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INTERNATIONAL QUANTITY

SURVEYING PRACTICES

COURSE PACK

GEORGE BROWN COLLEGE

IN

COLLABORATION WITH

SHANGHAI URBAN MANAGEMENT COLLEGE

Presented By:

Helen Zhuang
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 Course Description and Outcomes

2.0 Course Schedule

3.0 Module 1 Introduction to Quantity Surveying

4.0 Module 2 MasterFormat and Types of Estimate

5.0 Module 3 - Principles of Measurement

6.0 Module 4 Form of Estimate and Measurement Examples

7.0 Module 5 Excavation

8.0 Module 6 Concrete

9.0 Module 7 - Masonry

10.0 Module 8 - Wood Framing

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Course Description

This course provides an overview of the Quantity Surveying and Estimating profession
and will examine the services provided, education, professional institutions and the
challenges facing the profession in a global market economy. The course introduces the
student to the basic principles of Quantity Surveying. It is designed to provide the student
with the knowledge and skills necessary to quantify lengths, areas and volumes for
simple plans in a structured format using a standard method of measurement and industry
terminology. It focuses on the various types of estimates, the estimating process and the
techniques of measurement for excavation, concrete, masonry and wood frame for small
buildings.

Course Outcomes

Assess professional careers and opportunities in quantity surveying


Research international professional quantity surveying institutions
Identify areas in the construction sector where knowledge of quantity surveying is
necessary
Define the attributes required to be a successful quantity surveyor
Describe the system for organizing construction information
Describe the type of estimate required at each stage of project development.
Measure building elements by length, area and volume in accordance with the
principles of quantity surveying as stipulated by the CIQS Method of Measurement.
Measure and take-off quantities of work for excavation, concrete, masonry and wood
frame for small buildings, using sketches and working drawings for Construction
works in accordance with the principles of measurement as stipulated by the CIQS
Method of Measurement of Construction Works.

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Course Schedule
Duration 2.5 weeks (15 modules-1.5 hours per module)

Start date: June 11/09 to June 26/09

Module Topic Assignments


1. Introduction to course, course
outline.
2. International professional
quantity surveying institutions
3. Professional careers and
1 opportunities in quantity
surveying
4. The attributes required to be a
successful quantity surveyor

1. The system for organizing


construction information
Assignment1-
2. The type of estimate required at
Quiz
2 each stage of project
(10% Marks)
development

1. Measurement of wall lengths/the


Perimeter Centre Line concept,
3 Area and Volume

1. Introduction to CIQS standard


estimate form Assignment 2
4 2. Measurement example (10% Marks)

1. Measurement of excavation

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Module Topic Assignments
1. Measurement example for Assignment 3
excavation (10% Marks)
6

Construction site visit in conjunction


7
with the Building Science class.
1. Measurement of concrete
2. Measurement of formwork
8

1. Measurement example for


Assignment 4
formwork and concrete
9 (10% Marks)

1. Measurement of masonry
10

1. Measurement example for Assignment 5


11 masonry (10% Marks)

1. Measurement of wood floor


12
joists
1. Measurement of wood wall
13 framing and roof sheathing

1. Measurement example for wood Assignment 6


14 framing (10% Marks)

Final Exam Simple Plan for the


quantification of items covered in the
15 course 40% marks

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Module One
Learning Objectives

After studying this section you will be able to:

1. Assess professional careers and opportunities in quantity surveying


2. Research international professional quantity surveying institutions
3. Identify the areas in the construction sector where knowledge of quantity surveying is
necessary
4. Define the attributes required to be a successful quantity surveyor

1.0. International Quantity Surveying Institutions


1.0.1 Introduction
The history of quantity surveying dates back to the seventeenth century. However,
it was in the 20th century that Quantity Surveying evolved as a profession.
Traditionally the Quantity Surveying education evolved around the guidelines
provided by two professional bodies, namely the Royal Institution of Chartered
Surveyors (RICS) www.rics.org in the United Kingdom and the Australian
Institute of Quantity Surveyors (AIQS) in Australia.

RICS can trace its history right back to 1792 when the Surveyors Club was
formed. The requirement for such an organization was driven by the rapid
development and expansion of the industrialized world. As it began to take shape
- and the infrastructure, housing and transport links grew - there was a need for
more stringent checks and balances. The Institution of Surveyors later became the
Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) and has evolved into the pre-
eminent organization of its kind in the world. The AIQS played a key role with
the other professional institutions within the Asia Pacific region to form the
Pacific Association of Quantity Surveyors (PAQS) http://www.paqs.net. This
organization plays a key role in the Asia Pacific region. These two organizations
have promoted Quantity Surveying education in various parts of the world and
statistics show 120,000 members in 120 countries.

PAQS is a confederation of national quantity surveying associations from the


Asia-Pacific region and membership is only open to professional quantity
surveying institutes within the Asia-Pacific region. Current members are:

AACE International (AACEI) http://www.aacei.org


Australian Institute of Quantity Surveyors (AIQS) http://www.aiqs.com.au
Building Surveyors Institute of Japan (BSIJ) http://www.bsij.or.jp
Canadian Institute of Quantity Surveyors (CIQS) http://www.ciqs.org
China Engineering Cost Association (CECA) http://www.ceca.org.cn

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Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors (HKIS) http://www.hkis.org.hk
Institute of Surveyors, Malaysia (ISM) http://www.ism.org.my
New Zealand Institute of Quantity Surveyors (NZIQS)
http://www.nziqs.co.nz
Singapore Institute of Surveyors & Valuers (SISV) http://www.sisv.org.sg
Institution of Surveyors, Engineers and Architects (Brunei) (PUJA)
http://www.puja-brunei.com/
Fiji Institute of Quantity Surveyors (FIQS). vakaj01@connect.com.fj
Institute of Quantity Surveyors of Sri Lanka (IQSSL) iqssl@sltnet.lk
Association of South African Quantity Surveyors http://www.asaqs.co.za

1.1 HISTORY OF QUANTITY SURVEYING IN CANADA

Quantity surveying as a profession has been in existence for over 150 years. Starting
in the United Kingdom it has spread to most of the English speaking world. The
profession of Quantity Surveying was widespread in Canada prior to the construction
of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Changes came about largely due to the influence of
Van Horne who imposed the American system of lump sum tendering in the
construction of the railway. The results being that for the next 70 years, contractors
increasingly employed their own estimators and dealt with clients directly. In this
period the term estimator largely replaced that of the Quantity Surveyor. People
performing this extremely important function within the industry, however, had no
organization to which they could turn for advice or comparison of problems.

In February 1959, a number of these Quantity Surveyors were invited to a Founder


Members meeting in Toronto. From this meeting the objectives, rules and regulations
of the Canadian Institute of Quantity Surveyors were developed. On January 13, 1988
the Institute obtained the official mark Professional Quantity Surveyor and
subsequently has also registered the initials PQS and the French equivalents of
conomiste en Construction Agr and the initials ECA. Construction Estimator
Certified (CEC) is a new category developed by the Canadian Institute of Quantity
Surveyors (CIQS) and implemented in 1996 to continue to promote the profession of
construction estimating.

The concept of bidding on a common, guaranteed bill of quantities prepared by the


owners quantity surveyor, which is the traditional accepted practice in some other
parts of the world, has not gained acceptance in North America. However, the
provision of preparing preliminary bid quantities is now common, although the risk of
determining the correct amount of work still remains with the bidder
One of the significant characteristic of construction estimating in Canada is that
construction companies must bid not only on their knowledge of pricing, planning
and administration of their construction companies, but in the short time allowed for
bidding, on their ability to measure the quantities (material and labour components of
the work) as well.

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1.2. Quantity Surveying Services

The Traditional Services offered by Quantity Surveyors in Canada


z Builders Quantities
z Cost Planning/Budgeting
z Estimating and Contract Administration
Additional Services Offered by Quantity Surveyors in Other Countries
z Prepare Bill of Quantities
z Prepare Contract/Tender Documents
z Perform the role of Project Manager

1.3 Demands on the Quantity Surveying Profession

A modern day Quantity Surveyor in its portfolio of competencies must add


Information Technology and Business Administration skills as well has
entrepreneurial skills in order to move forward in the global market.

Information Technology now plays a significant role in how quantity surveyors


provide their services.

Construction Information Technology used in Quantity Surveying Profession


z Electronic communication - e-mails/use of the internet
z Electronic measurement tools digitizers and use of CAD for measurement.
z Electronic estimating software

Information technology allows quantity surveyors to focus less on the time


consuming technical aspects of their profession to achieve more value adding
level of services

1.4 International Trends in Quantity Surveying

Making inroads and playing a more important role in the following field:

z Project/Construction management
At the project implementation stage, it is important for the client to employ some
one who should be able to play as an agent on behalf of the client. He/she should
be also able to protect the clients interest. The Professional QS is in the best
position to provide these PM/CM service amongst those in the project team
members as he/she is an independent profession as well as he/she provides cost
management during both the design and construction stages of a project.

z Information management

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Information flows in construction will increasingly be made by electronic means
as well as tools for the QS. Future tools and techniques will be firmly based on
Information Technology. It is also forecasted that IT tools can be
utilized to provide new value-added services, for example, expert computerized
systems for cost estimating developed for and by quantity surveyors.

z Facilities Management Services

The QS is well placed to provide total facilities management services, such as life
cycle cost management, building management, property portfolio management,
etc. To most QSs, it might be a new domain to enter and might not be as easy as
doing current business. However the QS is always used to handle practical data
and is familiar with its analysis. As a result, the continuity of quantity surveying
professional services to project owners would be established and it becomes
uninterrupted from the time of inception of a new project until its disposal or
change to another new one. The QS have a great potential to provide a one-stop
service on facility management to clients.

2.0 Professional careers and opportunities in quantity


surveying and estimating

2.1. Opportunities

Generally, knowledge of the procedures for quantity surveying and estimating is


required by almost everyone involved in or associated with the field of
construction. From the estimator, who may be involved solely with the estimating
of quantities of materials and pricing of the project to the carpenter, who must
order the material required for building the framing for a home, this knowledge is
needed to do the best job possible at the most competitive cost.

