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Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 68

Konrad Schmu

dgen (University of Leipzig)

Lecture 1:

Basics on C -Algebras and Multiplier Algebras

Lecture 2:

C -Algebras and Operators on Hilbert C -Modules

Lecture 3:

Unbounded Operators and C -Algebras

Lecture 1:

A readable introduction into C -algebras is chapter 5 of

R.V. Kadison, P.V. Ringrose, Fundamentals of the Theory

of Operator Algebras I, Academic Press, 1983.

K.R. Davidson, C -Algebras by Example, Fields Inst.

Monographs, AMS, 1996.

G. I. Murphy, C -Algebras and Operator Theory, Academic

Press, London, 1990.

N.E. Wegge-Olsen, K-Theory and C -Algebras, Oxford

Univ. Press, 1993.

G.K. Pedersen, C -Algebras and Their Automorphism

Groups, Academic Press, London 1979.

1. Basics on C -Algebras

algebra involution a a of A (i.e. (1a1 + 2a2) =

1a1 + 2a2 , (a) = a, (a1a2) = a2 a1 ).

which is a Banach space with norm k k such that

kabk kakkbk for all a, b, A.

a -algebra and satisfies

kaak = kak2 for all a A. (1)

Equation (1) is called C -condition.

Since kak2 = kaak kakkak, (1) implies that

kak = kak.

Definition 4: Let A1 and A2 be C -algebras.

A *-homomorphism : A1 A2 is an algebra homomor-

phism such that (a) = (a), a A1. A *-isomorphism

of A1 and A2 is a bijective *-homomorphism.

A map : A1 A2 is called isometric if k(a)k2 = kak1

for all a A1.

Basic Example 1: C0(X)

Let X be a locally compact Hausdorff space and A = C0(X)

the set of continuous functions on X vanshing at infinity.

(A = C(X) if X is compact.)

A is a commutative C -algebra with involution

f (x) f (x) and norm kf k = sup |f (x)|.

xX

Let B(H) be the algebra of bounded operators on a Hilbert

space H. It is a C -algebra with adjoint operation and

operator norm.

Any normclosed *-subalgebra A of B(H) is a C -algebra.

These C -algebras are called concrete C -algebras.

1.2 First Representation Theorem

Let XA be the set of all characters of A (i.e. non-zero

homomorphism :AC).

Any XA is continuous with norm 1.

We equipp XA with the relative weak *-topology of A.

Neighbourhood basis of :

Ua1,...,ar ,()={XA:|(aj )(aj )|<}

XA is locally compact.

The map A a a

C0(XA) defined by

() = (a), a A, XA,.

a

is called the Gelfand transform of A.

paper is the birthplace of Banach algebra theory)

If A is an abelian C -algebra, then the Gelfand transform

is an isometric -isomorphism of A onto C0(XA).

1.3 Second Representation Theorem

12(1943) - reprint in Cont. Math. 167 (1994), AMS)

Every (unital) C -algebras A is isometric -isomorph to

a concrete C -algebra (that is, to a norm closed

-subalgebra of some B(H)).

Remarks:

1. Gelfand / Naimark proved Theorem 2 under the additional

assumption that A is symmetric.

(This means that (1 + aa)1 A for all a A.)

It was removed by the works of M. Fukamiya (1952), J.L.

Kelley/R-L. Vaught (1953) and I. Kaplansky (1952), see

also Schatz MR-review of Fukamiyas paper.

2. Moreover, they conjectured that (1) can be replaced by

kaak = kakkak, a A. This was proved by Ono (1958).

3. This paper was submitted at August 22, 1941. This day

is the birthday of C -algebras!

1.4 Spectrum and Some Other Concepts

A(a) (a) = { C : 1 a is not invertible in A}

Basic properties:

(a) := C\(A).

4. If A is commutative, then

(a) = (a) {(a); XA}.

A, then B (b) = A(b) for each b B.

