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GE Energy

Power System Stabilizer


For EX2100 Excitation Control
GEH-6676A

g
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Contents
Contents i

Chapter 1 Overview 1-1


Introduction ..............................................................................................................1-1
How to Use this Document ...............................................................................1-1
Conventions.......................................................................................................1-1
Acronyms/Abbreviations..........................................................................................1-2
Related Publications..........................................................................................1-2

Chapter 2 Power System 2-1


Power System Stabilizer...........................................................................................2-1
Power System Stability .....................................................................................2-1
Synchonous Machine Oscillations ....................................................................2-2
System Modeling...............................................................................................2-3
PSS Implementation ..........................................................................................2-5
Integral of Accelerating Power PSS ..................................................................2-6

Chapter 3 Integral of Accelerating Power 3-1


Introduction ..............................................................................................................3-1
EXDSPEED ......................................................................................................3-3
PSS Model (IEEE) ............................................................................................3-4
Notes.........................................................................................................................3-6

Chapter 4 Operation and Tuning 2-1


Introduction ..............................................................................................................2-1
PSS Enable and PSS Active .....................................................................................2-2
PSS Parameter Usage and Settings...........................................................................2-4
Initial PSS Commissioning.......................................................................................2-6
Initial Conditions...............................................................................................2-6
On-line AVR Step With PSS Disabled .............................................................2-7
Gain Margin Test ..............................................................................................2-9
Gain Margin Test ..............................................................................................2-9
Final AVR Step Test with PSS in Service.......................................................2-12
Additional Unit PSS Testing ..................................................................................2-14
AVR Closed Loop Transfer Function .............................................................2-14
PSS Open Loop Transfer Function..................................................................2-15
Processing PSS Frequency Response Test Data..............................................2-16
AVR Closed Loop Frequency Response .........................................................2-17
PSS Open Loop Transfer Function..................................................................2-19
PSS Disable and Enable Testing .....................................................................2-20
Additional Unit PSS Testing ...........................................................................2-21

Glossary 2-1

Index 2-1

GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control Contents x i


Chapter 1 Overview

Introduction
This document includes information on power system stability fundamentals,
EX2100 Power System Stabilizer (PSS) theory, and site-commissioning.

How to Use this Document


Chapter 1 Overview. This chapter provides information about the contents of this
manual and conventions used.
Chapter 2 Power System. This chapter defines a power system stabilizer and
provides an overview of PSS functions.
Chapter 3 Integral of Accelerating Power. This chapter provides application-
specific information on the PSS used in an EX2100 exciter.
Chapter 4 Operation and Tuning. This chapter describes how to tune the EX2100
PSS.

Conventions
The following conventional terms, text formats, and symbols are used throughout
this document.
Convention Meaning
Bold Indicates that the word is being defined.

Arial Indicates the actual file name or file path used.


Arial Bold Indicates the menu, the actual command or option selected from
a menu, a button, or title of a dialog box.
Italic Indicates new terms, margin notes, and the titles of figures,
chapters, and other books in the toolbox package.
UPPERCASE Indicates a directory, filename, or block name. Lowercase letters
can be used when typing names in a dialog box or at the
command prompt, unless otherwise indicated for a specific
application or utility.
Monospace Represents examples of screen text or words and characters that
are typed in a text box or at the command prompt.
Indicates a procedure.
i
Indicates a procedure with only one step.
x Indicates a list of related information, not procedural steps.

GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control Chapter 1 Overview x 1-1


Acronyms/Abbreviations
ACLx Application Command Layer (for EX2100 systems, can be either an
ACLA or an ACLE)
AVR Automatic Voltage Regulator
DAC Digital-to-Analog Converter
DSA Digital Signal Analyzer
EMF Electromotive Force or Field Voltage
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
MMF Magnetomotive Force
PSEC Power Systems Energy Consultants
PSS Power System Stabilizer
VAR Volt-Ampere Reactive

Related Publications
GE provides system instruction manuals that include publications for the different
components of each product. If additional manuals are needed or for questions about
the publications, contact the nearest GE sales office or authorized GE sales
representative.

1-2x Chapter 1 Overview GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control


Chapter 2 Power System

Power System Stabilizer


The Power System Stabilizer (PSS) is an automatic control designed to improve
synchronous machine stability. This control function is used with field excitation
systems. There are many different implementations of a PSS. A fully integrated
digital PSS, based on the integral of accelerating power principle, is available for GE
EX2100 excitation control.

Power System Stability


Providing a reliable supply of electricity depends on machine stability. The simplest
definition of stability for synchronous machines indicates that in spite of
unanticipated load shifts between machines, the system maintains a constant voltage
and frequency. Also, when a transient event occurs and the subsequent machine
voltage and frequency oscillations are sufficiently damped to regain steady state
operation, the system is stable.
Dynamic stability, also known as steady-state stability, allows a system to correct
for small changes.
This document requires a basic Transient stability allows a system to recover from large changes, such as electrical
understanding of synchronous faults cleared by operation of an instantaneous load rejection due to the operation of
machines and electric power a power circuit breaker. If there is enough synchronizing torque, the unit remains
flow. stable. Modern generating units equipped with high-gain voltage regulators enhance
transient stability but tend to detract from dynamic stability. The PSS improves
small signal (steady-state) stability by damping power system modes of oscillation
through generator excitation modulation.

GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control Chapter 2 Power System x 2-1
Synchonous Machine Oscillations
Synchronous machine oscillations often fall into one of four categories:
x Local machine-system (local mode)
x Inter-area
x Inter-unit
x Torsional

Local mode generally involves one or more synchronous machines at a power


station swinging together against a comparatively large power system or load center.
Frequencies are usually in the range of 1.0 to 2.0 Hz. Some low inertia turbine
generators can have local node frequencies up to 4.0 Hz.
Inter-area usually involves combinations of many synchronous machines in one
part of a power system swinging against another part of the system. The frequency
range is 0.1 to 0.7 Hz.
Inter-unit typically involves two or more synchronous machines at a power plant or
nearby power plants in which machines swing against each other. The frequency
range is 1.5 to 3 Hz.
Torsional involves relative motion between a unit's rotating elements (synchronous
machine, turbine, and rotating exciter), with frequencies ranging from 15 Hz for two-
pole (8 Hz for four-pole) and above.
The PSS provides the control While change of rotor angle in a single machine is a concern, a more important
action that allows the power concern is the behavior of all the machines closely connected to a system. During a
system to maintain stability. system transient, all rotor angles should move in the same relative direction over
time. The focus is on the difference in rotor angle between machines.

2-2 x Chapter 2 Power System GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control
System Modeling
Static excitation systems with high-gain and fast-response times greatly aid transient
stability (synchronizing torque), but at the same time tend to reduce small signal
stability (damping torque). The objective of the PSS control is to provide a positive
contribution to the damping of the generator rotor angle swings, which are in a broad
range of frequencies in the power system.
The following diagram illustrates the effect of excitation systems on the damping of
local mode oscillations. This concept is explained fully in deMello and Concordia
papers1. The diagram is a simplified, linearized block representation for a single-
generating unit connected radially to an infinite bus. The generator is also equipped
with an Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR).
The characteristic small-signal dynamics of a synchronous machine connected to a
power system are described by the swing equation linearized about an operating
point, as illustrated by the solid lines (also known as the torque-angle loop) in the
following figure. The mechanical loop is shown at the top of the diagram while the
electrical loop is shown in the middle. Phase relationships show that a positive
synchronizing torque component (enhanced by modern high-gain wide-bandwidth
excitation systems) restores the rotor to a steady-state operating point by
appropriately accelerating or decelerating the rotor inertia. A positive damping
torque (decreased by modern high-gain wide-bandwidth excitation systems)
dampens rotor oscillations of the torque-angle loop. With proper phase
compensation, the exciter control provides air gap torque to dampen the oscillations.

1
F.P deMello and C. Concordia, "Concepts of Synchronous Machine Stability as Af-
fected by Excitation Control", IEEE Trans. PAS, Vol PAS-88, April 1969, pp 316-
329

GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control Chapter 2 Power System x 2-3
Damping
Torque
D

Mechanical
Torque Rotor
Angle
Torque Tm 1 + G Deviation
Inertia 6 6 YR
2Hs s
Angle + "y"
Y
Relations +
Accelerating
Torque
Te Y Input

+
6 K1
Synchronizing Torque Co-efficient
+ with Constant Flux
Change in
Torque
due to
Flux
Change
K2 Change in
Excitation K4 K5 Voltage
Effects due to Rotor
with Angle
Regulator Generator Flux Deviation
Loop E'q Link Relations
Closed
K3 + + Eref
6 AVR 6
1+s K 3T'do
+ Voltage
Regulator
K6 Setpoint

Change in Voltage due


to Flux Change
Electrical Power

PSS Pe PSS Input


Pacc PSS Gain
Section and Phase
Y
Speed (Lead/Lag Settings)

Linearized Block Diagram of a Single Machine to Infinite Bus Power System

2-4 x Chapter 2 Power System GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control
The coefficients K1 through K6 are defined as follows.

K1 Change in electrical torque due to a change in rotor angle assuming a


constant d-axis flux
K2 Change in electrical torque due to a change in d-axis flux assuming a
constant rotor angle
K3 Impedance factor

K4 Demagnetizing effect due to a change in rotor angle

K5 Change in terminal voltage due to a change in rotor angle assuming a


constant voltage from d-axis flux linkages
K6 Change in terminal voltage due to a change in d-axis flux linkages assuming
a constant rotor angle
Except for K3, coefficients K1 through K6 are all affected by the operating point of the
machine. All the coefficients are normally positive, resulting in a stable system.
However, K5 can be negative under conditions of heavy load, which can create an
unstable condition.
The previous diagram shows the addition of a PSS to the control. The PSS is used to
supply a component of positive damping torque to offset the negative contribution of
the AVR, resulting in a compensated system that adds damping and enhances small
signal (steady-state) stability. This is accomplished by creating a signal in phase with
rotor speed, and summing the result with the AVR reference. Also, since the
generator field circuit and AVR function has an inherent phase lag, a corresponding
phase lead is required to compensate for this effect.

