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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress

Chapter 04
Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
True / False Questions
1. Emotions represent the cluster of beliefs, assessed feelings, and behavioral
intentions
towards something or someone.
True False
2. Emotions are brief events or "episodes".
True False
3. Moods represent our reaction to specific people or events, whereas emotions a
re not directed
toward anything in particular.
True False
4. People are consciously aware of most emotions they experience.
True False
5. Emotions generate a core affect that something is good or bad, helpful or har
mful, to be
approached or avoided.
True False
6. Strong emotions trigger our conscious awareness of a threat or opportunity in
the external
environment.
True False
7. Moods are less intense emotional states that are not directed toward anything
in particular.
True False
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
8. Emotions are communications to ourselves, which serve to put us in a state of
readiness.
True False
9. Attitudes are fleeting physiological experiences we have in response to an at
titude object.
True False
10. Attitudes develop from our emotional experiences as well as from the percept
ual process.
True False
11. Attitudes consist of the following three components: emotions, beliefs, and
behaviors.
Ans:
True False
12. Beliefs represent our perceptions about the attitude object.
True False
13. Attitudes represent a cluster of beliefs, motivation and feelings about an a
ttitude object.
True False
14. In the model of emotions, attitudes, and behavior, feelings lead to beliefs,
which in turn lead
to behaviors.
True False
15. People with the same feelings may form different behavioral intentions based
on their
unique past experience.
True False
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
16. Research concludes that when our emotions and logical analysis of a situatio
n conflict with
each other, we should follow our emotions.
True False
17. Cognitive dissonance is more likely to occur when the dissonant behavior is
known to
everyone, was done voluntarily and can't be undone.
True False
18. A person's emotions are influenced by his or her personality, not just from
workplace
experiences.
True False
19. Emotional labor refers to any physical work that makes employees feel angry
that they must
perform this kind of work.
True False
20. Display rules are norms that require employees to show certain emotions and
to withhold
others.
True False
21. Emotional dissonance occurs when we use our emotional intelligence on others
but other
people do not use their emotional intelligence on us.
True False
22. Emotional dissonance refers to the conflict experienced between the emotions
we are
required to display and our true emotions in that situation.
True False
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
23. Conflict between required and true emotions is called emotional intelligence
.
True False
24. Emotional dissonance is most common where emotional display rules are highly
regulated
and employees must display emotions quite different from their true emotions.
True False
25. Jobs require more emotional labor when employees must display a variety of e
motions,
rather than just one or two.
True False
26. The norms and expectations governing emotional display rules are similar aro
und the
world.
True False
27. Emotional labor may result in stress and job burnout when the prescribed emo
tions for a job
conflict with the employee's true emotions.
True False
28. Employees experience less stress from emotional labor when they practice sur
face acting
rather than deep acting.
True False
29. Employees minimize the stress from emotional labor by actually changing thei
r emotions to
match the job requirements (deep acting), rather than displaying emotions contra
ry to their true
emotions (surface acting).
True False
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
30. Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to perceive and express emotion
, assimilate
emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in
oneself and
others.
True False
31. Experts have concluded that cognitive intelligence and emotional intelligenc
e are the same
things.
True False
32. Emotional intelligence is a set of abilities.
True False
33. Three dimensions of emotional intelligence are cognitive dissonance, continu
ance
commitment, and emotional labor.
True False
34. Emotional intelligence can be learned to some extent.
True False
35. Relationship management represents the highest level of emotional intelligen
ce.
True False
36. The four dimensions of emotional intelligence form a hierarchy.
True False
37. Emotional intelligence tends to increase with age.
True False
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
38. Job satisfaction represents a person's evaluation of his or her job and work
context.
True False
39. It is reasonable to conclude from recent surveys that nearly all employees i
n the United
States are truly very satisfied with their jobs.
True False
40. Compared with other countries, Hungarian employees have above average levels
of job
satisfaction.
True False
41. Job satisfaction is higher in Nordic countries.
True False
42. Employees are more likely to quit their jobs and be absent from work if they
are dissatisfied
with their jobs.
True False
43. The exit-voice-loyalty-neglect model states that some employees respond to t
heir job
dissatisfaction by patiently waiting for the problem to work itself out or get r
esolved by others.
True False
44. According to the exit-voice-loyalty-neglect model, some unsatisfied employee
s engage in
"voice" by constructively recommending solutions to the source of their dissatis
faction.
True False
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
45. Personality and previous experiences influence an employee's decision to eng
age in exit,
voice, loyalty, or neglect when they are dissatisfied with their job.
True False
46. Researchers have consistently found that job satisfaction leads to improved
job
performance even when rewards are not a factor.
True False
47. The latest organizational behavior evidence concludes that happy workers are
more
productive workers to some extent.
True False
48. The relationship between job satisfaction and job performance would likely b
e stronger if
more organizations provided valued rewards for good performance.
True False
49. Research indicates that employees with higher job satisfaction tend to provi
de better
customer service.
True False
50. Employees with higher job satisfaction tend to convey more friendliness and
positive
feelings to customers.
True False
51. Job satisfaction is an ethical issue that influences the organization's repu
tation in the
community.
True False
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
52. Organizational commitment refers to an employee's contractual obligation to
provide a
minimum amount of time and effort to the organization in return for a fair day's
pay from the
organization.
True False
53. The two types of organizational commitment are affective and perceptual.
True False
54. Continuance commitment is a calculative decision to remain with the organiza
tion rather
than an emotional attachment to the firm.
True False
55. Employees with high levels of affective commitment tend to engage in more or
ganizational
citizenship behaviors.
True False
56. Continuance commitment motivates employees to increase their work effort bey
ond
expectations.
True False
57. Financial incentives to stay with the organization (i.e., golden handcuffs)
usually reduce
continuance commitment.
True False
58. Employers can increase their employees' level of affective commitment throug
h their pay
system.
True False
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
59. Trust, employee involvement, and organizational comprehension tend to increa
se
organizational commitment.
True False
60. Employees experience more continuance commitment when the organization provi
des
opportunities for employee involvement.
True False
61. Trust is a reciprocal activity; to receive trust from employees, corporate l
eaders must
demonstrate their trust in those employees.
True False
62. Employees tend to have higher organizational commitment when their personal
values
differ from the company's values.
True False
63. Affective commitment is higher in organizations with strong ethical values.
True False
64. Employees with very high loyalty tend to have high conformity, which results
in lower
creativity.
True False
65. Employees have lower affective commitment when they are offered stable, long
-term
employment.
True False
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
66. Stress is an adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challengi
ng or threatening to
the person's wellbeing.
True False
67. Stress refers to any environmental conditions that cause someone to suffer o
r experience
fear.
True False
68. Everyone needs some level of stress to survive.
True False
69. Eustress refers to the short-term causes of stress, whereas distress refers
to long-term
causes.
True False
70. The general adaptation syndrome describes the consequences of stress.
True False
71. There are three stages in the job burnout process.
True False
72. The job burnout process occurs in the following sequence: (1) reduced effica
cy, (2)
emotional exhaustion and (3) higher blood pressure.
True False
73. Sexual harassment is a type of stressor.
True False
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
74. Social support helps employees to manage stress by increasing their self-est
eem.
True False
75. Job sharing and telework are usually considered ways to reduce stress throug
h work/life
balance.
True False
Multiple Choice Questions
76. Emotions are defined as:
A. feelings that are not directed towards anything in particular.
B. our judgments about what is right or wrong.
C. our intentions to act towards the attitude object.
D. the cluster of beliefs, assessed feelings and behavioral intentions towards a
n attitude object.
E. none of the above.
77. Which of the following statements about emotions is FALSE?
A. We continuously experience an emotion for days or weeks at a time.
B. We experience emotions psychologically.
C. We experience emotions physiologically.
D. Emotions create a state of readiness.
E. Emotions are directed toward someone or something.
78. Emotions have what effect on us?
A. They make us aware of events that possibly affect our important goals.
B. They put us into a state of readiness.
C. They provide a communication to us about the presence of relevant events in t
he external
environment.
D. All of the above.
E. Only 'A' and 'C'.
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
79. Anger, fear, joy and sadness represent:
A. beliefs that influence our attitudes towards something or someone.
B. the first four stages of emotional labor.
C. types of emotions.
D. four dimensions of job satisfaction.
E. both 'A' and 'C'.
80. Which of the following is NOT usually identified as a category of emotions?
A. Perceived
B. Excited
C. Fearful
D. Relaxed
E. Gloomy
81. The difference between emotions and attitudes is comparable to the differenc
e between:
A. eating something versus drinking something.
B. experiencing something versus judging something.
C. perceiving something versus behaving toward something.
D. knowing about something versus doing something.
E. there is no difference between emotions and attitudes; they are the same thin
g.
