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Japan, The Renaissance, the Reformations,

and the Scientific Revolution: Study Guide


Answers Located at the End
1- Describe the Impacts of Japans Geography.
(Be sure to include the geographical characteristics of
the impact)

2- Describe Early Japan and its way of life.

3- . Describe Feudal Japan.

4- What were the achievements of the Tokugawa


Shogunate? Explain. (Name 5+)

5- Where does the Renaissance begin? Why?

6- What were the achievements of the Renaissance


described in #4?
(Name 3+)
Describe the characteristics of Renaissance Art.

7- What were the achievements of the Northern


Renaissance? (Name 5+)
What were the impacts of the printing press?

8- Name the causes of the Protestant Reformation. How


did Martin Luther play a part?

9- What were the impacts of the Protestant


Reformation?

10- What was achieved from the Scientific


Revolution?
Use this space to answer the questions above. If you need more space
use loose-leaf or the back.
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Answer Key(To help study write each question on the line


above each answer)
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1- Firstly, Japan is very mountainous. Due to this rugged terrain,
political unity is difficult to achieve. In addition, there was limited
farming land. Secondly, Japan is located on an archipelago or chain
of islands. Since Japan was surrounded by ocean, it was used for
transportation and food. Also, the ocean provided protection,
preventing other cultures from conquering Japan, such as China or
Korea. Lastly, due to being located in the Pacific Ring of Fire, there is
much seismic activity such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
Due to this, the Japanese had much respect for nature. They even
developed the Shinto religion, worshipping Kami, or forces of nature.
The geography of Japan had much impact on Japan.