PSS Implementation
Since the primary function of the PSS is to add damping to the power oscillations,
basic control theory would indicate that any signal in which the power oscillations
are observable would make a good candidate as an input signal. Some readily
available signals are direct rotor-speed measurement, bus frequency, and electrical
power. From a system design point of view, there are a number of considerations
when selecting the appropriate input signal. For instance, direct speed measurement
may be susceptible to turbine-generator torsional interactions.
Since the early development of the PSS, the GE design and application has been
extensively based on either speed or frequency input signal. The first applications
were speed-based, and the frequency signal was later used for two reasons, one being
the more practical means of obtaining the rotor velocity for hydro-turbines without
shaft speed measurements, and the lower torsional signal content for four-pole
(nuclear steam) turbine generators. The signals for either speed or frequency are
similar in many respects, but the lower torsional content of the frequency signals
makes it better in many cases.
Another choice is electrical power, which has been extensively applied in some
markets. There have also been many applications where multiple input signals have
been studied and applied. In principle, many different signals can be used. The PSS
can be approached as a problem to be solved using multi-variable control design
programs. The control design program decides the type of control gains and phase
compensation to be applied to each input.

GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control Chapter 2 Power System x 2-5
Integral of Accelerating Power PSS
The specific design of this sys- The latest-generation PSS is based on the principle of accelerating power.
tem is described in Chapter 3. Measurement of accelerating power requires a mechanical power signal. In a
practical sense, the mechanical power cannot be measured, so it becomes necessary
to develop this signal from speed and electrical power. The integral of accelerating
power is a signal that provides machine speed relative to a constant frequency
reference.
The PSS control can provide significant improvements in inter-area mode damping,
with application of stabilizers to most units that participate in these power-swing
modes. Improved damping can result in eliminating operating restrictions during
system contingencies, and increase power transfer limits. The classic example of
inter-area mode oscillation is the 0.3 Hz mode in Western US (WSCC), between the
Southern California region and the Pacific Northwest region.
The PSS performance is often evaluated from the damping of the local mode, the
generator swinging against the rest of the power system. This mode is usually at
frequencies between 0.7 and 2 Hz. Stronger system ties and lighter loading tend to
give higher local-mode frequencies. Conversely, weaker ties and heavier loading
tend to give lower local-mode frequencies. The PSS control must be properly tuned
to provide acceptable performance over a wide range of system conditions resulting
from different operating circumstances (such as out-of-service lines or varying load
levels).
Very elaborate mathematical models (instead of the simplified model shown in the
previous figure) are used to predict the performance of the PSS under steady-state
and transient conditions.

2-6 x Chapter 2 Power System GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control
Chapter 3 Integral of Accelerating
Power

Introduction
The integral of accelerating power principal is based on generator electro-mechanical
equations. The dynamic equation for rotor speed, as a function of torque, is

1 1
d= x (Tm - Te ) = x Tacc
dt 2H 2H
where:
= rotor speed
H = generator inertia constant (MW-sec/MVA)
Tm = mechanical (turbine) torque
Te = electro-mechanical (air-gap) torque
Tacc = accelerating torque
This is called the synchronous machine swing equation. In a per-unit (pu) system,
torque and power are equivalent in value. Replacing torque (T) with power (P), and
rearranging the equation above to solve for mechanical power gives the following:

Pm = (2Hs) ( ) + Pe
where the derivative operator has been replaced by the equivalent Laplace operator s.
Mechanical power is difficult in practice to measure. This equation allows you to
synthesize the mechanical power signal from measurements of speed and electrical
power, which are relatively easy to obtain. Electrical power can change rapidly
during a transient event on the power system. Mechanical power changes slowly,
moving in ramps rather than steps. Thus, a special low-pass filter (ramp tracking) is
used to filter the synthesized mechanical power signal. The following figure shows
the process of deriving mechanical power. The ramp tracking filter is shown as G(s).

GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control Chapter 3 Integral of Accelerating Power x 3-1
P'm represents the mechanical power signal, with the prime superscript indicating
that this is a synthesized signal. The next step develops the accelerating power signal
that is P'acc = P'm - Pe. The accelerating power is labeled as a synthesized or derived
signal at this point, since it is made up from synthesized mechanical power.

