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IPASJ International Journal of Information Technology (IIJIT)

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Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2017 ISSN 2321-5976

Spectral Mixture Analysis and Temporal Land

Sat Satellite Images for monitoring and Change
Detection: Dead Sea Jordan
Saleh Daqamseh

Department of Human Sciences and Technology, Human Science Faculty

Taibah University, Medina, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

the main goal of this study is to investigate the changes and lowering in Dead sea water level during the period of 1980 to
2014.The monitoring of dead sea changes using feature extraction (spectral mixture analysis) technique, temporal land-sat
satellite images, and remote sensing and GIS provide historical data and information about the earth and help detect and
investigate the change in dead sea water level. The temporal satellite images of the dead sea area was processed by Envi
imagine software and spectral mixture analysis which provide accurate account for dead sea area change .The results showed
that the dead sea water level is changing rapidly and is decreasing from year to year. The dead sea was shrinking and lowering
during the period of 1980 to 2014. The percentage lowering of dead sea area decreased from 925.67 in 1980 to 617.98
in 2014. This shrinkage in surface area demonstrates the influence of very high evaporating process and negative balance
charge from water cycle.

Keywords: temporal satellite image, spectral analysis, shrinkage, Change Detection, Dead sea, Remote sensing.

The development of Remote sensing technology can support the new methods to a large extent in monitoring and
change detection studies. The role of remote sensing in feature change detection generally provides a source of input
data or an aid for computing coefficients and model parameters[12] . Experience has shown that satellite data can be
interpreted to derive thematic information on (land change, soil, vegetation change, water level change, etc), combined
with conventionally measured climatic parameters (precipitation, humid, temperature etc) and topographic parameters
elevations (height, slope, contour), and provide the necessary parameters inputs to the change in sea water level[5],
The water problem become the main effected and cause problem on the relations between the Middle East country. It
also takes an important place between many international organizations. Main reason and characteristics of the water
problem it can be highlighted as follows: Current water resources in the Middle East have its limited to meet the needs
of people. The population grows and consumption per head of inhabitant rises which is will continue to increase the
scarcity of water in future. As a result, water becomes one of the main causes of conflict and problem between the
countries of the region [11], [20].
Due to the water shrinkage in the dead sea, it is very necessary to ensure a detailed estimation of the change in the
water level of the dead sea water from time to time to help the decision and policy makers pay attention to this problem.
In the light of this issue, the study aims to apply temporal satellite data and remote sensing technique to investigate the
shrinkage percentage of dead sea water level using spectral mixture analysis.
Review of previous and related literature reveals that temporal satellite-derived information has been used in
monitoring water parameters, water level change detection, and in other environmental applications such as the use of
Radar for water level and surface change[2], [4], [17], [24]. The study was conducted to detect changes in water and
ocean parameters change using AVHRR [1], [ 7] , [ 9], [14] and temporal satellite data Iknos and Land-sat for
monitoring shrinkage water resource and surface changing[13], [2]. Many research have been studied and investigate
the dead sea deformation and the subsidence water level using remote sensing data [10][14], [16], [21] [23]. However,
their work was done for smaller areas. As such, it was not wide and comprehensive enough to include larger areas of
the dead sea water surface. Also, they didn't investigate the shrinkage of water in large periods. Mostly, they didn't use
the spectral mixture analysis. This means low accuracy of change detection of dead sea water level. In this research, we
have included the whole area of dead sea in a large period; from 1980 to 2014 using spectral texture analysis .