82. Beliefs, feelings, and behavioral intentions are components of:
A. attitudes.
B. the EVLN model.
C. organizational commitment.
D. emotions.
E. the psychological contract.
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
83. Which of the following best represents the most common linkage between attit
udes and
behavior?
A. Intentions->feelings->beliefs->behavior.
B. Behavior->job satisfaction->cognitive dissonance->organizational commitment.
C. Beliefs->feelings->intentions->behavior.
D. Cognitive dissonance->behavioral intentions->job satisfaction->behavior.
E. Behavior->feelings->intentions->beliefs.
84. In the model of emotions, attitudes, and behavior, feelings are directly inf
luenced by:
A. behavioral intentions.
B. emotions.
C. beliefs.
D. all of the above.
E. only 'B' and 'C'.
85. Which of these statements represents the feelings dimension of attitudes?
A. I don't like how my boss treats his employees.
B. I want to transfer out of this department to get away from this manager.
C. My supervisor barks at his employees in public.
D. I intend to tell the human resource manager that my supervisor should be demo
ted.
E. All of the above statements represent the feeling dimension of attitudes.
86. After working weeks on a difficult proposal for a client, Jack learns that t
he client has
accepted the proposal and will award the contract to Jack's firm. Upon hearing t
his from his
boss, Jack yelps 'Yahoo!' and automatically thrusts his fisted hand in the air.
This action is most
likely an example of:
A. perceptions directly influencing beliefs.
B. behavioral intentions directly influencing behavior.
C. emotions directly influencing feelings.
D. beliefs directly influencing feelings.
E. emotions directly influencing behavior.
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
87. The uncomfortable tension felt when our behavior and attitudes are inconsist
ent with each
other is called:
A. cognitive distance.
B. emotional intelligence.
C. cognitive justification.
D. cognitive dissonance.
E. neglect.
88. Which of these jobs would normally require emotional labor?
A. Bank teller
B. Bill collector
C. Funeral director
D. Disney World employee dressed up as Mickey Mouse
E. All of the above
89. Emotional labor is defined as any situation in which:
A. you get upset with customers at times when you are supposed to remain calm.
B. you begin to feel burned out from facing too many customers in one day.
C. you don't realize that your emotions are causing you to act differently towar
d someone than
you had intended.
D. all of the above are part of the emotional labor definition.
E. none of the above represents the emotional labor definition.
90. Emotional labor refers to:
A. the effort, planning, and control needed to express organizationally desired
emotions during
interpersonal transactions.
B. the tendency to change our attitudes so they become more consistent with our
behaviors.
C. a person's evaluation of the job and work context.
D. a person's emotional attachment to identification with, and involvement in a
particular
organization.
E. None of the above defines emotional labor.
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
91. Which of these statements about emotional labor is FALSE?
A. Most jobs involving customer service require some degree of emotional labor.
B. Research indicates that emotional display rules and standards are very simila
r around the
world.
C. Emotional labor increases with the extent to which employees must abide by em
otional
display rules.
D. In spite of the presence of emotional display rules, it is very difficult to
hide our true
emotions.
E. Display rules are norms requiring employees to display certain emotions and w
ithholding
others.
92. Which of these countries is more likely to accept or tolerate, than any othe
r country, people
who display their true emotions at work?
A. The U.S.A.
B. Japan
C. France
D. Italy
E. Korea
93. Emotional dissonance is:
A. the emotion people experience when they are dissatisfied with their paycheck.
B. a significant cause of stress and job burnout.
C. present whenever emotional labor is not required in the job.
D. the main source of ethical conduct in organizational settings.
E. both 'A' and 'D'.
94. Emotional dissonance occurs when:
A. there are no known emotional display rules for a particular situation.
B. we experience conflict between the required emotions and our true emotions.
C. we work with someone who has high emotional intelligence.
D. job satisfaction is at the same level as organizational commitment.
E. either 'A' or 'C' occurs.
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
95. ________ involves modifying behavior to be consistent with required emotions
but
continuing to hold different internal feelings.
A. Surface acting
B. EI
C. EVLN model
D. Deep acting
E. both 'A' and 'D'
96. ________ involves changing true emotions to match the required emotions.
A. Surface acting
B. EI
C. EVLN model
D. Deep acting
E. both 'A' and 'D'
97. The ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought,
understand and
reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in oneself and others is called:
A. emotional intelligence.
B. emotional labor.
C. cognitive dissonance.
D. positive affectivity.
E. job satisfaction.
98. Emotional intelligence is best described as:
A. a personality trait.
B. a set of abilities.
C. a form of organizational commitment.
D. an action-tendency indicating that the person is highly motivated.
E. a form of empathy.
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
99. Social awareness, self-management, and relationship management are three ele
ments of:
A. affective commitment.
B. emotional labor.
C. emotional intelligence.
D. continuance commitment.
E. the affect circumplex model of emotions.
100. Emotional intelligence includes the ability to:
A. stifle impulses.
B. manage the emotions of other people.
C. understand and be sensitive to the feelings of others.
D. do all of the above.
E. do 'B' and 'C' only.
101. The highest level of emotional intelligence is:
A. social awareness.
B. self-management.
C. organizational comprehension.
D. self-awareness.
E. None of the above.
102. Relationship management is:
A. a negative, highly activated emotion.
B. one of three types of organizational commitment.
C. an outcome of emotional dissonance.
D. the highest level of emotional intelligence.
E. the opposite of employability the psychological contract.
103. Self-awareness is the _________ level of _________.
A. lowest, emotional intelligence
B. highest, emotional labor
C. highest, emotional intelligence
D. highest, continuance commitment
E. lowest, affective commitment
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
104. The competency most strongly associated with social awareness is:
A. conflict management.
B. empathy.
C. organizational comprehension.
D. self-management.
E. None of the above.
105. Inspiring others, managing conflict, and developing others' capabilities ar
e:
A. required in all psychological contracts.
B. competencies representing the highest level of emotional intelligence.
C. elements of the affect circumplex model.
D. three of the main causes of continuance commitment.
E. three categories in the exit-voice-loyalty-neglect (EVLN) model.
106. Your boss is usually able to calm employees when they are upset and to get
staff
enthusiastic about an otherwise mundane activity. This ability probably means th
at your boss
has:
A. the highest level of emotional intelligence.
B. the highest level of negative affectivity.
C. a high degree of continuance commitment.
D. all of the above.
E. both "A" and "C".
107. A person's evaluation of his or her job is called:
A. job satisfaction.
B. emotional intelligence.
C. affective commitment.
D. cognitive dissonance.
E. emotions.
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
108. By asking a single direct question (such as "How satisfied are you with you
r job?"), job
satisfaction surveys tend to:
A. underestimate the true level of job satisfaction among employees.
B. measure organizational commitment rather than job satisfaction.
C. overestimate the true level of job satisfaction among employees.
D. confuse people who are completing the survey.
E. provide a better estimate of job satisfaction than if the survey asked severa
l questions.
109. In national polls, ______ percent of Americans have been satisfied with the
ir jobs for the
past decade or more.
A. about 50
B. less than 25
C. about 30-40
D. more than 85
E. nearly 100
110. The exit-voice-loyalty-neglect (EVLN) model:
A. outlines the four consequences of emotional intelligence.
B. identifies the four ways to manage employee emotions.
C. explains why the psychological contract differs between employees and their e
mployers.
D. is a template for organizing and understanding the consequences of job dissat
isfaction.
E. explains the main differences between affective commitment and continuance co
mmitment.
111. Kumar is unhappy about his work and his supervisor, so he has started to pa
y less attention
to the quality of his work. He also arrives late for work and generally puts les
s effort into his
work. This information suggests that Kumar's main reaction to job dissatisfactio
n is:
A. exit.
B. voice.
C. commitment.
D. loyalty.
E. neglect.
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
112. Shawna is dissatisfied with her boss for not supporting her work or recogni
zing her job
performance. In spite of these problems, Shawna does not complain and does not i
ntend to
move elsewhere. Instead, she maintains her level of work effort and hopes the co
mpany will
eventually correct these problems. According to the EVLN model, Shawna is mainly
engaging
in:
A. exit.
B. voice.
C. employability.
D. loyalty.
E. neglect.
113. According to the EVLN model, people who are dissatisfied with their jobs mi
ght:
A. quit.
B. complain about the dissatisfying aspects of their jobs.
C. increase their absenteeism from work.
D. keep quiet and hope the sources of job dissatisfaction are eventually correct
ed.
