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Trends and Innovations in The Digital Energy World

Role of Renewable Energy for Power and Electricity


System Development in Thailand
Tuesday 24 January 2017
At Rama Garden Hotel, Bangkok

Assistant Professor Dr. Surachai Chaitusaney


Head of Power System Research Laboratory
Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University
Email: surachai.c@chula.ac.th

Role of RE for Power System Development Power System Research Laboratory, Chulalongkorn University
Outline

Renewable Energy in Thailand

Role in Power System Development

Role in Power and Electricity Policy

Role of RE for Power System Development Power System Research Laboratory, Chulalongkorn University 2
Outline

Renewable Energy in Thailand

Role in Power System Development

Role in Power and Electricity Policy

Role of RE for Power System Development Power System Research Laboratory, Chulalongkorn University 3
Renewable Energy in Thailand

Role of RE for Power System Development Power System Research Laboratory, Chulalongkorn University 4
Renewable Energy in Thailand

Role of RE for Power System Development Power System Research Laboratory, Chulalongkorn University 5
Renewable Energy in Thailand

Role of RE for Power System Development Power System Research Laboratory, Chulalongkorn University 6
Renewable Energy in Thailand

Role of RE for Power System Development Power System Research Laboratory, Chulalongkorn University 7
Outline

Renewable Energy in Thailand

Role in Power System Development

Role in Power and Electricity Policy

Role of RE for Power System Development Power System Research Laboratory, Chulalongkorn University 8
Role in Power System Development
More RE --> Distribution Utilities
must be more active in Control
and Operation (DSO).

More RE --> Generation


System will be shifted from
Source : NIST Transmission Systems to
Distribution Systems.

Role of RE for Power System Development Power System Research Laboratory, Chulalongkorn University 9
Role in Power System Development
PAST:
Power system development
is aimed to serve the new
loads

FUTURE:
Power system development
is aimed to serve the new
loads & manage the
intermittence of RE,
including to maintain the
system reliability and quality Intermittency of renewable energy electricity generation and its effect on price. As renewable energy production fluctuates, conventional production and the spot
prices respond. Source: Johannes Mayer, Electricity Production and Spot Prices in Germany 2014 (Freiburg: Fraunhofer ISE, December 31, 2014).

Role of RE for Power System Development Power System Research Laboratory, Chulalongkorn University 10
Role in Power System Development
1. Utility has to invest more
Tariff for RE : on the system operation
Base tariff+Adder
Or FiT Or Bidding
and/or system expansion.
power flow capacity
Connection (+,-) Power
system cost voltage regulation
Renewable cost
Energy, Electric Power Grid power loss
e.g. Solar (Utility) power dispatch
PV system reserve
Load Etc.
(+,-) Power
system cost
Tariff for RE : 2. Different connection
Base tariff+Adder
Or FiT Or Bidding
locations (reflecting
different system
Connection topologies and load
Renewable cost
Energy, types) cause different
e.g. Solar power system costs.
PV
Load 3. Not only the utilities
should be aware of the
increased costs, but also
the policy maker and the
end users.

Role of RE for Power System Development Power System Research Laboratory, Chulalongkorn University 11
Role in Power System Development
TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS FOR INTEGRATION OF PV (RE) INTO
DISTRIBUTION GRID : MEDIUM VOLTAGE

System Improvement
is required.

Source : PV Grid, 2013

Role of RE for Power System Development Power System Research Laboratory, Chulalongkorn University 12
Role in Power System Development
TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS FOR INTEGRATION OF PV (RE) INTO
DISTRIBUTION GRID : LOW VOLTAGE

System Improvement
is required.

