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MALACANG

Manila

PRESIDENTIALDECREENo.1067December31,1976

ADECREEINSTITUTINGAWATERCODE,THEREBYREVISINGANDCONSOLIDATINGTHELAWSGOVERNINGTHEOWNERSHIP,APPROPRIATION,UTILIZATION,EXPLOITATION,
DEVELOPMENT,CONSERVATIONANDPROTECTIONOFWATERRESOURCES

WHEREAS,ArticleXIV,Sec.8oftheNewConstitutionofthePhilippinesprovides,interalia,thatallwatersofthePhilippinesbelongtotheState

WHEREAS,existingwaterlegislationsarepiecemealandinadequatetocopewithincreasingscarcityofwaterandchangingpatternsofwateruse

WHEREAS,thereisaneedforaWaterCodebasedonrationalconceptsorintegratedandmultipurposemanagementofwaterresourcesandsufficientlyflexibletoadequatelymeet
futuredevelopments

WHEREAS,waterisvitaltonationaldevelopmentandithasbecomeincreasinglynecessaryforgovernmenttointerveneactivelyinimprovingthemanagementofwaterresources

NOW,THEREFORE,I,FERDINANDE.MARCOS,PresidentofthePhilippines,byvirtueofthepowersinmevestedbytheConstitution,doherebyorderanddecreetheenactmentof
thewaterCodeofthePhilippinesof1976,asfollows:

CHAPTERI
DECLARATIONOFOBJECTIVESANDPRINCIPLES

Article1.ThisCodeshallbeknownasTheWaterCodeofthePhilippines.

Article2.TheobjectivesofthisCodeare:

(a)Toestablishthebasicprinciplesandframeworkrelatingtotheappropriation,controlandconservationofwaterresourcestoachievetheoptimumdevelopmentand
rationalutilizationoftheseresources

(b)Todefinetheextentoftherightsandobligationsofwaterusersandownersincludingtheprotectionandregulationofsuchrights

(c) To adopt a basic law governing the ownership, appropriation, utilization, exploitation, development, conservation and protection of water resources and rights to
landrelatedtheretoand

(d)ToidentifytheadministrativeagencieswhichwillenforcethisCode.

Article3.Theunderlyingprinciplesofthiscodeare:

(a)AllwatersbelongtotheState.

(b)AllwatersthatbelongtotheStatecannotbethesubjecttoacquisitiveprescription.

(c)TheStatemayallowtheuseordevelopmentofwatersbyadministrativeconcession.

(d)Theutilization,exploitation,development,conservationandprotectionofwaterresourcesshallbesubjecttothecontrolandregulationofthegovernmentthrough
theNationalWaterResourcesCouncil,hereinafterreferredtoastheCouncil.

(e)Preferenceintheuseanddevelopmentofwatersshallconsidercurrentusagesandberesponsivetothechangingneedsofthecountry.

Article 4. Waters, as used in this Code, refers to water under the grounds, water above the ground, water in the atmosphere and the waters of the sea within the territorial
jurisdictionofthePhilippines.

CHAPTERII
OWNERSHIPOFWATERS

Article5.ThefollowingbelongtotheState:

(a)Riversandtheirnaturalbeds

(b)Continuousorintermittentwatersofspringsandbrooksrunningintheirnaturalbedsandthebedsthemselves

(c)Naturallakesandlagoons
(d)Allothercategoriesofsurfacewaterssuchaswaterflowingoverlands,waterfromrainfallwhethernatural,orartificial,andwaterfromagriculturerunoff,seepage
anddrainage

(e)Atmosphericwater

(f)Subterraneanorgroundwatersand,

(g)Seawater.

Article6.ThefollowingwatersfoundonprivatelandsbelongtotheState:

(a)Continuousorintermittentwatersrisingonsuchlands

(b)Lakesandlagoonsnaturallyoccuringonsuchlands

(c)Rainwaterfallingonsuchlands

(d)Subterraneanorgroundwatersand,

(e)Waterinswampsandmarshes.

Theownerofthelandwherethewaterisfoundmayusethesamefordomesticpurposeswithoutsecuringapermit,providedthatsuchuseshallberegistered,whenrequiredbythe
Council.TheCouncil,however,mayregulatesuchwhenthereiswastage,orintimesofemergency.

Article7.SubjecttotheprovisionsofthisCode,anypersonwhocapturesorcollectswaterbymeansofcisterns,tanks,orpoolsshallhaveexclusivecontroloversuchwaterand
therighttodisposeofthesame.

Article8.Waterlegallyappropriatedshallbesubjecttothecontroloftheappropriatorfromthemomentitreachestheappropriator'scanaloraqueductleadingtotheplacewhere
thewaterwillbeusedorstoredand,thereafter,solongasitisbeingbeneficiallyusedforthepurposesforwhichitwasappropriated.

CHAPTERIII
APPROPRIATIONOFWATERS

Article9.WatersmaybeappropriatedandusedinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofthisCode.

Appropriationofwater,asusedinthisCode,istheacquisitionofrightsovertheuseofwatersorthetakingordivertingofwatersfromanaturalsourceinthemannerandforany
purposeallowedbylaw.

