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Loss-of-Excitation Protection and Underexcitation

Controls Correlation for Synchronous Generators
in a Real-Time Digital Simulator
Aurlio L. M. Coelho, Carlos E. B. Carrer, Carlos A. V. Guerrero, and Paulo M. Silveira

AbstractThis paper presents the results of a study that ana- partial or the total loss-of-excitation (LOE) state. Because of
lyzes the relationship between the excitation system of a synchro- this abnormal operation condition, as well as the resultant
nous machine and the settings of the loss-of-excitation (LOE) relay damage of the machine caused by overheating on the stator
applied to protect this machine. A complete generation system
taking into account all the physical components was modeled in windings, the power system could become unstable and even
a real-time digital simulator, including a new excitation system reach a voltage collapse [1], [2].
model (ST7B). By considering a method to protect the generator The LOE occurs when the magnetic field produced by the
against partial and total LOE, the settings of the LOE protec- rotor windings undergoes sudden reduction. This change occurs
tion were made taking into account the technical data of the when there is a reduction of the dc current in the rotor windings,
synchronous machine. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation using a
numeric relay was implemented in a laboratory. Thus, several tests
usually caused by the following:
were performed in order to evaluate the coordination between the breaker shutdown of the field;
protective relay and the limits of the modeled excitation system a short circuit or a fault in the control system excitation;
during underexcited operation.
poor contact in the exciter brushes;
Index TermsHardware in the loop (HIL), loss of excitation failure to supply the excitation system [3][6].
(LOE), protection, real-time digital simulator (RTDS), steady-
state stability limit (SSSL), synchronous generator, underexcita- Underexcitation of the generator results in an increase of
tion limiter (UEL). currents that circulate through the stator winding and a voltage
drop across its terminals, reducing the impedance seen at the
N OMENCLATURE machine terminals during abnormal conditions. When a syn-
CTR Current transformer ratio. chronous generator loses excitation, the machine absorbs reac-
Ef Field voltage. tive power and generates active power, placing the impedance
RX Resistancereactance (diagram). in the fourth quadrant of the RX diagram [7].
PQ Activereactive power (diagram). When the synchronous generator operates at low excitation
PTR Potential transformer ratio. levels, a control action is taken by the underexcitation limiter
Xd Direct-axis synchronous reactance. (UEL), which is part of the machine excitation system. This
Xd Direct-axis transient reactance. limiter controls the excitation level by pushing the automatic
Xs Equivalent reactance. voltage regulator (AVR); as a result, the generator returns to
Xt Transformer reactance. operate within safe values. Fig. 1 shows an example of the gen-
Xsys System reactance. erator capability curve for a typical cylindrical rotor machine
Zref Reference impedance. [8]. This curve shows the operating limits within which the
machine can operate safely. The generator capability curve also
shows how the AVR controls the steady-state operation limits.
Beyond the control action provided by generator excitation

A MONG all the abnormal operation conditions that occur

for a generator, special attention should be given to the
limiters, the system must be equipped with protective relays
(ANSI 40) to ensure that the system will operate correctly in
case of an LOE condition, preventing machine damage and
Manuscript received July 5, 2014; revised January 23, 2015; accepted
adverse effects on the system. These relays should not operate
March 21, 2015. Date of publication April 21, 2015; date of current ver- for stable power swings (SPSs).
sion September 16, 2015. Paper 2014-PSPC-0485.R1, presented at the 2014 A recurring problem for the protection system is that several
IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, Vancouver, BC, Canada,
October 59, and approved for publication in the IEEE T RANSACTIONS ON
improper shutdowns can occur if there is no careful coordination
I NDUSTRY A PPLICATIONS by the Power Systems Protection Committee of the between LOE protection and the UEL, as well as the steady-
IEEE Industry Applications Society. This work was supported in part by the state stability limit (SSSL), which avoid the generator lose
Coordenao de Aperfeioamento de Pessoal de Nvel Superior and in part by synchronism [2], [8]. For some power system disturbances,
the Fundao de Amparo Pesquisa de Minas Gerais.
The authors are with Itajuba Federal University, 1303 Itajuba, underexcited generator operation can cause a conflict between
Brazil (e-mail: aurelio.coelho@unifei.edu.br; carlos.carrer7@gmail.com; UEL (which controls the voltage regulator to prevent exceeding
carlosvillegasguerrero@unifei.edu.br; pmsilveira@unifei.edu.br). permanent stability limit) and LOE protection. Depending on
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online
at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. the resultant underexcitation level, machine shutdown could
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIA.2015.2424884 occur.
0093-9994 2015 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission.
See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

Fig. 2. Positive-offset mho characteristic: two zones, directional element and

generator limiters.