E. do all of the above.
114. Which of the following statements about job satisfaction and job performanc
e is TRUE?
A. Employees who are dissatisfied with their jobs never have high job performanc
e.
B. Job satisfaction has almost no effect on job performance.
C. Employees who are satisfied with their jobs tend to have somewhat higher job
performance.
D. Happy workers are less productive workers.
E. High-performing employees have higher job satisfaction only after they have r
eceived a
financial reward for performing their jobs well.
115. Organizational behavior scholars have concluded that:
A. as job performance increases, job satisfaction decreases.
B. job performance is the best predictor of job satisfaction.
C. job satisfaction is unrelated to job performance.
D. people with higher job satisfaction tend to have higher job performance.
E. both 'A' and 'B' are true.
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
116. Which of these statements about job satisfaction and customer satisfaction
is TRUE?
A. Employees with higher job satisfaction tend to give poorer customer service.
B. Satisfied employees have a more positive mood, which communicates friendlines
s to
customers.
C. Satisfied employees are less likely to quit, so customers receive more consis
tent and familiar
service.
D. Satisfied employees are more likely to engage in "neglect", so customers rece
ive poorer
service from these employees.
E. Both 'B' and 'C' are true.
117. When employees have higher job satisfaction they tend to:
A. provide friendlier service to customers.
B. get angry at customers more often than when they are dissatisfied with their
jobs.
C. provide the same quality of customer service as when they were dissatisfied w
ith their jobs.
D. provide more consistent service to customers because of their longer employme
nt in the job.
E. do both 'A' and 'D'.
118. Employees who stay with an organization mainly because they believe it will
cost them
financially to leave, likely have:
A. high continuance commitment.
B. high emotional intelligence.
C. high affective commitment.
D. all of the above.
E. none of the above.
119. The concept of affective organizational commitment includes:
A. an emotional attachment to the organization.
B. an identification with the organization.
C. an involvement with the organization.
D. all of the above.
E. none of the above.
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
120. Employees with an emotional attachment to, identification with, and involve
ment in a
particular organization are said to have:
A. a high level of pay satisfaction.
B. extreme emotional dissonance.
C. a low level of emotional activation.
D. a high level of continuance commitment.
E. none of the above.
121. Employees with strong organizational commitment are more likely to:
A. engage in organizational citizenship behaviors.
B. steal from their employer.
C. show up late for work.
D. quit their jobs.
E. all of the above.
122. Which of the following tends to occur when organizations use golden handcuf
fs and other
financial incentives to prevent dissatisfied employees from quitting?
A. Employees increase their level of affective commitment.
B. Employees increase their level of continuance commitment.
C. Employees increase their level of job satisfaction.
D. Employees decrease their level of emotional intelligence.
E. Employees decrease their level of continuance commitment.
123. Which of the following tends to result in increased continuance commitment?
A. Corporate leaders demonstrate increasing trust in employees.
B. The company helps employees learn more about the organization through departm
ental
visits and special seminars on company products.
C. Employees receive low interest loans and other incentives from their employer
that make it
costly for them to quit.
D. The company introduces a no-layoff policy.
E. All of the above increase continuance commitment.
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
124. Employee involvement tends to increase:
A. affective commitment.
B. cognitive dissonance.
C. continuance commitment.
D. All of the above.
E. None of the above.
125. ________ is a psychological state comprising the intention to accept vulner
ability based
upon positive expectations of the intent or behavior of other person.
A. Surface acting
B. Trust
C. Cognitive dissonance
D. Deep acting
E. General adaptation syndrome
126. All of these are prominent strategies for building organizational commitmen
t EXCEPT
A. justice and support.
B. shared values.
C. trust.
D. outsourcing.
E. organizational comprehension.
127. The adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or th
reatening to the
person's well-being is called:
A. self-leadership.
B. job burnout.
C. eustress.
D. workaholism.
E. stress.
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
128. Stress is best described as:
A. the physiological disorders we experience from adverse environmental conditio
ns.
B. an adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threa
tening to the
person's wellbeing.
C. a series of events that cause emotional exhaustion and cynicism towards custo
mers.
D. environmental conditions that place a physical or emotional demand on the per
son.
E. a behavior pattern of people with low risk of heart disease.
129. Which of the following statements about stress is FALSE?
A. Employees are the most productive when they experience no stress.
B. Stress is caused by stressors.
C. Two people located in the same work environment might experience different le
vels of
stress.
D. The general adaptation syndrome describes the stress experience.
E. Continued exposure to very high stress levels may lead to permanent physiolog
ical and
psychological damage.
130. The stress experience in moderation is known as:
A. distress.
B. burnout.
C. the general adaptation syndrome.
D. eustress.
E. Type A behavior pattern.
131. Providing childcare support and offering employees flexible work hours have
what effect
on work-related stress?
A. They help employees to learn how to cope with the consequences of stress.
B. They help employees to control the consequences of stress.
C. They remove stressors from the workplace.
D. All of the above.
E. They have no known effect on work-related stress.
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
132. Which of these stress management activities helps employees to improve thei
r perceived
ability to cope with the stressor AND possibly remove the stressor?
A. Telecommuting
B. Social support
C. Meditation
D. Siestas
E. Fitness programs
133. Workaholism includes the three dimensions of:
A. efficacy, cynicism, and emotional exhaustion.
B. work involvement, compulsion to work, and low enjoyment of work.
C. alarm reaction, resistance, exhaustion.
D. time, strain, and role.
E. cynicism, drive to succeed, and resistance.
134. Which of these is considered a work/life balance initiative to minimize str
ess?
A. Flexible work time
B. Job sharing
C. Teleworking
D. Childcare facilities
E. All of these statements describe a family-friendly or work/life initiative to
minimize stress
135. Which of the following reduces stress by withdrawing from the stressor?
A. Coffee breaks
B. Sabbaticals
C. Vacations
D. All of the above are ways to reduce stress by withdrawing from the stressor.
E. None of these are ways to reduce stress by withdrawing from the stressor.
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
136. To ward off stress, a film director likes to have a good laugh. When under
pressure, the
director will crack jokes and ensure everyone has a good laugh during the hard w
ork. These
actions mainly reduce stress:
A. by removing the stressor.
B. by providing social support.
C. by changing stress perceptions.
D. by controlling the consequences of stress.
E. in none of the ways stated here.
137. Self-reinforcement can potentially minimize stress by:
A. removing people from stressors.
B. helping employees to temporarily remove themselves from the stressor.
C. helping employees to control the consequences of stress.
D. helping employees to develop more favorable perceptions of the stressors.
E. Self-leadership has no known effect on work-related stress.
138. Employee wellness programs help employees to reduce stress by:
A. teaching them how to adopt more effective coping mechanisms.
B. helping employees to understand that stress cannot be reduced in most cases.
C. removing the stressors that cause the high stress.
D. doing all of the above.
E. doing none of the above.
Essay Questions
139. Tai was overjoyed when she learned that she would be promoted to a position
with higher
responsibility and pay. However, even before hearing about the promotion, she be
lieved that
the regional manager who made the promotion decision was fair-minded. Use the em
otions,
attitudes, and behavior model to explain how Tai's emotions and beliefs influenc
e her positive
feelings towards the regional manager.
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
140. Three employees believe that their pay is too low. One of them quits, the s
econd complains
to management about the low pay, and the third does nothing. Explain why these e
mployees
engaged in different behaviors even though they held the same beliefs about thei
r pay checks.
141. Advanced Photonics Ltd (APL) is a large developer of laser technologies. Co
mpetitive
pressures as well as the speed of new developments in the industry have made som
e employees
tense and somewhat dissatisfied with their work at APL. To improve employee atti
tudes, the
vice-president has established a 'fun week' where employee teams find and implem
ent various
ways to have fun on this job. APL has also brought in a comedy team for the week
to entertain
employees and coach them on having more fun. Use your knowledge of workplace emo
tions
and attitudes to explain the implications of a fun week on employee attitudes.
142. Explain how an employee's attitudes might be affected by cognitive dissonan
ce.
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
143. Identify and explain two reasons why employee involvement tends to increase
organizational commitment.
144. You are a senior executive in a large pharmaceutical firm and have just hir
ed a chemist
who is recognized as a 'rising star' in the industry. Your organization has spen
t a lot of money
recruiting this person and hopes that the chemist will stay with this firm for m
any years.