Source : PV Grid, 2013

Role of RE for Power System Development Power System Research Laboratory, Chulalongkorn University 13
Role in Power System Development
Management System of Distributed Energy Resources (DERMS)

Source : EPRI, 2015

Role of RE for Power System Development Power System Research Laboratory, Chulalongkorn University 14
Role in Power System Development
Diagram of Power and Information Interfaces in Thailand
Electricity Networks

Source : ERC,
Thailand, 2014

Role of RE for Power System Development Power System Research Laboratory, Chulalongkorn University 15
Role in Power System Development
PROPOSED IDEAS

Investment costs of utilities (G, T, D) will be increased

The increased costs shall be recovered either by subsidy of


government or payment of RE owners (finally both recoveries will be
passed through electricity tariff)

Thailand utilities may have to list the investments and the costs which
are necessary to accommodate the emergence of RE, and include
them into their system development plan

In addition to the defensive solutions, the utilities may take this


challenge to create new business opportunity (e.g. distribution utilities
have more power suppliers and profit from power wheeling on their
networks)

Role of RE for Power System Development Power System Research Laboratory, Chulalongkorn University 16
Outline

Renewable Energy in Thailand

Role in Power System Development

Role in Power and Electricity Policy

Role of RE for Power System Development Power System Research Laboratory, Chulalongkorn University 17
Role in Power and Electricity Policy
More RE --> Distribution Utilities
must be more active in Control
and Operation (DSO).

More RE --> There will be


more Distributed Generation
Source : NIST (DG) connecting in
Distribution Systems.

Role of RE for Power System Development Power System Research Laboratory, Chulalongkorn University 18
Role in Power and Electricity Policy
The coming of RE will result in the change of stakeholders in
Thailand electricity business.

There are 946 Generation licensees


98 are operating power plants larger than 100 MW
155 are operating power plants larger than 10 MW and less than 100 MW
693 are operating power plants less than 10 MW
Most of the power plants are Solar PV (402), Biomass (186), Biogas (121), and
Natural Gas (111), respectively
EGAT is the only licensee in Control System
EGAT is also the only licensee in Transmission System (5 licenses)
There are 143 Distribution System licensees
The number of licensees in Retail is also 143

More competitive environment occurs


Standards and intensive regulation are needed

Source : ERC, Thailand, 2016

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Role in Power and Electricity Policy
The concept of Third Party Access (TPA) is the upcoming issue.
[EMBEDDED cost method]
Investment Cost
Augmented/Ancillary Equipment
Fixed Cost, e.g. O&M, Metering, Services, etc.
Others

[INCREMENTAL/MARGINAL cost method]


Marginal Cost
Loss Cost (Loss Charge)
Congestion Cost (Congestion Charge)
Connection & Reinforcement Cost
Opportunity Cost
Others
Electricity Flow Money Flow
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Role in Power and Electricity Policy

Role of RE for Power System Development Power System Research Laboratory, Chulalongkorn University 21
Role in Power and Electricity Policy

Renewable Energy Firming


(RE-Firming) : by Energy
Storage or Hybrid

kW
Generation

Time

Output generation from RE-Firming will be constant or have very small fluctuation
Higher dependable capacity can be achieved --> less conventional power plants
System voltages are more stable --> better electricity service to users
With a good controller, e.g. charging & discharging --> reverse power flow can be
avoided
Role of RE for Power System Development Power System Research Laboratory, Chulalongkorn University 22
Role in Power and Electricity Policy
PROPOSED IDEAS

There will be more and more electric utilities, especially Generation

The structure of electricity business may be changed, and accordingly


the structure of electricity tariff may have to be reinvestigated

Distribution should take this opportunity to create a new business, e.g.


power wheeling, O&M service, etc.

Existing and new Distribution utilities should have comparable power


reliability and quality, which policy and regulation are needed

Although RE is a promising solution for electric energy, suitable


amount and timing of penetration must be carefully considered for all
stakeholders viewpoint

Role of RE for Power System Development Power System Research Laboratory, Chulalongkorn University 23
End of Slides
Thank You

Role of RE for Power System Development Power System Research Laboratory, Chulalongkorn University