Fig. 1. Typical generator capability curve and operating limits [8]. impedance as viewed from the generator terminals [8]. There
are several LOE protection schemes that use mho distance
The typical adjustment of ANSI 40 protection found in characteristic (ANSI 40Z). The most common methods are
the literature and relays instruction manuals [9][16] suggests the negative-offset mho elements, initially proposed by Mason
applying protection against total LOE, warning that the adjust- [10], and with modifications by Berdy [11], and the positive-
ment for partial LOE can generate improper shutdown. How- offset mho elements. There are other methods used for this type
ever, these documents do not emphasize that typical settings of protection, which can be found in [2], [6], [7], and [12][16].
leave the generator vulnerable to severe damage caused by The ANSI 40Z function can provide protection only against
the partial LOE. Moreover, partial LOE affects power system total LOE, and it leaves the generator vulnerable to a partial
stability. For proper operation of this relay, the coordination LOE. The term partial LOE refers to the situation where the
between the protection settings and the generator limits [2], [8], field current is reduced below the value that keeps synchronous
[17] is necessary. Proper coordination avoids conflicts and lack generator operation within its stability limit. For partial LOE,
of coordination during disturbances. the field current is not null, i.e., there is dc current passing in
In this sense, this paper provides insight about setting the the rotor windings.
LOE protection (ANSI 40) and the generator limits (UEL and Some literature [14], [15] recommends applying two negative-
SSSL), to act in a coordinated and secure way. A method to pro- offset mho impedance circles, stating that this method is more
tect the generator against partial and total LOE using two offset reliable. However, even two negative-offset mho elements do
mho characteristics, with positive offset in the second zone, and not protect against partial LOE. According to these authors, the
combined with directional element has been presented. To co- positive-offset mho element can cause an improper operation
ordinate the generator limits with the LOE protection, the data of the power system during transients. However, the relays can
from the generator PQ capability curve are converted to the also provide protection against partial LOE. Two offset mho
RX plane. The excitation system controls and the protective elements are needed, with a positive-offset mho element in the
relay are coordinated with regard to booth pick-up magnitudes second zone [6], [12], [13]. Adopting the necessary precautions,
and time delays. such as timing and coordination of the second zone with the
This study is performed in a real-time digital simulator (RTDS) generator limits (UEL and SSSL), this adjustment prevents
[18] that uses a model of the synchronous generator and respec- undue operations and protects the generator against partial and
tive controls for protection analysis [19][21]. The generators total LOE [2], [8], [12], [13].
are parameterized with actual data from a Brazilian hydroelec-
tric power plant (HPP). The excitation systems of these machines
A. Positive-Offset MHO Elements
are modeled using the basic control components available in
the RTDS library to perform this coordination study. This method uses a combination of two mho zones character-
A hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation using a numeric istics and a directional element applied to the generator terminal
protection relay was implemented in a laboratory. Thus, several to detect the LOE, as illustrated in Fig. 2.
tests were performed in order to evaluate the coordination The first zone of this mho characteristic has a negative offset
between the protective relay and the limits of the implemented equal to half the machine transient reactance (Xd /2) and a
excitation system. diameter equal to 110% of the machine reactance minus its
offset (1.1 Xd (Xd /2)). Usually, this zone is instantaneous
and protects the generator against total LOE. The second zone
is coordinated with the AVR limiters (SSSL and UEL) to avoid
The most widely applied method to detect a generator LOE a reactive power flow in the protection operational region [8].
condition is the use of distance relays to sense the variation of This Zone 2 has a diameter equal to (1.1 Xd + Xs ) and an

offset equal to Xs , where Xs is the sum of the transformer

reactance Xt and the system reactance Xsys . Consider adding
a delay, typically between 0.25 and 1.0 s [16].
Additionally, a directional element blocks this protection
during normal operating conditions and power transient swings.
Typically, this element is adjusted to operate at less than 87% of
the nominal voltage in multimachine systems. The directional
element is typically set at an angle between 10 and 20 . The
angle is adjusted equal to the arccosine of the minimum rated
power factor of the machine [16].