P'm
2Hs G(s)

Ramp
Tracking
Pe Filter
The two input signals, speed and electrical power, both have some steady-state
value, and may change slowly over long periods of time. For this reason, in most
PSS designs, a high-pass filter is applied to both inputs. This filter also functions as a
washout filter, since it washes out or eliminates the low-frequency signals. The form
of the washout filter is as follows:

sTw
(1 +sTw )
where TW is the washout time constant, normally set in the range of 2 to 10 seconds.
This gives a break frequency of 1/TW rad/sec.
As a final step, both inputs are divided by the factor 2H and integrated (equivalent to
dividing by s in Laplace terminology). The block diagram for developing the integral
of accelerating power is as follows:

sTw 2Hs
G(s)
1
2H P'm
1
2H P'acc

1+sTw 2Hs
+ +
+

sTw 1
Pe 2Hs
1+sTw

The equation 1/(2H) times the integral of accelerating power is speed. If mechanical
power could be derived exactly, there would be this equivalence. Because of the na-
ture of the method used to derive the mechanical power signal, the resulting input
has the characteristics of speed at lower frequencies and electric power at higher fre-
quencies.
Also, the derived signal has a relatively low component of the torsional mode com-
ponents in the measurements. This very important factor could potentially impact
PSS performance, since the application limits any potential situation where the stabi-
lizer might interact with the turbine-generator torsional response. Because the inte-
grator essentially cancels the washout in the electric power signal path, a double
washout is used in both the speed and power paths.

3-2 x Chapter 3 Integral of Accelerating Power GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control
EXDSPEED
The integral of accelerating power signal is called EXDSPEED and is found using
the following relationship:

EXDSPEED = d dt dt = (
1 ) x
2H
^(Pmech - Pe ) dt`
For a signal proportional to rotor speed, generator current is multiplied by the d-axis
transient reactance, X'd, and vectorially added to terminal voltage to yield an internal
machine voltage Eq'. The change or deviation in phase of Eq' is proportional to
deviation in rotor speed from synchronous speed.
An electrical power signal is calculated in the EX2100 from generator voltage and
current. Both the rotor speed signal and power signal are processed by two washout
stages to remove low-frequency effects.
The equivalent speed signal (EXDSPEED), found by integrating (Pm-Pe) and
dividing by 2H, is responsive to rotor speed without excessive phase lead at low
frequencies (which has detrimental effect on synchronizing torque) and less
susceptible to generator terminal voltage offsets caused by rapid mechanical power
changes inherent in electrical power input PSSs.
The following figure shows that the EXDSPEED signal is processed by two lead/lag
stages, an adjustable gain stage, and an output limiter stage to tailor the PSS for the
specific application.
Some units (primarily 4-pole nuclear units) require band reject filters to reduce the
response to torsional oscillations. The third lead/lag stage in this figure is used to
represent the low frequency equivalent of a two-stage torsional filter.
Max

1+sT1 1+sT3 1+sT10


EXDSPEED Kpss
1+sT2 1+sT4 1+sT11

GAIN STAGE LEAD-LAG STAGES


Min

GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control Chapter 3 Integral of Accelerating Power x 3-3
PSS Model (IEEE)
The integral of accelerating power is the input to the part of the PSS that applies
phase compensation (two or three lead-lag stages), and a gain and output limit
function. The IEEE-type PSS2B PSS model is shown in the following diagram. This
model conforms with the standards on excitation systems, identified as IEEE 421/5-
2005. The two model inputs are VSI 1 as speed, and VSI 2 as electrical power.

V
STMAX

N
V sTw1 sTw2 1 1+sT8 1+sT1 1+sT3 1+sT10 V
SI1
6 K S1 ST

1+sTw1 1+sTw2 1+sT6 6 (1+sT9 )M 1+sT2 1+sT4 1+sT11

V
K S3 STMIN

V
SI2
sTw3 sTw4 K S2
1+sTw3 1+sTw4 1+sT6

PSS 2B IEEE Model

The EX2100 implementation of an integral of accelerating power PSS is available in


a standard form, as shown below.
Arm PSS Input PSS Armed Output

|L.PSS_ARM |(L.PSSARMD

Power Level Enable


and Disable
(In Auto) PSS Active
|L.PSS_ARM |L.AUTOMAN |(L.PSSACT

|u| PWRENB

WattsLo WattsHi
S.WATTSLO S.WATTSHI

~|L.PSSACT Final Output


Adjust polarity for generating or motoring
L.PSSOP
0
1
( V pu)
-1
Washedout Integral of Watts Path PSSGLMO

L.WATTS Ws W WATTINT

Ws+1 0 Ws+1) Ramp Tracking


Lead/Lag Compensation Limits
Low Pass Filter
S.PSSPLM
Washedout Slip Path SLWOOUT RTFIN RTFOUT EXDSPD PSSLLO

( V pu)
+ -
L.SLIP Ws Ws +
6
Ws+1 +
6
W1s+1 W3s+1 S.PSSGN

Ws+1 Ws+1 + Ws+1)5 + W2s+1 W4s+1 Gain ( V pu)


( V pu / slip pu) S.PSSNLM
W = PSSWO M = Inertia (pu) TEST1 W = RTF_TC TEST2 W1 = PSSLD1 W3 = PSSLD2
S.PSSWO S.INERTIA S.RTF_TC W2 = PSSLG1 W4 = PSSLG2
S.PSSLD1 S.PSSLD2

S.PSSLG1 S.PSSLG2

3-4 x Chapter 3 Integral of Accelerating Power GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control
A specialized version with bi-quad filters is shown below.