However, as with many scientists, the new hire seems to have very little loyalty
to or
identification with any firm. Explain in detail (with action plan examples perta
ining to this
incident) four (4) strategies that would try to increase this employee's loyalty
to this
organization.
145. Comment on the accuracy of the following statement: "Stress is best describ
ed as a
working condition that hurts employee job performance".
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
146. Jake tells you that he is feeling very stressed. Based on your knowledge of
the general
adaptation syndrome, what information would you ask for or look for to determine
what stage
of stress Jake is experiencing?
147. The Director of Nursing at Smalltown General Hospital claims that several n
urses are
experiencing job burnout. Describe the three components of job burnout that shou
ld be evident
from these nurses. Your description of each component should include an example
related to
nursing. Also, briefly identify two possible characteristics of nursing that mig
ht have
contributed to this job burnout.
148. Some jobs are considered more stressful than others. Describe what this rea
lly means and
give two reasons why someone in a 'high-stress' job might experience less stress
than another
person in a 'low-stress' job two types of behavior modification interventions th
at might change
employee behavior in this situation.
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Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
149. Head-office employees at Acme Widgets have had heavy workloads over the pas
t year,
due mainly to downsizing and increased demand for widgets. Acme's CEO wants to i
ntroduce a
stress management program that would control the consequences of this stress. De
scribe three
types of stress management programs that would help employees to cope more effec
tively with
the physiological and/or psychological consequences of stress. Your answer shoul
d also briefly
state the specific benefits that each type of program provides.
4-30
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
Chapter 04 Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress Answer Key
True / False Questions
1. (p. 98) Emotions represent the cluster of beliefs, assessed feelings, and beh
avioral intentions
towards something or someone.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
2. (p. 98) Emotions are brief events or "episodes".
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
3. (p. 98) Moods represent our reaction to specific people or events, whereas em
otions are not
directed toward anything in particular.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
4. (p. 99) People are consciously aware of most emotions they experience.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
4-31
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
5. (p. 99) Emotions generate a core affect that something is good or bad, helpfu
l or harmful, to be
approached or avoided.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
6. (p. 99) Strong emotions trigger our conscious awareness of a threat or opport
unity in the
external environment.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
7. (p. 98) Moods are less intense emotional states that are not directed toward
anything in
particular.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
8. (p. 99) Emotions are communications to ourselves, which serve to put us in a
state of
readiness.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
4-32
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
9. (p. 100) Attitudes are fleeting physiological experiences we have in response
to an attitude
object.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
10. (p. 100) Attitudes develop from our emotional experiences as well as from th
e perceptual
process.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Easy
11. (p. 100) Attitudes consist of the following three components: emotions, beli
efs, and behaviors.
Ans:
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
12. (p. 100) Beliefs represent our perceptions about the attitude object.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
4-33
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
13. (p. 100) Attitudes represent a cluster of beliefs, motivation and feelings a
bout an attitude
object.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
14. (p. 100) In the model of emotions, attitudes, and behavior, feelings lead to
beliefs, which in
turn lead to behaviors.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
15. (p. 101) People with the same feelings may form different behavioral intenti
ons based on their
unique past experience.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Easy
16. (p. 101) Research concludes that when our emotions and logical analysis of a
situation conflict
with each other, we should follow our emotions.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
4-34
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
17. (p. 102) Cognitive dissonance is more likely to occur when the dissonant beh
avior is known to
everyone, was done voluntarily and can't be undone.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
18. (p. 102) A person's emotions are influenced by his or her personality, not j
ust from workplace
experiences.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
19. (p. 103) Emotional labor refers to any physical work that makes employees fe
el angry that
they must perform this kind of work.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
20. (p. 103) Display rules are norms that require employees to show certain emot
ions and to
withhold others.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
4-35
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
21. (p. 104) Emotional dissonance occurs when we use our emotional intelligence
on others but
other people do not use their emotional intelligence on us.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Easy
22. (p. 104) Emotional dissonance refers to the conflict experienced between the
emotions we are
required to display and our true emotions in that situation.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
23. (p. 105) Conflict between required and true emotions is called emotional int
elligence.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
24. (p. 105) Emotional dissonance is most common where emotional display rules a
re highly
regulated and employees must display emotions quite different from their true em
otions.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
4-36
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
25. (p. 105) Jobs require more emotional labor when employees must display a var
iety of
emotions, rather than just one or two.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
26. (p. 106) The norms and expectations governing emotional display rules are si
milar around the
world.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
27. (p. 105) Emotional labor may result in stress and job burnout when the presc
ribed emotions for
a job conflict with the employee's true emotions.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
28. (p. 105) Employees experience less stress from emotional labor when they pra
ctice surface
acting rather than deep acting.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
4-37
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
29. (p. 105) Employees minimize the stress from emotional labor by actually chan
ging their
emotions to match the job requirements (deep acting), rather than displaying emo
tions contrary
to their true emotions (surface acting).
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
30. (p. 105) Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to perceive and expres
s emotion, assimilate
emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in
oneself and
others.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
31. (p. 105) Experts have concluded that cognitive intelligence and emotional in
telligence are the
same things.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
32. (p. 105) Emotional intelligence is a set of abilities.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
4-38
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
33. (p. 105) Three dimensions of emotional intelligence are cognitive dissonance
, continuance
commitment, and emotional labor.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
34. (p. 105) Emotional intelligence can be learned to some extent.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
35. (p. 106) Relationship management represents the highest level of emotional i
ntelligence.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
36. (p. 106) The four dimensions of emotional intelligence form a hierarchy.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
37. (p. 108) Emotional intelligence tends to increase with age.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
4-39
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
38. (p. 108) Job satisfaction represents a person's evaluation of his or her job
and work context.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
39. (p. 108) It is reasonable to conclude from recent surveys that nearly all em
ployees in the
United States are truly very satisfied with their jobs.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
40. (p. 108) Compared with other countries, Hungarian employees have above avera
ge levels of
job satisfaction.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
41. (p. 108) Job satisfaction is higher in Nordic countries.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
42. (p. 109) Employees are more likely to quit their jobs and be absent from wor
k if they are
dissatisfied with their jobs.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
4-40
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
43. (p. 109) The exit-voice-loyalty-neglect model states that some employees res
pond to their job
dissatisfaction by patiently waiting for the problem to work itself out or get r
esolved by others.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
44. (p. 110) According to the exit-voice-loyalty-neglect model, some unsatisfied
employees
engage in "voice" by constructively recommending solutions to the source of thei
r
dissatisfaction.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
45. (p. 109) Personality and previous experiences influence an employee's decisi
on to engage in
exit, voice, loyalty, or neglect when they are dissatisfied with their job.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
46. (p. 111) Researchers have consistently found that job satisfaction leads to
improved job
performance even when rewards are not a factor.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
4-41
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
47. (p. 111) The latest organizational behavior evidence concludes that happy wo
rkers are more
productive workers to some extent.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
48. (p. 111) The relationship between job satisfaction and job performance would
likely be
stronger if more organizations provided valued rewards for good performance.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
49. (p. 111) Research indicates that employees with higher job satisfaction tend
to provide better
customer service.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
50. (p. 111) Employees with higher job satisfaction tend to convey more friendli
ness and positive
feelings to customers.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
4-42
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
51. (p. 112) Job satisfaction is an ethical issue that influences the organizati
on's reputation in the
community.
TRUE
AACSB: 2
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
52. (p. 112) Organizational commitment refers to an employee's contractual oblig
ation to provide
a minimum amount of time and effort to the organization in return for a fair day
's pay from the
organization.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
53. (p. 112) The two types of organizational commitment are affective and percep
tual.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
54. (p. 112) Continuance commitment is a calculative decision to remain with the
organization
rather than an emotional attachment to the firm.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
4-43
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
55. (p. 112) Employees with high levels of affective commitment tend to engage i
n more
organizational citizenship behaviors.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
56. (p. 112) Continuance commitment motivates employees to increase their work e
ffort beyond
expectations.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
57. (p. 112) Financial incentives to stay with the organization (i.e., golden ha
ndcuffs) usually
reduce continuance commitment.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
58. (p. 112) Employers can increase their employees' level of affective commitme
nt through their
pay system.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
4-44
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
59. (p. 113) Trust, employee involvement, and organizational comprehension tend
to increase
organizational commitment.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
60. (p. 113) Employees experience more continuance commitment when the organizat
ion
provides opportunities for employee involvement.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
61. (p. 113) Trust is a reciprocal activity; to receive trust from employees, co
rporate leaders must
demonstrate their trust in those employees.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
62. (p. 113) Employees tend to have higher organizational commitment when their
personal
values differ from the company's values.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
4-45
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
63. (p. 113) Affective commitment is higher in organizations with strong ethical
values.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
64. (p. 112) Employees with very high loyalty tend to have high conformity, whic
h results in
lower creativity.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
65. (p. 113) Employees have lower affective commitment when they are offered sta
ble, long-term
employment.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
66. (p. 114) Stress is an adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as
challenging or
threatening to the person's wellbeing.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
4-46
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
67. (p. 114) Stress refers to any environmental conditions that cause someone to
suffer or
experience fear.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
68. (p. 114) Everyone needs some level of stress to survive.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
69. (p. 114) Eustress refers to the short-term causes of stress, whereas distres
s refers to long-term
causes.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
70. (p. 114-115) The general adaptation syndrome describes the consequences of s
tress.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
71. (p. 115-116) There are three stages in the job burnout process.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
4-47
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
72. (p. 116) The job burnout process occurs in the following sequence: (1) reduc
ed efficacy, (2)
emotional exhaustion and (3) higher blood pressure.