B. Coordination Between UEL and SSSL Limits With

LOE Protection
Fig. 3. RX diagram plot for SSSL limit.
Excitation systems rarely operate at the extremes of their
capabilities until the system voltage attempts to rise or fall
outside its normal operating range. During voltage transients,
excitation controls allow short-term operation of the excitation System dynamic characteristics can be stated, as well as the
system and generator beyond the SSSL limit [8]. currents and voltages applied to a real-time protection system in
The synchronous machine operation analysis within the un- many different operation conditions. This way, it is possible to
derexcitation region is done in the capability curve of the define system performances, as well as to detect failures while
generator, built in PQ diagram, such as that illustrated in monitoring the real-time response [22].
Fig. 1. However, in cases where the machine operation analysis This synchronous machine protection study employs spe-
in this region requires a study of LOE protection, it is necessary cific generator model from the RTDS software library [Real
to represent the machine operation limits and the relay mho Time Simulation Computer Aided Design Software (RSCAD)]
characteristic in the same plane, either in the PQ or the RX [19][21]. This component allows access to each one of the
planes. For this, it is necessary to establish the equations to generator terminals (A, B, and C), making it possible to apply
coordinate the points represented in both planes, as respectively faults at the internal windings, as illustrated in Fig. 4. Further-
shown in the following [2]: more, with this model, the user manipulates the machine field
circuit to control variables such as the machine excitation and
PV2 QV2 field voltage Ef , to analyze the LOE protection (ANSI 40).
R= X= (1)
P2 + Q2 P2 + Q2 Part of this system is depicted in Fig. 4 (see the data system
in the Appendix). Note that the synchronous generator is asso-
P= Q= (2) ciated with a transformer. In addition, this system has generator
R + X2
R + X2
controls: the speed regulator (governor) and the power system
where R, X, P, Q, and V are the resistance, the reactance, stabilizer (PSS). Models available in the RSCAD library were
the active power, the reactive power, and the terminal voltage, used to represent these components. Several excitation systems
respectively. are also available in this library. However, the ST7B static
Fig. 2 shows an example of the RX plane and protection excitation model [24] used in this study is not available.
settings coordinated with the values of the PQ curve reflected The IEEE 421.5 ST7B [24] model was chosen because it
into this plane. is a full control system, containing many loops, such as the
The setting of the UEL should be coordinated with the UEL loop, that allows doing coordination studies between the
SSSL limit of the generator, which is a function of the genera- underexcitation limits and the LOE protection. For this reason,
tors voltage and the generators impedances (Xd ), the step-up it was necessary to model this excitation system using basic
transformer impedance (Xt ), and the system impedance (Xsys ) control components (transfer functions, gain, comparators, lim-
typically calculated with the strongest source out of service [8]. iters, etc.) available in the RSCAD library.
To represent the SSSL limit in the RX plane, the following is
used, as shown in Fig. 3:
A. ST7B Static Excitation System
Xd Xs Xd + Xs
Center = Radius = . (3) The IEEE 421.5 ST7B [24] is representative of static poten-
2 2
tial source excitation systems. In this system, the AVR consists
of a proportionalintegral voltage regulator. A phase leadlag
filter in series allows introduction of a derivative function, typi-
The RTDS is a tool to analyze electromagnetic transient cally used with brushless excitation systems. The AVR includes
disturbances. It consists of a digital simulator system to analyze the appropriate inputs on its reference for the overexcitation
power systems, which operates continually in real time and limiter (OEL), the UEL, and the stator current limiter (SCL).
allows conducting closed-loop tests with protection and control All these elements, when they work at voltage reference level,
equipment [21][23]. keep the PSS in operation [24].

Fig. 4. Power system implemented on RSCAD for protection studies.

Fig. 5. UEL loop of the ST7B excitation system implemented on RSCAD [1].

The UEL maintains the excitation values within limits that As illustrated in Fig. 5, the UEL loop defines the underexci-
provide system stability and avoid field deterioration and the ab- tation limit (output node m5G1) that controls the reactive power
sorption of reactive power that exceeds the overheating limits of signal (input node QMAC), overcoming the minimum negative
the stator armature [8]. Operation of the UEL loop should avoid reference (node QREF). This limit can be established through
activating LOE protection during acceptable underexcitation two PQ characteristic models defined in [24]:
conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to establish coordination
circular characteristic (Type UEL1);
between the control limits and the LOE protection settings [8].
characteristic composed by multiple line segments
Because the goal of this study is to analyze the UEL limits of
(Type UEL2).
the excitation system and coordinate these limits with the LOE
protection, this paper does not focus upon the task of modeling In this paper, the reactive power limit is implemented by
the ST7B excitation system (the overall modeling can be found means of a PQ characteristic composed of many adjustable
in [1]). The UEL control loop of the ST7B implemented on line segments (Type UEL2), arranged according to the geome-
RSCAD is illustrated in Fig. 5. try of the generator capability curve.