2.1.1. Architectural Offices. The architectural office will require estimates to


plan and control the cost in the four stages of the pre-tender period; program or
concept stage (based on costs per unit of gross floor area), schematics stage (costs
of major elements per square metre or square foot), design development stage
(setting a cost target for all the components of the building), and the contract
document stage (trade by trade breakdown of costs to evaluate the lowest
acceptable bid).

In large offices a quantity surveyor or an estimator may be hired primarily to do


all required estimating. In many offices the senior architectural technologist, head
or lead architect may do the estimating or it may be done by someone in the office

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that has developed the required estimating skills. There are also estimating
services or cost consultants who perform estimates on a for-fee basis.

2.1.2. Engineering Offices. The engineering offices involved in the design of


building construction projects include civil, structural, mechanical (plumbing,
heating, air conditioning), electrical, and soil analysis. All of these engineering
design phases require preliminary estimates; estimates while the drawings are
being prepared, and final estimates as the drawings are completed.

2.1.3. General Contractors. Typically, the general contractor makes detailed


estimates that are used to determine what the company will charge to do the work
required. The estimator will have to take off the quantities (amounts) of each
material, determine the cost to furnish (procure and ship to the site) and install
each material in the project, assemble the bids (prices) of subcontractors, as well
as determine all of the costs of insurance, permits, office staff, and the like. In
smaller companies one person may do the estimating, whereas in larger
companies several people may work to negotiate a final price with an owner or to
provide a competitive bid. Many times, the contractor's business involves
providing assistance to the owners, beginning with the planning stage and
continuing through the actual construction of the project (commonly called design
- build contractors). In this type of business the estimators will also provide
preliminary estimates and then update them periodically until a final price is set.

2.1.4. Subcontractors. Subcontractors may be individuals, companies, or


corporations hired by the general contractor to do a particular portion of the work
on the project. Subcontractors are available for all the different types of work
required to build any project and include excavation, concrete, masonry (block,
brick, stone), interior partitions, drywall, acoustical ceilings, painting, steel and
precast concrete, erection, windows and metal and glass curtain walls, roofing,
flooring (resilient, ceramic and quarry tile, carpeting, wood, terrazzo), and interior
wall finishes such as wallpaper, wood paneling, and sprayed-on finishes. The list
continues to include all materials, equipment and finishes required.

The use of subcontractors to perform all of the work on the project is becoming an
acceptable model in building construction. The advantage of this model is that
the general contractor can distribute the risk associated with the project to a
number of different entities. In addition, the subcontractors' trade personnel
perform the same type of work on a repetitive basis and are therefore experts in
their field.

The subcontractor carefully checks the drawings and specifications and submits a
price to the construction companies who will be bidding on the project. The price
given may be a unit or lump sum price. If a subcontractors bid is presented as
what he or she would charge per unit, then it is a unit price (such as: per square
metre, per block, per thousand brick, per cubic metre of concrete) bid. For
example, the bid might be $27.25 per linear metre (m) of concrete curbing. Even

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with unit price bids the subcontractors needs to perform a quantity takeoff so that
they can have an idea of what is involved in the project, at what stages they will
be needed, how long it will take to complete their work, and how many workers
and how much equipment will be required. The subcontractor needs the
completed estimate to determine what is a reasonable amount for overhead and
profit. The subcontractor would not know how much to add to the direct field
cost unit price for overhead unless a quantity takeoff had been performed. If the
subcontractor submits a lump sum bid, then he or she is proposing to install, or
furnish and install, a portion of work: For example, the bid might state "agrees to
furnish and install all Type I concrete curbing for a sum of $23,267.00."

Each subcontractor will need someone (or several people) to check specifications,
review the drawings, determine the quantities required, and put the proposal
together. It may be a full-time estimating position or part of the duties assumed,
perhaps in addition to purchasing materials, helping to schedule projects, working
on required shop drawings or marketing.

2.1.5. Material Suppliers. Suppliers submit price quotes to the contractors (and
subcontractors) to supply the materials required for the construction of the project.
Virtually every material used in the project will be estimated and multiple price
quotes sought. Estimators will have to check the specifications and drawings to
be certain that the materials offered will meet all of the requirements of the
contract and required delivery dates.

2.1.6. Manufacturers' Representatives. Manufacturers representatives represent


certain material or product suppliers or manufacturers. They spend part of their
time visiting contractors, architects, engineers, subcontractors, owners, and
developers to be certain they are aware that the material is available, its uses and
approximate costs. In a sense they are salespeople, but their services and the
expertise they develop in their product lines make good manufacturers'
representatives welcome not as salespersons, but as needed sources of information
concerning the materials and products they represent. Representatives may work
for one company or they may represent two or more.

Manufacturers' representatives will carefully check the specifications and


drawings to be certain their materials meet all requirements. If some aspect of the
specifications or drawings tends to exclude their product, or if they feel there may
be a mistake or misunderstanding in these documents, they may call the architect-
engineers and discuss it with them. In addition, many times they will be involved
in working up various cost analyses of what the materials or products installed
cost will be and in devising new uses for the materials, alternate construction
techniques, and even the development of new products.

2.1.7. Project Management. Project Management companies specialize in


providing professional assistance in planning the construction of a project and
keeping accurate and updated information about the financial status of the project.
Owners who are coordinating large projects often hire such companies. Among

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the various types of owners are private individuals, companies, corporations,
government agencies (such as public works and engineering departments), and
various public utility companies.

Both the firms involved in project management, as well as someone on the staff of
the owner being represented, must be knowledgeable in the estimating and
scheduling of a project.

2.1.8. Government. When a government agency is involved in any phase of


construction, personnel with experience in construction and estimating are
required. Included are municipal, provincial, federal, and other nationwide
agencies including those involved in highways, roads, sewage treatment, schools,
courthouses, nursing homes, hospitals, and single and multiple family dwellings
financed or qualifying for financing by the government.

Employees may be involved in preparing or assisting to prepare preliminary and


final estimates; reviewing estimates from architects, engineers, and contractors;
the design and drawing of the project; and preparation of the specifications.

2.1.9. Professional Quantity Surveyors. Professional quantity surveyors may be


hired to prepare a detailed Schedule of Quantities for contractors bidding on a
project but are unable to prepare their own quantity takeoff. Such individuals,
designated by the Canadian Institute of Quantity Surveyors or firms often provide
a complete estimating service and must possess all the attributes of estimators
employed directly by contractors

2.1.10. Freelance Estimators. Freelance estimators will do a material takeoff of a


portion or entire project for whomever may want a job done. This estimator may
work for the owner, architect, engineer, contractor, subcontractor, material
supplier, or manufacturer. In some areas the estimator will do a material takeoff
of a project being competitively bid and then sell the quantity list to one or more
contractors who intend to submit a bid on the project.

Many times a talented individual has a combined drafting and estimating


business. Part of the drafting business may include preparing shop drawings
(drawings that show sizes of materials and installation details) for subcontractors,
material suppliers, and manufacturers' representatives.

3.0. The attributes required to be a successful quantity


surveyor
To be able to properly perform quantity takeoffs, the estimator:

Must be able to read and interpret design and working drawings

Must be knowledge of mathematics and a keen understanding of geometry


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Must have the patience and ability to do careful, methodological, and thorough
work

To be an estimator an individual go a step further. He or she:

Must be able, from looking at the drawings, to visualize the project through its
various phases of construction. In addition an estimator must be able to foresee
problems, such as placement of equipment or material storage, then develop a
solution and determine its estimated cost.

Must have enough construction experience to possess a good knowledge of job


conditions including methods of handling materials on the job, the most
economical methods of construction, and labour productivity. With this
experience, the estimator will be able to visualize the construction of the project
and thus get the most accurate estimate on paper.

Must have sufficient knowledge of labour operations and productivity to thus


convert them into costs on a project. The estimator must understand how much
work can be accomplished under given conditions by given crafts. Experience in
construction and a study of projects that have been completed are required to
develop this ability.

Must have the ability to keep a database of information on costs of all kinds
including those of labour, material, overhead, and equipment, as well as
knowledge of the availability of all the required items.

Must be able to meet bid deadlines and still remain calm. Even in the rush of last
- minute phone calls and the competitive feeling that seems to electrify the
atmosphere just before the bids are due; estimators must be mentally alert.

Must be able to deal with a number of bids in various stages of the bidding
process

Must be computer literate and know how to manipulate and build various
databases and use spreadsheet programs.

People cannot be taught experience and judgment, but they can be taught an acceptable
method of preparing an estimate, items to include in the estimate, calculations required,
and how to make them. They can also be warned against possible errors and alerted to
certain problems and dangers, but the practical experience and use of good judgment
required cannot be taught and must be obtained over time.

How closely the estimated cost will agree with the actual cost will depend, to a large
extent, on the estimators' skill and judgment. Their skill enables them to use accurate

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estimating methods, while their judgment enables them to visualize the construction of
the project throughout the stages of construction.

Module Two
Learning Objectives

After studying this section you will be able to:

1. Understand the system for organizing construction information in North America


2. State the type of estimate required at each stage of project development

1.0. Master Format 2004 Edition


1.0.1 Introduction

MasterFormat is the specifications-writing standard for most commercial building


design and construction projects in North America. It lists titles and section numbers for
organizing data about construction requirements, products, and activities. By
standardizing such information, MasterFormat facilitates communication amongst
architects, specifiers, contractors and suppliers, which helps them meet building owners
requirements, timelines and budgets.

Major Advantages

z Used throughout North America


z Produced jointly by Construction Specifications Canada (CSC) & Construction
Specifications Institute (CSI) in the USA
z Construction information is organized into a standard order or sequence
z An industry accepted system of numbers and titles for organizing construction
data.

To learn more about MasterFormat 2004 Edition, go to http://www.csinet.org/


MasterFormat

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MasterFormat 2004 is a three level six-digit system. The first two digits represent the
division number as level one. The next pair of numbers represents level two and the last
two digits represent level three. For example:

Division 03 Concrete
03 30 00 Cast-in-place concrete
03 31 00 Structural concrete

To systematically organize the estimate, estimators in North American normally follow


the MasterFormat system to compile the estimating information to avoid missing or
duplicating the quantities and pricing the construction works.