II. Adjoining a unit

Let A be a non-unital C -algebra. On A:=A C define

(a, )(b, ) := (ab + b + a, ), (a, ) = (a, ),

k(a, )k = sup kab + bk.

kbk1

Then A is a unital C -algebra (with unit (0, 1)) which

contains A as a C -subalgebra ((a, 0)

= a).

is the set of positive elements of A.

(Existence and uniqueness of positive square root)

If a A+, then there exists a unique b A+ such that

a = b2. We denote b by a1/2.

If a, b A+, then a + b A+, so A+ is a wedge.

IV. Approximate units

net {ei; i I} of elements ei A, ei A+, keik 1 such

that ei ej if i j and

lim eia = lim aei = a for all a A.

i i

(If A is separable, we can take a sequence.)

Ideal always means a two-sided closed ideal.

If I is an ideal of a C -algebra A, then I = I and the

quotient algebra A/J is a C -algebra.

Let : A1 A2 be -homomorphism of C -algebras.

Then:

k(a)k2 kak1 for a A1,

k(a)k2 = kak1 for a A if is injective,

(A1) is a C -algebra.

1.5 Positive Functionals and GNS-Construction

Definition 10: A representation of A on H is a

-homomorphism of A into B(H).

is called nondegenerate if (A)H is dense in H.

Notation:

Rep(A, H) - set of nondegenerate representations of A on

H.

A linear functional on A is called positive if (a) 0 for

all a A+ (i.e. (bb) 0 for b A).

A positive linear functional of norm one is a state.

If Rep(A, H) and H, then f(a) = h(a), i is a

positive linear functional.

The GNS-construction shows that any positive linear func-

tional f on A arises in this way. We sketch this construction.

Assume for simplicity that A is unital.

Define ha, bi0 := f (ba), a, b A.

Since f is positive, h, i0 is a positive semidefinite sesquili-

near form, so we have the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality

|ha, bi0|2 ha, ai0hb, bi0,

that is, |f (ba)| f (aa)f (bb) for a, b A.

Hence Nf = {a A : f (aa) = 0} is a left ideal.

D = A/Nf is a pre-Hilbert space with scalar product

ha + Nf , b + Nf i := f (ba).

:= a + Nf and define (a)b := ab.

Set a e Since Nf is a left

ideal, (a) is well-defined. Moreover,

(a1)(a2) = (a1a2), h(a)b, ci = hb, (a)

ci,

(1) = I and (A)1=D.

If A is a C -algebra, f is continuous. From this it follows

that all operator (a) are bounded, so extends to a

representation of A on the completion H of D and

h(a)1, 1i = h

a, 1i = f (1a) = f (a).

2. Irrational Rotation Algebras

2.1 Definition

= {z(t) = e2it; t R} be the 1-torus.

Let T

Let be a fixed irrational number. Put q = e2i .

Define two unitaries U0, V0 on L2(T ) by (U0f )(t) = z(t)f (t)

and (V0f )(t) = f (t ). Then

U0V0 = qV0U0. (1)

Let U = Ui and V = Vi the direct sum of all equivalent-

ce classes of irreducible pairs (Ui, Vi) of unitaries satisfying

(1).

The C -algebra A generated by U, V is called irrational

rotation algebra or C -algebra of the quantum torus.

A is the universal C -algebra of the relation (1,) i.e.

, V are unitaries satisfying (1) and B = C (U

if U , V ),

then there is a -homomorphism : A B such that

(U ) = U and (V ) = V .

2.2 Expectations and Trace on A

For (, ) T 2 there is a -automorphism , of A such

that

,(U ) = U, ,(V ) = V.

R1

Define 1(a) = 1,z(t)(a)dt, a A.

0

that is, 1 is positive , k1 k 1 and 21 = 1.