Article10.Watermaybeappropriatedforthefollowingpurposes:

(a)Domestic

(b)Municipal

(c)Irrigation

(d)Powergeneration

(e)Fisheries

(f)Livestockraising

(g)Industrial

(h)Recreational,and

(i)Otherpurposes

Useofwaterfordomesticpurposesistheutilizationofwaterfordrinking,washing,bathing,cookingorotherhouseholdneeds,homegardens,andwateringoflawnsordomestic
animals.

Useofwaterformunicipalpurposesistheutilizationofwaterforsupplyingthewaterrequirementsofthecommunity.

Useofwaterforirrigationistheutilizationofwaterforproducingagriculturalcrops.
Useofwaterforpowergenerationistheutilizationofwaterforproducingelectricalormechanicalpower.

Useofwaterforfisheriesistheutilizationofwaterforthepropagationandcultureoffishasacommercialenterprise.

Useofwaterforlivestockraisingistheutilizationofwaterforlargeherdsorflocksofanimalsraisedasacommercialenterprise.

Useofwaterforindustrialpurposesistheutilizationofwaterinfactories,industrialplantsandmines,includingtheuseofwaterasaningredientofafinishedproduct.

Useofwaterforrecreationalpurposesistheutilizationofwaterforswimmingpools,bathhouses,boating,waterskiing,golfcoursesandothersimilarfacilitiesinresortsandother
placesofrecreation.

Article 11. The State, for reasons of public policy, may declare waters not previously appropriated, in whole or in part, exempt from appropriation for any or all purposes and,
thereupon,suchwatersmaynotbeappropriatedforthosepurposes.

Article12. Waters appropriated for a particular purpose may be applied for another purpose only upon prior approval of the Council and on condition that the new use does not
undulyprejudicetherightsofotherpermittees,orrequireanincreaseinthevolumeofwater.

Article13.Exceptasotherwisehereinprovided,noperson,includinggovernmentinstrumentalitiesorgovernmentownedorcontrolledcorporations,shallappropriatewaterwithout
awaterright,whichshallbeevidencedbyadocumentknownasawaterpermit.

Waterrightistheprivilegegrantedbythegovernmenttoappropriateandusewater.

Article 14. Subject to the provisions of this Code concerning the control, protection, conservation, and regulation of the appropriation and use of waters, any person may
appropriateorusenaturalbodiesofwaterwithoutsecuringawaterpermitforanyofthefollowing:

(a)Appropriationofwaterbymeansofhandcarriedreceptaclesand

(b)Bathingorwashing,wateringordippingofdomesticorfarmanimals,andnavigationofwatercraftsortransportationoflogsandotherobjectsbyflotation.

Article 15. Only citizens of the Philippines, of legal age, as well as juridical persons, who are duly qualified by law to exploit and develop water resources, may apply for water
permits.

Article16.AnypersonwhodesirestoobtainawaterpermitshallfileanapplicationwiththeCouncilwhoshallmakeknownsaidapplicationtothepublicforanyprotests.

In determining whether to grant or deny an application, the Council shall consider the following: protests filed, if any prior permits granted the availability of water the water
supplyneededforbeneficialusepossibleadverseeffectslanduseeconomicsandotherrelevantfactors.

Uponapprovalofanapplication,awaterpermitshallbeissuedandrecorded.

Article17.Therighttotheuseofwaterisdeemedacquiredasofthedateoffilingoftheapplicationforawaterpermitincaseofapprovedpermits,orasofthedateofactualuse
inacasewherenopermitisrequired.

Article18.Allwaterpermitsgrantedshallbesubjecttoconditionsofbeneficialuse,adequatestandardsofdesignandconstruction,andsuchothertermsandconditionsasmaybe
imposedbytheCouncil.

Suchpermitsshallspecifythemaximumamountofwaterwhichmaybedivertedorwithdrawn,themaximumrateofdiversionorwithdrawal,thetimeortimesduringtheyearwhen
watermaybedivertedorwithdrawn,thepointsorpointsofdiversionorlocationofwells,theplaceofuse,thepurposesofwhichwatermaybeusedandsuchotherrequirements
theCouncildeemsdesirable.

Article19.WaterrightsmaybeleadedortransferredinwholeorinparttoanotherpersonwithpriorapprovaloftheCouncil,afterduenoticeandhearing.

Article20.Themeasureandlimitofappropriationofwatershallbebeneficialuse.

Beneficialuseofwateristheutilizationofwaterintherightamountduringtheperiodthatthewaterisneededforproducingthebenefitsforwhichthewaterisappropriated.

Article 21. Standards of beneficial use shall be prescribed by the council for the appropriator of water for different purposes and conditions, and the use of waters which are
appropriatedshallbemeasuredandcontrolledinaccordancetherewith.

Exceptingfordomesticuse,everyappropriatorofwatershallmaintainwatercontrolandmeasuringdevices,andkeeprecordsofwaterwithdrawal.WhenrequiredbytheCouncil,
allappropriatorsofwatershallfurnishinformationonwateruse.

Article 22. Between two or more appropriators of water from the same sources of supply, priority in time of appropriation shall give the better right, except that in times of
emergencytheuseofwaterfordomesticandmunicipalpurposesshallhaveabetterrightoverallotherusesProvided,thewherewatershortageisrecurrentandtheappropriator
formunicipalusehasalowerpriorityintimeofappropriation,thenitshallbehisdutytofindanalternativesourceofsupplyinaccordancewithconditionsprescribedbytheCouncil.

