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PROPOSED DESIGN OF BLOCK ICE MAKING PLANT

A PROPOSED DESIGN IS PRESENTED TO


THE FACULTY OF COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF PERPETUAL HELP CALAMBA
BRGY. PACIANO RIZAL, CALAMBA CITY, LAGUNA

IN PARTIAL FULLFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE IN
BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

MUSICO, ANGELIQUE JOY F.


BSME 4

February 2017

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Introduction

Ice plants are usually classified by the type of ice they produce; hence there
are block ice plants, flake ice plants, tube, slice or plate ice plants and so on. Ice
plants may be further subdivided into those that make dry or wet ice. Dry ice here
means ice at a temperature low enough to prevent the particles becoming moist; the
term does not refer in this note to solid carbon dioxide. In general, dry subcooled
ice is made in plants that mechanically remove the ice from the cooling surface;
most flake ice plants are of this type. When the cooling surface of an icemaker is
warmed by a defrost mechanism to release the ice, the surface of the ice is wet and,
unless the ice is then subcooled below 0C, remains wet in storage; tube ice and
plate ice plants are of this type.

All refrigeration equipment are made of four main components that are 1)
Evaporator 2) Condenser 3) Compressor 4) Throttle valve. The function of
compressor is to compress low pressure refrigerant vapor to high pressure vapor,
and deliver it to the condenser. Here, the high-pressure vapor is condensed into
high pressure liquid, and drained out through the throttle valve to become low
pressure liquid. At this point, the liquid is conducted to the evaporator where heat
exchanging occurs, and ice is created. This is completing one refrigeration cycle
and the product obtained is ice.

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GENERAL SANTOS FISHPORT COMPLEX

TERM OF REFERENCE

Terms of reference issued by the owner:

REFRIGERATION FACILITIES

Ice Making Plant 60 tons/day


Ice Storage 60 tons/day
Ice Crusher 20 tons/hour
Cold Storage, -35C 1,500 tons (6 x 250 tons)
Contact Freezer, -45C (4 units) 288 kg./cycle/3-4 hr./unit
Air Blast 14 tons/day
Brine Freezer 50 tons/day

BUILDING FACILITIES

Fish Market (3 units) 6,000 sq.m.


Refrigeration Building 7,000 sq.m.
Maintenance Shop 360 sq.m.
Administrative Building 420 sq.m.
Net Mending Shed(4 units) 160 sq.m.
Public Toilets 120 sq.m.
Fresh Water Pump House 19.36 sq.m.
Fire Pump House 12.00 sq.m.
Sea Water Pump House 19.04. sq.m

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SIZING FOR THE CAPACITY OF BLOCK ICE MAKING PLANT

Fish catch in the year 2003 is approximately 900 tons per year.
Approximately 2.5 tons per day
Outside buyer of ice from neighboring areas are approximately 2 tons
Local wet market requirement is approximately 1.5 tons everyday
According to FAO, standard is 1kg of fish need 1 kg of ice; therefore 6 tons
per day of ice making plant is required to build in General Santos City.

SIZE OF CAN

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Ice cans are placed in can grids and moved to beneath the filling tank which
automatically fills each can with proper level of pre-cooled water and then stop.
Filter water or Clean water must be used to make ice intended for human
consumption. The cans are then hoisted and carried to the brine tank and immersed
inside. Cover up the can with Fiber cover to prevent the dirt or others drop into ice
can. The brine, which is a calcium chloride solution kept at a temperature of -10
degrees Centigrade, is constantly circulated by agitator to keep the temperature
consistent throughout the tank. The time required for the water to be frozen varies
per the size of cans being used, 150lbs. block requires 24 hours, 300 lbs. Takes 48
hours.

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When the ice has completely formed, the cover and the grids are lifted from the
brine tank and moved to place in the thawing tank. Using the warm water heats the
can, until the ice allowed to be slid out. The block ice is then removed from the can
by a can dumper. The empty cans are returned to filling tank for next ice making
cycle. The ice is moved to ice storage and stacked by an ice stacker, or it can be
delivered to customer right away upon requested.

REQUIREMENT

The plant can produce 6 tons of ice per day.

Capacity/day = tons of ice / mass of ice block


= 6000Kg / 25kg/block
= 240 blocks/day

1. To determine the size of ice can to be produced.

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2. To be able to know the kind of refrigerant to be used.