1(U k V l) = l0U k

1

Pn

1(a) = lim 2n+1 U k aU k .

n k=n

Similarly, 2 : A C (V ) is defined.

on A and we have (U k V l) = k0l0.

no nontrivial normclosed two-sided ideal.

2.3 Projections in A and Isomorphic Irrational Alge-

bras

Projection: p = p and p2 = p

C(T 2) has no projection p 6= 0, 1.

For each (Z + Z) [0, 1] there a exists a projection

p A such that (p) = .

Idea of proof: p = Mg V + Mf + V Mg ,

are isomorphic as C -algebras if and only if mod Z

or mod Z.

Idea of proof: The K0-group of A is Z + Z. Hence,

if A = A , then Z + Z = Z + Z which implies that

Z or + Z.

3. Multiplier Algebras of C -Algebras

3.1 Three Definitions of M (A)

a = 0. (Such algebras are called semiprime).

A double centralizer for A is a pair (L, R) of linear

mappings of A into A such that for all a, b A,

L(ab) = L(a)b, R(ab) = aR(b), R(a)b = aL(b).

The set DC(A) of double centralizers of A is an algebra

with operations

(L, R)=(L, R), (L1, R1)+(L2, R2)=(L1+L2, R1+R2),

(L1, R1)(L2, R2)=(L1L2, R2R1).

This algebra has a unit (Id, Id).

Example: For c A set Lc(a) = ca, Rc(a) = ac.

Then (Lc, Rc) DC(A).

The map c (Lc, Rc) is an embedding of A into

DC(A). A is an essential ideal of DC(A). (That is, A

is an ideal and xA=Ax=0 for x DC(A) implies x=0.)

II. Suppose A is a C -Algebra. Let DC(A) be the set of

pairs (L, R) of mappings L, R : A A such that

(ii) L(ab) = L(a)b and R(ab) = aR(b) for a, b A,

(iii) L and R are bounded and kLk = kRk.

in I., DC(A) is a unital algebra. For (R, L) DC(A)

define

k(L, R)k:=kRk=kLk.

Then DC(A) is a unital C -algebra and A is an

essential ideal of DC(A).

introduced by R. C. Busby (TAMS 132 (1968)).

as a -ideal. Then there exists a unique -homomor-

phisms : B DC(A) such that (x) = x for x A.

is injective iff A is an essential ideal of B.

This shows that DC(A) is the largest C -algebra which

contains A as an essential ideal.

homomorphism of non-unital C -algebras A, B. Then

has a unique extension to a -homomorphism

: M (A) M (B).

In particular, representations of A extend uniquely to

representations of M (A).

III. Let A be a non-degenerate C -subalgebra of B(H).

(Non-degenerate means: A=0 implies =0.)

Define

*-isomorphism of M (A) onto DC(A).

A unitization of a C -algebra A is an embedding of A into

a unital C -algebra B as an essential ideal.

Then unitizations of A are in one-to-one correspondence

with compactifications of X. There are a smallest (X{})

and a largest ((X)) compactification of X.

The multiplier algebra M (A) is the largest unitization of

A (by Lemma 18).

algebra for A.

3.2 Examples

Example 1: A = K(H) C -algebra of compact operators

on H.

Then M (A) = B(H) and M (A)/A = B(H)/K(H) is just

the Calkin algebra.

Example 2: Commutative C -algebras C0(X)

X is a locally compact Hausdorff space.

A C -algebra is called -unital if it has a countable

approximate unit.

C0(X) is -unital if and only if X is -compact

(i.e. X is a countable union of compact subsets of X)

In what follows we assume that X is -compact.

(This is stronger than the separability of C0(X)).

Lemma 22: M (C0(X)) = Cb(X) = C((X)), where

(X) is the Stone-Czech compactification of X.

C(C0(X)) = Cb(X)/C0(X)

= C(X\X)

3.3 Size of Multiplier Algebras

Let A be a C -algebra.

element h (that is, (h) > 0 for every state of A).