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IPASJ International Journal of Information Technology (IIJIT)
Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJIT/IIJIT.htm
A Publisher for Research Motivation ........ Email:editoriijit@ipasj.org
Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2017 ISSN 2321-5976

This paper further explores and demonstrates the capability of spectral texture analysis and temporal satellite images
in detecting the percentage of shrinkage of dead sea water level and the environmental changes during the period.
1.1 Study area
The study area location -The Dead Sea- covers about 405 square miles (46 miles long and 10 miles in width) with a
high salinity percentage attaining 10 times higher than any other sea water. The Dead Sea Geographic coordinate
system, is located between the latitude 3130 and 35 30, and longitude 31 22and 3537[ 21]. The study area is
located in the Jordan Rift Valley. The Dead Sea is located in an arid zone with a year average rainfall equal or less
than70 mm/ per year. The main source of Dead Sea water is the runoff water which comes mostly from the Jordan
River watershed[18].

Figure 1 show the Dead Sea, Jordan


2.1 data
The satellite data used in this research was downloaded from Land-sat data website( http://glcf.umd.edu/data/landsat/)
and the Royal Jordanian geographic center in the period between June 1980 to April 2014. The land sat images used in
this research were: 1- land-sat MSS 1980 with spatial resolution 80m, 2- land-sat MSS 30M for the years 1992 and
1996, 3- Land-sat ETM 15m for the year 2000 and land sat ETM 15M for the years 2005 and 2014. Also, we have used
the GPS point and topographic map in image registration. Images were acquired, pre-processed and analyzed to
construct time series for Dead sea change detection. Land-sat data preprocessing was carried out with atmospheric
correction and geometric correction to avoid of calculation of cloud and land reflectance with the estimation of the
percentage of change in dead sea water level. In this research, Land-sat was expected to provide an accurate synoptic
of dead sea lowering and change detection.

Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2017 Page 11

IPASJ International Journal of Information Technology (IIJIT)
Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJIT/IIJIT.htm
A Publisher for Research Motivation ........ Email:editoriijit@ipasj.org
Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2017 ISSN 2321-5976

2.2 Spectral mixture analysis

spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) is a technique for computing the proportion of each pixel which is covered by a many
of known cover types. On the other hand, the main goal is to determine the likely combination of each satellite image
pixel[6]. Mixed or mixture pixels are Pixels that have or contain more than one type or feature class cover. Pure
pixels have or contain only one class or feature. For example, it's called a mixed or mixture pixel when the pixel
contain many type of feature: water, vegetation, and soil . A pure pixel when contain only single type cover, such as
water pixel. Mixed pixels can cause accuracy problems in traditional supervised or unsupervised classification . Since
the pixel contain more than one cover type or class, it can be assigned during the image classification to only single
class. One way to address the accuracy problem of mixed class pixels is to use SMA, (sometimes called subpixel
analysis) [8].
spectral mixture analysis (SMA) determines the multiple parts of mixed class in pixels by the estimation of the
proportion of a pixel that belongs to an individual feature or to a particular class based on the spectral value of the
characteristics of its endmembers. It converts radiance or reflectance to fractions of spectral value endmembers that
correspond to features on the ground. Spectral endmembers are the pure spectral signature value corresponding to
each of the land cover land used classes. Ideally, spectral value endmembers account for images spectral or signature
value variability and serve as a meta data to estimate the spectral value make up of mixed pixels. Thus, the details of
land cover, land use types or classes, and the selection of useful endmembers for each of these feature or classes are
both critical in spectral mixture analysis. In general, Endmembers extracted from the actual image are preferred
because no calibration is requested between selected endmembers and the measured spectral value. These endmember
functions are supposeed to interpretation the mostly single feature (purest pixels) in the image[3], [25]. With giving the
spectral reflectance of each endmember and known number of endmembers in any spectral band or observed pixel,
value is modeled by linear combination of the spectral response of endmember components within the pixel. The
process of endmember fractions solving is called spectral mixture analysis [3],[6]:

The spectral mixture analysis rule by flowing the equation 1 which was proposed by [3]:

where Rc is the apparent surface reflectance in the Landsat 8 OLI band c, Fi is the fraction of endmember i, Ri,c is the
reflectance of endmember i in the Landsat 8 OLI band c. N is the number of spectral endmembers and Ec is the error in
the Landsat 8 OLI band c to fit N endmembers.
In order to check the accuracy of spectral mixture analysis result of detection change the RMSE equation has been done
by the flowing equation (2) which was proposed by [22 ]

Where the E is the route mean square error (RMSE) and k is the number of channel. the accuracy assessment have been
applied to each single pixel in the image and it was also tested in the total pixel image to get the average of error.


