ]
b = cos i sin = cos ( ) + i sin ( ) = [1; ]
c = cos i sin = cos ( + ) + i sin ( + ) = [1; + ]

d = sin + i cos = cos + + i sin + = 1; +
2 2 2

a ' = sin + i cos = cos + i sin = 1;
2 2 2

b ' = sin i cos = cos + + i sin + = 1; +
2 2 2

c ' = sin i cos = sin ( + ) + i cos ( + ) = cos ( + ) + i sin ( + )
2 2

= cos + i sin = 1;
2 2 2

8
z1 = 2i z1 = 2 2i a = 4
1 a z 1 z 2
2 a + z12 + z2 4 = 72
) A ( a ) B ( z1 ) C ( z2
B BAC (1.3 -3
( F ) = {M ( z ) / z + 1 + i }
(2.3 ) ( F = 10

) (F BAC C ) ( F B A ( 3.3

2 a z1 z2
2 2
(z2 = 2 2i = 2 2 i ) = 2 2; z1 = 2i = 2; ] a = 4 = [ 4;
2 2 4 2
4.2 a + z12 + z2 4 = 72
2 4


( )
( )
4 4
a + z12 + z2 4 = [ 4; ] + 2; + 2 2; = [ 4; ] + [ 2; ] + 2 2 ; = 4 4 2 2 = 4 4 64 = 72
2

2 4
(1.3 -3 BAC B
) A(4 ) B (2i ) C (2 2i
2 2i 2i 2 4i
( BA; BC ) arg arg
4 2i 4 2i
i (2i 4)
arg ) arg ( i ] [ 2
4 2i 2
BA = 4 2i = 20 BC = 2 4i = 20
BAC B
(2.3 ) ( F
M ( z ) ( F ) z + 1 + i = 10
M ( z ) ( F ) M = 10 ) / (1 + i

(
M ( z ) ( F ) M C ; 10 ) )/ (1; 1

) ( F ) = C ( ; 10 )/ (1; 1

) (F BAC ( 3.4 ) A(4 ) B (2i ) C (2 2i ) ( F


A = 4 + 1 + i = 3 + i = 10
B = 2i + 1 + i = 1 + 3i = 10
A = 2 2i + 1 + i = 3 i = 10
) ( F A B C

9


(OA, OB) [ 2 ] OA = OB : B A (1 + i ) :
3
. z B ( 1
. AB ( 2
(e1 , AB) : ( 3

. z B ( 1
z B = OB = OA = 1 + i = 2
2 2
arg (1 + i ) [ 2 ] 1 + i = 2 +i = 2;

4 2 2 4

7
( ) ( ) (
arg ( z B ) e1 ; OB e1 ; OA + OA; OB arg (1 + i ) + ) 3
=
4
+
3
=
12
[ 2 ]
7 7
z B = 2 cos + i sin
12 12
7 2 6
cos = cos + = cos cos sin sin =
12 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 4
7 2 6
sin = sin + = sin cos + cos sin = +
12 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 4
2 6 2 + 6 1 3 1+ 3
z B = 2 +i = +i
4 4 2 2
. AB ( 2
2 2 2 2
1 3 1+ 3 1 + 3 1 + 3
AB = 1 + 1 == + = 2
2 2 2 2

(e1 , AB) : ( 3
3
( e1; AB ) arg ( zB z A ) arg 1 2 3 + i 1 +2 3 1 i arg 1 +2 3 + i 1 +2 [ 2 ]

2 + 6 2 + 6 7 7
( )
e1 ; AB arg 2
4
+
i
4




arg 2 sin
12
i cos
12
[ 2 ]

7 13 13 11
( e1; AB ) arg 2;
2

12
arg



2;
12

12

12
[ 2 ]
11
( e1 , AB )
12


z +i
f (z) =
*
f
z
f ( z ) = 1 z M -1

0; z = cos + i sin -2
2
D ( z + i ) C ( z ) B ( z ) A ( i ) -

10
- OCDA z + i ) f ( z
- ) f ( z

-1 M z . f ( z ) = 1

) ( x; y ) ( x; y ) ( 0;0 2
z z = x + iy
*

) z + i = x + iy + i = x + i (1 y
z +i
f ( z) = 1 = 1 z + i = z x 2 + (1 y ) = x 2 + y 2 2 y 1 = 0
2
z
1
=y M z f ( z ) = 1
2