Specialized Version with Bi-Quad Filters

GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control Chapter 3 Integral of Accelerating Power x 3-5
Notes

3-6 x Chapter 3 Integral of Accelerating Power GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control
Chapter 4 Operation and Tuning

Introduction
Initial operational testing and settings verification of the Power System Stabilizer is
highly recommended. The PSS should not be placed into service until qualified test
personnel can do a thorough check of the PSS settings and performance. This should
include, as a minimum
x Review of PSS parameters
x AVR step response testing without PSS enabled
x Instability gain margin measurements
x AVR step response testing with PSS enabled and active
Optional tests and studies recommended for assurance of proper PSS operation but
not required for placing the PSS into service include
x AVR frequency response testing
x Compensated phase calculations
x System open loop frequency response testing
x System tuning and PSS optimization studies
These optional tests are The minimum PSS setup and operational checks are discussed in this document, as
recommended to assure proper well as basic instructions for some of the optional testing. For more information
PSS operation but are not about the additional tools, testing, and studies available, contact the Controls COE
required for placing the PSS Post Sales Service group in Salem, VA.
into service.

GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control Chapter 4 Operation and Tuning x 4-1
PSS Enable and PSS Active
The PSS can be placed into service (enabled) or removed from service through
operator interface commands and satisfying operational conditions.
The PSS must be enabled through the turbine control operator interface screen,
which sends a command through an EGD connection to the ACLx card, or the
EX2100 operator interface (keypad). This is accomplished through the command
PSS Enable.

4-2 x Chapter 4 Operation and Tuning GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control
The PSS can be enabled or disabled at any time, and at any load point.
Once enabled, the PSS is not active (available to supply compensation to the AVR
input summing junction) unless three other conditions are met.
1 The EX2100 must be in AUTO regulator control.
2 The EX2100 must be running.
3 The generator must be online at a load point above the parameter value <PSS Hi
Watts Enable>.
If any of these three conditions are not met, the PSS becomes inactive, but still re-
mains enabled.
To turn off the PSS, any of the three conditions above can be removed. The PSS can
be disabled through the turbine control or EX2100 operator interface at any time and
at any load. If load is reduced below the parameter value <PSS Lo Watts Disable>,
the PSS becomes inactive. Changing the regulator to Manual or opening the 52G
breaker also causes the PSS to become inactive.

GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control Chapter 4 Operation and Tuning x 4-3
PSS Parameter Usage and Settings
A graphical representation of the PSS including parameter values, input variables,
and output variables are found in the applicable *.ecb file under the DIAGRAM
heading, on the Power System Stabilizer (PSS) diagram.

A list of PSS parameters can be found through the Controls Systems Toolbox. Open
the applicable *.ecb file, then from the Outline View, select Power System
Stabilizer.

4-4 x Chapter 4 Operation and Tuning GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control
PSS Inertia
To obtain proper scaling for the synthesized mechanical power signal, the generator
inertia constant M is used in the washed out integral of Watts path of the PSS. The
generator manufacturer should supply this value.

PSS Gain
Select the PSS gain to provide stable operation at all load points. Typically set to an
initial value of 15, this parameter is adjusted during PSS commissioning. It should be
verified by testing that the gain is less than a value of 1/3 of the gain setting that
would just cause the PSS loop to be unstable.

PSS Lead/Lag 1 and PSS Lead/Lag 2


Select the phase lead and lag time constants to cancel the natural phase lag of the
Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) and generator at full load. Lead values are
typically around 0.2 seconds. Lag values around 0.05 seconds.

PSS Output Upper/Lower Limits


Upper and lower limits on the PSS output should be selected to reduce the ability of
the PSS to override the regulator during large disturbances. Typical values are +10%
and -10% but are customer-selectable.

PSS Washout
Large enough washout time constants are selected to pass low frequencies of interest
with little attenuation or excessive phase lead. In most cases, this implies that the
washout time constants can be set between 2 to 10 seconds.

PSS Ramp Tracking Filter


The time delay for responses to slow increases in power during system daily load
changes; it is typically set to 0.1 seconds.

PSS Hi Watts Enable, Low Watts Disable


If the PSS has been enabled, the PSS is automatically activated above the Hi Watts
enable setting, and automatically turned off below the Low Watts disable setting. It
is typically selected to be 15% and 10% respectively.

GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control Chapter 4 Operation and Tuning x 4-5
Initial PSS Commissioning
The following tools are necessary for PSS commissioning and testing.
x GE Control Systems Toolbox with trend recording option
x Help file printout of the Frequency BODE Analysis and Step Test diagram
(Right click, ITEM HELP on white space of diagram)
Optional tools include the following:
x Results from GE Power Systems Engineering Consulting or customer PSS
tuning study with applicable parameters for PSS entered into the .ecb file.