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2- The first signs of civilization begun in about 12000 BC. Early Japan
worshipped Shinto religion or Way of the gods. They worshipped
Kami or spirits of nature, helping to unite Japan. Secondly, there was
cultural diffusion. There was influence of Korean and Chinese
cultures around 600 AD adapt and mix ideas, specifically the Tang
Dynasty in China. Thirdly, they borrowed a writing system, Zen
Buddhism, Confucianism, and the tea ceremony from China.
Fourthly, early society was organized into clan. Families were related
by blood or marriage and often fought over land. Fifthly, there was
the Yamato clan. They gained control over Japans largest island
around 500 AD. They expanded rule to become the royal family of
Japan. Lastly, there was the Heian Period between 800-1200 AD.
Local lords became sources of military power.
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3- Known as the age of the Samurai. Emperor was a powerless
figurehead. Real power was in the hands of the shogun or supreme
military commander. Yoritomo Minamoto established the Kumakura
Shogunate. Great warrior lords called daimyo and lesser lords called
samurai or those who serve. Developed a code of bushido or code
of values. If disobeyed this code, must commit seppuku or ritual
suicide. There were failed Mongol attacks. In 1600, the Tokugawa
Shogunate begun.
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4- The Tokugawa Shogunate, established by Tokugawa Ieyasu achieved
much during its reign, between 1600 and 1868. He established a
type of government called Centralized Feudalism, after the dark ages
of Japan. They kept outward forms of Feudalism, while imposing
central government control. Society was unified, ruling from Edo
(Tokyo) Daimyo were required every other year and their families all
the time. A law was made that Daimyo could not marry or fix castles
without permission. Social order was very rigid. Only Samurai
warriors were allowed to serve in the military or hold government
positions. In addition, peace brought about in farming in trade
brought economic prosperity. Cultural advances were made such as
transitioning from N plays to Kubuki dramas, haiku poetry, and
landscape and historical paintings. Lastly, Isolationism increased.
The Tokugawa increasingly spread fear of European power and
Christianity. An edict was passed called the Sokoku Edict in 1635,
limiting trade. This Shogunate achieve a lot while it was in power.
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5- The Renaissance begins in Florence, Italy. Firstly, in Italy there were
Greco-Roman remains such as architectural remains, antique
statues, coins, and inscriptions, especially since Rome was the
center of Italy. The Renaissance was marked by reawakened interest
in Rome, which was the center of Italy. Secondly, it located in a
central location of the Mediterranean World. Thirdly, due to its
central location, it had trade hubs such as Florence, Genoa, Milan,
Naples, Papal States, and Venice. Because of this, had a wealthy
merchant class further promoting growth. Fourthly, these major
cities helped promote further development. They became
prosperous centers of trade and manufacturing. These city-states
competed with each other, promoting even further growth. Lastly,
there were wealthy sponsors and patrons such as the Pope and the
Medici Family. They spent lavishly to support the arts.
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6- Firstly, there was an intellectual movement known as Humanism.
It focused on worldly subjects rather than on the religious issues that
occupied religious thinkers. The most well-known Italian Humanist,
Francesco Petrarch brought back ancient Greek and Roman
manuscripts to Italy. He also wrote a set of love poems called
Sonnets to Laura. Secondly, it was a golden age in the arts. They
made Greco-Roman style art with religious themes. The art was
made more realistic by showing perspective, shading, use of models,
study of human autonomy and body, and using an idealized form.
The most well-known of these artists were Leonardo Da Vinci
creating the Mona Lisa, Michelangelo and Raphael. Lastly, there was
much new literature and writing, especially how-to books. One of
these called The Book of Courtier by Baldassare Castiglione
described how to be the ideal person. Niccol Machiavelli wrote, The
Prince, instructing how to be a successful ruler. A lot was achieved
during the Italian Renaissance.
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7- Much was achieved during the Northern Renaissance. There was
much growth in the arts. Oil paint was invented allowing for deep
rich color and artists such as Pieter Bruegal painted scenes of
everyday life. Also, there were artists like Albrect Durer, also known
as the German Leonardo, studying Italian technique. Secondly,
there was even more growth in humanism. The great Dutch
humanist, Desiderius Erasmus created a New Greek edition of the
New Testament and called for reform in the Church writing, The
Praise of Folly. English humanist Sir Thomas More wrote Utopia,
calling for social and economic reform. This questioning spirit of
Humanism lead to reformation. Also, there were Monarch Patrons
and centralization of political power. Next, there was also much
literature written. Francois Rabelais wrote a novel called Gargantua
and Pantagruel. The most well-known of these writers were William
Shakespeare, an English writer and playwright and Cervantes, a
Spanish writer writing Don Quixote, mocking the romantic notion of
knights and chivalry.
The most notable achievement was the printing press. Before, the
Printing Revolution, the Chinese learned make paper and use block
printing. Because German engravers were able to develop moveable
type, Johann Gutenberg revolutionized printing by printing the
Gutenberg Bible. More and more books and documents were printed
spreading new ideas such as the Reformation and leading to the age
of Exploration. After all, it was cheaper, easier, expanded literacy
and spread new knowledge.
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8- The Catholic Church of the Middle Ages was marked by
corruption and scandal. After the devastation of the Great Plague
and instability within the Church, more people began to question the
Church and demand reforms. Martin Luther was a German
Theologian and priest who began to question the practices of the
Church, particularly the sale of indulgences or a pardon for sins
committed during a persons lifetime. He began to demand reform.
In 1517, Martin Luther put the 95 Theses on the Church door in
Wittenberg, Germany, sparking the Reformation. They were 95
arguments against indulgences that demand reforms in the Church.
Luther believed people could only reach heaven through their faith,
and the Church cannot pardon sins. He also believed the Bible was
the only source of religious truth, not the Church.
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9- Answer IS IN YOUR NOTES
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10- There was much achieved thanks to the Scientific Revolution.
There were many advances made in astronomy. Firstly, the
heliocentric or sun centered model of the universe was developed by
Nicolaus Copernicus. Johannes Kepler then calculated the
eccentricities of the planets that revolve around the sun. Galileo
discovered that moons revolve planets. Newton developed the law
of gravity and other laws of the universe. Secondly, the scientific
method was developed. Bacon and Descartes then devoted
themselves to the problem of knowledge. Thirdly, Robert Boyle
made developments in chemistry by distinguishing between
individual elements and chemical compounds. Lastly, advantages in
medicine were made. Human autonomy was studied, stitches were
developed, ointment to prevent infection was made and William
Harvey discovered the circulation of blood and that the heart pumps
the blood.