The spectral mixture analysis can be extrapolated to different dates of LANDSAT images for change detection or
image classification of water level in the dead sea. The result shows that the SMA is a promising approach for
computing the amount of shrinkage in dead sea and change detection during the period between 1986 to 2014. In order
to get more accuracy, it is very important to know that multitemporal LANDSAT data have different sun elevation
angles especially in a rugged region like the area of this study.

Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2017 Page 12

IPASJ International Journal of Information Technology (IIJIT)
Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJIT/IIJIT.htm
A Publisher for Research Motivation ........ Email:editoriijit@ipasj.org
Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2017 ISSN 2321-5976

The advantage of the fraction images extracted by this technique is that it covers different land-cover components
within a pixel. This study demonstrates the possibility of using SMA as a sub pixel technique to map shrinkage
percentage of water level in the study area. The results show considerable capability of this technique to classify the
main class out of whole classes during different periods. It is clear that this technique gives more accurate results in
case of homogenous land-cover. SMA could be used successfully to classify different water sea level covers in intensive
type of classes in areas. It is also the use of this technique and method is easy to implement and has low measuring

The resultant maps are given in Figures 2 A,B,C,D,E and F show the changing of water level for dead Sea are during
the year 1985, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2014. most of change is detected in the eastern part of the south portion of the
Dead Sea before separation from the water body and the bathymetry in the southern portion of the sea start to appear
more clearly because of that shrinkage in the area. As discussed before, the spectral mixture analysis in this research
focuses on the northern part of the Dead Sea since the southern part is converted to manmade evaporation basins. The
shape change of the northern part water-body over 34 years, from 1980 to 2014, in general, is detected in two major
directions; from the northern west and from the south. The change in dead sea area reached 37% in the time period of
this research investigation. as its clear in temporal map It is worthy to say that there is no remarkable change in the
eastern side of the Dead Sea; this may due to the depth of the water is so deep where the fault exists. during the period
from 1992to 2014, the shrinkage happened in the same direction even though the magnitude of the shrinkages is just
23% which is different percent of shrinkage between 1980 and 1992

Figure 2 A,B,C,D,E, and F :show the changing of water level for dead Sea are during the year1980, 1985, 1995, 2000,
2005 and 2014.

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IPASJ International Journal of Information Technology (IIJIT)
Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJIT/IIJIT.htm
A Publisher for Research Motivation ........ Email:editoriijit@ipasj.org
Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2017 ISSN 2321-5976

The process and analysis of temporal land-sat data have been done for each date separately to detect the percentage of
change and shrinkage from year to year. It's clear the dead sea water area shrank from 925.67 in 1980 to
903.45 1986. It is not even a longe period . It can be concluded that the dead sea is decreasing and shrinking
from year to year, and this may be due to Decrease of water resources driven by the installation of many reservoirs
intercepting the flowing water in the hydrographic pattern of the Dead Sea basin and increase of water synchronized
rates leading to exploitation of the surface and groundwater to fulfill the rising industrial and agricultural needs.
Furthermore, the Dead Sea area is located in a an arid environment receiving an average annual rainfall below 70
mm/year. It may also be due to Industrial exploitation of Dead Sea water for filling the pans mainly for the production
of potash which has high impact on the shrinkage of dead sea water. On the other hand, climate instabilities are noticed
in Jordan.
Table 1 show the resulte of change detection of dead sea area during the study period, its clearly the amount of
decrasing and chaning from 1980 to 1986,1992, 1996,2005 and 2014. all pesentage are accounted by using remote
sensing PCI, GIS software 9.1 and its also associated with GPS Garmin 64s to pereforme the ground cotrol point with
accurassy 7 cm.