FALSE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Difficult
73. (p. 116) Sexual harassment is a type of stressor.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
74. (p. 118) Social support helps employees to manage stress by increasing their
self-esteem.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
75. (p. 119) Job sharing and telework are usually considered ways to reduce stre
ss through
work/life balance.
TRUE
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
4-48
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
Multiple Choice Questions
76. (p. 98) Emotions are defined as:
A. feelings that are not directed towards anything in particular.
B. our judgments about what is right or wrong.
C. our intentions to act towards the attitude object.
D. the cluster of beliefs, assessed feelings and behavioral intentions towards a
n attitude object.
E. none of the above.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
77. (p. 98) Which of the following statements about emotions is FALSE?
A. We continuously experience an emotion for days or weeks at a time.
B. We experience emotions psychologically.
C. We experience emotions physiologically.
D. Emotions create a state of readiness.
E. Emotions are directed toward someone or something.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
78. (p. 98-99) Emotions have what effect on us?
A. They make us aware of events that possibly affect our important goals.
B. They put us into a state of readiness.
C. They provide a communication to us about the presence of relevant events in t
he external
environment.
D. All of the above.
E. Only 'A' and 'C'.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
4-49
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
79. (p. 99, 68) Anger, fear, joy and sadness represent:
A. beliefs that influence our attitudes towards something or someone.
B. the first four stages of emotional labor.
C. types of emotions.
D. four dimensions of job satisfaction.
E. both 'A' and 'C'.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
80. (p. 99) Which of the following is NOT usually identified as a category of em
otions?
A. Perceived
B. Excited
C. Fearful
D. Relaxed
E. Gloomy
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
81. (p. 100) The difference between emotions and attitudes is comparable to the
difference
between:
A. eating something versus drinking something.
B. experiencing something versus judging something.
C. perceiving something versus behaving toward something.
D. knowing about something versus doing something.
E. there is no difference between emotions and attitudes; they are the same thin
g.
AACSB: 3
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Difficult
4-50
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
82. (p. 100) Beliefs, feelings, and behavioral intentions are components of:
A. attitudes.
B. the EVLN model.
C. organizational commitment.
D. emotions.
E. the psychological contract.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
83. (p. 100) Which of the following best represents the most common linkage betw
een attitudes
and behavior?
A. Intentions->feelings->beliefs->behavior.
B. Behavior->job satisfaction->cognitive dissonance->organizational commitment.
C. Beliefs->feelings->intentions->behavior.
D. Cognitive dissonance->behavioral intentions->job satisfaction->behavior.
E. Behavior->feelings->intentions->beliefs.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
84. (p. 100) In the model of emotions, attitudes, and behavior, feelings are dir
ectly influenced by:
A. behavioral intentions.
B. emotions.
C. beliefs.
D. all of the above.
E. only 'B' and 'C'.
AACSB: 3
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Difficult
4-51
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
85. (p. 100) Which of these statements represents the feelings dimension of atti
tudes?
A. I don't like how my boss treats his employees.
B. I want to transfer out of this department to get away from this manager.
C. My supervisor barks at his employees in public.
D. I intend to tell the human resource manager that my supervisor should be demo
ted.
E. All of the above statements represent the feeling dimension of attitudes.
AACSB: 3
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
86. (p. 101) After working weeks on a difficult proposal for a client, Jack lear
ns that the client has
accepted the proposal and will award the contract to Jack's firm. Upon hearing t
his from his
boss, Jack yelps 'Yahoo!' and automatically thrusts his fisted hand in the air.
This action is most
likely an example of:
A. perceptions directly influencing beliefs.
B. behavioral intentions directly influencing behavior.
C. emotions directly influencing feelings.
D. beliefs directly influencing feelings.
E. emotions directly influencing behavior.
AACSB: 3
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
87. (p. 102) The uncomfortable tension felt when our behavior and attitudes are
inconsistent with
each other is called:
A. cognitive distance.
B. emotional intelligence.
C. cognitive justification.
D. cognitive dissonance.
E. neglect.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
4-52
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
88. (p. 103) Which of these jobs would normally require emotional labor?
A. Bank teller
B. Bill collector
C. Funeral director
D. Disney World employee dressed up as Mickey Mouse
E. All of the above
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
89. (p. 103) Emotional labor is defined as any situation in which:
A. you get upset with customers at times when you are supposed to remain calm.
B. you begin to feel burned out from facing too many customers in one day.
C. you don't realize that your emotions are causing you to act differently towar
d someone than
you had intended.
D. all of the above are part of the emotional labor definition.
E. none of the above represents the emotional labor definition.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
90. (p. 103) Emotional labor refers to:
A. the effort, planning, and control needed to express organizationally desired
emotions during
interpersonal transactions.
B. the tendency to change our attitudes so they become more consistent with our
behaviors.
C. a person's evaluation of the job and work context.
D. a person's emotional attachment to identification with, and involvement in a
particular
organization.
E. None of the above defines emotional labor.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
4-53
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
91. (p. 103) Which of these statements about emotional labor is FALSE?
A. Most jobs involving customer service require some degree of emotional labor.
B. Research indicates that emotional display rules and standards are very simila
r around the
world.
C. Emotional labor increases with the extent to which employees must abide by em
otional
display rules.
D. In spite of the presence of emotional display rules, it is very difficult to
hide our true
emotions.
E. Display rules are norms requiring employees to display certain emotions and w
ithholding
others.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
92. (p. 104) Which of these countries is more likely to accept or tolerate, than
any other country,
people who display their true emotions at work?
A. The U.S.A.
B. Japan
C. France
D. Italy
E. Korea
AACSB: 5
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
93. (p. 104) Emotional dissonance is:
A. the emotion people experience when they are dissatisfied with their paycheck.
B. a significant cause of stress and job burnout.
C. present whenever emotional labor is not required in the job.
D. the main source of ethical conduct in organizational settings.
E. both 'A' and 'D'.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
4-54
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
94. (p. 105) Emotional dissonance occurs when:
A. there are no known emotional display rules for a particular situation.
B. we experience conflict between the required emotions and our true emotions.
C. we work with someone who has high emotional intelligence.
D. job satisfaction is at the same level as organizational commitment.
E. either 'A' or 'C' occurs.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
95. (p. 105) ________ involves modifying behavior to be consistent with required
emotions but
continuing to hold different internal feelings.
A. Surface acting
B. EI
C. EVLN model
D. Deep acting
E. both 'A' and 'D'
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
96. (p. 105) ________ involves changing true emotions to match the required emot
ions.
A. Surface acting
B. EI
C. EVLN model
D. Deep acting
E. both 'A' and 'D'
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
4-55
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
97. (p. 105) The ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in
thought,
understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in oneself and others i
s called:
A. emotional intelligence.
B. emotional labor.
C. cognitive dissonance.
D. positive affectivity.
E. job satisfaction.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
98. (p. 105) Emotional intelligence is best described as:
A. a personality trait.
B. a set of abilities.
C. a form of organizational commitment.
D. an action-tendency indicating that the person is highly motivated.
E. a form of empathy.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
99. (p. 105) Social awareness, self-management, and relationship management are
three elements
of:
A. affective commitment.
B. emotional labor.
C. emotional intelligence.
D. continuance commitment.
E. the affect circumplex model of emotions.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
4-56
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
100. (p. 106) Emotional intelligence includes the ability to:
A. stifle impulses.
B. manage the emotions of other people.
C. understand and be sensitive to the feelings of others.
D. do all of the above.
E. do 'B' and 'C' only.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
101. (p. 106) The highest level of emotional intelligence is:
A. social awareness.
B. self-management.
C. organizational comprehension.
D. self-awareness.
E. None of the above.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
102. (p. 106) Relationship management is:
A. a negative, highly activated emotion.
B. one of three types of organizational commitment.
C. an outcome of emotional dissonance.
D. the highest level of emotional intelligence.
E. the opposite of employability the psychological contract.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
4-57
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
103. (p. 106) Self-awareness is the _________ level of _________.