(If h A, khk 1, is strictly positive, then

(1973))

Let A be a non-unital -unital C -algebra and let h be

a strictly positive element of A. Let B = C (h) and

X = (h)\{0}. Then:

3.4 Strict Topology

Let A be a C -Algebra. The strict topology on M (A) is the

locally convex topology defined by the seminorms

pa(x) = kxak + kaxk, x M (A), a A.

That is, xj x in M (A)[] iff xj a xa and axj ax

in A for all a A.

(ii) A is dense in M (A)[].

That is, M (A) is the completion of A in the strict topology.

Woronowicz) is needed in Lecture 3.

*-subalgebra of M (A) which is closed in the strict

topology. Suppose that Q seperates representations of

A (i.e. if 1, 2Rep(A, H), 16=2, then there exists

q Q such that 1(q) 6= 2(q)).

Then Q = M (A).

3.5 Some Results of Pedersen

For a subset B of B(H), let B m (resp. Bm) denote the

set of all T = T B(H) for which there is an increasing

(resp. decreasing) net (Ti) from B such that

T = lim Tj , H.

Let A := A C 1 be the minimal unitization of A.

(Normal means that given disjoint closed subsets A1 and

A2 of X there exist disjoint open subsets U1 and U2 of X

such that A1 U1 and A2 U2. That is, X is a T4-space.)

subset Y of X there exists a continuous function f on X

such that f (y)=f(y) for yY and sup |f(x)|= sup |f (y)|.

xX yY

How to generalize Tietzes theorem to C -algebras?

between -unital C -algebras A and B. Then there exists

a unique surjective extension to a *-homomorphism of

M (A) and M (B).

Technical fact used in the proof:

Lemma 29: Suppose (en; n N) is a monotone selfad-

joint approximate unit for A and (Tn; n N) is a bounded

sequence in M (A). Then the sum

X

(enen1 )1/2Tn(enen1 )1/2

n=0

an element T M (A).

Suppose 0 Tn I. Each summand is positive and

2

P 2

dominated by un and un = I. Hence T (A+)m.

P

Since I T = n=0 un(I Tn)un,

T I (A+)m = I + (A+)m (Asa)m.

Hence T (A+)m (Asa)m M (A)sa.

3.6 Corona Algebras

Let A be a -unital C -Algebra.

Riesz separation property, that is, if (an) and (bn) are

increasing resp. decreasing sequences from C(A)sa such

that an an+1 bn+1 bn for all n N, then there

exists c C(A)sa satisfying an c bn, for all n.

that is, given two element a, b C(A)+ such that ab = 0,

there exists c C(A)+ such that ac = a and cb = 0.

If is a derivation of a simple C -algebra A, then exists

x M (A) such that (a) = xa ax, a A.

Lecture 2:

Literatur:

algebraists, Cambridge UP, 1995.

AMS 2005.

W. Paschke (1973) and M. Rieffel (1974).

Areas of applications of Hilbert C -modules

Noncommutative geometry

Hilbert C -modules can be considered as

noncommutative vector bundles

Index theory of elliptic operators over C -algebras

(A.S. Mishchenko)

Unbounded Fredholm modules

Morita equivalence of C -algebras (L.G. Brown, P. Green,

M. Rieffel)

(S.L. Woronowicz)

Unbounded operators affiliated with C -algebras

(S. Baaj, P. Julg, S.L. Woronowicz)

Unbounded regular operators on Hilbert C -modulars

4. Hilbert C -Modules and C -Algebras

space E which is a right A-module

(with (xa) = (x)a = x(a) for C, x E, a A)

equipped with an A-valued inner product h, i : EEA,

that is, for x, y1, y2, y E, 1, 2 C, a A:

Proposition 2: Cauchy-Schwarz inequality

1/2

Set kxkE := khx, xikA . From Proposition 2 if follows that

khx, yikA kxkE kykE .

Moreover, kxakE kxkE kakA for x E, a A.