Fig. 6. Reference limiter loop of the ST7B excitation system implemented on RSCAD [1].

In the UEL model in Fig. 5, the active power (input node P) is study. The portion of the system was determined based on the
normalized applying the appropriate effect of terminal voltage capacity of the RTDS hardware used in this research.
(input node m1G1). The active power normalized value is an Fig. 7 shows a single-line diagram of the power system
input of the PQ limitation characteristic (Y=F(X) block). implemented on RSCAD. This plant operates with six syn-
This block determines the reactive power normalized given chronous machines of 16.5 kV, each one generating 283 MVA.
by the UEL limit characteristic (Type UEL 2). The output These machines and their associated controls were imple-
of this block is multiplied by the square of terminal voltage mented according to the diagram shown in Fig. 4. The generator
(input node m1G1) to calculate the UEL limit reference voltage is increased to 500-kV level by the transformer con-
(node QREF). This value is compared with the machine reactive nected at the machine terminals. At this voltage, the generated
power (input node Q) for determining the underexcitation limit power is transmitted to the So Simo substation (SE SS), and
(output node m5G1). from this point, it is carried to SIN.
Under normal conditions when the UEL is not limiting, the The model represents the following:
UEL error signal is negative, since the reactive power (input the six generating units of HPP SS with respective
node Q) will be greater than the limit value (node QREF). When transformers;
conditions are such that the UEL limit is exceeded, the UEL the transmission lines (TLs) that carry the generated
error signal becomes positive. This will drive the UEL output power to SE SS;
in the positive direction, and if the gain is sufficient, the UEL the transmission from this point to SIN by principal and
output will take over control of the voltage regulator to boost adjacent TLs.
excitation to move the operating point back toward the UEL
limit [24]. Principal TLs are those directly connected to SE SS (SE
The output signal of the UEL loop (m5G1) is an input signal Itaguau, SE Itumbiara, SE Jaguara, S Maribondo, and SE
in the AVR reference limiter, as illustrated in Fig. 6. gua Vermelha), and adjacent TLs are those connected be-
This control loop has the main purpose of limiting the tween other substations (SE Jaguara to SE Maribondo and SE
reference voltage. As depicted in Fig. 6, the AVR reference gua Vermelha to SE Maribondo). In addition, represented
loop has several limiters and error signals that change the ref- are the reactors used for reactive compensation in some TLs
erence voltage. These limiter signals are the OEL and the UEL of this system (just a simple model of shunt inductance was
(input nodes m4AG1 and m5G1, respectively). maxca1 and used). Finally, to represent the So Simo system ahead of the
min_u are also considered as the boundary values (0.95 and principal bus, the components behind each of these buses are
1.05, respectively). On the other hand, the correction signals are modeled by equivalent sources (named ES1, ES2, ES3, ES4,
the input node m2G1 (from the SCL) and the signal VS (from and ES5). The equivalent source obtained from the components
the PSSPSS2A model). The PSS component of the RSCAD behind SE Itumbiara (ES2) is considered as the reference bus
library contains within itself its respective loop or mathematical because of the large power flow contribution.
model, and therefore, it was not necessary to model a PSS for
this study. C. Test Method
The LOE protection evaluation of the system studied is
B. Power System Studied performed from HIL tests with a physical numeric relay, as
To perform this study, part of a real power system is im- shown in Fig. 8. The frequency of the current measurements
plemented on RSCAD. This system is the generating units of is 60 Hz, and the sampling interval is 100 s.
the HPP of So Simo (HPP SS), operated by the National Secondary voltage and current signals, normally originated
Interconnected System of Brazil (SIN). The HPP SS location from power system transducers cts and pts, are simulated in
within SIN was defined as the portion of this system for this RSCAD and are sent to digital-to-analog converters in the

Fig. 7. Single-line diagram of the power system.


This section presents simulation results and analysis. The
results of the LOE protection response of the generator are
organized in the following manner.
ANSI 40 protection settings for the relay under test and
the correlation with the generator limits.
Field voltage (Ef ) sags simulate underexcitation scenarios
and evaluate the LOE protection response.
Partial LOE shows when the protection settings are unco-
ordinated with UEL limits.