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Estimating summary or recap example:

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2.0. Types of Estimates
At different stages of a project development, estimators need to produce different types of

estimates based on the available project information.

Conceptual Estimates

At the project feasibility study stage, typically, there are no drawings available and the

developers/owners only have some ideas about the project type, size and location. When

preparing this type of estimate the estimator makes assumptions about virtually every

aspect of the project. The estimator needs to use his/her knowledge and experience as

well as the database he/she has from similar previous projects to build this estimate. An

adjustment may be required for a change of location and for price escalation over time.

This rough estimate (accuracy of plus or minus 30%) will be used to help the owner make

decisions on project development and financial arrangement as well as for controlling the

project cost in later design stages. A typical unit of measurement would be for example,

cost per bed unit in a hospital project or cost per parking space for a parking garage.

Preliminary Estimates (Volume & Area)

At the project design stage, the estimator needs to update the estimate upon the available

drawings and specifications. When simple plans are available, the volume method or area

method are normally used to produce a preliminary estimate. The volume method

involves computing the volume of the building and multiplying that volume by an

assumed cost per cubic metre (foot). Using the area method, you compute the area of the

building and multiply that area by an assumed cost per square metre (foot). Both

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methods require skill and experience in adjusting the unit cost to the varying conditions

of each project. These types of estimates are helpful to check whether the project as

designed is within the owners budget. however, they lack accuracy. Annual

publications such as R.S. Means "Yardsticks for Costing" contain a range of unit costs for

a wide variety of building types in seven cities in Canada. These guides provide a

number of adjustments to compensate for varying building component systems.

Elemental cost estimates are based on the analysis of individual construction

components. The elemental cost estimate needs more detail design drawings and is more

accurate than the volume method or area method (accuracy is plus or minus 15 %). This

type of the estimate needs to be updated according to information availability or design

changes. The more information an estimator can get, the more accurate the estimate will

be.

Detailed Estimate

At the project bidding stage, a detailed or unit price estimate is prepared by estimators for

bidding a project. This detailed or unit price estimate includes the determination of

quantities and costs of everything required to complete the project. This includes the

direst costs and indirect costs of a project. The direct costs are the costs of material,

labour, equipment or subcontracted items that are permanently and physically integrated

into the building. For example, the labour and materials for the partition walls of the

building would be a direct cost. Indirect costs are the cost for the items that are required

to support the field construction efforts or general expenses of the project, for example,

the project temporary site office and the daily expenses. Indirect costs also include a part

of the head office administration costs as well as the finance cost. To perform this type of

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estimate the contractor must have a complete set of bid documents-specifications and

drawings. The scope of work is broken down in work items and the unit price is assigned

to each work item to obtain the total construction cost of the project.

Contemplated Change Order Estimates

At the construction stage, under the terms of the stipulated lump sum contract, the

Consultant must issue a notice of proposed change or contemplated change, together with

any revised drawings or specifications, to the contractor to obtain a quote. These changes

may include additions, deductions and alterations to part of the work that may or may not

have been completed. These may be due to a change in the Owner's requirements,

unforeseen conditions, emergencies or regulatory requirements, and may affect the

contract price or contract schedule. The estimate for these notices must incorporate any

additions or deductions from the original contract documents and include adjustments in

contract price and contract time. Unit rates, including levels of profit and overheads, for

pricing changes to the work may be established prior to the signing of the contract.

Alternatively, they may be assessed on a fair and reasonable basis by the consultant.

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Module Three
Learning Objectives

After studying this section you will be able to:

1. Apply basic mathematical formulas in measuring construction work.


2. Understand the principle of centre line measurement

1.0. The principle of the Centre Line Measurement


The length of the wall is represented by the length measured on the mid-point or
centre line of that wall. Calculating the length on the centre line of the wall can
simplify the wall length calculation by ignoring the thickness of that wall, as
illustrated in Figure 3.1.

Figure 3.1

Length of L-shaped wall


200

3000

200

5200

Length of this L-shaped wall: 5200 + (3000 -200) = 8000 mm


Note the corner adjustment to the 3000 mm dimension

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Example 1: How to calculate the length of an enclosing wall

The principle of the Centre Line Measurement (PCL)

In simple rectangular shaped buildings, where (L) is the exterior length on plan and (W)
is the exterior width on plan, the enclosing wall length may be calculated by determining
the total exterior perimeter length of the wall [2 x (L + W)] and making a deduction for
each corner equivalent to the thickness (T) of the wall. In this instance the formula is:
PCL= [2 x (L + W)] 4T

Alternatively, where (L) is the interior length on plan and (W) is the interior width on
plan, the interior perimeter length [2 x (L + W)] may be calculated and an addition made
for each of the corners. In this instance, the enclosing wall length may be calculated using
this formula: PCL= [2 x (L + W)] + 4T

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PCL OF RECTANGULAR BUILDING

Taking exterior dimensions


12700
6500
Sum of one long and one short side 2x 19200
Sum of all four sides 38400
Less corners 4x200 800
Centre line of exterior wall 37600

Taking interior dimensions


12300
6100
2x 18400
36800
Add corners 4x200 800
Centre line of exterior wall 37600

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Perimeter Calculation
7600 200

3600 4000

200
8000 200 200

Length of blue box


8000
4000
Sum of one long and one short side 2x 12000
Sum of all four sides 24000

Length of green box (interior box) 24000


Less corners (differences) 8x200 1600
22400

Length of blue box(exterior box)


Add corners (differences) 22400
8x200 1600
24000
General formulas for two rectangles:

y Any perimeter (larger) outside the primary can be calculated by applying the
formula Pe=P+8d, where d is the horizontal distance from where P (the primary
perimeter) was calculated to where Pe (the new perimeter) is to be calculated.
y Any perimeter Pi (smaller) inside the primary perimeter (P) can be calculated by
applying the formula Pi=P-8d.

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y Determining the centre line measurement can be challenging if the building has an
irregular outline as shown in Fig. III :
y In this case, first try to simplify the calculation by comparing this irregular outline
with the rectangular outline, and then find the difference between these two
outlines, finally add or subtract the difference.

The length on the centre line of the enclosing walls can be found as follows:

20000
9000
2x 29000
58000
Less corners 4x300 1200
PCL 56800

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 24


y A comparison of the recess outline with the rectangular outline shows that
buildings planned with recesses involve further additions when arriving at the
perimeter of the enclosing walls.
y In this case the difference is the additional two pieces of the wall BC and ED
y The PCL of this recessed wall will be equal to the PCL of the base rectangle wall
in addition to the length of BC plus ED (6000mm)
The length of enclosing walls measured on centre line is found as follows:

22000
9000
2x 31000
62000
Add twice depth of recess (2x3000) 6000
68000
Less corners 4x300 1200
PCL 66800

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 25


2.0 Measurement of Area
(Square Metres - m/Square Feet - sf)

Gross Floor Area (GFA) - Measure to the outside face of enclosing wall for the area on

each floor without any deductions for openings within the floor area except as noted later.

The measurement of the gross floor area of a building has been used for many years in

the construction industry throughout the world to enable the costs of structures of similar

type and construction to be compared.

Enclosing wall: Those walls which form the outside perimeter of the structure and are

made of permanent materials which provide weatherproofing to acceptable occupational

standards

Outside Face: The exterior face of an enclosing wall at floor level, excluding such

horizontal features as projecting cornices, stone bands, etc.

No deduction to the area shall be made for:

y Walls, partitions, columns, etc.,

y Openings in floors for stairwells, escalators, elevators, ducts and other facilities

y Pits, trenches, depressions occurring in the lowest floor which are open or have

removable covers

Gross Floor Area includes:

y Crawl spaces or basement area with a floor to ceiling height of 2 m or greater

y Dormers, bay windows and the like, providing they extend vertically for the full

floor height

y Penthouses

y Enclosed porches

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 26


y Balconies and mezzanines which are within the enclosing walls of the structure

Gross Floor Area excludes:

y Crawl spaces or basement area with a floor to ceiling height of less than 2m

y Exterior balconies

y Canopies

y Exterior staircases and fire escapes which are not enclosed

y Interior open court yard, light wells and the like

y Porches which are not enclosed

Gross Floor Area for special structures:

Where auditoriums, swimming pools, gymnasiums, foyers and the like extend

through two or more floors, they shall be included for the largest area, at one level

only.

Example 1

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 27


ESTIMATE

Project: Example 1 Project No: Estimate No: Page:


Element/Trade: Measured: ZYH Estimate Type: Date: 31-Mar-09
Element/UCI Reference: Extended: Priced: Checked:

Description No. Dimensions Extensions Quantity Unit Unit Cost


Price ($)
Brought Forw ard from Page:

L W H
1. Gross Floor Area 12.70 6.50 82.55 83 m2

2. Net Floor Area 12.30 6.10 75.03 75 m2

Length: 12700
Less: 2x 200 -400
12300

Width: 6500
Less: 2x 200 -400
6100

Carried Forw ard to Page:

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 28


Example 2

ESTIMATE

Project: Example 2 Project No: Estimate No: Page:


Element/Trade: Measured: ZYH Estimate Type: Date: 31-Mar-09
Element/UCI Reference: Extended: Priced: Checked:

Description No. Dimensions Extensions Quantity Unit Unit Cost


Price ( $ )
Brought Forw ard from Page:

L W H
1. Gross Floor Area 20.00 9.00 180.00
Ddt setback) 11.00 3.00 -33.00
147.00 147 m2

2. Net Floor Area


Length: 20000
Less: 2x 300 -600
19400

Width: 9000
Less: 2x 300 -600
8400
19.40 8.40 162.96
Ddt setback) 11.00 3.00 -33.00
129.96 130 m2
Alternate:

Gross floor area subtract the area 147.00


occupied by exterior w all 56.80 0.30 -17.04
129.96 130 m2

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 29


Example 3

ESTIMATE

Project: Example 3 Project No: Estimate No: Page:


Element/Trade: Measured: ZYH Estimate Type: Date: 31-Mar-09
Element/UCI Ref erence: Extended: Priced: Checked:

Description No. Dimensions Extensions Quantity Unit Unit Cost


Price ($)
Brought Forw ard f rom Page:

L W H
1. Gros s Floor Area 22.00 9.00 198.00
Ddt recess) 6.00 3.00 -18.00
180.00 180 m2

2. Net Floor Are a


Length: 22000
Less: 2x 300 -600
21400

Width: 9000
Less: 2x 300 -600
8400

Recess length: 6000


Add: 2x 300 600
6600
21.40 8.40 179.76
Ddt recess) 6.60 3.00 -19.80
159.96 160 m2
Alte rnate:

Gross floor area subtract the area 180.00


occupied by exterior w all 66.80 0.30 -20.04
159.96 160 m2

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 30


3.0. Measurement of Volume

ESTIMATE

Project: Exam ple 4 Project No: Estimate No: Page:


Element/Trade: Measured: Estimate Type: Date: 31-Mar-09
Element/UCI Ref erence: Extended: Priced: Checked:

Description No. Dimensions Extensions Quantity Unit Unit Cost


Price ($)
Brought Forw ard f rom Page:

1. Volum e of foundation w all L W H


PCL of f oundation w all:
Length: 12700
Width: 6500
2x 19200 38400
Less 4x 200 -800
37600

Volum e of foundation w all 37.60 0.20 1.20 9.02 9 m3

2. Volum e of foundation w all footing 37.60 0.40 0.20 3.01 3 m3

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 31


Module Four
Learning Objectives

After studying this section you will be able to:

3. Utilize the CIQS standard estimate form to present measured work quantities
4. Measure wall lengths, slab areas and concrete volumes.