Clearly, k kE is a norm on E.

If (E, k kE ) is complete, then E is called a

(right) Hilbert A-module or a Hilbert C -module over A.

Let hE, Ei = Lin{hx, yi; x, y E}. The closure of hE, Ei

is a two-sided ideal of A. The Hilbert A-module E is called

full if this ideal is all of A, i.e. hE, Ei is dense in E.

The guiding principle of the theory is to think of Hilbert

C -modules as generalizations of complex Hilbert spaces.

for a closed Hilbert A-submodule E1.

E1 may be {0} even if E1 6= E and E1 closed.

4.2 Examples

Example 1: E = A, hx, yi = xy

1/2 1/2

Then kxkE = khx, xikA = kx xkA = kxkA .

E is full (take an approximate unit).

Pn

E = E1 En, h(xi), (yi )i = i=1hxi , yi i

P

n P

n

k(x1 , . . ., xn)k2E = k xi xi k2A 6= kxi k2A

i=1 i=1

Example 3: Standard Hilbert A-module HA

P

HA = {(xn) : xn A and xnxn converges in A}

i=1

P 2

(This is weaker than requiring n kxn k < !)

HA is a vector space and right A-module. Define

P

h(xn), (yn)i := xnyn (1)

n=1

Convergence of (1) in A follows from the Cauchy-Schwarz

inequality applied to Ak :

k

P k

P k

P

k xnynk2 k

xnxnkk yn ynk.

n=1 n=1 n=1

4.3 Adjointable Operators on Hilbert C -modules

I. L(E, F )

Let L(E, F ) be the set of all maps t : E F for which

there exists a map t : F E such that

htx, yi = hx, tyi for x E, y F.

Such maps t are called adjointable.

1. t is linear and A-linear, i.e. t(xa)=t(x)a for xE, aA.

2. t is bounded.

3. t is uniquely determined by t and (t) = t.

4. st L(E, G) and (st) = ts.

5. L(E) := L(E, E) is a C -algebra.

6. A closed submodule E1 of Hilbert A-module E is

orthocomplementable (i.e E1E1=E) iff E1 is the range

of a bounded adjointable operator.

Example: Let F = A = C[0, 1] and

Let E = {f F : f (0) = 0}. Define t(f ) = f for f E,

that is, t is the inclusion map, so t is bounded.

II. K(E, F )

For x E and y F define a map x,y : F E by

x,y (z) = xhy, zi, z F.

Then x,y L(E, F ).

Let K(E, F ) be the closed linear subspace of L(E, F )

spanned by x,y , where x E, y F .

K(E) := K(E, E) is a closed two-sided ideal of L(E).

2. Let E = F . Then

hx,x(z), zi = hx, hx, zi, zi = hx, zihx, zi 0,

x,xx,x = x,xhx,xi, and 2x,x = x,x if hx, xi = 1.

3. x,x is not compact in general!

4.4 Examples

A

= B denotes isomorphic C -algebra A and B.

1. K(A)

= A and L(A)

= M (A).

3. L(An)

= Mn(M (A)) and K(An)

= Mn(A).

4. L(HA)

= M (A K) and K(HA )

= A K.

For every Hilbert A-module E, M (K(E)) = L(E).

4.5 Kasparovs Stabilisation Theorem

A Hilbert A-module E is called countably generated if there

exist a countable subset M such that closed A-submodule

generated by M is E.

Two Hilbert A-modules E and F are called unitarily

equivalent (Symbol: E = F ) if there exists a unitary

operator u L(E, F ), that is, uu = IE and uu = IF .

If E is countably generated Hilbert A-module, then

E HA = HA.

In the proof the following proposition is used.

t and t have dense ranges, then E F .

4.6 Imprimitivity Bimodules and Morita Equivalence

Let A and B C -algebras.

space E which is a full right Hilbert A-module and a full

left Hilbert B-module such that

(i) hbx, yiA = hx, byiA and hxa, yiB = hx, yaiB

for a A, b B and x, y E.