A. lowest, emotional intelligence
B. highest, emotional labor
C. highest, emotional intelligence
D. highest, continuance commitment
E. lowest, affective commitment
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
104. (p. 106) The competency most strongly associated with social awareness is:
A. conflict management.
B. empathy.
C. organizational comprehension.
D. self-management.
E. None of the above.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
105. (p. 106) Inspiring others, managing conflict, and developing others' capabi
lities are:
A. required in all psychological contracts.
B. competencies representing the highest level of emotional intelligence.
C. elements of the affect circumplex model.
D. three of the main causes of continuance commitment.
E. three categories in the exit-voice-loyalty-neglect (EVLN) model.
AACSB: 3
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
4-58
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
106. (p. 106) Your boss is usually able to calm employees when they are upset an
d to get staff
enthusiastic about an otherwise mundane activity. This ability probably means th
at your boss
has:
A. the highest level of emotional intelligence.
B. the highest level of negative affectivity.
C. a high degree of continuance commitment.
D. all of the above.
E. both "A" and "C".
AACSB: 3
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Easy
107. (p. 108) A person's evaluation of his or her job is called:
A. job satisfaction.
B. emotional intelligence.
C. affective commitment.
D. cognitive dissonance.
E. emotions.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
108. (p. 108) By asking a single direct question (such as "How satisfied are you
with your job?"),
job satisfaction surveys tend to:
A. underestimate the true level of job satisfaction among employees.
B. measure organizational commitment rather than job satisfaction.
C. overestimate the true level of job satisfaction among employees.
D. confuse people who are completing the survey.
E. provide a better estimate of job satisfaction than if the survey asked severa
l questions.
AACSB: 3
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
4-59
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
109. (p. 108) In national polls, ______ percent of Americans have been satisfied
with their jobs for
the past decade or more.
A. about 50
B. less than 25
C. about 30-40
D. more than 85
E. nearly 100
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
110. (p. 109) The exit-voice-loyalty-neglect (EVLN) model:
A. outlines the four consequences of emotional intelligence.
B. identifies the four ways to manage employee emotions.
C. explains why the psychological contract differs between employees and their e
mployers.
D. is a template for organizing and understanding the consequences of job dissat
isfaction.
E. explains the main differences between affective commitment and continuance co
mmitment.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
111. (p. 110) Kumar is unhappy about his work and his supervisor, so he has star
ted to pay less
attention to the quality of his work. He also arrives late for work and generall
y puts less effort
into his work. This information suggests that Kumar's main reaction to job dissa
tisfaction is:
A. exit.
B. voice.
C. commitment.
D. loyalty.
E. neglect.
AACSB: 3
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
4-60
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
112. (p. 110) Shawna is dissatisfied with her boss for not supporting her work o
r recognizing her
job performance. In spite of these problems, Shawna does not complain and does n
ot intend to
move elsewhere. Instead, she maintains her level of work effort and hopes the co
mpany will
eventually correct these problems. According to the EVLN model, Shawna is mainly
engaging
in:
A. exit.
B. voice.
C. employability.
D. loyalty.
E. neglect.
AACSB: 3
BT: Application
Difficulty: Easy
113. (p. 110) According to the EVLN model, people who are dissatisfied with thei
r jobs might:
A. quit.
B. complain about the dissatisfying aspects of their jobs.
C. increase their absenteeism from work.
D. keep quiet and hope the sources of job dissatisfaction are eventually correct
ed.
E. do all of the above.
AACSB: 3
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Easy
114. (p. 110-111) Which of the following statements about job satisfaction and j
ob performance is
TRUE?
A. Employees who are dissatisfied with their jobs never have high job performanc
e.
B. Job satisfaction has almost no effect on job performance.
C. Employees who are satisfied with their jobs tend to have somewhat higher job
performance.
D. Happy workers are less productive workers.
E. High-performing employees have higher job satisfaction only after they have r
eceived a
financial reward for performing their jobs well.
AACSB: 3
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
4-61
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
115. (p. 110) Organizational behavior scholars have concluded that:
A. as job performance increases, job satisfaction decreases.
B. job performance is the best predictor of job satisfaction.
C. job satisfaction is unrelated to job performance.
D. people with higher job satisfaction tend to have higher job performance.
E. both 'A' and 'B' are true.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
116. (p. 111) Which of these statements about job satisfaction and customer sati
sfaction is
TRUE?
A. Employees with higher job satisfaction tend to give poorer customer service.
B. Satisfied employees have a more positive mood, which communicates friendlines
s to
customers.
C. Satisfied employees are less likely to quit, so customers receive more consis
tent and familiar
service.
D. Satisfied employees are more likely to engage in "neglect", so customers rece
ive poorer
service from these employees.
E. Both 'B' and 'C' are true.
AACSB: 3
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
117. (p. 111) When employees have higher job satisfaction they tend to:
A. provide friendlier service to customers.
B. get angry at customers more often than when they are dissatisfied with their
jobs.
C. provide the same quality of customer service as when they were dissatisfied w
ith their jobs.
D. provide more consistent service to customers because of their longer employme
nt in the job.
E. do both 'A' and 'D'.
AACSB: 3
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
4-62
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
118. (p. 112) Employees who stay with an organization mainly because they believ
e it will cost
them financially to leave, likely have:
A. high continuance commitment.
B. high emotional intelligence.
C. high affective commitment.
D. all of the above.
E. none of the above.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
119. (p. 112) The concept of affective organizational commitment includes:
A. an emotional attachment to the organization.
B. an identification with the organization.
C. an involvement with the organization.
D. all of the above.
E. none of the above.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
120. (p. 112) Employees with an emotional attachment to, identification with, an
d involvement in
a particular organization are said to have:
A. a high level of pay satisfaction.
B. extreme emotional dissonance.
C. a low level of emotional activation.
D. a high level of continuance commitment.
E. none of the above.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
4-63
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
121. (p. 112) Employees with strong organizational commitment are more likely to
:
A. engage in organizational citizenship behaviors.
B. steal from their employer.
C. show up late for work.
D. quit their jobs.
E. all of the above.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
122. (p. 112) Which of the following tends to occur when organizations use golde
n handcuffs and
other financial incentives to prevent dissatisfied employees from quitting?
A. Employees increase their level of affective commitment.
B. Employees increase their level of continuance commitment.
C. Employees increase their level of job satisfaction.
D. Employees decrease their level of emotional intelligence.
E. Employees decrease their level of continuance commitment.
AACSB: 3
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
123. (p. 112) Which of the following tends to result in increased continuance co
mmitment?
A. Corporate leaders demonstrate increasing trust in employees.
B. The company helps employees learn more about the organization through departm
ental
visits and special seminars on company products.
C. Employees receive low interest loans and other incentives from their employer
that make it
costly for them to quit.
D. The company introduces a no-layoff policy.
E. All of the above increase continuance commitment.
AACSB: 3
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
4-64
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
124. (p. 113) Employee involvement tends to increase:
A. affective commitment.
B. cognitive dissonance.
C. continuance commitment.
D. All of the above.
E. None of the above.
AACSB: 3
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
125. (p. 113) ________ is a psychological state comprising the intention to acce
pt vulnerability
based upon positive expectations of the intent or behavior of other person.
A. Surface acting
B. Trust
C. Cognitive dissonance
D. Deep acting
E. General adaptation syndrome
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
126. (p. 113) All of these are prominent strategies for building organizational
commitment
EXCEPT
A. justice and support.
B. shared values.
C. trust.
D. outsourcing.
E. organizational comprehension.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
4-65
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
127. (p. 114) The adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challeng
ing or threatening to
the person's well-being is called:
A. self-leadership.
B. job burnout.
C. eustress.
D. workaholism.
E. stress.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
128. (p. 114) Stress is best described as:
A. the physiological disorders we experience from adverse environmental conditio
ns.
B. an adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threa
tening to the
person's wellbeing.
C. a series of events that cause emotional exhaustion and cynicism towards custo
mers.
D. environmental conditions that place a physical or emotional demand on the per
son.