0; -2 z = cos + i sin
2
- ) A ( i ) B ( z ) C ( z ) D ( z + i
) B ( z ) C ( z OD = OA + OC

- OCDA z + i ) f ( z
OCDA ; OC = z = 1 ; OA = i = 1 ; CD = i = 1 AD = z = 1

) (OD COA (OA; OD ) 12 (OA; OC ) [2 ] :


] (OA; OD ) 12 ( arg ( z ) arg (i )) 12 2 [2
( ( )
arg ( z + i ) e1 ; OD e1 ; OA + OA; OD ( ) ) ] [ 2
1 1
arg ( z + i ) arg ( i ) + + ] [ 2
2 2 2 2 2

arg ( z + i ) + ] [ 2
2 4
) arg ( f ( z ) ) arg ( z + i ) arg ( z arg ( f ( z ) ) = arg z z+ i ] [ 2

3
) ) arg ( f ( z + + ] [ 2
2 4 2 4
- ) f ( z
11
z = 1 z = cos + i sin

= )f (z
z +i
z
= = z +i = ) ) ( cos + (1 sin
2 2
2 2 sin

- 4
/
) M ( z )' M ' ( z t u aff ( u ) = a

( )
t ( M ) = M ' MM ' = u aff MM ' = aff ( u ) z ' z = a z ' = z + a

) M ( z ) ( P ) M ' ( z + a ) ( P
aff ( u ) = a u

-1 u ) u (1; 2
t
) M ( z )' M ' ( z ' tu ( M ) = M
/ ' z z
/ ) M ( z )' M ' ( z z' = z + 1 i
' M M

/

) M ( z )' M ' ( z ) ( ) ( P
) ( O; e1 ; e2 k
) M ( z )' M ' ( z h ) z ' = k ( z
/1 h
/2 M ' M h

) M ( z )' M ' ( z ) ( ) ( P
) ( O; e1 ; e2 k
) M ( z ) ( P )' M ' ( z ) ( P
) z ' = k ( z ) ( k

1
) M ( z )' M ' ( z z' = z + 2i
2
1
/1 = + 2i
2
/2 ' M M h

12
- -

-1

)( a ) ( a
*+ 2 2
a ; =a =a

(i ) ( i )
2 2
= ( i ) a = a
* 2
a a ; = i 2 a = a a
/
a
a a a a
a a i a i a



3 3 3
-1 i i
-25 5i 5i
-3 i 3 i 3
/
a b c a .
z az 2 + bz + c = 0
b
2

= b 2 4ac az 2 + bz + c = a z + 2
2a 4a
2
b
az 2 + bz + c = 0 z + 2 =0
2a 4a
b b
az 2 + bz + c = 0 z + z + + = 0 0
2 a 2 a 2 a 2 a
b + b
=z = z
2a 2a
0 0
2 2 2
2 b 2 b 2
az + bz + c = 0 z + +i 2
= 0 z+ +i =0
2a 4a 2a 4a 2
b i b
az 2 + bz + c = 0 z + z + +i =0
2a 2a 2a 2a
b + b i
=z
= z
2a 2a
b d b + d
= z d = ; z
2a 2a
2 1

a b c a .
= b 2 4ac az 2 + bz + c = 0
d
b d b + d
= z = ; z 0 az 2 + bz + c = 0
2a 2a
2 1

b
=z = 0 az 2 + bz + c = 0
2a
13


2 z 2 + 2 z + 3 = 0 2 z 2 3 z + 2 = 0 (
2z2 2 + 2 2 z + ) 3
2
+ 2=0

(
2z2 2 + 2 2 z + ) 3
2
+ 2 = 0

(( )) 3
2
= 2+2 2 8 + 2 = 4 + 8 2 + 8 12 8 2 = 0
2
1 + 2 2 + 2 2 1+ 2
S = z= =
2 4 2
2 z 2 3z + 2 = 0
= 9 + 16 = 25
1 35 1 3+5
S = 2; z= = z = = 2
2 4 2 4
2 z 2 + 2 z + 3 = 0

( )
2
= 4 12 = 8 = i 2 2
2 i 2 2 1 2 2 + i 2 2 1 2
z= = +i z = = i
4 2 2 4 2 2
1 2 1 2
S = +i ; i
2 2 2 2