Remarks:

(i) says that B and A act by adjointable operators on EA

resp. EB . This implies (bx)a=b(xa) and (b)(xa)=b(x(b))

for b B, a A, x E, C, that is, E is indeed an

AB-bimodule.

(ii) It follows then khx, xiAk1/2 = khx, xiB k1/2 for x E.

gly) Morita equivalent (Symbol A M B) if there exists

an AB-imprimitivity module.

(One can also define: A and B are Morita equivalent if

there is a full Hilbert A-module such that B

= KA(E).)

Morita equivalence is indeed an equivalence relation.

Example 1: A M A K

We define a left Hilbert A K-module structure on the

standard right Hilbert A-module HA:

X

(aij ) (xj ) := ( aij xj )

j

Then A becomes an A B-imprimitivity module by

hx, yiB = 1(xy ) for x, y, a A, b B.

Theorem 7: L.G. Brown/P. Green/M. Rieffel (Pacific J. M.

71(1977))

Two -unital C -algebras A and B are Morita equivalent

if and only if they are stable isomorphic, that is, A K

and B K are isomorphic.

Let E be an imprimitivity A B-bimodule.

Having a representation of A, one can associate a represen-

tation of B by Rieffels induction.

isomorphic categories of representations on Hilbert space.

Also, they have isomorphic ideal lattices.

5. Unbounded Operators on Hilbert C -Modules

Let E and F be Hilbert A-modules.

By an operator t:EF we mean an A-linear map of a

dense right A-submodule D(t) into F . For such an operator

define

D(t)={yF : there exist zE such that htx, yi=hx, zi for

all x D(t)}.

z is then uniquely determined by x.

Setting ty = z, we obtain an A-linear map t such that

htx, yi = hx, tyi for x D(t), y D(t).

t is called closed if G(t) = {(x, tx); x D(t)} is closed in

E F.

t is called selfadjoint if t = t.

Suppose that t is densely defined and closed. Then:

1. t is closed.

2. I + tt is closed, (I + tt)D(tt) is closed in E,

k(I + tt)xk kxk + ktxk for x D(tt).

Proof. All fact follow at once from this inequality.

We prove this inequality:

hx, xi hx, xi + htx, txi = h(I + tt)x, xi,

by the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, so kxkE k(I+tt)xkE .

D(t) is dense in F and ran(I + tt) is dense in E.

In the paper by M. Hilsum, K-theory 3(1989), 401-440,

there is an example of a closed (even selfadjoint) operator

which is not regular!

5.2 Regular Operators on Hilbert C -modules

for x E, then T L(E)+.

form (x, y) hT x, yi, implies that T = T .

In the C -algebra L(E) we write T = R S with

R, S L(E)+ and R S = 0. Then hRy, yi hSy, yi, so

0 hS Sx, S Sxi = hSSx, Sxi hRSx, Sxi = 0,

so S 3 = 0. Since S 0, S = 0. Thus T = R. 2

operator. Then there exist operators zt L(E, F ) and

qt L(E)+ such that ran (qt) = D(t), 0 qt 1,

Proof. I. By property 2. above, I + tt is a bijection of

D(tt) onto E. Set a = (I + tt)1 .

by Lemma 9. Set qt = a1/2.

From kaxk = kyk k(I + tt)yk = kxk we get kak 1

and so 0 qt 1.

II. There is a bounded zt : E F such that zt = tqt.

Proof.

htqt2x, tqt2xi=httax, xih(I+tt)ax, axi=hx, axi=hqtx, qtxi

and hence

ktqt(qtx)k kqtxk for x t.

Define

zt(qtx) = tqt2x, x E.

qtE qt2E = (I + tt)1 E D(tt)

is dense, zt extends by continuity to a bounded operator on

E and kztk 1.