E. a behavior pattern of people with low risk of heart disease.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
129. (p. 114) Which of the following statements about stress is FALSE?
A. Employees are the most productive when they experience no stress.
B. Stress is caused by stressors.
C. Two people located in the same work environment might experience different le
vels of
stress.
D. The general adaptation syndrome describes the stress experience.
E. Continued exposure to very high stress levels may lead to permanent physiolog
ical and
psychological damage.
AACSB: 3
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
4-66
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
130. (p. 114) The stress experience in moderation is known as:
A. distress.
B. burnout.
C. the general adaptation syndrome.
D. eustress.
E. Type A behavior pattern.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
131. (p. 118) Providing childcare support and offering employees flexible work h
ours have what
effect on work-related stress?
A. They help employees to learn how to cope with the consequences of stress.
B. They help employees to control the consequences of stress.
C. They remove stressors from the workplace.
D. All of the above.
E. They have no known effect on work-related stress.
AACSB: 3
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
132. (p. 118) Which of these stress management activities helps employees to imp
rove their
perceived ability to cope with the stressor AND possibly remove the stressor?
A. Telecommuting
B. Social support
C. Meditation
D. Siestas
E. Fitness programs
AACSB: 3
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
4-67
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
133. (p. 118) Workaholism includes the three dimensions of:
A. efficacy, cynicism, and emotional exhaustion.
B. work involvement, compulsion to work, and low enjoyment of work.
C. alarm reaction, resistance, exhaustion.
D. time, strain, and role.
E. cynicism, drive to succeed, and resistance.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
134. (p. 119) Which of these is considered a work/life balance initiative to min
imize stress?
A. Flexible work time
B. Job sharing
C. Teleworking
D. Childcare facilities
E. All of these statements describe a family-friendly or work/life initiative to
minimize stress
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
135. (p. 120) Which of the following reduces stress by withdrawing from the stre
ssor?
A. Coffee breaks
B. Sabbaticals
C. Vacations
D. All of the above are ways to reduce stress by withdrawing from the stressor.
E. None of these are ways to reduce stress by withdrawing from the stressor.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
4-68
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
136. (p. 121) To ward off stress, a film director likes to have a good laugh. Wh
en under pressure,
the director will crack jokes and ensure everyone has a good laugh during the ha
rd work. These
actions mainly reduce stress:
A. by removing the stressor.
B. by providing social support.
C. by changing stress perceptions.
D. by controlling the consequences of stress.
E. in none of the ways stated here.
AACSB: 3
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
137. (p. 121) Self-reinforcement can potentially minimize stress by:
A. removing people from stressors.
B. helping employees to temporarily remove themselves from the stressor.
C. helping employees to control the consequences of stress.
D. helping employees to develop more favorable perceptions of the stressors.
E. Self-leadership has no known effect on work-related stress.
AACSB: 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
138. (p. 121) Employee wellness programs help employees to reduce stress by:
A. teaching them how to adopt more effective coping mechanisms.
B. helping employees to understand that stress cannot be reduced in most cases.
C. removing the stressors that cause the high stress.
D. doing all of the above.
E. doing none of the above.
AACSB: 3
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
4-69
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
Essay Questions
139. (p. 100) Tai was overjoyed when she learned that she would be promoted to a
position with
higher responsibility and pay. However, even before hearing about the promotion,
she believed
that the regional manager who made the promotion decision was fair-minded. Use t
he emotions,
attitudes, and behavior model to explain how Tai's emotions and beliefs influenc
e her positive
feelings towards the regional manager.
To answer this question, students should perhaps draw the emotions, attitude, an
d behavior
model to show how emotions and beliefs relate to feelings. Generally, students m
ust separately
describe how beliefs and emotions influence feelings in the model.
With respect to emotions, Tai felt joy towards her announced promotion and clear
ly attributed
this emotion to her regional manager. According to the model, Tai developed a po
sitive
assessment of her regional manager (a positive feeling) from the joyous emotion
that she
experienced. She probably also developed this positive feeling from other emotio
ns
experienced when she saw other actions representing fair-mindedness.
According to the attitude model, Tai probably also developed positive feelings t
owards the
regional manager through her beliefs. For example, she may have observed actions
by the
manager that she believed were fair-minded, and thereby developed a belief that
the manager is
fair-minded. Her positive feelings towards fair-mindedness are then carried over
to her feelings
towards the regional manager.
AACSB: 1, 3, 6
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
4-70
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
140. (p. 100) Three employees believe that their pay is too low. One of them qui
ts, the second
complains to management about the low pay, and the third does nothing. Explain w
hy these
employees engaged in different behaviors even though they held the same beliefs
about their
pay checks.
(Note: This question is rated as 'Difficult' because some of the points in this
answer are not
explicitly described in the textbook. However, more advanced students should be
able to infer
the answer through logic and available information on this topic.)
To answer this question, we must consider the emotions, attitudes, and behavior
model as well
as the contingencies that redirect individuals at each link in the model. First,
while three people
may hold the same beliefs about the attitude object, their feelings towards the
characteristic of
that belief may differ. In our incident, the two employees who complained and qu
it probably
have a very strong positive feelings towards a high pay checks (or, conversely,
a negative
feeling towards a low pay checks) whereas the third person might have more neutr
al or less
intense feelings about pay. The result is that the three people may develop diff
erent degrees of
dissatisfaction with the pay they receive.
Even if all three people developed the same feelings towards pay, they may devel
op different
intentions. Behavioral intentions are formed from past experiences. The person w
ho
complained may have found this to be a better strategy than simply quitting, whe
reas the person
who quit may have had an unsatisfactory past experience with trying to change an
ything in the
company. The employee who did nothing may have found it more palatable to simply
withdraw
from the situation (neglect in the EVLN model) or change the comparison other if
the perceived
low pay level is based on an equity comparison process.
Finally, people with the same beliefs, feelings and intentions may act different
ly due to unique
situational factors. For example, all three people may have intended to quit the
ir jobs, but only
one (the employee who actually did quit) was given a satisfactory job offer else
where. The
person who complained and the person who did nothing may have searched for emplo
yment
elsewhere but found no suitable job offers.
AACSB: 1, 3, 6
BT: Application
Difficulty: Difficult
4-71
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
141. (p. 100-101) Advanced Photonics Ltd (APL) is a large developer of laser tec
hnologies.
Competitive pressures as well as the speed of new developments in the industry h
ave made
some employees tense and somewhat dissatisfied with their work at APL. To improv
e
employee attitudes, the vice-president has established a 'fun week' where employ
ee teams find
and implement various ways to have fun on this job. APL has also brought in a co
medy team for
the week to entertain employees and coach them on having more fun. Use your know
ledge of
workplace emotions and attitudes to explain the implications of a fun week on em
ployee
attitudes.
To answer this question, students should refer to the emotions, attitudes, and b
ehavior model
presented in the textbook. They should also distinguish between employee attitud
es towards
their work and the concept of 'emotions' which the fun week is trying to develop
. Students
should also explain that the fun week might not create positive emotions if empl
oyees interpret
the events the wrong way.
The emotions (both positive and negative) developed from the fun week would have
a direct
effect on employee feelings towards the organization. For example, if many emplo
yees laugh a
lot at the comedy team and the antics of other employee teams, then these emotio
ns will create
positive feelings towards the workplace. However, feelings are also influenced b
y beliefs. If
employees believe that they are overworked, for instance, then feelings towards
the
organization might still be negative.
Some students might also explain that emotions have a direct effect on behavior.
However, it
isn't clear what type of spontaneous behavior would result from the fun week.
AACSB: 1, 3, 6
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
4-72
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
142. (p. 102) Explain how an employee's attitudes might be affected by cognitive
dissonance.
Cognitive dissonance is the uncomfortable tension that people feel when they hav
e engaged in a
behavior that is inconsistent with their beliefs, feelings and intentions.
Attitudes affect cognitive dissonance in the sense that this dissonance is forme
d from the
conflict between attitudes and past behaviors. Attitudes also play a central rol
e in reducing
cognitive dissonance. Specifically, when the behavior cannot be changed or denie
d, then we
tend to adjust our attitudes to fit the previous behavior pattern. For example,
if we did
something to support the organization, we might develop more favorable beliefs,
feelings and
intentions towards the company.
AACSB: 1, 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
143. (p. 112) Identify and explain two reasons why employee involvement tends to
increase
organizational commitment.
One reason why employee involvement increases organizational commitment is that
it
demonstrates the company's (i.e. senior management's) trust in its employees. Th
is evidence of
trust is important because trust directly strengthens loyalty.