Article 23. Priorities may be altered on grounds of greater beneficial use, multipurpose use, and other similar grounds after due notice and hearing, subject to payment of
compensationispropercases.

Article24.Awaterrightshallbeexercisedinsuchamannerthattherightsofthirdpersonsorofotherappropriatorsarenotprejudicedthereby.

Article 25. A holder of water permit may demand the establishment of easements necessary for the construction and maintenance of the works and facilities needed for the
beneficialuseofthewaterstobeappropriatedsubjecttotherequirementsofjustcompensationandtothefollowingconditions:

(a)Thatheistheowner,lessee,mortgageeoronehavingrealrightoverthelanduponwhichheproposestousewaterand

(b)Thattheproposedeasementisthemostconvenientandtheleastoneroustotheservientestate.

Easementsrelatingtotheappropriationanduseofwatersmaybemodifiedbyagreementofthecontractingpartiesprovidedthesameisnotcontrarytolaworprejudicialtothird
persons.

Article 26. Where water shortage is recurrent, the use of the water pursuant to a permit may, in the interest of equitable distribution of the benefits among legal appropriators,
reduceafterduenoticeandhearing.

Article27.Waterusersshallbearthediminutionofanywatersupplyduetonaturalcausesorforcemajeure.

Article28.Waterpermitsshallcontinuetobevalidaslongaswaterisbeneficiallyusedhowever,itmaybesuspendedonthegroundsofnoncompliancewithapprovedplansand
specifications or schedules of water distribution use of water for a purpose other than that for which it was granted nonpayment of water charges wastage failure to keep
recordsofwaterdiversion,whenrequiredandviolationofanytermorconditionofanypermitorrulesandregulationspromulgatedbytheCouncil.

Temporarypermitsmaybeissuedfortheappropriationanduseofwaterforshortperiodsunderspecialcircumstances.

Article29.Waterpermitsmayberevokedafterduenoticeandhearingongroundsofnonusegrossviolationoftheconditionsimposedinthepermitunauthorizedsaleofwater
willfulfailureorrefusaltocomplywithrulesandregulationsofanylawfulorderpollution,publicnuisanceoractsdetrimentaltopublichealthandsafetywhentheappropriatoris
foundtobedisqualifiedunderthelawtoexploitanddevelopnaturalresourcesofthePhilippineswhen,inthecase,ofirrigation,thelandisconvertedtononagriculturalpurposes
andothersimilargrounds.

Article 30. All water permits are subject to modification or cancellation by the council, after due notice and hearing, in favor of a project of greater beneficial use or for multi
purposedevelopment,andawaterpermitteewhosufferstherebyshallbedulycompensatedbytheentityorpersoninwhosefavorthecancellationwasmade.

CHAPTERIV
UTILIZATIONOFWATERS

Article31.PreferenceinthedevelopmentofwaterresourcesshallconsidersecurityoftheState,multipleuse,beneficialeffects,adverseeffectsandcostsofdevelopment.

Article32.Theutilizationofsubterraneanorgroundwatershallbecoordinatedwiththatofsurfacewaterssuchasrivers,streams,springsandlakes,sothatasuperiorrightinone
notadverselyaffectedbyaninferiorrightintheother.

For this purpose the Council shall promulgate rules and regulations and declare the existence of control areas for the coordinated development, protection, and utilization of
subterraneanorgroundwaterandsurfacewaters.

Controlareaisanareaoflandwheresubterraneanorgroundwaterandsurfacewateraresointerrelatedthatwithdrawalanduseinonesimilarlyaffectstheother.Theboundaryof
acontrolareamaybealteredfromtimetotime,ascircumstanceswarrant.

Article33.Watercontainedinopencanals,aqueductsorreservoirsofprivatepersonsmaybeusedbyanypersonfordomesticpurposeorforwateringplantsaslongasthewater
iswithdrawnbymanualmethodswithoutcheckingthestreamordamagingthecanal,aqueductorreservoirProvided,Thatthisrightmayberestrictedbytheownershoulditresult
inlossorinjurytohim.

Article34.Awaterpermitteeorappropriatormayuseanywatercoursetoconveywatertoanotherpointinthewatercourseforthepurposestatedinapermitandsuchwatermay
bedivertedorrecapturedatthatpointbysaidpermitteeinthesameamountlessallowancefornormallossesintransit.

Article35.Worksforthestorage,diversion,distributionandutilizationofwaterresourcesshallcontainadequateprovisionforthepreventionandcontrolofdiseasesthatmaybe
inducedorspreadbysuchworkswhenrequiredbytheCouncil.

Article 36. When the reuse of waste water is feasible, it shall be limited as much as possible, to such uses other than direct human consumption. No person or agency shall
distributesuchwaterforpublicconsumptionuntilitisdemonstratedthatsuchconsumptionwillnotadverselyaffectthehealthandsafetyofthepublic.
Article 37. In the construction and operation of hydraulic works, due consideration shall be given to the preservation of scenic places and historical relics and, in addition to the
provisionsofexistinglaws,noworksthatwouldrequiredthedestructionorremovalofsuchplacesorrelicsshallbeundertakenwithoutshowingthatthedistributionorremovalis
necessaryandunaviodable.