A. ANSI 40 Settings and Correlation With Generator Limits

Only Generator 1 was used to perform the LOE protection
study of HPP SS. The positive-offset mho characteristic is de-
scribed in Section III (see Fig. 2). Relay settings are according
to the generator data and the system under study, as follows.
Fig. 8. HIL scheme in the RTDS. Xd = 0.948 p.u. = 0.912 .
Xd = 0.25 p.u. = 0.240 .
RTDS. To extract these signals for the tested relay, the GTAO Xt = 0.0138 p.u. = 0.013 .
card (analog output card) is used. In this low-level signal card, Xsys = 0.5 p.u. = 0.481 .
the secondary signals are reproduced in proportional voltage Xs = Xsys + Xt = 0.5138 p.u. = 0.494 .
values of 10 V ac [24]. These signals are applied to an The impedances were converted to the same megavoltampere
amplifier (3250 V3 25 A), to send the correct magnitude base (generator base). The impedance reference value Zref was
of the simulated pt and ct signals to relay. The amplifier outputs used to convert the reactance to ohm value (see the Appendix).
(analog signals) are connected to the relay inputs. The relay The settings of the protection zones are as follows:
responds to the secondary signals coming from the simulated  
system. If some fault occurs, the relay sends a trip signal to x
Zone 1 Diameter = 1.1 Xd d K = 12.31 (4)
the simulated circuit breakers in the power system modeled on    2
RSCAD, interrupting the fault progression. Trip signals from xd
Zone 1 Offset = K = 1.67 (5)
the relay are interfaced to the RTDS via digital input ports. 2
In this research, the GTFPI card (front panel interface card) Zone 2 Diameter = (1.1 Xd + Xs ) K = 20.86 (6)
performs this function. Zone 2 Offset = Xs = (Xt + Xsys ) K = 6.88 (7)


where K is the constant to represent the reactance in secondary

values: K = (CTR/PTR) = (2000/143.5) = 13.937.
In relation to timing, Zone 1 is set instantaneously, and Zone
2 is set with a delay of 1 s. The directional element is set with
an angle of 18.19, which is equal to the arccosine of the
minimum rated power factor (0.95) of the machine, i.e.,

DIR = arccosine(0.95) = 18.19. (8)

To coordinate the UEL limits with the LOE protection, the

data from the generator PQ capability curve are converted to
the RX diagram using (1). Six points of the PQ capability
curve represent this curve in the RX diagram. The results of
this conversion are shown in Table I. A terminal voltage of 1
per unit p.u. was considered in the conversion.
As shown in Section III, the setting of the UEL limit should
be coordinated with the SSSL limit. The graphical method
shown in Fig. 3 is widely used in the industry to display
the SSSL on RX diagrams [8]. Equation (3) was used to
calculate the points on the RX diagram to determine the
SSSL. The impedances that have been used in (3) are converted
considering the base values of the generator.
Fig. 9 shows the protection zones in the RX plane, defined
from the parameters developed in (4)(8) and simulated in the
RTDS with the same settings for the relay under test.
It is shown in Fig. 9 that the curve that represents the
generator limits (UEL and SSSL) plotted in the RX plane are
in accord with the impedances and data presented in Table I.
In normal operation condition, the generator provides the
active and reactive power to the system, which means that both
R and X are positive and the terminal impedance is located in
Fig. 9. Impedance trajectory when the system is operating in normal condi-
the first quadrant in the RX plane, as illustrated in Fig. 9. tions and converting the generator limits for the RX plane.
Fig. 10 illustrates the behavior of the active and reactive
power in steady-state condition, and Fig. 11 depicts the behav-
ior of the terminal voltage, field voltage, and field current in
this state.

B. Protection Analysis for Partial LOE

Here, underexcitation conditions were simulated, and the
partial LOE protection response was evaluated. The underex-
citation is generated by applying sags in the field voltage Ef
that feed the field circuit of machine, as illustrated in Fig. 4.
For these cases, some variables of the generator under analy-
sis are observed: the field current and voltage, the terminal
voltage, the active and reactive power, and the impedance Fig. 10. Active and reactive power when the system is operating in normal
trajectory for the response of the protective relay under test. conditions.

Fig. 13. Active and reactive power for a sag of 85% in Ef during 4 s.

Fig. 11. Field voltage, terminal voltage, and field current when the system is
operating in normal conditions.

Fig. 14. Impedance trajectory for an underexcitation condition caused by a

sag of 85% in Ef during 4 s.

Fig. 14 shows the impedance trajectory in the RX plane.