We show that ran(qt) D(t). Then we have zt = tqt.

For let x E. Since qtE is dense in E, there is a

sequence {yn} such that qtyn x. Then qt2yn qtx and

zt(qtyn) = t(qt2yn) ztx. Since t is closed, qtx D(t). 2

III. zt L(E, F ) and zt = qtt.

Proof. kqttxk2 = khqttx, qttxik = khx, tqtqttxik

kxkktqtkkqttxk kqttxkkxk,

so kqttxk kxk for x D(t).

Hence qtt is a bounded operator from F to E. Clearly,

zt = tqt has the adjoint qtt. 2

Proof. Let x D(t) and y E. Then

= ht(tqt)qty, xi + hqt2y, xi = h(I + tqt2y, xi = hy, xi.

was shown in II.

V. qt = (I ztzt)1/2.

Proof. z zqtx qtttqt2x = qt(I qt2)x = (I qt2)qtx. Since

qtE is dense, ztzt = 1 qt2. 2

Corollary 11: Let t : E F be regular. Define a unitary

v L(EF, F E) by v(x, y)=(y x).

Then G(t) vG(t ) = E F , i.e. the graph of t is a

orthocomplemented submodule.

2

qt qtzt

Proof. Define p = . Using the properties from

ztqt ztzt

Theorem 10 one shows that p is a projection such that

ran p = G(t) and ran(I p) = vG(t ). 2

Proposition 12: If t : E F is closed (and densely

defined), t is densely defined and G(t) G(t) = E F ,

then t is regular.

Proof. Let p be the projection

of E F onto G(t). Write

a b

p= .

b c

Then one verifies that b = ta and I a = tb. Hence

I a = tta, so (I + tt)a = I and I + tt is surjective. 2

Corollary 13: Suppose that t : E F is regular. Then t

is regular, t = t and t is self adjoint and regular.

Proposition 14: Let t : E F . Suppose that a L(F )

and b L(E) are both invertible and c L(E, F ). Then

t is regular if and only if atb + c is regular.

We have shown the following result which is the fundamental

theorem on regular operators.

Theorem 15: Let R(E, F ) denote the set of regular

operators form E to F and let Z(E, F ) the set of all

z L(E, F ) such that kzk1 and ran(If f ) is dense

in E.

R(E, F ) onto Z(E, F ). Moreover, (zt) = zt .

5.3 Semiregular Operators

Let E and F be Hilbert C -modules for a C -algebra A.

Definition 16: (A. Pal 1999)

An operator t : E F is called semiregular if t is closable

and D(t) is dense in E.

Suppose t is a semiregular operator on the Hilbert

C -module E = F = A. Let Rep(A, H).

We define an operator on the C -algebra (A) by

D((t)) = (D(t)) and (t)(a) = (ta), a D(t).

Then (t) is a well-defined semiregular operator on the

Hilbert C -module (A).

Lecture 3:

C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 296(1983), 875878.

Commun. Math. Phys. 136(1991), 399432.

the C -algebra framework, Rep. Math. Phys. 31(1992),

353371.

elements, Rev. Math. 7 (1995), 481521.

J. Operator Theory 42 (1989), 331350.

6. Unbounded Operators Affiliated With C -algebras

Motivation:

In noncommutative geometry a noncommutative space

are often described by a (noncommutative) C -algebra A.

Elements of A are interpreted as

function on the noncommutative space vanishing at

infinity.

If the space is noncompact, then there are also

unbounded functions on the noncommutative space.

Hilbert space.

Problem: How to bring unbounded operators in relation to

C -algebras?

Example 1: A = C0(Rn)

A should be generated by the coordinate functions xk , k =

1, . . ., n

z z = q 2zz , 0 < q < 1

Representations: zen = q nen+1, (q, 1], on l2 (Z)

zz qz z = 1, 0 < q < 1

Unbounded Representations:

n 1/2

zen = q 1q

+1

en1 , (q, 1], on l2 (Z)

Bounded representations:

n 1/2

zen = qq1

1

en1, on l2(N0),

z = ei(1 q)1/2, (0, 2], on C.