Article38.Authorityfortheconstructionofdams,bridgesandotherstructuresacrossofwhichmayinterferewiththeflowofnavigableorflotablewaterwaysshallfirstbesecured
fromtheDepartmentofPublicWorks,TransportationandCommunications.

Article 39. Except in cases of emergency to save life or property, the construction or repair of the following works shall be undertaken only after the plans and specifications
therefor, as may be required by the Council, are approved by the proper government agency dams for the diversion or storage of water structures for the use of water power,
installationsfortheutilizationofsubterraneanorgroundwaterandotherstructuresforutilizationofwaterresources.

Article40.Noexcavationforthepurposeofemissionofahotspringorfortheenlargementoftheexistingopeningthereofshallbemadewithoutpriorpermit.

AnypersonoragencywhointendstodevelopahotspringforhumanconsumptionmustfirstobtainapermitfromtheDepartmentofHealth.

Article41.Nopersonshalldevelopastream,lake,orspringforrecreationalpurposeswithoutfirstsecuringapermitfromtheCouncil.

Article 42. Unlessotherwise ordered by the President of the Philippines and only in time of national calamity or emergency, no person shall induce or restrain rainfall by any
methodsuchascloudseedingwithoutapermitfromthepropergovernmentemergency.

Article43.Nopersonshallraiseorlowerthewaterlevelofariverstream,lake,lagoon,ormarshnordrainthesamewithoutapermit.

Article44.Drainagesystemsshallbesoconstructedthattheiroutletsarerivers,lakes,thesea,naturalbodiesofwater,orsuchotherwatercourseasmaybeapprovedbythe
propergovernmentagency.

Article45.Whenadrainagechannelisconstructedbyanumberofpersonsfortheircommonbenefit,thecostofconstructionandmaintenanceofthechannelshallbeborneby
eachinproportiontothebenefitsdrived.

Article46.Whenartificialmeansareemployedtodrainwaterfromhighertolowerland,theownerofthehigherlandshallselecttheroutesandmethodsofdrainagethatwillcause
theminimumdamagetothelowerlands,subjecttotherequirementsofjustcompensation.

Article47.Whentheuse,conveyanceorstorageofwatersresultsindamagetoanother,thepersonresponsibleforthedamageshallpaycompensation.

Article48.Whenawaterresourcesprojectinterfereswiththeaccessoflandownertoaportionofhispropertyorwiththeconveyanceofirrigationordrainagewater,thepersonor
agency constructing the project shall bear the cost of construction and maintenance of the bridges, flumes and other structures necessary for maintaining access, irrigation, or
drainage,inadditiontopayingcompensationforlandandincidentaldamages.

Article49.Anypersonhavinganeasementforanaqueductmayenterupontheservientlandforthepurposeofcleaning,repairingorreplacingtheaqueductortheremovalof
obstructionstherefrom.

Article50.Lowerestatesareobligedtoreceivethewaterswhichnaturallyandwithouttheinterventionofmanflowfromthehigherestate,aswellasthestoneorearthwhichthey
carrywiththem.

Theownerofthelowerestatecannotconstructworkswhichwillimpedethisnaturalflow,unlessheprovidesanalternativemethodofdrainageneithercantheownerofthehigher
estatemakeworkswhichwillincreasethisnaturalflow.

Article51.Thebanksofriversandstreamsandtheshoresoftheseasandlakesthroughouttheirentirelengthandwithinazoneofthree(3)metersinurbanareas,twenty(20)
metersinagriculturalareasandforty(40)metersinforestareas,alongtheirmarginsaresubjecttotheeasementofpublicuseintheinterestofrecreation,navigation,floatage,
fishingandsalvage.Nopersonshallbeallowedtostayinthiszonelongerthanwhatisnecessaryforrecreation,navigation,floatage,fishingorsalvageortobuildstructuresofany
kind.

Article52.Theestablishment,extent,form,andconditionsofeasementsofwaternotexpresslydeterminedbytheprovisionsofthisCodeshallbegovernedbytheprovisionsof
theCivilCode.

CHAPTERV
CONTROLOFWATERS

Article53.Topromotethebestinterestandthecoordinatedprotectionoffloodplainlands,theSecretaryofPublicWorks,TransportationandCommunicationsmaydeclareflood
controlareasandpromulgateguidelinesforgoverningfloodplainmanagementplansintheseareas.

Article54.Indeclaredfloodcontrolareas,rulesandregulationsmaybepromulgatedtoprohibitorcontrolactivitiesthatmaydamageorcausedeteriorationorlakesanddikes,
obstructtheflowofwater,changethenaturalflowoftheriver,increasefloodlossesoraggravatefloodproblems.
Article55.Thegovernmentmayconstructnecessaryfloodcontrolstructuresindeclaredfloodcontrolareas,andforthispurposeitshallhavealegaleasementaswideasmaybe
neededalongandadjacenttotheriverbankandoutsideofthebedorchanneloftheriver.

Article 56. River beds, sand bars and tidal flats may not be cultivated except upon prior permission from the Secretary of the Department of Public Works, Transportation and
Communicationandsuchpermissionshallnotbegrantedwheresuchcultivationobstructstheflowofwaterorincreasefloodlevelssoastocausedamagetootherareas.

