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IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 03, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

A Study of Strength of Concrete by using E-Waste Material

Mukesh U. Donadkar1 Prof. S. S. Solanke2
M. Tech. Scholar 2Assistant Professor
Department of Civil Engineering
GHRCE, Nagpur
Abstract Concrete is a heterogeneous mix of cement, water Fig. 1: Whole process of integrated recycling for waste
and aggregates. It is widely identify that proportioning and PCBs
mixing of the constituents such as cement, sand, water coarse
aggregates and is important steps in concrete making process. II. METHODOLOGY
Quality control measures are supposed to keep a check the All materials used in this paper were easily available.
quality of concrete being manufactured. These include tests Portland cement of 53 grades was used in this paper with the
on wet and hardened concrete. But due to large use of it fine aggregate of 4.75 mm maximum particle size. The testing
availability of raw material is being questioned. Therefore of material was done as per IS Specifications IS: 383-1970.
other complementing materials are needed to be workout. E- E-waste was collected from electronic shops in Nagpur. This
waste like Printed Circuit Board is also generating in very waste was crushed by jaw crusher. Slump cone test for each
large quantity. So it is essential to discard. The e-waste like case sample was also done. Strength criteria of Grade M25
PCBs can be recovered and can be used as a ingredient in concrete mix and for water/cement ratio of 0.5 was used.
concrete after processing. So this research focused on partial
replacement the material like fine aggregate with PCBs to
achieve desire concrete in terms of their properties. In this
project is made on the use of E-waste particles as fine A. Printed Circuit Boards (Pcbs)
aggregates in concrete with a percentage substitute ranging In this paper E-waste like printed circuit board are used .PCBs
from 0 % to 20% i.e. (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%). Compressive are crushed with the help of jaw crusher.
strength Concrete with and without E- waste material as a fine
aggregate was observed. The feasibility of utilizing E-waste
particles as a substitute of fine aggregate has been
presented.This paper shows strongly possibility of E-waste
being used as substitute of fine aggregate. Large use of this
tends to decreases the use natural sand in concrete and it is of
prime importance that replacement of natural sand can be
Key words: E-Waste, Workability, Printed Circuit Board,
Properties, Concrete, fine aggregate

Concrete is the most important material and nearly every type
of houses and buildings. It is the mix of cement, water and
aggregates. Fine aggregates are important material of Fig. 2: All kinds of electronic waste materials (pcbs)
concrete. They help to, reduce shrinkage and give economy
and affected on workability of concrete. The stress are B. Fine Aggregate
developed the cracks in concrete depends largely on the A fine aggregate which is being used comprised of clean river
properties of fine aggregate. Advantage of natural sand is the sand. Table 1 shows the physical properties of fine aggregate
particles are cubical or rounded with smooth surface texture and E-waste material.
.Day to day Use of concrete is more as compared to Electronic waste
Physical Properties Fine Aggregate
availability of natural and there is a no material which plays (PCB)
the role of fine aggregate. And so it forms the ideal
replacement of fine aggregate in concrete, which also Fineness modulus 3.10 2.49
reducing the dead weight of the building utilization of E- Specific Gravity 1.2 2.4
waste particles as natural sand in concrete with a substitute Color Brown and Dark Dark
ranging from 0 % to 20%. E-wastes material like PCBs Table 1:
contain around 30% metals and 70% nonmetals.
C. Cement
Before preparing the mix design it is necessary to calculate
the physical properties of cement so that successful mix
design can be prepared.OPC cement 53 grade is used
throughout the experimental study. So various physical
properties that have been determined are given in table no-2.
1 Specific gravity 3.14
2 Standard consistency (%) 22%

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A Study of Strength of Concrete by using E-Waste Material
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/020)

3 Initial setting time (hours, min) 50 minute Avg. Avg. Avg.

4 Final setting time (hours, min) 365Minute Sr. Compressiv Compressiv Compressiv
Table 2: physical Properties of Cement No e strength e strength e strength
. @7days @14days @28days
D. Coarse Aggregate (N/mm2) (N/mm2) (N/mm2)
Coarse aggregates used composed of machine crushed stone. 1 0 24.31 28.53 32.14
The shape of C.A. was Angular passing through 20mm IS 2 5 30.21 31.12 33.43
sieve and retained on 4.75mm sieve. Testing of C.A. was 3 10 30.51 33.23 35.55
done. 4 15 25.3 26.34 30.0
Specific gravity 2.75 5 20 20.12 24.3 28.52
Fineness modulus 7.09 Table 7: Compressive Test
Table 3: Properties of C.A
E. Water
Water plays a very important role for concreting and curing
was used throughout the project. The Water/Cement ratio
used for M-25 grade concrete is 0.5