Table 1 change detection of dead sea area during the study period
Year 1980 1986 1992 1996 2005 2014
Area 925.67 903.45 836.678 733.784 695.876 618.97

Table 2 shows the amount of lowring and changing area in squer km from 1980 to 2014. These results are used to
compute the amount of shrinkage during these 6 different dates. The result are illustrated in figure 3.

Table 2 changing amount area in dead sea during 1980 to 2014

year 1980-1992 1992-2014

Shrinkage amount 256.32 67.19

Figure 3 represents the change in the shape of the water-body from 1980 to 2014. This study emphasizes the efficiency
of satellite image, spectral mixture analysis and modern field surveying techniques for monitoring the Dead Sea water
level over an extended period of time (44 years for shrinkage). The temporal Land-sat data was the principal source of
data which enabled the delineation and change detection of Dead Sea in different years. During the study period, the
output of this study confirm that there was a decrease in water surface from 925.67 in the year 1980 to 618.98
for the year 2014. This shrink percentage represents 37.1 % from the surface area in 1980 as illustrates in figure 2.
This important impact decrease synchronized with the reduction of water resources may be due to the following drain
and over utilization of the Dead Sea water, the installation of many reservoirs, and climate changes. The figure below
demonstrates the water surface changes measured in square kilometer over the periods of 1980,1985, 1995, 2000, 2005
and 2014. Also, it presents the annual percentage of changes in water level during this period. An exceptional decrease
in the surface area was observed during the mentioned periods.

Figure 3 presents the change in shape of the water-body from 1980 to 2014

Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2017 Page 14

IPASJ International Journal of Information Technology (IIJIT)
Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJIT/IIJIT.htm
A Publisher for Research Motivation ........ Email:editoriijit@ipasj.org
Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2017 ISSN 2321-5976

In fact, it's difficult to determine the exact reason that has the most effect on the dead sea percentage changing and
shrinkage, but its greatly influenced by many factors: (A) The use of Dead Sea water for the industry by Jordan and
Israel is one of the main factors that affect the Dead Sea area. Moreover, (B) these quantities are roughly estimated
even in governmental reports. (C) Climatic conditions and climate change play an important role in this behavior of the
water body and water level as it present the balance between water charge from rainfall and the lost by vibration.(D) the
main reason causing this dramatic water level change in the Dead Sea area is the human consuming a extensive water
from the Jordan and Yarmouk Rivers for agricultures and other usages.(E) Israel transfers huge and large quantities
from dead sea water, where these quantities are approximately 420 MCM/year.

The research was conducted to detect lowering and changing in the dead sea water level using Remote sensing, GIS,
and GPS as recourses of data and analysis .The spectral mixture analysis has contributed to the detection of changing
and shrinkage of dead sea water body from 1980 to 2014 using temporal land-sat data. The results show large lowering
and decreasing of dead sea water level over the time specially in eastern area of the south portion of the Dead Sea . The
percentage of shrinkage of dead sea water from 1980 to 2014 was 37.1% . It was, again, found that the percentage of
water body changes yearly due to climate change and intensive human water consumption from the Jordan and
Yarmouk Rivers for other usages .


We thank the NASA Earth System for the LANDSAT products and Taibah university the Deanship Science
Foundation for Resources Satellite Data and Application .

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Saleh T. Daqamseh received a B.S. in Geography from Mu'ta university in 2004 and M.S. in
Geography information system & Remote Sensing from University Putra Malaysia in 2006 and Ph.D.
in Geography information system & Geomatic engineering from University Putra Malaysia in 2011.
He has been an Assistant Professor at the Geography information system & mapping Dept., Taibah
University (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) since Jan. 2012. Prior to his academic career, he was a project
Manager at the Geohydrwocean company (Malaysia), 2009-2014. His research interest is in the areas
of extraction ocean parameter (SSS, SST and Chll-a concentration) from space.

Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2017 Page 16