-1
z + 2 3 z + 12 = 0 z 6 z + 12 = 0
z1 = 3 + 3i z1 = 3 + i 3 -2
B ( z2 ) A ( z1 ) ( O; e1 ; e2 ) ( P) -3
OAEB E ( z1 + z2 )
/2
= ([1; ]) = 1 ; n = [1; n ] = cos ( n ) + i sin ( n )
n
( cos + i sin ) n

n

/
n *
( cos + i sin ) n
= cos n + i sin n
sin n cos sin n cos n /

( cos + i sin ) 3

sin 3 = 3sin 4sin 3 cos 3 = 4 cos3 3cos



( cos + i sin ) 3
( )
= cos3 + 3i cos 2 sin 3 ( cos ) sin 2 i sin 3 ( )
( ) ((
= cos3 3 ( cos ) sin 2 + i 3 cos 2 sin sin 3 ) )
( cos + i sin )3 = cos 3 + sin 3

( ) (
cos 3 = cos3 3 ( cos ) sin 2 = cos3 3cos 1 cos 2 = 4 cos3 3cos )
( ) (
sin 3 = 3 cos 2 sin sin 3 = 3sin 1 sin 2 sin 3 = 3sin 4sin 3 )

14
cos x cos x 5

)( P * ) A ( z A ) B ( z B ) D ( z D ) C ( zC
) ( O; e1 ; e2
-3
/ ei
1 ei
ei = [1; ] = cos + i sin

2
i 1 3 i 2 2 i
e 3 = +i e 4 = +i ei = 1 e0 = 1 e 2 =i
2 2 2 2
/
)' i( +
ei ei ' = e '
/
z = [ r , ] = re i
z r :

' i
'r r 0 z = r ' e 0 z ' z z = rei
z r i ') 1 1 i
(= e ( z z ' = rr ' e
)' i +
z = r n ein = e
'z' r z r

.
) 2i (1 i
( )
4
= z1 z2 = 1 i 3
3 + 3i 3

i 2 2 i 1 3 i
2i = 2e 2 1 i = 2 i = 2e 4 3 + 3i 3 = 6 + i * = 6e 3
2 2 2 2

i i
) 2i (1 i 2e 2 2e 4 2 i 2 4 6 2 i12
= z1 =
= e = e
3 + 3i 3 i 3 3
6e 3
4
i i
4
i

z 2 = 2e 3 * 1 i 3 = 2 1 i 3 = 2e 3 = 16e 3
2 2

/

ei = cos i sin ei = cos + i sin
2 cos = ei + ei 2i sin = ei e i

ei + e i ei e i
= cos = sin
2 2i

:
cos n sin n cos n sin m
a cos + b sin
cos 4
4
ei + e i
4
cos =
2
=
1 i 4
16
(
e + 4ei 3 e i + 6ei 2 ei 2 + 4ei ei 3 + ei 4 )

15
1 ei 4 + e i 4 1 ei 2 + ei 2 3
= cos 4
16
(
1 i 4
( ) )
= e + e i 4 + 4 ei 2 + ei 2 + 6
8 2
+
2 2
+
8
1 1 3
cos 4 = cos 4 + cos 2 +
8 2 8
sin 4 cos3
-
) M ( z )' M ' ( z ) ( ) ( P
) ( O; e1 ; e2 ) [1; ] = ( cos + i sin
r ) z ' = [1; ] ( z ) M ( z )' M ' ( z
M ' M r
r ( ) =
) M ( z ) = ( )' M ' ( z
z '
=1 ' M
z ' z M = 1
) r ( M ) = M ' z ' = [1; ] ( z = [1; ]
z arg z '
z
( )
[ 2 ] M ; M ' ] [ 2
M ' = M

M ; M ' (
] [ 2 )
r

) M ( z )' M ' ( z ) ( ) ( P
) ( O; e1 ; e2
) ( P )' M ' ( z ) ( P ) M ( z
) z ' = [1; ] ( z
) [1; ] = ( cos + i sin

) M ( z )' M ' ( z ) ( ) ( P
) ( O; e1 ; e2
) ( P )' M ' ( z ) ( P ) M ( z

) z ' = ei ( z

) ( O; e1 ; e2 A B
; zB = 2 zA = i :
.I
(1 B1 ' B A . 2

. (2 ' B B1 A
4
(3 A B '. B
.II
2
= '. z f M z ' M ' z(1 + i ) z + 1 :
2
(1 . f
(2 f

16