Article 57. Any person may erect levees or revetments to protect his property from flood, encroachment by the river or change in the course of the river, provided that such
constructionsdoesnotcausedamagetothepropertyofanother.

Article58.Whenariverorstreamsuddenlychangesitscoursetotraverseprivatelands,theownersoftheaffectedlandsmaynotcompelthegovernmenttorestoretherivertoits
former bed nor can they restrain the government from taking steps to revert the river or stream to its former course. The owners of the land thus affected are not entitled to
compensationforanydamagesustainedthereby.However,theformerownersofthenewbedshallbetheownersoftheabandonedbedinproportiontothearealostbyeach.

TheownersoftheaffectedlandsmayundertaketoreturntheriverorstreamtoitsoldbedattheirownexpenseProvided,ThatapermitthereforissecuredfromtheSecretaryof
PublicWorks,TransportationandCommunicationandworkpertainingtheretoarecommencedwithintwoyearsfromthechangeinthecourseoftheriverorstream.

Article59.Rivers,lakesandlagoonsmay,upontherecommendationofthePhilippinesCoastGuard,bedeclarednavigableeitherinwholeorinpart.

Article60.Theraftingoflogsandotherobjectsonriversandlakeswhichareflotablemaybecontrolledorprohibitedduringdesignatedseasonoftheyearwithdueregardtothe
needsofirrigationanddomesticwatersupplyandotherusesofwater.

Article61.TheimpoundingofwaterinpondsorreservoirsmaybeprohibitedbytheCounciluponconsultationwiththeDepartmentofHealthifitisdangeroustopublichealth,orit
mayorderthatsuchpondorreservoirbedrainedifsuchisnecessaryfortheprotectionofpublichealth.

Article 62. Waters of a stream may be stored in a reservoir by a permittee in such amount as will not prejudice the right of any permittee downstream. Whoever operates the
reservoirshall,whenrequired,releasewaterforminimumstreamflow.

AllreservoiroperationsshallbesubjecttorulesandregulationsissuedbytheCounciloranypropergovernmentagency.

Article63.Theoperatorofadamforthestorageofwatermayberequiredtoemployanengineerpossessingqualificationsprescribedfortheproperoperations,maintenanceand
administrationofthedam.

Article64.TheCouncilshallapprovethemanner,location,depth,andspacinginwhichboringsforsubterraneanorgroundwatermaybemade,determinetherequirementsforthe
registrationofeveryboringoralterationtoexistingboringsaswellasothercontrolmeasuresfortheexploitationofsubterraneanorgroundwaterresources,andincoordination
withtheProfessionalRegulationCommissionprescribethequalificationsofthosewhowoulddrillsuchborings.

NopersonshalldrillawellwithoutpriorpermissionfromtheCouncil.

Article65.WaterfromoneriverbasinmaybetransferredtoanotherriverbasinonlywithapprovaloftheCouncil.Inconsideringanyrequestforsuchtransfer,theCouncilshall
takeintoaccountthefullcostsofthetransfer,thebenefitsthatwouldaccruetothebasinoforiginwithoutthetransfer,thebenefitswouldaccruetothereceivingbasinonaccountof
thetransfer,alternativeschemesforsupplyingwatertothereceivingbasin,andotherrelevantfactors.

CHAPTERVI
CONSERVATIONANDPROTECTIONOFWATERSANDWATERSHEDSANDRELATEDLANDRESOURCES

Article66.Afterduenoticeandhearingwhenwarrantedbycircumstances,minimumstreamflowsforriversandstreams,andminimumwaterlevelsforlakesmaybeestablished
bytheCouncilundersuchconditionsasmaybenecessaryfortheprotectionoftheenvironment,controlofpollution,navigation,preventionofsaltdamage,andgeneralpublicuse.

Article 67. Any watershed or any area of land adjacent to any surface water or overlying any ground water may declared by the Department of Natural Resources as protected
areaRulesandregulationsmaybepromulgatedbysuchDepartmenttoprohibitorcontrolsuchactivitiesbytheownersoroccupantsthereofwithintheprotectedareawhichmay
damageorcausethedeteriorationofthesurfacewaterorgroundwaterorinterferewiththeinvestigation,use,control,protection,managementoradministrationofsuchwaters.

Article68.Itshallbethedutyofanypersonincontrolofawelltopreventthewaterfromflowingonthesurfaceoftheland,orintoanysurfacewater,oranyporousstratumunder
neaththesurfacewithoutbeingbeneficiallyused.

Article69.Itshallbethedutyofanypersonincontrolofawellcontainingwaterwithmineralsorothersubstancesinjurioustoman,animals,agriculture,andvegetationtoprevent
suchwatersfromflowingonthesurfaceofthelandorintoanysurfacewaterorintoanyotheraquiferorporousstratum.

Article70.NopersonshallutilizeanexistingwellorpondorspreadwatersforrechargingsubsterraneanorgroundwatersupplieswithoutpriorpermissionoftheCouncil.

Article71.Topromotebetterwaterconservationandusageforirrigationpurposes,themergerofirrigationassociationsandtheappropriationofwatersbyassociationsinsteadof
byindividualsshallbeencouraged.
Nowaterpermitshallbegrantedtoanindividualwhenhiswaterrequirementcanbesuppliedthroughanirrigationassociation.