Initial Conditions
x Prior to testing the PSS, other EX2100 offline and online testing documented in
GEH-6632 should be completed.
x Any deficiencies in PT or CT feedback circuits including Watts or Var
calculations should be corrected.
x The unit must be capable of full-load operation. To test the automatic activation
and de-activation feature for the PSS, the unit load must be adjusted. For gas
turbine units, the machine should be at or near full load, but NOT on exhaust
temperature control.
x Any other outer loop regulator functions, such as Var/PF control, should be
turned off or disabled.
x The PSS parameters in the EX2100 *.ecb file should be reviewed for accuracy
and completeness. Factory default settings should be used if no customer or GE
tuning study information is available.

The EX2100 must remain in AUTO regulator throughout


the PSS test. If, at any time, unstable operation with the PSS
in service is noticed, removing the PSS enable should stop
the instability. Transferring to MANUAL regulator should
also stop any instability.

4-6 x Chapter 4 Operation and Tuning GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control
On-line AVR Step With PSS Disabled
This test provides a baseline of This test is used to help demonstrate PSS effectiveness. With the unit operating at
AVR operation with the PSS out 80% of rated power (MW) or greater, step the AVR with the PSS disabled.
of service for comparison to Configure the Trender for the AVR/BUFFER_TEST capture buffer and upload the
AVR operation with the PSS in block-collected data.
service.

Before stepping the AUTO regulator, verify the AVR step is


configured for no more than a 2% step.

This testing changes the output of the generator and can


cause local instability on some power systems.

To step the AVR


1 Using the help message for the Frequency (Bode) Analysis or Step Test
Diagram, configure the step wizard for an AVR regulator 2% step by selecting
the PSS option (5) for parameter <Bode Type>
2 Adjust the step test magnitude and duration per the diagram help.

x

GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control Chapter 4 Operation and Tuning x 4-7
3 Click the Start / Stop Analysis button to initiate the AVR step test.
4 Upload the PSS Test Capture Buffer to the Trender.

4-8 x Chapter 4 Operation and Tuning GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control
As observed in the trend file, the unit MW (blue trend, second from top) oscillates or
rings proportionate to the amount of natural damping in the system. For larger
systems and larger generators, there may be more oscillations recorded before the
MW readings stabilize.

Gain Margin Test


The instability point of the PSS is dependent upon many factors, including system
configurations, relative size of the unit with respect to the local grid, and
transmission characteristics. To find the point of instability, it is necessary to operate
the EX2100 with the PSS active and gradually increase the gain of the PSS to
determine what gain causes PSS instability. Typical valves for PSS gain are 6-15 pu
(2 lead-lag designs) or 24-60 (3 lead-lag designs). Testing is done up to a gain of
four times the nominal recommended gain.

Without a PSS tuning study recommendation, a PSS gain of


10 pu should be used. Do not exceed four times this gain
during gain margin testing.

GE recommends a minimum gain margin of 10 db, which is a factor of three times


Higher gain operation can be
the nominal set gain. Testing is normally done with gain up to four times the
used but should be confirmed
nominal set gain value. If an instability gain is encountered, the final gain should be
by the Controls COE in Salem
not more than 1/3 of the instability gain.
or the Engineering Consulting
group in NY.
To test the gain margin
1 Set the parameter <PSS Gain> (on the PSS diagram) to an initial value of 0 p.u.
2 With the EX2100 in AUTO regulator, enable the PSS through the keypad or
turbine operator interface. If the unit is above the <PSS Hi Watts> value, the
PSS should be enabled and active.

GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control Chapter 4 Operation and Tuning x 4-9
3 Configure the trender to monitor the following variables in real time.
x Watts
x Vars
x Gn_Vfld
x Gn_Vmag
x PSSOP
x PSS gain

4 While recording the above variables, increase the PSS gain from 0 p.u. to
normal gain setting, and observe any of these variables for signs of instability.
Instability would be recognized as sinusoidal swings in power, VARs or voltage.
These swings usually start small and increase in amplitude over time. It is also
possible that the power swings could occur suddenly at a fixed-amplitude of
oscillation. If either phenomenon is observed, then select PSS OFF.
5 Continue to increase the PSS gain (hold for 60 seconds to twice, three times, and
four times nominal gain). The oscillations in the MW trend begin to grow and
have longer settle times. Eventually, the MW trend shows signs of increasing
oscillations instead of damping. At that point, this PSS gain is considered the
instability gain for calculations of the PSS gain margin and final gain setting.
Hold at each point for 60 seconds. Reduce gain back to zero, then stop the
Trender after 30 seconds.
6 Calculate the final PSS gain by dividing the instability gain by 3. For example, if
instability occurred at a PSS gain of 35, then the desired PSS gain becomes 11
(35/3 = 11.67). Select the more conservative setting of 11. Check the recorded
trend for signs of instability. The final gain setting should be nore more than 1/3
of the instability gain. If no instability is found, the nominal gain setting can be
used.
7 At the end of the PSS gain margin test, select PSS OFF and reset the PSS gain to
the desired setting.