1.0. Standard Estimate Form

CIQSStandard Form of Estimate


ESTIMATE

Project: Project No: Estimate No: Page:


Element/Trade: Measured: Estimate Type: Date: 5-Apr-09
Element/UCI Reference: Extended: Priced: Checked:

Description No. Dimensions Extensions Quantity Unit Unit Cost


Price ($)
Brought Forw ard from Page:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Carried Forw ard to Page:

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 32


Column 1 In the Description column, a description of each item is entered. This
column is also used for preliminary calculations and other basic information needed in
building up the dimensions and references to the location of the work.

y The work item descriptions should be clear and precise.


The meaning and scope of each item of work should be indicated in the estimate
so that each item can be accurately priced

y Thicknesses shall be given in the description of items measured square

y Cross-sectional dimensions shall be given in the description of items measured


lineal

y All dimensions shall be given in the description of items enumerated

y Cross-sectional dimensions of weighted metal items shall be stated.

y In the quantity take-off process, the construction estimator may use standard
abbreviations for shortening descriptions.

30 MPa Concrete in foundation wall footing 30 Mpa conc. in fdn wall ftg
Excavate for basement Exc. for bsmt
Formwork to foundation wall Fwk to fdn wall
25 MPa concrete in column 25 MPa conc. in col.

Column 2 The No. or timesing column in which a multiplier is entered when there
is more than one item being measuring.

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 33


Example:

Project: Project No: Estimate No: Page: of


Element/Trade: Measured: Estimate Type: Date:
Element/UCI Reference: Extended: Priced: Checked:

Cost
Description No. Dimensions Extensions Quantity Unit Price ($)
Brought Forw ard from Pag
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

033000- CAST-IN-PLACE
CONCRETE TIMESING

033100 - Structural Concrete If there were ten such items


then this dimension would
be multiplied by ten as in
30 MPa conc. in col. 10 0.40 0.50 3.00 the example <<

If it were found that five


more columns of the same
dimensions were to be
provided, this could be
added by "dotting on" as
30 MPa conc. in col. 10 0.40 0.50 3.00 indicated <<
5

Carried Forw ard to Page:

Column 3-5 The Dimensions columns in which the actual dimensions are entered, as
scaled or taken from the drawings. Dimensions are entered against an item in one, two or
three columns depending on whether it is enumerated, linear, square or cubic.

The order of entering dimensions should be consistent and generally in the


sequence of length, width and height/thickness/depth.
Dimensions are entered to the nearest 10 mm i.e 2 decimal places in metres/feet
For example: a length of 2456 mm shown on the drawing must be recorded as
2.46 m

Column 6 The Extensions column in which the number, length, area or volume
obtained by multiplying together the figures in column 2-5 is recorded to 2 decimal
places for transfer to column 7.

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 34


Column 7-8 The Quantity and Unit column in which totals from column 6 is
transferred to the nearest whole number (integer) and which dependent upon the type of
work will be cubic, square, linear, enumerated or units of weight.

Column 9 The Unit Price column in which the unit price for the item of work is
entered by the estimator.

The unit price includes the following costs unless otherwise stated in the
description:
1. Labour and all associated costs
2. Material and all associated costs
3. Placing or installing materials in position
4. Equipment and all associated costs
5. Waste on materials

Column 10 The Cost column in which the total cost of the item is obtained by
multiplying column 7- Quantity and column 9- Unit price.

Each sheet should be completed with the information required at the top of the sheet:
9 the title of the project and the project number
9 the estimate number and estimate type
9 the trade for which the quantities are applicable and the reference number
the initials of the person measuring, extending, pricing and checking
9 the date of the estimate and the page numbering to denote the number of
each sheet with reference to the total number of sheets used for the
estimate.
9 A carried forward to summary page number must also be indicated for
ease of reference.

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 35


2.0. Measurement Example

Example 3

ESTIMATE

Project: Example 3 Project No: Estimate No: Page:


Element/Trade: Measured: ZYH Estimate Type: Date: 31-Mar-09
Element/UCI Reference: Extended: Priced: Checked:

Description No. Dimensions Extensions Quantity Unit Unit Cost


Price ($)
Brought Forw ard from Page:

L W H
1. Gross Floor Area 22.00 9.00 198.00
Ddt recess) 6.00 3.00 -18.00
180.00 180 m2

2. Net Floor Area


Length: 22000
Less: 2x 300 -600
21400

Width: 9000
Less: 2x 300 -600
8400

Recess length: 6000


Add: 2x 300 600
6600
21.40 8.40 179.76
Ddt recess) 6.60 3.00 -19.80
159.96 160 m2
Alternate:

Gross floor area subtract the area 180.00


occupied by exterior w all 66.80 0.30 -20.04
159.96 160 m2

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 36


Assignment 2: Examine the plan (to be issued in the class) and calculate the
following:

1. the gross floor area


2. the internal floor area
3. the centreline length of the composite wall
4. the centreline length for the following:

a. face brick
b. concrete block

5. the volume of the foundation wall


6. the volume of the foundation wall footing
7. the volume of the concrete slab

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 37


Module Five
Measurement of Excavation
Learning Objectives

After studying this section you will be able to:

1. Describe the process of excavation quantity take-off


2. Understand the various factors that may affect the quantities as well as the cost of
excavation
3. Calculate the quantities of earthwork for small buildings

1.0. General

The quantity take-off for excavation is normally considered as one of the most difficult
portions of the estimators task since the tender drawings usually can only provide very
little detail about the specific requirements of the earthwork operation. There are no
drawings showing estimators the dimensions and shape of the excavation as well as the
dewatering system. Estimators must make decisions based on their own construction
knowledge and work experience. Drawing sketches to help in understanding the actual
excavation dimensions and shape are the most efficient way to help estimators calculate
the quantities for earthwork in small buildings.

2.0. Excavation Considerations

2.0.1 Soils Report

The Soils report provides information about the subsurface conditions of the site
obtained from bore holes and other information
The Soils or Geotechnical Report may be included in Division 31 of the
Specifications or may be bound with the specification, or if it is not, can be
viewed at the design consultants office

The Soils report provides the estimator with the information to determine the dewatering
system- whether water will be encountered; the required slope of the bank in the
excavated area or whether shoring will be required.

Contractors should not solely rely on information provided by the soils report but should
make their own investigation of subsurface conditions.

2.0.2 Excavation Safety Consideration

The potential danger to workers in trenches due to cave-ins of the earth embankments is a
safety hazard that must be considered in every quantity takeoff for excavation work.

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 38


The Ontario Occupational Health and Safety Act and Regulations for Construction
Projects (OSHA)require that the sides of all earth embankments and trenches over 1.2m
deep be adequately protected by a shoring system or by cutting back the sides of the
excavation to a safe angle. As a consequence, the estimator must allow extra excavation
for cutting back the face of excavations to a suitable angle wherever this is possible.

The Ontario Occupational Health and Safety Act and Regulations for Construction
Projects (OSHA) require that an excavation in which a worker may work shall have a
clear work space of at least 450mm between the wall excavation and any formwork or
masonry or similar wall. As a consequence, the common practice in estimating for
excavation is to make allowances for work space as follows:

To footing/Trench/Face of mass excavation: 150mm from face of footing or


600mm from face of wall above, whichever is greater

To trenches for pipes:

Not exceeding 300mm in diameter- 300mm on each side of the pipe

Exceeding 300mm in diameter-600mm on each side of the pipe

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 39


3.0. Measurement Notes

y Excavation, backfill and fill in Bank Measure


y Soil Classification (silt,clays,gravels,sand,ordinary earth, rock)
y Measuring categories:(as per the Method of Measurement)
y Site Clearing
y Excavation over site to reduce levels
y Basement Excavation
y Trench Excavation
y Pit Excavation

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 40


y Different fill must be kept separate
y Fill and Backfill categories:
y Fill over site to raised levels
y Backfill to basements
y Backfill to trenches
y Backfill to pits
y Gravel under Slab-on-grade
y Soil Removal
y Haulage off or on site via trucks
y Could leave for recap - ready for pricing

Example:

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 41


ESTIMATE

Project: College Workshop Project No: 201 Estimate No: Page: 1 of 6


Element/Trade: Measured: ZYH Estimate Type: Date:
Element/UCI Reference: Extended: Priced: Checked:

Cost
Description No. Dimensions Extensions Quantity Unit Unit
($)
Price
Brought Forward from Page:

RECAP

310000 - Earthwork
312000 - Excavating

.1 Excavate for basement 197 m3

.2 Backfill around basement 74 m3

.3 Granular A base to slab 8 m3

.4 Disposal of excavated material 123 m3

Carried Forward to Page:

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 42


ESTIMATE

Project: College Workshop Project No: 201 Estimate No: Page: 4 of 6


Element/Trade: Site Work Measured: ZYH Estimate Type: Date:
Element/UCI Reference: 310000 Extended: Priced: Checked:
Cost
Description No. Dimensions Extensions Quantity Unit Unit
($)
Price
Brought Forward from Page:

Basement Excavation
Depth
2440
Less
top fdn to grade 200
2240
Add ftg 200
2440

Length: 7920
w/s 2* 600 1200
9120
Width:
6690
w/s 2* 600 1200
7890

Excavate for basement (part1) 9.12 7.89 2.44 175.57


Ddt 3.52 0.90 2.44 (7.73)
167.84 168 m3

PCL - Exterior Wall

Length: 7920
Width 6690
2* 14610
29220
Less
4* 200 -800
PCL 28420

Carried Forward to Page:

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 43


ESTIMATE

Project: College Workshop Project No: 201 Estimate No: Page: 5 of 6


Element/Trade: Site Work Measured: ZYH Estimate Type: Date:
Element/UCI Reference: 310000 Extended: Priced: Checked:
Cost
Description No. Dimensions Extensions Quantity Unit Unit
($)
Price
Brought Forward from Page:

Basement Exc - Slope


Depth
2440
Less
min 1200
1240

Slope Length: 28420


100
600
1240/3 413.3
add 8* 1113 8907
PCL slope 37327

Additional exc for slope (part2) 0.5 37.33 1.24 1.24 28.70

Backfill -random (part2) 28.70

Excavate for basement 167.84


28.70
196.54 197 m3

Bkfill Length: 28420


100
300
add 8* 400 3200
PCL bkfill 31620

Fdn proj length. 28420


100
1/2 proj 50
add 8* 150 1200
29620

Backfill around basement (part1) 31.62 0.60 2.44 46.29


Ddt 29.62 0.10 0.20 (0.59)
45.70

Total backfill around basement 45.70


28.70
74.00 74 m3
Carried Forward to Page:

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 44


ESTIMATE

Project: College Workshop Project No: 201 Estimate No: Page: 6 of 6


Element/Trade: Site Work Measured ZYH Estimate Type: Date:
Element/UCI Reference: 310000 Extended: Priced: Checked:

Cost
Description No. Dimensions Extensions Quantity Unit Unit
($)
Price
Brought Forward from Page:
Basement- Granular A base:
Length 7920
less 2*300 -600
7320

Width 6690
less 2*300 -600
6090

Granular A base to slab


7.32 6.09 0.20 8.92
Ddt 3.52 0.90 0.20 (0.63)
(col 0.90 0.90 0.20 (0.16)
8.12 8 m3

Disposal of exc mat. 196.54


-74.00
122.54 123 m3

Carried Forward to Page:

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 45


Assignment 3:

Determine the quantities for the foundation excavation works required for
the residential building shown in drawings A101 107 inclusive (Issued at
the beginning of the course) as indicated below:

1. Excavate for basement


2. Backfill around basement
3. Gravel base under the slab
4. Disposal of excavated material
5. Weeping tile and stone cover

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 46


Module Six
Measurement of Concrete
Learning Objectives

After studying this section you will be able to:

1. Describe the process of concrete and formwork quantity take-off


2. Calculate the quantities for concrete and formwork on small buildings

1.0. Scope of the work Masterformat: Division 3 - Concrete

y Concrete
y Cast-in-place concrete
y Pre-cast concrete
y Mass concrete
y Concrete Finishing and Curing
y Formwork
y Reinforcement
y Reinforcing bars
y Welded Wire Mesh (WWM)
y Stressing tendons
y Pre-stressing tendons
y Post-stressing tendons
y Steel deck subfloor
y Fibrous reinforcing
y Concrete Accessories
y Anchors and Inserts
y Expansion and Contraction joints
y Saw-cuts
y Waterstops

2.0. Procedure for measuring concrete quantities

The concrete for a project may be either ready mixed or mixed on the project
site. Most of the concrete used for commercial and residential projects in
Canada is ready mixed and delivered to the construction site by a ready-mix
company.

Concrete is estimated by the cubic metre (m3) or cubic yard (c.y.). To get the
volume of the concrete, we normally take the length in metres of each item
and multiply by its width (in metres) and thickness (in metres) or take the
length in metres of each item times its cross-sectional area.
1. Review specifications

- List for each component (columns, walls, beams, slabs) the type,
strength and, colour of the concrete and any special curing and testing.

- Requirements for reinforcement

2. Review drawings

- To be certain that items shown on the drawings are covered in the


specifications, if not obtain clarification.

3. List items of concrete required on the project

4. Determine quantities from working drawings plans, sections and


structural details

3.0. General measurement rules for concrete

Measure net in place. At this stage, the quantities are not adjusted
for wastage. The waste factor will be accounted for in the pricing
process.
No deduction to quantities for openings less than 0.05m3 or
reinforcing bars (rebar).
Classify in categories as per the CIQS Method of Measurement

y Cast-in-place concrete
y Precast concrete
y Mass concrete (need specific treatment)

Separate take off by the mix (the specification will provide this
information e.g. 25 MPa concrete)
Concrete Finishing and Curing

Measured in square metres/square feet, plan area of slab or


exposed surface of wall location, type of finish, sealers

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 48


4.0. General measurement rules for formwork

y Contact Face Area actual m surface of formwork in contact with the


concrete
y Classify as per the function of concrete (e.g. footing, wall, column) and
as per the Method of Measurement of Construction Works:

No deduction for openings not exceeding 10 m


Surfaces not exceeding 200 mm wide is measured linear in metres
Linear formwork by length: keyways, recessed edges, grooves,
chases
Circular formwork: Diameter and height
Curved formwork: Radius and area
Forming to walls and columns exceeding 3.5m in height shall be
measured separately in 1.5m increments
Slab formwork- Where over 3.5m high, the height shall be stated in
increments of 1.5m

5.0. General measurement rules for reinforcement

y Reinforcing Steel (Rebar)


y fabrication and placing is normally subcontracted in North
America
y take off by count x linear and convert to weight use RSIO
(Reinforcing Steel Institute of Ontario) handbook (kg per
meter)

Quick method - Add 10% to allow for laps, bends and hooks

y List all bars of different sizes

y Welded Wire Mesh (WWM)

y by type and area

y Stressing tendons

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 49


y Pre-stressing (pre-tensioned) tendons - Linear
y Post-stressing (post-tensioned) tendons Linear
y Bonded tendons -Tube Ducts and Strand
y Unbonded tendons

y Steel deck subfloor - Area


y Fibrous reinforcing - Area

6.0. General measurement rules for Miscellaneous Work

y Anchors and Inserts - describe and count


y Waterstops and Saw-cuts - linear by length
y Expansion joints - type, size, length or sealant type and length
y Non-shrink grout for anchor bolts & base plates in m3

Example: Measurement of quantities for concrete works shown on the


following drawing

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 50


ESTIMATE

Project: Foundation Plan 2.2 Project No: Estimate No: Page: of


Element/Trade: Concrete Measured: Estimate Type: Date:
Element/UCI Reference: 030000 Extended: Priced: Checked:

Cost
Description No. Dimensions Extensions Quantity Unit Unit
($)
Price
Brought Forward from Page:

RECAP
031000 - Concrete Formwork
031113 - Structural C.I.P. Concrete Formwork

.1 Formwork to foundation wall footing

.2 Formwork to foundation wall

.3 Form bulkhead; 200 wide

.4 Form keyway

.5 9.5 x 200 Anchor bolts

033000 - Cast-in-place Concrete


03310 0- Structural Concrete

.1 25 Mpa concrete in foundation footing

.2 25 Mpa concrete in foundation wall

.3 17.5 Mpa concrete slab to basement

.4 17.5 Mpa concrete slab to garage

Carried Forward to Page:


ESTIMATE

Project: Foundation Plan 2.2 Project No: Estimate No: Page: 1 of 3


Element/Trade: Concrete Measured: Estimate Type: Date:
Element/UCI Reference: 030000 Extended: Priced: Checked:

Cost
Description No. Dimensions Extensions Quantity Unit Unit
($)
Price
Brought Forward from Page:

RECAP
031000 - Concrete Formwork
031113 - Structural C.I.P. Concrete Formwork

.1 Formwork to foundation wall footing 35 m2

.2 Formwork to foundation wall 335 m2

.3 Form bulkhead; 200 wide 1m

.4 Form keyway 71 m

.5 9.5 x 200 Anchor bolts 36 ea

033000 - Cast-in-place Concrete


03310 0- Structural Concrete

.1 25 Mpa concrete in foundation footing 8 m3

.2 25 Mpa concrete in foundation wall 34 m3

.3 17.5 Mpa concrete slab to basement 15 m3

.4 17.5 Mpa concrete slab to garage 3 m3

Carried Forward to Page:

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 53


ESTIMATE

Project: Foundation Plan 2.2 Project No: Estimate No: Page: 2 of 3


Element/Trade: Concrete Measured: Estimate Type: Date:
Element/UCI Reference: 030000 Extended: Priced: Checked:

Cost
Description No. Dimensions Extensions Quantity Unit Unit
($)
Price
Brought Forward from Page:

Formwork
Ext Length: 11300
6700
Width: 12200
2* 30200
60400
Less
4* 200 -800
2* 600 1200
PCL 60800
Int Length:
Less
6700
-200
-1500
5000 5000
Width: 5000
10000
Less -200
PCL of int. fdn wall 9800
Less
Proj. to ftg: 2*140 -280
PCL of int. fdn ftg 9520
Fwk to ftg
(ext 2 60.80 0.25 30.40
(int 2 9.52 0.25 4.76
35.16 35 m2

Fwk to fdn wall (ext 2 60.80 2.39 290.62


(int 2 9.80 2.39 46.84
(ddt Bulkhead 2 3.00 0.35 -2.10
335.37 335 m2

Form bulkhead; 200 wide 2 0.35 0.70 1m

Form keyway 60.80 60.80


9.80 9.80
70.60 71 m

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 54


ESTIMATE

Project: Foundation Plan 2.2 Project No: Estimate No: Page: 3 of 3


Element/Trade: Concrete Measured: Estimate Type: Date:
Element/UCI Reference: 030000 Extended: Priced: Checked:

Cost
Description No. Dimensions Extensions Quantity Unit Unit
($)
Price
Brought Forward from Page:

Concrete

25 Mpa Concrete in footing


(ext 60.80 0.48 0.25 7.30
(int 9.52 0.48 0.25 1.14
8.44 8 m3

25 Mpa conc in fdn wall (ext 60.80 0.20 2.39 29.06


(int 9.80 0.20 2.39 4.68
(ddt Bulkhead 3.00 0.20 0.35 -0.21
33.54 34 m3

Basement Slab:
Length 16500
less 2*200 -400
16100

Width 12200
less 2*200 -400
11800

Garage Area:
Length 6700
less 2*200 -400
6300

Width 5200
less 2*200 -400
4800

17.5 Mpa concrete slab to basement 16.10 11.80 0.09 17.10


Ddt 5.00 5.00 0.09 -2.25
Add 0.60 3.60 0.09 0.19
15.04 15 m3

17.5 Mpa Concrete slab to garage 6.30 4.80 0.09 2.72 3 m3

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 55


Assignment 4:

Determine the quantities of formwork, cast-in-place concrete and


accessories required for the residential building shown in drawings A101
107 inclusive (Issued at the beginning of the course) as indicated below:

1. Formwork to foundation wall footing


2. Formwork to foundation wall
3. Form keyway
4. Anchor bolts
5. 25 Mpa concrete in foundation footing
6. 25 Mpa concrete in foundation wall
7. 17.5 Mpa concrete slab to basement

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 56


Module Seven
Measurement of Masonry
Learning Objectives

After studying this section you will be able to:

1. Identify the scope of work for the masonry trade.


2. Outline the factors that impact the cost of masonry
3. Describe the process of masonry quantity take-off
4. Calculate the quantities of masonry for small buildings

1.0. Scope of the work Masterformat: Division 4 - Masonry

In Masonry, the major materials include block, brick, stone and glass blocks.
The mason is also responsible for the installation of lintels, integral flashings,
joint wall reinforcing, ties, anchors, weep holes, and control and expansion
joints. The following are the major scope of the work in Division 4- Masonry

y Unit Masonry
y Clay Unit Masonry
y Concrete Unit Masonry
y Glass Unit Masonry
y Stone Masonry
y Dry-placed Stone
y Wet-placed Stone
y Stone Trim
y Masonry Accessories
y Control and expansion joints
y Embedded flashings
y Weep holes
y Masonry Anchorage and Reinforcing
y Joint reinforcement
y Ties and anchor bolts
y Rebar
y Steel lintels

The following sketches illustrate joint reinforcement (Ladur type); ties and
reinforcement to block walls:

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MASONRY ACCESSORIES - ILLUSTRATED

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2.0. Factors impacting the cost of masonry

The cost of masonry work is not only impacted by the type of the materials
but also the amount of time required for a mason to lay a masonry unit. The
labor hours vary with:

Size, weight, and shape of the unit


Bond (pattern)
Number of openings
Whether the walls are straight or have jogs in them
Distance the units must be moved (both horizontally and vertically)
Shape and colour of the mortar joint

Estimators must read the specifications, check the drawings, and call the
manufacturers and builder suppliers to determine the exact availability of the
material, costs, and special requirements of the units needed. They must also
take into account the above listed factors to determine labour costs. If the
specifications are not clear as to what is required, estimators should call the
consultants office to obtain the clarifications. They should never guess what
the specifications mean.

3.0. General measurement rules for masonry

General rules:

Masonry work is measured in m.


Measure the wall area Net in Place m
Deduct any openings greater than 1.00 m (10sf)
Masonry work circular/curved on plan is measured separately

Masonry is measured by the type of materials, type of the bonds, the


thickness of the walls as well as the locations and specific requirements as
follows:

Facings
Backings to facings
Walls and partitions
Furring to wall
Fire protection

Measurement rules for Miscellaneous Work:

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Reinforced block and tile lintels are measured linear in metres.
Masonry units in special shapes are enumerated.
Chimney caps are enumerated.
Joint reinforcement is measured in metres
Ties and anchor bolts etc. are enumerated
Note: Deduction for ties, only if the opening exceeds 5 m
Rebar is estimated by the weight, obtained by listing bars of different
sizes and lengths and extending the total to kilograms or alternatively it
is measured in metres stating the size.
Steel lintels are measured in kilograms stating the size (check with
specifications for supply and installation)
Control and expansion joints are measured in linear metres
Embedded flashings are measured in linear metres
Weep holes are enumerated

4.0. Concrete masonry

Concrete blocks are manufactured in standard sizes. The standard modular face
dimensions of the units are 200mm high and 400 mm long. Thicknesses
available are 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mm. (These are nominal dimensions,
and actual dimensions are 10 mm less. A 10 mm mortar joint provides face
dimensions of 390 mm L x 190 mm H. It requires 12.5 blocks per square metre of
wall.)

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Lintel Block

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Top course of block foundations should be filled or use solid top blocks

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5.0. Brick masonry

Clay bricks are manufactured in a variety of types and sizes. The following
picture shows commonly manufactured bricks. Modular bricks are units in which
the actual size plus a mortar joint can be assembled on a standard unit or
module. e.g. the modular unit for metric brick sizes is 100 mm, the actual size of
the brick (90 mm) plus the thickness of a mortar joint (10 mm) is the nominal
size.

Estimators must check the specifications to determine the exact type of material;
the type of mortar required; the shape, thickness and color of the joint itself; and
the style of the bond to determine the unit cost of the bricks. The estimator must
also determine the type of lintels, flashing, reinforcing, and weep holes required,
and who supplies and installs each item.

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6.0. Stone masonry

Stone masonry is primarily used as a veneer for interior and exterior walls;
it is also used for walkways, riprap, and trim on buildings. Stone masonry
is usually divided into that which is laid up dry with no mortar be used and
wet masonry in which mortar is used.

Stone is used in many sizes, bonds and shapes. The types of the stone
most commonly used are granite, sandstone, marble, slate, limestone,
and trap. The finishes available include various split finishes and tooled,
rubbed, machine, cross-broached, and brushed finishes.

Estimators need to check the specifications to determine the type and


color of the stone as well as the size, thickness of the stone required.
Estimators also need to pay attention to the installation of the stone as
well as the accessory cost.

Stone is usually estimated by the area in square meters, with the


thickness given. Stone trim is usually estimated by the meter or
enumerated. Deduct all openings but not the corners.

7.0. Measurement techniques in masonry

The length of exterior wall will be obtained by applying the centre line
principle
The height will normally be taken up to some convenient level, such
as the wall plate level or ceiling line/soffit level. Any additional areas of
exterior wall such as gables and parapets at higher levels are then
taken-off.
Interior walls usually follow the measurement of exterior walls.
A careful check should be made for the type and thickness of each
partition, and where there is a number of different types of partition,
colour each type in a different colour on the floor plans and mark each
length on the floor plan as it is taken-off

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Extra over for various special patterns: brick-on-edge, sills, circular,
etc.

The formation of decorative patterns and features is measured in m


or m as "extra labour and material", describing the decorative pattern
or feature.

Extra over for bond beams in linear metres: add re-bar and concrete
for bond beams (lintels)

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ESTIMATE

Pro Masory-Jenson Plan Project No: Estimate No: Page: 1 of 2


Element/Trade: Masonry Measur ZYH Estimate Type: Date:
Element/UCI Reference: 040000 Extended: Priced: Checked:

Description No. Dimensions Extensions Quantity Unit Unit Cost


Price ($)
Brought Forw ard from Page
Recap

040000 Masonry
040500 Commom Work Results for Masonry

1. 12.5 x 200 mm anchor bolts on top of the foundation wall 18 No.

2. 800 x 400 mm metal basement windows 4 No.

042200 Concrete Unit Masonry

3. 200 mm thick regular concrete block 64 m2

4. 200 mm thick semi-solid concrete block 11 m2

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Carried Forw ard to Page:
ESTIMATE

Project: Masory-Jenson Plan Project No: Estimate No: Page: 2 of 2


Element/Trade: Measured: ZYH Estimate Type: Date:
Element/UCI Reference: Extended: Priced: Checked:

Description No. Dimensions Extensions Quantity Unit Unit Cost


Price ($)
Brought Forw ard from Page:
040500 Commom Work Results for Masonry
12.5 x 200 mm anchor bolts
PCL of Fdn wall
10800
5500
2* 16300 32600
Less 4* 200 -800
31800

2400 31800
14 14+4

12.5 x 200 mm anchor bolts 18 No.

042200 Concrete Unit Masonry


200 mm thick regular concrete block
Length: 31800

Height: 2400
Less 2 courses -400
2000

200 mm thick regular concrete block 31.80 2.00 63.60 64 m2

200 mm thick semi-solid concrete block 31.80 0.40 12.72


Ddt windows) 4 0.80 0.40 -1.28
11.44 11 m2

Carried Forw ard to Page:

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Assignment 5:

Determine the quantities for masonry and accessories required for the
residential building shown in drawings A101 107 inclusive (Issued at the
beginning of the course) as indicated below:

1. Brick veneer
2. Metal ties
3. Metal flashing
4. Weep holes

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Module Eight
Measurement of Wood Framing
Learning Objectives
After studying this section you will be able to:

1. Explain the steps to calculate lumber requirements for wood framing


2. Determine the lumber requirements for floor and wall framing
3. Calculate the quantities of roof sheathing required for a small house

1.0. General

Wood frame construction is the most widely used system for the construction
of residential buildings in Canada. Generally called rough carpentry work, it
includes framing to floors, walls and roof and any miscellaneous work which
use wood, for example, blockings or supports.

Lumber is a general term that includes boards, dimension lumber, and timber.
It is a product that is manufactured by sawing logs into rough-sized lumber
that is edged, resawn to final dimension, and cut to length.

Dimension softwood lumber is sold by local lumberyards or builder suppliers


in standard lengths of 610 mm (2 feet) multiples ranging from 2440 (8 feet) to
6100 mm (20 feet). The following are the stock lengths normally are used in
construction:

Metric Imperial

2440 mm 8'

3050 mm 10'

3660 mm 12'

4270 mm 14'

4880 mm 16'

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5490 mm 18'

Hardwood and furniture grade lumber is ordered and sold by the board foot
(Imperial measure) or by the cubic meter (metric measure).