Article 72. In the consideration of a proposed water resource project, due regard shall be given to ecological changes resulting from the construction of the project in order to
balancetheneedsofdevelopmentandtheprotectionoftheenvironment.

Article73.Theconservationoffishandwildlifeshallreceiveproperconsiderationandshallbecoordinatedwithotherfeaturesofwaterresourcesdevelopmentprogramstoinsure
thatfishandwildlifevaluesreceiveequalattentionwithotherprojectpurposes.

Article74.SwampsandmarsheswhichareownedbytheStateandwhichprimaryvalueforwaterfowlpropagationorotherwildlifepurposesmaybereservedandprotectedfrom
drainageoperationanddevelopment.

Article75.Nopersonshall,withoutpriorpermissionfromtheNationalPollutionControlCommission,buildanyworksthatmayproducedangerousornoxioussubstancesorperform
anyactwhichmayresultintheintroductionofsewage,industrialwaste,oranypollutantintoanysourceofwatersupply.

Water pollution is the impairment of the quality of water beyond a certain standard. This standard may vary according to the use of the water and shall be set by the National
PollutionControlCommission.

Article76.Theestablishmentofcemeteriesandwastedisposalareasthatmayaffectthesourceofawatersupplyorareservoirfordomesticormunicipaluseshallbesubjectto
therulesandregulationspromulgatedbytheDepartmentofHealth.

Article 77. Tailings from mining operations and sediments from placer mining shall not be dumped into rivers and waterways without prior permission from the Council upon
recommendationbytheNationalPollutionControlCommission.

Article78.TheapplicationofagriculturalfertilizersandpesticidesmaybeprohibitedorregulatedbytheNationalPollutionControlCommissionintheareaswheresuchapplication
maycausepollutionofasourceofwatersupply.

CHAPTERVII
ADMINISTRATIONOFWATERSANDENFORCEMENTOFTHEPROVISIONSOFTHISCODE

Article79.TheAdministrationandenforcementoftheprovisionsofthisCode,includingthegrantingofpermitsandtheimpositionofpenaltiesforadministrativeviolationshereof,
are hereby vested in the Council, and except in regard to those functions which under this Code are specifically conferred upon other agencies of the government, the Council is
herebyempoweredtomakealldecisionsanddeterminationsprovidedforinthisCode.

Article80.TheCouncilmaydeputizeanyofficialoragencyofthegovernmenttoperformanyofitsspecificfunctionsoractivities.

Article 81. The Council shall provide a continuing program for data collection, research and manpower development needed for the appropriation, utilization, exploitation,
conservation,andprotectionofthewaterresourcesofthecountry.

Article82.Intheimplementationoftheprovisionsofthiscode,theCouncilshallpromulgatethenecessaryrulesandregulationswhichmayprovideforpenaltiesconsistingofafine
notexceedingOneThousandPesos(P1,000.00)and/orsuspensionorrevocationofthewaterpermitorotherrighttotheuseofwater.Violationsofsuchrulesandregulationsmay
beadministrativelydealtwithbytheCouncil.

Suchrulesandregulationsprescribedbyanygovernmentagencythatpertaintotheutilization,exploitation,development,control,conservation,orprotectionofwaterresources
shall,iftheCouncilsorequires,besubjecttoitsapproval.

Article 83. The Council is hereby authorized to impose and collect reasonable fees or charges for water resources development from water appropriators, except when it is for
purelydomesticpurposes.

Article 84. The Council and other agencies authorized to enforce this Code are empowered to enter upon private lands, with previous notice to the owner, for the purpose of
conductingsurveysandhydrologicinvestigations,andtoperformsuchotheractsasarenecessaryincarryingouttheirfunctionsincludingthepowertoexercisetherightofeminent
domain.

Article 85. No program or project involving the appropriation, utilization, exploitation, development, control, conservation, or protection of water resources may be undertaken
withoutpriorapprovaloftheCouncil,exceptthosewhichtheCouncilmay,initsdiscretion,exempt.

TheCouncilmayrequireconsultationwiththepublicpriortotheimplementationofcertainwaterresourcesdevelopmentprojects.

Article 86. When plans and specifications of a hydraulic structure are submitted for approval, the government agency whose functions embrace the type of project for which the
structure is intended, shall review the plans and specifications and recommended to the Council proper action thereon and the latter shall approve the same only when they are
inconformity with the requirements of this Code and the rules and regulations promulgated by the Council. Notwithstanding such approval, neither the engineer who drew up the
plansandspecificationsofthehydraulicstructure,northeconstructorwhobuiltit,shallberelievedofhisliabilityfordamagesincaseoffailurethereofbyreasonofdefectinplans
andspecifications,orfailureduetodefectinconstruction,withinten(10)yearsfromthecompletionofthestructure.
Anyactionrecoversuchdamagesmustbebroughtwithinfive(5)yearsfollowingsuchfailure.

Article 87. The Council or its duly authorized representatives, in the exercise of its power to investigate and decide cases brought to its cognizance, shall have the power to
administeroaths,compeltheattendanceofwitnessesbysubpoenaandtheproductionofrelevantdocumentsbysubpoenaducestecum.

Noncomplianceofviolationofsuchordersorsubpoenaandsubpoenaducestecumshallbepunishedinthesamemannerasindirectcontemptofaninferiorcourtuponapplication
bytheaggrievedpartywiththeproperCourtofFirstInstanceinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofRules71oftheRulesoftheCourt.