Note that the impedance remains close to the UEL limit, which
characterizes the proper operation of the AVR, not entering
inside the protection zones limits.
2) Application of 88% Sag in Ef : This case evaluates the
LOE protection when applying a sag of 88% in the field voltage
during 4 s, i.e., this voltage is multiplied by a gain of 0.12 in the
input of the generator field circuit, simulating a more severe
underexcitation condition, as illustrated in Fig. 15.
It can be observed in Fig. 16 that the machine absorbs
more reactive power with respect to the previous case. Note in
Fig. 12. Field voltage, terminal voltage, and field current for underexcitation
caused by a sag of 85% in Ef during 4 s. Figs. 15 and 16 that, although a most severe underexcitation is
applied, the machine can be maintained in acceptable levels of
stability, because it is a temporary SPS.
1) Application of 85% Sag in Ef : This scenario analyzed The excitation system maintains the terminal voltage within
the LOE protection when applying a permanent sag of 85% acceptable limits by supplying reactive power. The UEL pre-
in the field voltage Ef during 4 s, i.e., this voltage is multiplied vents reduction of field current to a level where the generator
by a gain of 0.15 in the input of the generator field circuit, thus loss-of-field protection may operate.
simulating an underexcitation condition, as shown in Fig. 12. Fig. 17 shows the impedance trajectory in the RX plane.
Figs. 12 and 13 show that, when an underexcitation is ap- Although the impedance penetrates the second zone, the delay
plied, the machine absorbs reactive power but remains stable. (timing of 1 s) of Zone 2 prevents relay operation for this case.
The excitation system helps the generator to maintain power Next, the response of LOE protection is analyzed when
system voltage within acceptable limits by supplying reactive applying a sag of 88% in the field voltage, but with duration
power. The excitation system helps the generator to remain in of 5 s, as depicted in Fig. 18. Note that, in the impedance
synchronism with the system. trajectory in the RX plane, which is illustrated in Fig. 20,

Fig. 15. Field voltage, terminal voltage, and field current for underexcitation Fig. 18. Field voltage, terminal voltage, and field current for underexcitation
caused by a sag of 88% in Ef during 4 s. caused by a sag of 88% in Ef during 5 s.

Fig. 19. Active and reactive power for a sag of 88% in Ef during 5 s.
Fig. 16. Active and reactive power for a sag of 88% in Ef during 4 s.
adjustment delay setting (1 s) for this zone. The generator
cannot be operated beyond the SSSL limit.
It can be observed in Fig. 18 that the field voltage and the
field current are reduced during the disturbance and increase
suddenly after the operation of the protection relay. This hap-
pens because, after the disturbance, the resulting oscillations of
the generator rotor speed with respect to the system frequency
provoke voltage fluctuation above and below the AVR set point.
The active and reactive power reached the zero value because
of the shutdown caused by relay operation, as observed in
Fig. 19. The impedance trajectory is shown in Fig. 20.

C. Protection Analysis for Total LOE

In this scenario, the generator protection is evaluated for a
total LOE, i.e., when the field voltage becomes null.
To evaluate the dynamic simulation in this scenario, the
Fig. 17. Impedance trajectory for an underexcitation condition caused by a
variables analyzed in the previous cases are verified without
sag of 88% in Ef during 4 s. considering the relay operation.
When the excitation is lost, the generator starts to draws
the impedance goes into Zone 2, causing relay operation. This reactive power from the system, and the reactance becomes
happens because the power swing reaches the SSSL limit and negative from the LOE relay point of view. As a result, the
remains in this zone for a period of time longer than the impedance in the RX plane moves to the fourth quadrant.

Fig. 20. Impedance trajectory for an underexcitation condition caused by a Fig. 23. Impedance trajectory for a total LOE (without considering the relay
sag of 88% in Ef during 5 s. operation).

Fig. 24. Impedance trajectory for a total LOE (considering the relay

active and reactive power oscillate in an unacceptable manner

for system stability. In Fig. 21, the resulting oscillations of
Fig. 21. Field voltage, terminal voltage, and field current for total LOE the generator with respect to the system frequency cause the
(without considering the relay operation). terminal voltage to fluctuate above and below the generator
controls. Similar behaviors are noted in the field voltage and
the field current.
It is observed in Fig. 23 that the impedance trajectory invades
Zone 1 due to the machine synchronism loss. Considering the
protection operation, the relay operates instantly, isolating the
generator from the system, as depicted in Fig. 24.

D. Protection Analysis When the ANSI 40 Settings Are

Uncoordinated With UEL Limits
In this scenario, the LOE protection is the same as the case
in Section IV-B1, i.e., applying a permanent sag of 85% in the
Fig. 22. Active and reactive power for a total LOE (without considering the field voltage. However, the second zone offset was increased
relay operation). in six units, and it was uncoordinated with the UEL limit, as
observed in Fig. 27. For this case, the impedance trajectory
It can be observed in Figs. 21 and 22 that the machine loses invades Zone 2, causing relay misoperation.
stability completely because there is no magnetic coupling of The field current, field voltage, terminal voltage, active
the rotor to the stator. It is also noted in Fig. 22 that both the power, and reactive power shown in Section IV-B1 presented


Fig. 25. Field voltage, terminal voltage, and field current for an underexcita-
tion condition caused by a sag of 85% in Ef when Zone 2 is uncoordinated with
UEL limit.

