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Chapter Five DC Motors

Separately excited Dc Motor Example

Example 1. A 25-kW 125-V separately-excited dc machine is operated at a constant speed


of 3000 r/min with a constant field current such that the open-circuit armature voltage is 125 V.
The armature resistance is 0.02 .

a) Compute the armature current, terminal power, and electromagnetic power and
torque when the terminal voltage is (a) 128 V and (b) 124 V.

Solution: with Vt = 128 V and Ea = 125 V, the armature

current is

Finally, the electromagnetic torque is given by

Tmech=59.7 N.m

Shunt Dc Motor Example

Example 1: A 50 hp, 250 V, 1200 rpm DC shunt motor has an armature resistance of 0.06 . Its
field circuit has a total resistance Radj + RF of 50 , which produces a no-load speed of 1200 rpm.
The shunt field winding has 1200 turns per pole.

a) Find the motor speed when its input current is 100 A.

b) Find the motor speed when its input current is 200 A.

c) Find the motor speed when its input current is 300 A.

d) Plot the motor torque-speed characteristic.


The internal generated voltage of a DC machine (with its speed expressed in rpm.

Since the field current is constant (both field resistance and VT are constant) and since there are
no armature reaction (due to compensating windings), we conclude that the flux in the motor is
constant. The speed and the internal generated voltages at different loads are related as

1. At no load, the armature current is zero and therefore EA1 = VT = 250 V.


a) Since the input current is 100 A, the armature current is

b) Similar computations for the input current of 200 A lead to n2 = 1144 rpm.
c) Similar computations for the input current of 300 A lead to n2 = 1115 rpm.

d) To plot the output characteristic of the motor, we need to find the torque
corresponding to each speed. At no load, the torque is zero.

Since the induced torque at any load is related to the power converted in a DC motor:
Series DC motor Example

Example 1. A 220 V DC series motor has armature and field resistances of 0.15 and 0.10
respectively. It takes a current of 30 A from the supply while running at 1000 rpm. If an external
resistance of 1 is inserted in series with the motor, calculate the new steady state armature
current and the speed. Assume the load torque remains constant.
Example 2: A series motor runs at (800 r.p.m) when the voltage is (400 V) and the current
is (25 A). The armature resistance is (0.4 ) and the series field resistance is (0.2 ).
Determine the resistance to be connected in series to reduce the speed to (600 r.p.m) with
same current.
Example 3: On full-load a (300 V) series motor takes (90 A) and runs at (900 r.p.m) the
armature resistance is (0.1 ) and the series winding resistance is (50 m). Determine
the speed when developing full load torque but with a (0.2 ) diverter in parallel with the
field winding. (Assume that the flux is proportional to the field current).

Example 1: A 100 hp, 250 V 350 A shunt DC motor with an armature resistance of 0.05
needs a starter circuit that will limit the max starting current to twice its rated value
and which will switch out sections of resistor once the armature current decreases to its
rated value.

a. The starting resistor must be selected such that the current flow at the start equals twice
the rated current. As the motor speeds up, an internal voltage EA (which opposes the
terminal voltage of the motor and, therefore, limits the current) is generated. When
the current falls to the rated value, a section of the starting resistor needs to be taken
out to increase the current twice. This process (of taking out sections of the starting
resistor) repeats until the entire starting resistance is removed. At this point, the
motors armature resistance will limit the current to safe values by itself.
A 230-V shunt motor delivers 30 hp at the shaft at 1120 rpm. If the motor has an efficiency of
87% at this load, determine (a) the total input power and (b) the line current. (c) If the torque lost
due to friction and windage is 7% of the shaft torque, calculate the developed torque
A 50 hp, 250 V, 1200 r/min shunt dc motor has a rated armature current of 170 A, and a rated
field current of 5 A. When its rotor is blocked, an armature voltage of 10.2 V (exclusive of
brushes) produces 170 A of current flow, and a field voltage of 250 V produced field current flow
of 5 A. The brush voltage drop is assumed assumed to be 2 V. At no load with the terminal
voltage equal of 240 V, the armature current is equal to 13.2 A, the field current is 4.8 A, and the
motor speeds speed is 1150 r/min.

(a) How much power is output from this motor at rated conditions?

(b) What is the motors efficiency?


Example 2: A 250 V shunt dc motor draws an input current IL 75 A while driving a coupled
mechanical load at a speed ofm 1000 /30 rad/s. Efficiency at the point of operation is
known to be 92%. Also, Ra 0.1 and Rf 200 . (a) Calculate the value of output
power

to the mechanical load. (b) Determine the value of rotational losses at the point of
operation. (c) Find the value of developed torque.
(a)

92
Ps Pin V It L 2507517,250 W
100 100 100

(b)
250
Vt 75 73.75 A
Ia IL
Rf 200

PFW V It L PsVt2 I Ra2 a


Rf

PFW 2507517,250 2502 73.750.1 643.6 W


200

(c)
Td Ps PFW
m
17,250643.6

170.87 N m 1000 /
30