4-10 x Chapter 4 Operation and Tuning GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control
Gn Vmag

FVR
Feedback

Watts

Vars

PSSOP

GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control Chapter 4 Operation and Tuning x 4-11
Once a final gain setting is obtained, use the Trender
to monitor generator watts at this setting for at least
five minutes to verify that no instability occurs.

Experience with the integral of accelerating power PSS indicates that gain
optimization is not required to obtain acceptable performance. Most applications
provide adequate damping to local mode operations with a PSS gain of 15 or less.

Final AVR Step Test with PSS in Service


After completing the gain margin tests, the AVR should be stepped one final time at
the new PSS gain setting to demonstrate the effectiveness of the PSS. With the
Frequency (Bode) and Step Test diagram set as in the PSS out of service step, once
again step the AVR with the PSS in service.
There should be a marked difference in the number of oscillations in the power
(MW) variable on the trender.
After acceptable demonstration of the AVR step with PSS enabled and active, the
PSS is considered ready for service.

4-12 x Chapter 4 Operation and Tuning GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control
GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control Chapter 4 Operation and Tuning x 4-13
Additional Unit PSS Testing
AVR Closed Loop Transfer Function
To perform the AVR closed loop transfer function

Note For help, right-click anywhere in the diagram white space and select Item
Help.

Set PRBS Step Source


to PRBS source

1 Verify that the connection is made on the diagram for the PRBS block to be
input to the AVR.

Note In the Step-Testing procedure, this was set to Step Source so that the step test
would be input, not the PRBS data.

2 To get the AVR transfer function, select from the right side of the diagram, as
follows.

4-14 x Chapter 4 Operation and Tuning GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control
BodeIL settings for AVR
closed loop transfer
function measurement

3 Click the Start / Stop Analysis button as shown below. The At NowPass
box displays the current pass.
Test status section
of BodeIL screen

When the test is finished, the Bode averaging done coil displays.
4 Select the DSPX Capture Buffer from the Block Collected menu. Perform an
upload, then select Change without Save.

PSS Open Loop Transfer Function


Repeat the process by selecting the PSS transfer function from the Bode Type list.
Once the file has been uploaded to the Trender and saved, the transfer function test
data collection is complete.
A sample of the AVR trend file, as follows, shows the input signal (AVR Setpoint)
and output (AVR Feedback), which is terminal voltage. It is not apparent how this
relates to the frequency response, without processing it to calculate the transfer
function.

GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control Chapter 4 Operation and Tuning x 4-15
The following information should be verified by the field engineer when the data is
collected:
x The input signal is small relative to normal feedback signal.
x The noise input is not driving terminal voltage signal excessively. This means
that the operator is not seeing large swings in voltage and vars as the data is
being collected, which is the general idea of being non-invasive in measurement.
x There is no apparent limit action occurring in the AVR setpoint signal. That is,
the noise is not driving the excitation control into any observed limits. Such
limit action would result in inaccuracies in the resulting transfer function
calculation.

Sample of Collected Data from AVR Frequency Response Test

Processing PSS Frequency Response Test Data


Frequency response measurement in the EX2100 is a two-step process. Step 1, which
is data collection, is always done by the field engineer or the field engineer and
Energy Consulting staff onsite. Step 2, which is processing the raw data into transfer
function form, is typically done by Energy Consulting staff in Schenectady.
However, this section of the document presents a general overview of the data
processing activity for situations where the field engineer wishes to do a quick site
check of the frequency response data.

4-16 x Chapter 4 Operation and Tuning GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control
Since we typically compute two transfer functions, the data collection process should
have resulted in two trend files one for the AVR Closed Loop transfer function,
one for the PSS Open Loop transfer function.
The program that does the transfer function calculation is in the Control Systems
Toolbox, as follows from a normal installation path:
C:\Program Files\GE Control System Solutions\Ex2100 Excitation Control\Ex2100
Analysis Tool
The link above takes you to a batch file called FreqAnaz.bat that runs a MATLAB
exectuable code to do the frequency response calculation and plot the result.

AVR Closed Loop Frequency Response


The AVR closed loop transfer function, which is compared against the predicted
phase lag in the field circuit at local mode frequency (1-2 Hz), is approximately the
same as the uncompensated phase near local mode. A 90-100 degrees phase lag
compensated by the phase lead in the PSS control is expected.
To calculate the AVR closed loop frequency response
1 Load the recorded AVR Closed Loop trend file into the Control Systems
Toolbox.
2 From the File menu, select Export Trend Data, then save as a *.csv file and
click OK.

3 Open the transfer function calculation tool (FreqAnaz.bat). The Analysis


Tool dialog box displays.

4 Select AVR Analysis.


5 Select the previously saved *.csv file. The program performs the AVR Closed
Loop transfer function and generates three graphics windows.

GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control Chapter 4 Operation and Tuning x 4-17
6 Maximize the middle window and print (or screen capture) it for sharing with
the customer.