From the results obtained, it has been found that the relay
under test presented a satisfactory response for the protection
philosophy adopted, offset-positive mho characteristic, against
the partial and total LOE for the synchronous machine ana-
lyzed. However, it is noteworthy that the UEL and the SSSL
were properly coordinated with the LOE protection settings
Fig. 26. Active and reactive power for an underexcitation condition caused by in the same plane, so that there was no operational conflict
a sag of 85% in Ef when Zone 2 is uncoordinated with UEL limit. between these limits and the LOE settings, as shown in the
simulated results.
In addition to the presented results, this paper presents the
following contributions.
Demonstrates that a virtual system, simulated in real time,
can help in commissioning tests of actual generating units.
Analyze real-time performance of a real protection de-
vice using HIL testing schemes, including checking the
dynamics of the power system.
Modeling of an excitation system (IEEE ST7B) not avail-
able in the RTDS software library.

Generator parameters (see Table II)
Transformer parameters (see Table III)
Fig. 27. Impedance trajectory for an underexcitation condition caused by a Governor model: IEEE Type I [18]
sag of 85% in Ef when Zone 2 is uncoordinated with UEL limit. Exciter model: IEEE ST7B [1], [24]
PSS model: PSS 2A [18]
similar behavior for this case, except in the moment that the CTR: 2000
protection relay operates, as depicted in Figs 25 and 26. The PTR: 143.5
impedance trajectory is shown in Fig. 27. Impedance reference: Zref = (16.52 /283) = 0.962 .