Article 88. The Council shall have original jurisdiction over all disputes to relating to appropriation, utilization, exploitation, development, control, conservation and protection of
waterswithinthemeaningandcontextoftheprovisionsofthisCode.

ThedecisionsoftheCouncilonwaterrightscontroversiesshallbeimmediatelyexecutoryandtheenforcementthereofmaybesuspendedonlywhenabond,inaamountfixedby
theCounciltoanswerfordamagesoccasionedbythesuspensionorstayofexecution,shallhavebeenfiledbytheappealingparty,unlessthesuspensionisvirtueofanorderofa
competentcourt.

Alldisputeshallbedecidedwithinsixty(60)daysafterthepartiessubmitthesamefordecisionorresolution.

TheCouncilshallhavethepowertoissuewritsofexecutionandenforceitsdecisionswiththeassistanceoflocalornationalpoliceagencies.

Article89.ThedecisionsoftheCouncilonwaterrightscontroversiesmaybeappealedtotheCourtofFirstInstanceoftheprovincewherethesubjectmatterofthecontroversyis
situatedwithinfifteen(15)daysfromthedatethepartyappealingreceivesacopyofthedecision,onanyofthefollowinggrounds(1)graveabuseofdiscretion(2)questionof
lawand(3)questionsoffactandlaw.

CHAPTERVIII
PENALPROVISIONS

Article 90. The following acts shall be penalized by suspension or revocation of the violator's water permit or other right to the use of water and/or a fine of not exceeding One
ThousandPesos(P1,000.00),inthediscretionoftheCouncil:

(a)AppropriationofsubterraneanorgroundwaterfordomesticusebyanoverlyinglandownerwithoutregistrationrequiredbytheCouncil.

(b)Nonobservanceofanystandardofbeneficialuseofwater.

(c)Failureoftheappropriatortokeeparecordofwaterwithdrawal,whenrequired.

(d)Failuretocomplywithanyofthetermsorconditionsinawaterpermitorawaterrightsgrant.

(e)Unauthorizeduseofwaterforapurposeotherthanthatforwhicharightorpermitwasgranted.

(f)Constructionorrepairofanyhydraulicworkorstructurewithoutdulyapprovedplansandspecifications,whenrequired.

(g)Failuretoinstallaregulatingandmeasuringdeviceforthecontrolofthevolumeofwaterappropriated,whenrequired.

(h)Unauthorizedsale,lease,ortransferofwaterand/orwaterrights.

(i) Failure to provide adequate facilities to prevent or control diseases when required by the Council in the construction of any work for the storage, diversion,
distributionandutilizationofwater.

(j)DrillingofawellwithoutpermissionoftheCouncil.

(k)UtilizationofanexistingwellorpondingorspreadingofwaterforrechargingsubterraneanorgroundwatersupplieswithoutpermissionoftheCouncil.

(l)Violationofornoncompliancewithanyorder,rules,orregulationsoftheCouncil.

(m)Illegaltakingordiversionofwaterinanopencanal,aqueductorreservoir.

(n)MaliciousdestructionofhydraulicworksorstructurevaluedatnotexceedingP5,000.00.

Article91.A.AfineofnotexceedingThreeThousandPesos(P3,000.00)orimprisonmentfornotmorethanthree(3)years,orbothsuchfineandimprisonment,inthediscretionof
theCourt,shallbeimposeduponanypersonwhocommitsanyofthefollowingacts:

1.Appropriationofwaterwithoutawaterpermit,unlesssuchpersonisexpresslyexemptedfromsecuringapermitbytheprovisionsofthisCode.
2.Unauthorizedobstructionofanirrigationcanal.

3.Cultivationofariverbed,sandbarortidalflatwithoutpermission.

4.MaliciousdestructionofhydraulicworksorstructurevaluedatnotexceedingTwentyFiveThousandPesos(P25,000.00).

B.AfineexceedingThreeThousandPesosP3,000.00)butnotmorethanSixThousandPesosP6,000.00)orimprisonmentexceedingthree(3)yearsbutnotmorethan
six(6)years,orbothsuchfineandimprisonmentinthediscretionoftheCourt,shallbeimposedonanypersonwhocommitsanyofthefollowingacts:

1.Distributionforpublicconsumptionofwaterwhichadverselyaffectsthehealthandsafetyofthepublic.

2.Excavationorenlargementoftheopeningofahotspringwithoutpermission.

3.Unauthorizedobstructionofariverorwaterway,oroccupancyofariverbankorseashorewithoutpermission.

4.Establishmentofacemeteryorawastedisposalareanearasourceofwatersupplyorreservoirfordomesticmunicipalusewithoutpermission.

5.Constructing,withoutpriorpermissionofthegovernmentagencyconcerned,worksthatproducedangerousornoxioussubstances,orperformingacts
thatresultintheintroductionofsewage,industrialwaste,oranysubstancethatpollutesasourceofwatersupply.

6.Dumpingminetailingsandsedimentsintoriversofwaterwayswithoutpermission.

7.MaliciousdestructionofhydraulicworksorstructurevaluedmorethanTwentyFiveThousandPesos(P25,000.00)butatnotexceedingOneHundred
ThousandPeso(100,000.00).