Typical AVR Closed Loop Frequency Response Plot

4-18 x Chapter 4 Operation and Tuning GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control
PSS Open Loop Transfer Function
The PSS open loop frequency response plot allows calculation of the actual
instability gain point. The loop crossover point in the phase plot (lower blue curve)
has zero phase at 6.5 Hz, at which point the gain in the upper curve reads
approximately 0.005 pu. The instability gain is the inverse of the measured gain at
crossover, so it is expected that the PSS loop will reach instability at a PSS gain of
200 pu with an oscillation frequency of 6.5 Hz. If the recommended PSS gain setting
is 15 pu, a gain margin of 26 dB (20:1) is expected.
To calculate the PSS Open Loop frequency response

1 Load the recorded PSS Open Loop trend file into the Control Systems
Toolbox.
2 From the File menu, select Export Trend Data, then save as a *.csv file and
click OK.
3 Open the transfer function calculation tool (FreqAnaz.bat).

4 Enter the as-left (tuned) PSS lead and lag settings in the appropriate locations
as shown in Figure 5 (for example, PSSTld1). Retain the defaults for the UEL
and FCR constants.
5 Select PSS Analysis.
6 Select the previously saved *.csv file. The program performs the PSS Open
Loop transfer function and generates three graphics windows.

GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control Chapter 4 Operation and Tuning x 4-19
7 Maximize the left window and print (or screen capture) it for sharing with the
customer.

Typical PSS Open Loop Frequency Response Plot

PSS Disable and Enable Testing


The final step in PSS commissioning is to test the <Low Watts Disable> and <Hi
Watts Enable> settings.
To test the <Low Watts Disable> and <High Watts Enable> settings
1 With the PSS enabled, decrease unit load until the PSS becomes inactive. This
should be at the corresponding value of <Low Watts Disable> parameter.

4-20 x Chapter 4 Operation and Tuning GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control
2 From the operator control interface, de-select PSS Armed and raise unit load
above the <Hi Watts Enable> parameter. The PSS should remain unarmed and
inactive.
3 Reduce load below the <Low Watts Disable> setting and select PSS enable.
Again raise load above the <Hi Watts Enable> parameter and the PSS should
become active when the <Hi Watts Enable> value is reached.

Additional Unit PSS Testing


If more than one identical unit exists onsite, the gain setting is the same on
subsequent units. A gain margin and step test should be performed as above. It is
best to have the PSS active in the first unit while testing the second unit. Further, the
third unit would be tested with the PSS active in the first and second units and so on.
If the PSS settings used were from a tuning study performed by GE PSEC in
Schenectady, a copy should be sent to them for final approval of performance.

GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control Chapter 4 Operation and Tuning x 4-21
Notes

4-22 x Chapter 4 Operation and Tuning GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control
Glossary

automatic voltage regulator (AVR)


AVR is controller software that maintains the generator terminal voltage.

block
Instruction blocks contain basic control functions, which are connected together dur-
ing configuration to form the required machine or process control. Blocks can per-
form math computations, sequencing, or regulator (continuous) control.

bus
Upper bar for power transfer, also an electrical path for transmitting and receiving
data.

configure
To select specific options, either by setting the location of hardware jumpers or
loading software parameters into memory.

dynamic stability
Steady-state stability; allows a system to correct from small changes.

EX2100 Excitation Control


GE static exciter; regulates the generator field current to control the generator output
voltage.

EXDSPEED
EXDSPEED is the integral of accelerating power signal.

IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. A United States-based society that
develops standards.

power system stabilizer (PSS)


PSS software produces a damping torque on the generator to reduce generator oscil-
lations.

GEH-6676 PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control Glossary x 1


signal
The basic unit for variable information in the controller.

simulation
Running the control system using a software model of the generator and exciter.

toolbox
A Windows-based software package used to configure the EX2100 and Mark VI tur-
bine controller.

torque
The mechanical-to-electrical energy link.

transient stability
Allows a system to recover from large changes.

2 x Glossary GEH-6676 PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control


W
Washout 4-5

Index
A
Automatic Voltage Regulator 1-2, 2-3

C
Configure Trender
PSS Armed 4-2, 4-10
Trender 4-7, 4-10, 4-11

E
EXDSPEED 3-3, 4-1

G
Gain Margin Test 4-9

I
Inertia 4-5
Integral of Accelerating Power PSS 2-6

L
Lead/Lag 1 and Lead/Lag 2 4-5

O
operator interface 4-2, 4-9

P
Power System Stabilizer 1-1, 1-2, 2-1, 4-4
PSS 1-1, 1-2, 2-1, 2-2, 2-3, 2-5, 2-6, 3-2, 3-3, 3-4, 4-1,
4-2, 4-3, 4-4, 4-5, 4-6, 4-7, 4-9, 4-10, 4-11, 4-12,
4-1

R
Ramp Tracking Filter 4-5

S
System Modeling 2-3

T
toolbox 1-1, 4-4, 4-6, 4-2

GEH-6676 PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control Index x 1


Notes

2 x Index GEH-6676A PSS for an EX2100 Excitation Control


g GE Energy
1501 Roanoke Blvd.
Salem, VA 24153-6492 USA

1 540 387 7000


www.geenergy.com