ACKNOWLEDGMENT [22] A. L. M. Coelho, Current transformer transient analysis and the impact
on overcurrent numeric relays, 2011, M.S. thesis, Universidade Federal
The authors would like to thank ALSTOM for providing the de Itajub, Itajub, Brazil, 2011.
data of generating units. [23] A. L. M. Coelho and P. M. Silveira, CT saturation effects on performance
of digital overcurrent relays, in Proc. Adv. Power Syst. Autom. Protect.
Conf., 2011, pp. 637642.
R EFERENCES [24] IEEE Power Engineering Society, IEEE Recommended Practice for Ex-
citation System Models for Power System Stability Studies, IEEE Std.
[1] C. A. V. Guerrero, A. L. M. Coelho, and P. M. Silveira, R. Miquelino, 421.5-2005, 2005.
P. A. G. Lopes, Modeling and performance tests of ALSTOM Alspa
Controgen V3 excitation system in real time digital simulation envi-
ronment, in Proc. Latin-Amer. CLAGTEE, Via del Mar, Chile, 2013,
pp. 110
[2] J. C. M. Lima, Protection and control aspects of the underexcited gen- Aurlio L. M. Coelho received the B.Sc. degree
erator, M.S. thesis, Pontifcia Universidade Catlica de Minas Gerais, in electrical engineering from the Federal Univer-
Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 2002. sity of Maranhao (UFMA), So Lus, Brazil, in
[3] IEEE PES, IEEE Guide for AC Generator Protection, IEEE Std. 2010 and the M.Sc. degree in electrical engineering
7.102TM, 2006. from Itajuba Federal University (UNIFEI), Itajuba,
[4] P. M. Anderson and A. A. Fouad, Power System Protection. Piscataway, Brazil, in 2011. He is currently working toward the
NJ, USA: IEEE Press, 1999. Ph.D. degree in the Excellence Center of Smart Grid
[5] D. Reimert, Protective Relaying for Power Generation Systems. Boca (CERIn), UNIFEI.
Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2006, pp. 321354. He is also currently a Researcher in CERIn and
[6] A. G. Leite and P. M. Silveira, Using of loss-of-excitation protection an Assistant Professor with UNIFEI. His interests
of generating units as systemic protection: Tomato curve, in Proc. 19th are power systems protection, electromagnetic tran-
SNPTE, 2007, pp. 18. sients, and digital signal processing applied in electrical systems.
[7] R. V. Carrasco, Performance assessment schemes of synchronous ma-
chine protection against loss of excitation, M.S. thesis, Universidade
Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2009.
[8] C. J. Mozina et al., Coordination of generator protection with generator Carlos E. B. Carrer received the B.Sc. degree in
excitation control and generator capability; Working group J-5 of the electrical engineering from Itajuba Federal Univer-
rotating machinery subcommittee, power system relay committee, in sity (UNIFEI), Itajuba, Brazil, in 2013.
Proc. IEEE/PES Gen. Meet., Tampa, FL, USA, 2007, pp. 117. He is currently with UNIFEI. He has researched
[9] M. F. Dias and M. M. Elkateb, Case study into loss-of-excitation relays industrial and distribution electrical system faults
during simultaneous faultsPart II, in Proc. 3rd Conf. AFRICON, 1992, and synchronous generators in real-time digital sim-
pp. 430433. ulators. His areas of interest include power system
[10] C. R. Mason, A New loss-of-excitation relay for synchronous genera- protection and synchronous machines.
tors, Trans. Amer. Inst. Elect. Eng., vol. 68, pp. 12401245, Jul. 1949.
[11] J. Berdy, Loss of excitation protection for modern synchronous genera-
tors. IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-94, no. 5, pp. 14571463,
Sep. 1975.
[12] A. P. de Morais, G. Cardoso Jr., and L. Mariotto, Performance evalua-
tion of methods for protection against loss of excitation in synchronous
generators, Control Autom. Mag., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 526545, 2009.
Carlos A. V. Guerrero received the B.Sc. degree
[13] A. P. Morais, G. CardosoJr., L. Mariotto, and L. N. Canha, Performance
in electrical engineering from the Escuela Supe-
evaluation of the adaptive loss of field protection in synchronous gener-
rior Politcnica del Litoral (ESPOL), Guayaquil,
ators by means of the positive offset method, IEEE Latin Amer. Trans.,
Ecuador, in 2009, and the M.Sc. degree from Ita-
vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 643649, Dec. 2009.
juba Federal University (UNIFEI), Itajuba, Brazil,
[14] Z. P. Shi, J. P. Wang, Z. Gajic, C. Sao, and M. Ghandhari, The Comparison
in 2011. He is currently working toward the Ph.D.
and Analysis for Loss of Excitation Protection Schemes in Generator
degree in the Excellence Center of Smart Grid
Protection. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Inst. Technol., 2010.
[15] J. C. M. Lima, M. P. Delboni, and J. C. B. Andrade, Critical review of
He is also currently a Researcher with CERIn,
philosophy protection against loss of excitation in synchronous genera-
UNIFEI. His research interests include protection,
tors, in Proc. 7th STPC, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2003, pp. 16.
automation and control of electrical systems, real-
[16] Multifunction generator relay, in SEL-300G Instruction Manual,
time digital simulation, electromagnetic transient analysis, and digital signal
Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Pullman, WA, USA, 2010.
processing applied in electrical systems.
[17] Tutorial on the protection of synchronous generators: Special publication
of the IEEE PSRC, IEEE Power Syst. Relaying Committee, Baltimore,
MD, USA, Tech. Presentation, 2011.
[18] Real Time Digital Simulator Power System and Control User Manual,
RTDS Technologies, Winnipeg, MB, Canada, 2009. Paulo M. Silveira received the B.Sc. and M.Sc. de-
[19] A. B. Dehkordi, P. Neti, A. M. Gole, and T. L. Maguire, Development and grees from the Federal School of Engineering of Ita-
validation of a comprehensive synchronous machine model for a real-time juba, Itajuba, Brazil, in 1984 and 1998, respectively,
environment, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 3448, and the D.Sc. degree from the Federal University
Mar. 2010. of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Brazil, in 2001, all in
[20] A. B. Dehkordi, D. S. Ouellette, and P. A. Forsyth, Protection testing electrical engineering.
of a 100% stator ground fault scheme using a phase domain synchronous In 2007, he was a Visiting Researcher with the
machine model in real-time, in Proc. 10th Int. Conf. DPSP, Manchester, Center for Advanced Power Systems, Florida State
U.K., 2010, pp. 15. University, Tallahassee, FL, USA. He is currently
[21] Y. T. Huang, B. S. Rigby and A. B. Dehkordi, Using a new faulted an Associate Professor and the Coordinator of the
synchronous machine model for hardware-in-loop testing of a generator Excellence Center of Smart Grid (CERIn) with Ita-
protection relay, in Proc. Southern African Power Syst. Protection Conf., juba Federal University (UNIFEI), Itajuba. His interests are power system
Johannesburg, South Africa, 2012, pp. 110. protection, energy quality, and signal processing for fault identification.