1 B.F(board foot) = a piece of lumber that measures (nominal) 1" x 12" x 12"

mfbm (MBF) 1,000 BF

Board Foot Conversion:

Size of lumber x Length = BF

12 (Constant)

Example:

2 x 6 x 14 = (1 x 14) =14 BF

2 x 4 x 14 = (0.67 x 14) =9 BF

2.0. General measurement rules for wood framing

Measure lumber in linear metres (lineal feet) - no specific stock length


Measure lumber by the number of pieces in specific stock length
Identify separately under the headings:
o Dimensions
o Grade
o Species

3.0. General measurement rules for wood floor framing

Steel beams - measured by length. Specify the size stating the weight per
metre/foot.
Steel adjustable posts and bearing plates measured by the piece
Sill plates - measured in lineal metre (lineal feet)

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Joists Identify the dimension of the lumber and the stock length, record
by number of pieces
Bridging - measured by the piece (or set) stating joist centres, depth and
method (solid or cross)

y Sheathing - measure in square metres (square feet) and convert to sheets


(4 X 8)
y No deductions for openings under 2 square metres (20 square feet)
y Common boards, tongue and groove, plywood and other types of
sheathing are kept separate

4.0. Measurement illustrations for wood floor framing

The floor framing generally consists of a wood (steel) beam, sill plate, floor joist,

joist headers, and subflooring.

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HEADER DOUBLE JOIST COMMON JOIST
OR JOIST

END BLOCKING

AREA 1 4250

END JOIST
S150X18 STEEL BEAM
END BLOCKING

8500
HEADER JOIST

CROSS BRIDGING
4250

AREA 2

TAIL JOIST TRIMMER JOIST


10600

FLOOR FRAMING PLAN

FIGURE 1
Wood (steel) Beam: Beam length = Inside dimension + bearing distance

The bearing distance for steel beam is 89 mm at each side.

Sill Plate: Sill plates are most commonly 38 X 140, 38 X 184, and 38 X 235 and

are placed on the foundation so the length of sill plate required is the distance

around the perimeter of the building. Lengths ordered will depend on the

particular building. Not all wood-framed buildings require a sill plate so the details

should be checked; but generally, where there are floor joists, there are sill

plates. The length of sill is often taken off as the distance around the building.

Furthermore, the sill lumber is typically treated and should be kept separate on

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the quantity takeoff since treated lumber is more expensive.

Wood Floor Joists: The wood joists should be taken off and separated into the

various sizes and lengths required. The spacing most commonly used for joists is

400 mm on centre, but spacings of 300 mm and 600 mm are also found. The

most commonly used sizes for floor joists are 38 X 140, 38 X 184, and 38 X 235

and 38 X 286, although wider and deeper lumber is sometimes used.

To determine the number of joists required for any given area, the length of the

floor is divided by the joist spacing, and then one joist is added for the extra joist

that is required at the end of the span. If the joists are to be doubled under

partitions, or if headers frame into them, extra joists should be added for each

occurrence.

The length of the joist is taken as the inside dimension of its span plus 38 mm at

each end for bearing on the wall or sill.

Joist Estimating Steps

1. From the foundation plan and wall section, determine the size of the

floor joists required.

2. Determine the number of floor joists required by first finding the number

of spaces, then adding one extra joist to enclose the last space.

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3. Multiply by the number of bays.

4. Add extra joists for partitions that run parallel to the joists.

5. Determine the required length of the floor joists.

Trimmers and Headers: Openings in the floor, such as for stairs or fireplaces,

are framed with trimmers running in the direction of the joists and headers that

support the tail joists.

Unless the specifications say otherwise, when the header length is 1.20 m or less

most codes allow single headers to be used. For header lengths greater than

1.20 m, codes usually require double headers. For trimmer lengths less than 0.80

m, single trimmers are required and for lengths longer than 0.80 m double

trimmers are required.(Refer Figure A.7)

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EXAMPLE 1:

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38X235@400 OC
4250
A R E A 1

W 150X 18 S T E E L B E A M

8500
38X235@400 OC
2500

900
4250

A R E A 2

250m m F D N W A LL

A
10600

F O U N D A T IO N P L A N
TRUSSES @ 600 OC

8500
A
10600

M A IN F L O O R P L A N

1 1 m m S H E A T H IN G
38X 140 S P R U C E
R 2 0 IN S U L A T IO N
6 m il V A P O U R B A R R IE R
1 2 .5 m m D R Y W A L L
1 5 .5 T & G S H E A T H IN G
3 8 X 2 3 5 J O IS T @ 4 0 0 O C

3 8 X 8 9 S P R S IL L P L A T E

250m m F D N W A LL
1 0 0 m m W E E P E R T IL E 75m m C O N C S LA B
200m m W E E P E R S T O N E 6 m il V A P O U R B A R R IE R
200m m G R A N U LA R A

400X 200 F T G

W A L L S E C T IO N A

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F IG U R E 3
Floor Joints:

AREA 1:

14 length lumber:

Layout Length = 10600

Joist spacing /400

= 26.50

Rounded = 27 (spaces)

End Joist = 1

Total = 28 (Regular joists)

AREA 2:

14 length lumber:

Layout Length = 10600-2500

Joist spacing /400

= 20.25

Rounded = 21 (spaces)

End Joist = 1

Trimmer Joist = 4 (2 at each end of stair)

Total = 26

10 length lumber:

Layout Length = 10600

Joist spacing /400

= 26.5

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Rounded = 27 (spaces)

Less 21

Total = 6

Sill Plate:

PCL of the sill plate (38mm x 89mm):

10.60-0.022=10.58

8.50-0.022=8.48

2* 19.06

38.12

Less 4*89 -0.36

37.76 (38m)

Header Joints:

10.60-0.022=10.58

2 *10.58

21.16

So, to minimize the waste, 5 of 14 length lumbers are needed for header joists
and 3 of 10 length lumbers are needed for header joists at stair opening

Bridging:

10600

/400

26.50 (rounded up to 27)

Total Bridging: 2 x 27 =54 sets


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Solid Blocking:

8500/1200=7.08 (Rounded up to 8)

Less 1

2 x 7 = 14

400 x 14 = 5600

2 of 10 length lumbers are needed for solid blocking

Floor Sheathing:

10.60-0.022=10.58

8.50-0.022=8.48

10.58 x 8.48=89.72 m2

89.72/2.98=30 sheets

EXAMPLE 2

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Floor Joists:

AREA 1:

16 length lumber:

Layout Length = 6700

Joist spacing /400

= 16.75

Rounded = 17 (spaces)

End Joist = 1

Double Joist (proj.) = 2 (left and right side)

Total = 20

14 length lumber:

Layout Length = 10600

Joist spacing /400

= 26.5

Rounded = 27 (spaces)

Less 17

Total = 10

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5.0. Measurement illustrations for wood wall framing

The exterior and interior walls need to be estimate separately since they
normally have different finish materials. The exterior walls are taken off first, then
the interior walls.

Basically, most of the wall framing consists of bottom plates, studs, top plates,
headers (lintels), sills, trimmers, braces and finish materials

2 3 4 5

1 WALL SHEATHING
2 BLOCKING
3 TIE-IN
6 4 TOP PLATE
5 CAP PLATE
6 LINTEL
7 8 7 ROUGH SILL
8 REGULAR STUD
9 BOTTOM PLATE
10 REGULAR STUD
NEXT TO TRIMMER
STUD
11 TRIMMER STUD
12 TRIPLE CRIPPLE
STUD
9 13 CRIPPLE STUD
13 10
12
11
WALL FRAMING

FIGURE 9

Plates: The most commonly used assembly incorporates a double-top plate and
a single-bottom plate, although other combinations may be used. The estimator
first begins by reviewing the specifications and drawings for the size of materials

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(commonly 38 X 89 or 38 X 140), the grade of lumber to be used, and
information on the number of plates required

The total length of plates is determined by multiplying the length of wall times the
number of plates.

Studs: The stud takeoff should be separated into the various sizes and lengths
required. Studs are most commonly 38 X 89 at 400 mm or 600 mm centres, or 38
X 140 at 600 mm on centre. The primary advantage of using 38 X 140 is that it
allows for 140 mm of insulation as compared with 89 mm of insulation with 38 X
89 studs.

Quick method to calculate the wall studs:


y Quick Method (by using a stud spacing measurement less than the actual
specified stud spacing, this will allow for extra framing at wall intersections
and openings.
y Stud spacing 400 mm (16")
y 1 stud every 300 mm (12")
y Stud spacing 600 mm (24")
y 1 stud every 500 mm (20")
Hints: Normally need to add another 10% for waste when purchase material

Long method to calculate the wall studs:


y Divide wall length by stud spacing plus adding an appropriate amount of
studs for details such as corners, intersections, openings and bearing
posts

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Corners - wall meeting at 90; Intersections - interior walls butting the wall being
measured.

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Bracing: Allow for bracing (14' in length) to walls greater than 3.66 m (12'):

o Exterior walls need 3 braces per wall (1 brace at each end is


removed when an adjacent exterior wall is raised)
o Interior walls require 2 braces (as the ends can be fastened to other
walls)

Headers (Lintels): Headers are required to support the weight of the building

over the openings. A check of the specifications and drawings must be made to

determine if the headers required are solid wood, headers and cripples, or

plywood sheathing. For ease of construction, many carpenters and homebuilders

feel that a solid header provides best results and they use 2 or 3-38 X 235 as

headers throughout the project, even in non-load-bearing walls. Shortages and

higher costs of materials have increased the usage of plywood and smaller size

headers.

The header length must also be considered. The header extends over the top of

the studs and it is wider than the opening. Most specifications and building codes

require that headers for openings up to 1800 mm wide must extend over one

stud at each end, and headers for openings 1800 mm and wider must extend

over two studs at each end.