Concrete Mix Design for M-25 grade concrete was prepared
and accordingly concrete cubes and beams were prepared and
test. Conventional mix concrete and various content of E-
waste (0% - 20%) listed in Table 4.
n Fig. 3: Compressive Strength N/mm2

Proportion 5 10 15 20 B. Flexural test

of E-waste % % % % Flexural strength test was used to test beams were casted of
Table 4: Mix Specification size 100*100*500 mm and flexural test was determined using
Sr. CEMENT SAND PCB C.A. Flexural Testing Machine.28 days flexural strength was
W/C determined and compared with the conventional concrete.
No. (Kg/m3) (Kg/m3) (Kg/m3) (Kg/m3)
1 0.5 383.2 527 0 1290.96 Avg. Flexural strength @
Sr. No. PCB%
2 0.5 383.2 500.6 26.3 1290.96 28 days (N/mm2)
3 0.5 383.2 474.3 52.7 1290.96 1 0 6.4
4 0.5 383.2 447.9 79.5 1290.96 2 5 6.12
5 0.5 383.2 421.6 105.4 1290.96 3 10 5.335
Table 5: Mix Design (M-25 Grade) 4 15 5.183
5 20 5.01
A. Slump Test
The slump tests were performed according to IS 1199-1959.
Slump values obtained for M-25 grade with different
replacement are as shown in table no.06.
Sr. No. PCB %
1 0 55
2 5 62
3 10 64
4 15 58
5 20 57
Table 6: Slump Cone Test Fig. 4: Flexural Strength N/mm2


A. Compressive Test A. Compressive Strength Test

Compressive strength test was used to calculate the strength Block for each are cast with different proportion of PCB with
of concrete at the period of 7, 14, 28 days respectively. gradual increase of 5% PCB and gradual decrease of sand by
Concrete cubes of size 150* 150* 150 mm were assembled replacing the sand by weight. The graph shows that the
and the compressive test was performed on the cube by using addition of PCB improves the compressive strength up to 10
compressive testing machine.

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A Study of Strength of Concrete by using E-Waste Material
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/020)

% addition of PCB after that no considerable improvement is [8] Sreekrishna perumal Thanga Ramesh Use of waste
observed. furnace slag and welding slag as replacement for sand in
concrete International Journal of Energy and
B. Flexural Strength of Beams N/Mm
Environmental Engineering 2013,
Beams are tested at the age of 28 days for Flexural Strength. [9] Salman Siddique, Sikandar Shakil, Mohd. Shadab
The maximum strength is given by the conventional mix so Siddiqui scope of utilization of e-waste in concrete
the flexural strength reduced as compared to control mix. IJARSE, Vol. No.4, Special Issue (01), March 2015
[10] Mr. Ankit J Patel, Mr. Sandip P. Patel, Mr. Daxesh
VIII. CONCLUSIONS Prajapati,Mr. Harsh Patel Literature Review on
From the experimental program, it is found that concrete with Different Waste Materials Use in Concrete JETIR
waste PCB can be developed successfully with proper (ISSN-2349-5162) DEC.2014
strength characteristics. The compressive strength increases [11] Kui huang, Jie Guo, Zhenming Xu Recycling of waste
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The flexural strength smaller by 6.66 % as compared [12] Guillermo Fernndez S., Kejing Zhang, Evaluation of
to normal mix. most suitable electronic waste recycling components
The enhanced strength can be safely attributed to from economic and environmental point of view1,
pozzolanic action of the crushed PCB waste.. interdisciplinary journal of research in business issn:
The workability of the concrete with crush PCB did 2046-7141 vol. 1, issue. 11, (pp.01- 10) | 2012.
not show significant changes as compared to the normal mix. [13] Iji M, Recycling of epoxy resin compounds for moulding
The PCB waste can be used in concrete making and electronic components. j mater sci 1998;33:4553.
hence solve a potential discarding problem.


An effort to expand light weight and heavy weight concrete
with waste of PCB can be undertaken. The long term
durability of concrete can also be checked as a future work.

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