3. To know the specifications of the important equipment to be used in the


design.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The first step in planning is to confirm whether an ice plant is required. Other
ice plants in the area may be a reliable source of suitable ice and, even with the
additional transport costs and the manufacturer's profit, they may be able to supply
ice cheaper than it can be made by the user. A large installation has many economic
advantages over a small unit and it is not unreasonable to expect that it can produce
cheaper ice. The most important stage in planning is to consider the site of the ice
plant, both in relation to the services required for the manufacture of the ice and, to
the ease of distribution to the consumer. Ice plants require a power source, and
suitable water supplies for both ice manufacture and refrigeration plant condenser
cooling. In addition, some plants require a further supply of water for defrosting
purposes. The cost of transporting ice is substantial, particularly in heavy traffic
areas, and may be the biggest cost to the consumer. Ice plant should therefore be
located where the ice is required, or sited to keep transport requirements to a
minimum.

Advice on layout is usually given by the manufacturer, but this information is


only applicable to the type of plant he supplies. For instance, traditional block ice
plants require a much larger floor space than modern automatic ice makers. Other
ice makers, like the tube ice machine, require a good deal of headroom and are
seldom located above the ice storage space, whereas with flake ice machines this
arrangement is usual. Silo storage also requires a relatively high building structure,
whereas large storage bins need plenty of floor space because of limitations on the
storage depth. Space and building height limitations should therefore be considered

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at an early stage of planning, since any restrictions may preclude the use of some
types of plant. For instance, on some sites tall buildings are undesirable for
aesthetic reasons.

METHODOLOGY

The design will use the international standard size of ice can, 14.5 (145 mm)
Long, 31.5 (315 mm) Wide, 75 (750 mm) High.
The size of the ice block is approximately 55 lbs. (25 kg).

ICE CUBE SPECIFICATION

BRINE TEMPERATURE

The brine temperature may be computed by using the equation

T=

Where:
T = brine temperature, F
a = thickness of ice block, inches
n = no. of ice can / ton of ice / day
W = mass of ice block, (lbs); use 55 lbs

For the value of n


n = no. of ice can / ton of ice produced
# of ice can = 50 say 100 to maximize and avoid shortage
n = 100 blocks /6 tons
n = 17 ice block / ton of ice

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For the value of T

T = [ 32 582.3[(14.5) ]/ (55) (17)]

= -98.94 F or -72.74 C

FREEZING TEMPERATURE

t=

t = Freezing temperature

C = Constant varying from 5.5 7

T = Brine temperature

X = Thickness of ice

t=

t = 39.65 hrs

COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS:

Raw Water Temperature = 80.6F (27C)

Freezing Temperature = 32F (0C)

Brine Temperature = 15.58F (-9.12C)

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Ice Temperature = 25.58F (-3.5667 C)

Q3 = raising the temperature of water from its freezing temperature to the


brine temperature

= (mass) (specific heat of water) (temperature difference)

= (30,000 kg/day) (2.093 KJ/kg-k) (0-9.12) (1/24) (1/3600)

= 6.628 KW

QT = (39.253 KW + 123.264 KW + 6.628 KW)

= 169.145 KW

For typical ice plant there is 15% allowance, therefore

Qt = Qt + Qt (.15)

= 169.145 + 169.145(.15)

= 194.52 KW

COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS:

Raw Water Temperature = 80.6F (27C)

Freezing Temperature = 32F (0C)

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Brine Temperature = 15.58F (-9.12C)

Ice Temperature = 25.58F (-3.5667 C)

Total heat load can be completed using

QT= Q1 + Q2 + Q3

Where:

Q1 = sensible heat required to lower temperature of water from its raw


temperature to its freezing temperature.

= (mass) (specific heat of water) (temperature difference)

= (30,000 kg/day) (4.187 KJ/kg-k) (27-0) (1/24) (1/3600)

= 39.253 KW

Q2 = changing the latent heat of water at its freezing temperature from liquid
to solid

= (mass) (latent heat of water)

(30,000 kg/day) (355 KJ/kg) (1/24)(1/3600)

= 123.264 KW

NUMBER OF TUBE REQUIRED:

Use a tube made of B.I. Pipe, 1D. the area of one length of the B.I. Pipe 1D
is 6.89 ft2. In determining the surface area of the condenser, using the equation
from the book Principles of Refrigeration by R. J. Dossat, 2nd Editon page 316,
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Q = Ax U x D

where:

Q = condenser capacity, Btu / hr; use 837,130.401 Btu/hr

A = surface area of the condenser, ft2

D = temperature difference between the condensing refrigerant and the


condensing medium, F; use 10 F

U = overall heat transfer coefficient in Btu/hr-ft2-F

from the book Design Values of U for Metallic Surfaces of Refrigeration


Engineering by Macintire & Hutchinson, page 263,

the overall conductance factor for shell-and-tube condenser is 150 to 300


Btu/hr-ft2-F. Use 200 Btu/hr-ft2-F

A=Q/UxD

= 837,130.401 Btu/hr-ft2-F/225(10F)

= 372.057 ft2

A = 372.057 + 15% allowance

= 372.057 + 372.057(.15)

= 427.867 ft2

no. of tubes = A / surface area of the tube used

m = Qr/ (h1 h3) = 245.277KW / 1443.9 kJ/kg 390.587 kJ/kg

m = .233 kg/s

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Volume flow rate, f

F = m/of ammonia = 681.92 kg/m3

f = (0.233kg/s) / (681.92 kg/m3)

f = 3.415x10-4 m3/s

Pipe Size

Q = AV

(use velocity of 2 m/s from INDUSTRIAL REFRIGERATION


HANDBOOK, CHAPTER 9 PIPE SIZING, page 349.)

3.415x10-4 m3/s = [D2 (2 m/s)]/ 4

D = 0.0147 m

= 0.557 in (use B.I pipe with nominal diameter of 1 in)

use 1.315in diameter from (http://gotocfr.com/tools/pipe-schedule.pdf)

= (1.315in) (1 ft/12 in) (20 ft)

= 6.89 ft2 per length of B.I. Pipe

= 427.867 ft2 / 6.89 ft2/ length

= 62.14 length of B.I. pipe

= 63 length of B.I. Pipe 1 D

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ENTHALPIES

The enthalpies can be calculated by knowing this two

temperatures from the compressor model # VZ6AVT(HASEGAWA), the


Evaporating temperature (-15C) and the Condensing temperature (40C). The
refrigerant is ammonia; we can refer to the table A-3 page 420 RAC by Stoecker &
Jones.

By interpolation:

h1 = 1443.9 kJ / kg

h3 = hf @ 40C = 390.587 kJ / kg

S1 = S2 = Sg @ -15 C = 5.827 kJ/kg K

h2 = h1 = 1,557 kpa = 1720 kJ/ kg

h4 = h3

CONDENSER

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Qr = mr ( h2 h3 )

where:

Qr = heat rejected

Qa = mr ( h1 h2 )

mr = Qa / ( h1-h3 )

= 194.52 / (1443.9 390.587)

= .1845 kg/s

Qr = .1845 kg/s (1720 -390.587 )

= 245.277 KW

Mass of cooling water

Assuming:

Water outlet temperature = 30 - 32C

Water inlet temperature = 26 - 28C

mw = Qr / cp ( T )

= 245.277 / 4.187 kJ/kg K) ( 31 27)

= 14.65 kg/s

FLOW RATE

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f = Mw/Pw

= 14.65 kg/s / 1000 kg/m3

= .0146 m3/s

Based on the specification of the Model HVU-VZ6AMT(HASEGAWA) is


appropriate in this design with a capacity of 217 kW and operates at a maximum
speed of 1075 RPM. Other data from the manufacturers specification are listed
below.

Capacity = 216.98 kW

No. of cylinder = 6

Cylinder: Bore mm) = 132

Stroke (mm) = 106

Speed = 1075 RPM

Piston Displacement = 561.38 m3/hr

Refrigerant Connection

Suction (mm) = 100

Discharge (mm) = 75

Standard Motor = 45 kW

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COMPRESSOR

The compressor used in this design is a flanged motor compressor,

single stage and the refrigerant used is ammonia. The selection of the
compressor is based on the heat load.

Q = 194.52 kW

FOR TYPE OF BELT

Power transmitted = 60.35 hp (45 kW)

Speed of Motor = 1075 rpm

Design Power = power transmitted x normal torque

Normal torque = 1.2 from table 7.1 machine elements in

mechanical engineering by Robert L. Mott

Design Power = (60.35) (1.2)

= 72.42 hp

For sheave pulley

Most commercial available sheaves are cast iron,

which should be limited to 6500 ft/min Belt speed.