C.AfineexceedingSixThousandPesos(P6,000.00)butnotmorethanTenThousandPesos(P10,000.00)orimprisonmentexceedingsix(6)yearsbutnotmorethan
twelve(12)years,orbothsuchfineandimprisonment,inthediscretionoftheCourt,shallbeimposeduponanypersonwhocommitsanyofthefollowingacts:

1.Misrepresentationofcitizenshipinordertoqualifyforwaterpermit.

2.Maliciousdestructionofahydraulicworksorstructure,valuedatmorethanOneHundredThousandPesos(P100,000.00).

Article92.Iftheoffenseiscommittedbyacorporation,trust,firm,partnership,associationoranyotherjuridicalperson,thepenaltyshallbeimposeduponthePresident,General
Manager, and other guilty officer or officers of such corporation, trust firm, partnership, association or entity, without prejudice to the filing of a civil action against said juridical
person.Iftheoffenderisanalien,heshallbedeportedafterservinghissentence,withoutfurtherproceedings.

After final judgment of conviction, the Court upon petition of the prosecution attorney in the same proceedings, and after due hearing, may, when the public interest so requires,
ordersuspensionofordissolutionofsuchcorporation,trust,firm,partnership,associationorjuridicalperson.

Article93.AllactionsforoffensespunishableunderArticle91ofthisCodeshallbebroughtbeforethepropercourt.

Article94.ActionsforoffensespunishableunderthisCodebyafineofnotmorethanThreeThousandPesos(P3,000.00)orbyanimprisonmentofnotmorethanthree(3)years,
or both such fine and imprisonment, shall prescribe in five (5) years those punishable by a fine exceeding Three Thousand Pesos (P3,000.00) but not more than Six Thousand
Pesos(P6,000.00)oranimprisonmentexceedingthree(3)yearsbutnotmorethansix(6)years,orbothsuchfineandimprisonment,shallprescribeinseven(7)yearsandthose
punishablebyafineexceedingSixThousandPesos(P6,000.00)butnotmorethanTenThousandPesos(P10,000.00)oranimprisonmentexceedingsix(6)yearsbutnotmorethan
twelve(12)years,orbothsuchfineandimprisonment,shallprescribeinten(10)years.

CHAPTERIX
TRANSITORYANDFINALPROVISIONS

Article95.Withintwo(2)yearsfromthepromulgationofthisCode,allclaimsforarighttousewaterexistingonorbeforeDecember31,1974shallberegisteredwiththeCouncil
whichshallconfirmsaidrightsinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofthisCode,andshallsettheirrespectivepriorities.

Whenpriorityintimeofappropriationfromacertainsourceofsupplycannotbedetermined,theorderofpreferenceintheuseofthewatersshallbeasfollows:

(a)Domesticandmunicipaluse

(b)Irrigation

(c)Powergeneration

(d)Fisheries
(e)Livestockraising

(f)Industrialuse,and

(g)Otheruses.

Anyclaimnotregisteredwithinsaidperiodshallbeconsideredwaivedandtheuseofthewaterdeemedabandoned,andthewatershallthereuponbeavailablefordispositionas
unappropriatedwatersinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofthisCode.

Article96.Novestedoracquiredrighttotheuseofwatercanarisefromactsoromissionswhichareagainstthelaworwhichinfringeupontherightsofothers.

Article 97. Acts and contract under the regime of old laws, if they are valid in accordance therewith, shall be respected, subject to the limitations established in this Code. Any
modificationorextensionoftheseactsandcontractsafterthepromulgationofthisCode,shallbesubjecttotheprovisionshereof.

Article98.InterimrulesandregulationspromulgatedbytheCouncilshallcontinuetohavebindingforceandeffect,whennotinconflictwiththeprovisionsofthisCode.

Article99.IfanyprovisionorpartofthisCode,ortheapplicationthereoftoanypersonorcircumstance,isdeclaredunconstitutionalorinvalidforanyreason,theotherprovisions
orpartsthereinshallnotbeaffected.

Article100.Thefollowinglaws,partsand/orprovisionsoflawsareherebyrepealed:

(a)TheprovisionsoftheSpanishLawonWatersofAugust3,1866,theCivilCodeofSpainof1889andtheCivilCodeofthePhilippines(R.A.386)onownershipof
waters,easementsrelatingtowaters,useofpublicwatersandacquisitiveprescriptionontheuseofwaters,whichareinconsistentwiththeprovisionsofthisCode

(b)TheprovisionsofR.A.6395,otherwiseknownastheRevisedCharterofNationalPowerCorporation,particularlysection3,paragraph(f),andsection12,insofar
astheyrelatetotheappropriationofwatersandthegrantthereof

(c)TheprovisionsofActNo.2152,asamended,otherwiseknownastheIrrigationAct,section3,paragraphs(k)and(m)ofP.D.No.813,R.A.2056Sec.90,C.A.
137and,

(d)AllDecree,Laws,Acts,partsofActs,rulesofCourt,executiveorders,andadministrativeregulationswhicharecontrarytoorinconsistentwiththeprovisionsof
thisCode.

Article101.ThisCodeshalltakeeffectuponitspromulgation.

DoneintheCityofManila,this31stdayofDecember,NineteenHundredandSeventySix.