Wall Sheathing: Exterior wall sheathing may be a fiberboard material soaked

with a bituminous material, insulation board (often urethane insulation covered

with an aluminum reflective coating), waferboard, or plywood. Carefully check the

specifications and working drawings to determine what is required (insulation

requirements, thickness). Fiberboard and insulation board sheathing must be

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covered by another material (such as brick, wood, or aluminum siding), while the

plywood may be covered or left exposed. All of these sheathing materials are

taken off first by determining the area required and then determining the number

of sheets required. The most accurate takeoff is made by sketching a layout of

the material required (as with the sheathing in floor framing). The estimator must

check the height of sheathing carefully, as a building with a sloped soffit may

require a 2740 mm length, while 2440 mm may be sufficient when a boxed-in

soffit is used. Openings in the exterior wall are neglected unless they are large

and the sheathing that would be cut out can be used elsewhere. Otherwise, it is

considered waste.

Other consideration: Allow for backing (2 - 38 x 89 pieces) to walls parallel to


trusses and joists.

EXAMPLE 1:

Determining the quantities for wood wall framing

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ESTIMATE

Project: SMALL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING Project No: Estimate No: Page: 1 of 5


Element/Trade: Div. 6 - Wood Measured: Estimate Type: Date:
Element/UCI Reference: Extended: Priced: Checked:

Cost (
Description No. Dimensions Extensions Quantity Unit Unit
$)
Price
Brought Forward from Page:

RECAP
WALL FRAMING

1. Plates; Spruce #2
.1 Exterior; 38 x 140 (2" x 6") 93 m
305 lf

.2 Interior; 38 x 140 (2" x 6") 8m


25 lf

.3 Interior; 38 x 89 (2" x 4") 60 m


195 lf

2. Studs; Spruce #2
.1 Exterior; 38 x 140 (2" x 6") 92 pcs

.2 Interior; 38 x 140 (2" x 6") 5 pcs

.3 Interior; 38 x 89 (2" x 4") 85 pcs

3. Wall bracing; Spruce #2


.1 Exterior; 38 x 89 x 4270 12 pcs
(2" x 4"x 14')

.2 Interior; 38 x 89 x 4270 4 pcs


(2" x 4"x 14')

4. Backing; Spruce #2
.1 38 x 89 (2" x 4") 34 m

5. Lintels; Douglas Fir #2


.1 38 x 235 x 2440 8 pcs
(2" x 10"x 8')

6. 7.5mm Wall Sheathing 76 m2

7. Building Paper 76 m2

Total:

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ESTIMATE

Project: SMALL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING Project No: Estimate No: Page: 2 of 5


Element/Trade: Div. 6 - Wood Measured: Estimate Type: Date:
Element/UCI Reference: Extended: Priced: Checked:

Unit Cost
Description No. Dimensions Extensions Quantity Unit
Price ($)

Brought Forward from Page:

First Floor Wall Framing

Length of Exterior Wall : 38 x 140


7400
8100
2* 15500
31000

Length of Interior Wall : 38 x 89


8100
less 2*140 -280
Lr/Dr - Kitchen/Bed 7820
Bedroom 2665
Dimensions by referenced
" 931
location from drawing
Bedroom/Closet 621
" 621
" 856
1067
add 2*89 178
Closet 1245
149
610
905
710
50
Bathroom/Hall 2424
Kitchen/stairs 2665
19848

Length Interior Wall : 38 x 140


Bath/stairs 2665
less -89
2576 2 top
1 bottom

Exterior Studs 38 x 140:

Plates; 38 x 140 Spr #2 3 31.00 93.00 93 m

Carried Forward to Page:

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ESTIMATE

Project: SMALL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING Project No: Estimate No: Page: 3 of 5


Element/Trade: Div. 6 - Wood Measured: Estimate Type: Date:
Element/UCI Reference: Extended: Priced: Checked:

Cost
Description No. Dimensions Extensions Quantity Unit Unit
($)
Price
Brought Forward from Page:

Exterior Studs (cont'd)

No. of Studs:
Spacing 600:
600 31000
51.67 52
Corner 2.5 x 4 10
Intersection 2 x 6 12
Opening 3x6 18
Total 92

Studs; 38 x 140 x 2440


(ext 92 92 Pcs.

Interior Studs 38 x 140:

Plates; 38 x 140 3 2.58 7.74 8m

No. of Studs: Wall between.


Spacing 600: bath/stair
600 2576
4.29 5

Precut Studs; 38 x 140 x 2440


(int 5 5 Pcs.

Interior Studs 38 x 89:

Plates; 38 x 89 3 19.85 59.55 60 m

Carried Forward to Page:

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ESTIMATE

Project: SMALL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING Project No: Estimate No: Page: 4 of 5


Element/Trade: Div. 6 - Wood Measured: Estimate Type: Date:
Element/UCI Reference: Extended: Priced: Checked:

Cost
Description No. Dimensions Extensions Quantity Unit Unit
($)
Price
Brought Forward from Page:

Interior Studs (cont'd)

No. of Studs:
Spacing 400:
400 19848
49.62 50
Corner 2.5 x 2 5
Intersection 2.5 x 6 15
Opening 2.5 x 6 15
Total 85

Studs; 38 x 89 x 2440
(int 85 85 Pcs.

Wall Bracing 38 x 89:

Material allowance for


ext)strapping3 to walls parallel
4 12
int)to the trusses.
2 2 4
16
stock 4270 mm (14' ) 16 Pcs.

Walls Requiring Backing:

Kitchen/stairs 2665
Bath/stairs 2576
Bedroom 2665
" 931
Closet 621
" 621
10079

7400
2* 160 -320
7080

Backing; 38 x 89
ext) 2 7.08 14.16
int) 2 10.08 20.16
34.32 34 m

Carried Forward to Page:

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ESTIMATE

Project: SMALL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING Project No: Estimate No: Page: 5 of 5


Element/Trade: Div. 6 - Wood Measured: Estimate Type: Date:
Element/UCI Reference: Extended: Priced: Checked:

Cost
Description No. Dimensions Extensions Quantity Unit Unit
($)
Price
Brought Forward from Page:

Lintels - 38 x 235(2 x 10):


Window Frame # 1:
Opening 1100
End Bearing 100
2* 1200
2400
stock 2440 mm (8' ) 2 2 Pcs

Window Frame # 2:
Opening 2000
End Bearing 100
2* 2100
4200
stock 2440 mm (8' ) 4 4 Pcs

Door Frame :
Opening 810
End Bearing 100
2* 950
1900
stock 2440 mm (8' ) 2 2 Pcs

8 Pcs.

7.5mm Wall Sheathing 31.00 2.44 75.64 76 m2

Building Paper 31.00 2.44 75.64 76 m2

Carried Forward to Page:

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 100


6.0. Measurement illustrations for roof framing

Most roofs are framed using trusses. Therefore Roof Framing is not a very
extensive quantity take-off exercise. The truss manufacturer will likely request a
set of the plans and do the take-off and shop drawings for the roof.

Roof framing includes:

y Trusses (# of Common and Gable, state slope, span and overhang)


y Lookout Sets (Ladder -shaped) - state slope, span and projection
y Roof sheathing
y Sheathing roof clips
y Bracing for trusses
y Rough Fascia
y Ceiling Strapping

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 101


Steps for estimating roof sheathing:

Determine the area on plan


Add the overhangs or projections
Apply a Slope Factor: Calculated by obtaining the hypotenuse and dividing
by the run

How to calculate the slope factor:

The design slope of 1/3:

The rise is 1 and the run is 3


2 2
The hypotenuse is: (1) +(3) = 3.162

3.612/3 = 1.054

Slope factor for 1/3 is 1.054


International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 102
List of the slope factors:

4/12 = 1.054

5/12 = 1.083

6/12 = 1.118

1/3 = 1.054

1/2 = 1.118

85/250 = 1.056

Recommended waste factors for different types of the roof:

Gable Roof 10%

Gabe Roof c/w Valley 15%

Hip Roof 20%

Hip Roof c/w Valley 25%

Full Hip Roof 30%

EXAMPLE 2:

Determining the Number of Sheets required for Roof Sheathing

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 103


ROOF LINE

HOUSE PERIMETER

6500
10000

GABLE ROOF
ROOF SLOPE: 5/12

GABLE ROOF

Roof Area = 10.80 x 7.30

(400 mm overhang) 78.84 m2

Slope factor = 5/12

Sheathing Requirements = 78.84 x 1.083 /2.98

= 85.38/2.98

= 28.65

= 29 sheets

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 104


ROOF LINE

HOUSE PERIMETER 300

5800
300
9000

HIP ROOF
ROOF SLOPE: 1/3

HIP ROOF TYPE B(1/3 slope)

Roof Area = 9.60 x 6.40

= 61.44 m2

Slope factor = 1/3

Sheathing Requirements = 61.44 x 1.054 /2.98

= 64.76/2.98

= 21.73

= 22 sheets

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 105


R O O F L IN E

H O U S E P E R IM E T E R

9000
400

400

9000

F U L L H IP R O O F
R O O F S L O P E : 8 5 /2 5 0

FULL HIP ROOF

Roof Area = 9.80 x 9.80

= 96.04 m2

Slope factor = 85/250

Sheathing Requirements = 96.04 x 1.056 /2.98

= 101.42/2.98

= 34.03

= 34 sheets

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 106


ROOF LINE
11300

350
HOUSE PERIMETER

5300
8300

350
3000
350

4300

COMBINATION ROOF
ROOF SLOPE: 4/12 GABLE

COMBINATION ROOF

Roof Area = (12.00 x 6.00) + (5.00 x 3.00)

= 72.00 + 15.00

= 87.00 m2

Slope factor = 4/12

Sheathing Requirements = 87.00 x 1.054 /2.98

= 91.70/2.98

= 30.77

= 31 sheets

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 107


Assignment 6:

Determine the quantities of wood framing required for the residential


building shown in drawings A101 107 inclusive (Issued at the beginning
of the course) as indicated below:

First Floor Framing:

Include the following floor framing items only

1. Steel beam and columns


2. Sill Plate
3. Beam strap
4. Floor joist
5. Cross bridging
6. Floor sheathing
7. Joist hangers

Include the following wall framing items only

1. Wall plates
2. Wall studs
3. Wall bracing
4. Lintels
5. Wall Sheathing

Roof sheathing

1. Plywood sheathing
2. Sheathing roof clips

International Quantity Surveying Practices - Course Pack Page 108