In this design use belt = 4000 ft/min

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Vd = belt speed

Dd = Driver sheave

= 12 Vd/ n= 12(4000) / 3.1416(1075)

= 14.21

For length of V belt

From table 7-8 Machine Elements in Mechanical Design by

Robert L. Mott the center distance is ranging

D2 < C < 3 (D2 + D1)

D2 < C < 3 (21.1 + 13.9)

21.1 < C > 105

For the interest of conserving speed use C = 30

From the book Machine Elements in Mechanical Design by Robert L. Mott,


equation 7-3

L = 2C + /2 (D2 + D1) + ( D2 D1 )/ 4

= 2(30) + ( /2) (21.1 + 13.9) + (21.1 13.9/4(105))

= 136.04 inches

standard belt = 140 inches

For actual center distance

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The center distance assumed earlier is just for the purpose of solving L,

now that we have L, we can calculate the actual center distance by the
equation 7-4 and 7-5 from the book Machine Elements in Mechanical Design by
Robert L. Mott

C=

B = 4L 6.28 ( D2 + D1 )

= 4(136.04) 6.28 (21.1 + 13.9)

= 324.36

Solving for C

C=

= 40.38

Number of Belts

1 = 180 2 sin-1 [(D2 D1) / 2C]

= 180 2 sin-1 [(21.1 10.8) / 40.38]

= 154

Determine the correction factors from Figure 7-14 and Figure 7-15

Elements in Mechanical Design by Robert L. Mott

For 1 = 154

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C = 0.93; For L = 140 in; CL = 1.0

Corrected Power = C x L x CL

= (0.93) (27.69) (1.0)

= 25.75 hp

Number of Belts = 439.94 / 19.32

= 2.8 (use 3 belts)

LIQUID RECIEVER

The size of the liquid receiver is such that it

can store the total volume of the refrigerant when pumping down the system.
From the compressor capacity

Compressor Capacity = m (h2 h3)

Compressor capacity = 194.52 kW

m = mass flow rate

m = 194.52 / (1720 390.5870)

m = .14632 kg/s

total required mass of ammonia refrigerant system is

= .14632 kg/s (15 min) (60sec/min)

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= 131.688 kg

= 290.322 lb

V = m / brine

brine = 39.96 lbs/ ft3 from table RAC by Stoecker & Jones

V = 290.322 lb / 39.96 lbs/ft3

ACCUMULATOR

Normally accumulator is should be less than 30% to 40% of

the total evaporator capacity. (use 35% allowance).

D = .062 ft

R = .031 ft

V = Volume of evaporator coil

V = (.031)2 (20) (203)

= 12.257 ft3 x (.35)

= 4.29 ft3

BRINE AGIGATOR

The brine agitator is installed in the end

portion of the brine tank because it is more convenient when removal is


required for repair. The brine agitator should have the capacity of 60 to 70
gallons/ton/min. (use 65gallons/ton/min).

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P = Qb H

Qb = 65 gallons/ton/min (30 tons)

= 1950 gallons/min (1/60)

= 32.5 gal/s or .123 m3/s

P = (1.755)(9.81)(.123)(1)

= 2.117 kW or 2.84 hp

FREEZING TANK

Freezing tank or brine tank is provided with a race way,

which the evaporator coil is installed. In this design the coil race way has a
width of 39.37 inches.

Base = base of ice x 20 blocks/row + 39.37 + .5 inch gap between blocks x


20 blocks

= 269.27 inches or 7 meters

Length = length of ice x 20 blocks + 1 inch gap x 20 gaps

= 470 inches or 12 meters

PUSH TROLLEY AND ELECTRIC HOIST

Ice blocks are too heavy for human labor to remove it from

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brine tank so an electric hoist is needed.

Weight of ice block = 150 kg

Number of ice can per row = 20

Total weight per row = 150 (20)

= 3000 kg

Add 15% for the additional load

= 3000 kg x 1.15

= 3450 kg

Therefore,

Use a 3.5 ton hoist

COOLING TOWER

The selection of cooling tower is based on the computed quantity of the


condensing medium, which is water.

Quantity of condensing medium = flow rate of water in condenser

= .014 m3/ s

= 50.4 m3/ hr

From AOSUA table of specification model AB-60 is selected with the


following specifications:

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Nominal flow = 60 m3 / hr

Motor = 1.5kW (2hp)

Fan diameter = 990 mm

Water inlet diameter = 100 mm

Water outlet diameter = 100 mm

Net weight = 368 kg

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