The other reason why employee involvement increases loyalty is because employees
feel part
of the organization when they make decisions that guide the organization's futur
e. Through
participation, employees begin to see how the organization is a reflection of th
eir decisions.
AACSB: 1, 3
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
4-73
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
144. (p. 113) You are a senior executive in a large pharmaceutical firm and have
just hired a
chemist who is recognized as a 'rising star' in the industry. Your organization
has spent a lot of
money recruiting this person and hopes that the chemist will stay with this firm
for many years.
However, as with many scientists, the new hire seems to have very little loyalty
to or
identification with any firm. Explain in detail (with action plan examples perta
ining to this
incident) four (4) strategies that would try to increase this employee's loyalty
to this
organization.
Some students will try to discuss the use of 'golden handcuff' incentives to tie
the person to the
organization through continuance commitment. Although this is a form of commitme
nt, it is not
usually considered part of the meaning of 'loyalty'. Moreover, there are negativ
e consequences
of building continuance commitment rather than affective commitment.
The preferred answer to this question is to describe and apply any four of the s
trategies listed
below. These actions build affective commitment.
Fairness and support. The company would ensure that it provides a clear understa
nding of the
psychological contract and fulfills those contractual arrangements. It would als
o support the
employee, such as with work/life balance and time off for pressing family needs.
Shared values. Although not likely possible to alter the values of this person,
the company
might eventually shifts its dominant values to become more compatible with those
of the
employee.
Trust. The company might give the chemist certain privileges that show its trust
in the
employee which, in turn, strengthens the chemist's loyalty to the firm.
Organizational comprehension. The chemist might feel more loyalty to the firm by
learning
more about the different parts of the company, being kept informed of organizati
onal changes,
and by developing a better understanding of the company's past and future direct
ions.
Employee involvement. The chemist might build more loyalty to the firm by being
involved in
important organizational decisions.
AACSB: 1, 3, 6
BT: Application
Difficulty: Medium
4-74
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
145. (p. 114) Comment on the accuracy of the following statement: "Stress is bes
t described as a
working condition that hurts employee job performance".
The statement is incorrect in two ways. First, stress is an adaptive response to
a situation that is
perceived as challenging or threatening to the person's well-being. In other wor
ds, it is the
physiological and psychological reaction within the individual as described by t
he general
adaptation syndrome. Working conditions that cause stress are known as stressors
. They do not
represent the stress itself.
Second, stress is not always negative. In fact, a low stress level (known as eus
tress) is a
necessary condition of life. People need stress to activate and motivate them to
achieve goals
and succeed in life's challenges.
AACSB: 1, 3, 6
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
146. (p. 115) Jake tells you that he is feeling very stressed. Based on your kno
wledge of the
general adaptation syndrome, what information would you ask for or look for to d
etermine what
stage of stress Jake is experiencing?
This question asks students to describe the three stages of the general adaptati
on syndrome in a
way that diagnoses Jake's perception of stress. To answer the question, students
must identify
the main features of each stage of the general adaptation syndrome:
Alarm reaction. This stage is apparent because Jake would experience increased r
espiration rate,
blood pressure, heartbeat, muscle tension and other physiological responses. The
person's
survival capabilities are temporarily reduced. Shock may occur in extreme circum
stances. He
would likely also be able to identify perceived threats or challenges in his lif
e.
Resistance. This stage is apparent from various biochemical, psychological and b
ehavioral
conditions. One of these is a higher level of adrenalin. Jake would also be taki
ng behavioral
actions to defend against the threats or challenges.
Exhaustion. At this stage, Jake would experience varying levels of exhaustion. H
e may also
experience psychological and/or physiological problems described in the conseque
nces of
stress section of this chapter (e.g. ranging from a short temper to heart diseas
e).
AACSB: 1, 3, 6
BT: Application
Difficulty: Medium
4-75
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
147. (p. 115-116) The Director of Nursing at Smalltown General Hospital claims t
hat several nurses
are experiencing job burnout. Describe the three components of job burnout that
should be
evident from these nurses. Your description of each component should include an
example
related to nursing. Also, briefly identify two possible characteristics of nursi
ng that might have
contributed to this job burnout.
Job burnout is due to interpersonal and role-related stressors. Thus, burnout ma
y be due to the
fact that nurses must endure irate patients, ineffective management and related
interpersonal
stressors. With respect to role-related stressors, they might experience role co
nflict (such as
following a doctor's orders that the nurse disagrees with), role ambiguity (such
as uncertainty
over which of two doctors have primary authority over a patient) or work overloa
d.
The three components of job burnout are emotional exhaustion, cynicism and reduc
ed efficacy.
Emotional exhaustion represents the first stage and is characterized by a lack o
f energy and a
feeling that one's emotional resources are depleted. For example, nurses with jo
b burnout no
longer feel able to give as much support and caring to patients.
Cynicism follows emotional exhaustion and is identified by the treatment of othe
rs as objects
rather than people. Burned out employees become emotionally detached from client
s and
cynical about the organization. For example, a burned out nurse might coldly lab
el a patient as
'the kidney in room 307'. Cynicism is also apparent when employees strictly foll
ow rules and
regulations rather than trying to understand the client's needs and search for a
mutually
acceptable solution. Thus, a nurse might follow a doctor's orders closely rather
than being
flexible enough for the patient's needs.
Reduced efficacy, the final component of job burnout, refers to the decline in o
ne's feelings of
competence and success and is observed by feelings of diminished competency (sel
f-efficacy).
For example, nurses who feel job burnout no longer believe that their efforts ma
ke a difference.
They doubt their ability and competence at work.
AACSB: 1, 3, 6
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
4-76
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
148. (p. 116) Some jobs are considered more stressful than others. Describe what
this really means
and give two reasons why someone in a 'high-stress' job might experience less st
ress than
another person in a 'low-stress' job two types of behavior modification interven
tions that might
change employee behavior in this situation.
Jobs are more stressful if they have more stressors than other jobs. However, th
is does not
necessarily mean that all people in high-stress jobs experience more stress than
people in
lower-stress jobs.
One problem with rating the stress of occupations is that task characteristics a
nd job
environments differ considerably for the same job in different organizations and
societies. A
police officer's job may be less stressful in a small town, for instance, than i
n a large city where
crime rates are higher and the organizational hierarchy is more formal.
Another problem with identifying a job as 'high stress' is that a job with many
stressors may be
stressful to one person and create very little stress to another. In this respec
t, we must be careful
not to conclude that people in high-stress occupations actually experience highe
r stress than
people in other occupations. They are exposed to more serious stressors, but car
eful selection
and training can result in stress levels no different from those experienced by
people in other
jobs.
AACSB: 1, 3, 6
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
4-77
Chapter 04 - Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress
149. (p. 121) Head-office employees at Acme Widgets have had heavy workloads ove
r the past
year, due mainly to downsizing and increased demand for widgets. Acme's CEO want
s to
introduce a stress management program that would control the consequences of thi
s stress.
Describe three types of stress management programs that would help employees to
cope more
effectively with the physiological and/or psychological consequences of stress.
Your answer
should also briefly state the specific benefits that each type of program provid
es.
The textbook describes three general types of activities that potentially contro
l the
consequences of stress. These include relaxation and meditation programs, fitnes
s and lifestyle
programs, and employee counseling programs. Students should describe all three t
ypes to
answer this question. However, the instructor may allow answers that treat each
specific
program as a separate type (e.g. fitness different from lifestyle).
Relaxation and meditation programs. Relaxation and meditation programs help empl
oyees to
adjust their physiological response to the stressor and stress perception. In re
laxation training,
the objective is to achieve a relaxation response in which heart rate, blood pre
ssure, muscle
tension and breathing rate decrease. Relaxation and meditation programs are effe
ctive in
reducing blood-pressure levels, muscle tension and breathing rate.
Fitness and wellness programs. Corporate fitness programs help employees to lowe
r their
respiration, muscle tension, heartbeat and stomach acidity, thereby reducing the
physiological
consequences of stress. Wellness programs train employees and reinforce their be
havior in
better nutrition and fitness, regular sleep and other good health habits.
Employee counseling. Many organizations have introduced employee assistance prog
rams
(EAPs) to help employees with stressful life experiences and to overcome ineffec
tive coping
mechanisms such as alcoholism. Broad-brush programs counsel employees on most wo
rk or
personal problems. They often help employees to overcome dysfunctional stress co
ping
strategies, such as alcoholism.
AACSB: 1, 3, 6
BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
4-78