C -approach to noncompact quantum groups

6.1 Main Idea and Definitions

Let A be a non-degenerate C -algebra on H0 and

let T C(H0).

We want to develop a concept T A such that the

following holds:

For any Rep(A, H) there should be an operator

(T ) C(H) canonically associated with .

Suppose for a moment that (T I)1 A.

Then it is natural to define

(T I)((T I)1a) := (a), a A, H.

(T ) := (T I) + I

In order to have (T I) densely defined,

(T I)1A)H has to be dense in H.

Example 1: Let A = C0(R) realized on H0 = L2(R) by

multiplication operators. Let f C(R) be real-valued.

Then (f + i)1 6 C0(R) in general,

but (f + i)1 Cb(R) = M (C0(R)). 2

Hence we should assume that (T I)1 M (A).

(i) xA is dense in A.

(ii) (x)H is dense in H for each Rep(A, H).

(iii) (x)H is dense in H for each irreducible

Rep(A, H).

Since (x)(x)H is dense in H iff (x)H is dense in H,

we obtain the following

if xxA is dense in H.

Natural assumptions:

(T I)1 M (A) and (T I)1A is dense in A.

Then (T ) as defined above has a dense domain for any

Rep(A, H).

II. General Case: Approach by S. L.Woronowicz

Let Z(H) denote the set if all Z B(H) such that kZk 1

and ker(I Z Z) = {0}.

For T C(H) and Z Z(H) define

ZT = T (I + T T )1/2, TZ = Z(I Z Z)1/2.

Motivation:

t zt := t(1 + tt)1/2 is a bijective mapping of C onto the

open unit disc D with inverse given by z z(1 zz)1/2.

Proposition 3: The transformation T ZT is a bijective

mapping of C(H) onto Z(H) with inverse given by

Z TZ . Both mappings preserve adjoints, that is,

(ZT ) = ZT and (TZ ) = TZ .

Moreover, (I + T T )1/2 = (I ZT ZT )1/2.

By the above definitions,

D(T ) = (I ZT ZT )1/2H,

T (I ZT ZT )1/2 = ZT

Idea:

Assume that ZT M (A) and (IZT ZT )1/2A is dense in A.

Define (T )((IZT ZT )1/2a) = (ZT a).

Definition 4: An operator T C(H) is affiliated with A if

ZT M (A) and (IZT ZT )A is dense in A.

Symbols: T A, A = {T C(H) : T A}

Note that by Corollary 3, (IZT Z)A is dense in A iff

(IZT ZT )1/2A is.

Suppose that T A. Let Rep(A, H).

Then k(ZT )k kZT k. Since (IZT ZT )H is dense in H

by Proposition 1,

ker (IZT ZT ) = ker(I(ZT )(ZT )) = {0}.

Hence (ZT ) Z(H). By Proposition 3, there exists an

operator (T ) C(H) such that Z(T ) = (ZT ). By Defi-

nition 4, we have

(T )((IZT ZT )1/2a)

= (T )(I(ZT )(ZT ))1/2(a)

= (ZT )(a) = (ZT a), a A, H.

6.2 Two Examples

Example 2: A = C0(X), X locally compact Hausdorff

space. Then A = C(X).

Proof. Suppose that A acts faithfully on H = L2(X, ) by

multiplication operators.

Then M (A) = Cb(X).

For f Cb(X) we have

f Z(H) iff |f (x)| < 1 for all x X iff (1 ff (x))C0(X)

is dense in C0(X).

Recall T A iff ZT M (A) and (IZT ZT )A is dense in H.

Hence A = C(X).

Example 3: A = K(H) compact operators

Then K(H) = C(H).

Proof. M (A) = B(H). If z Z(H), then (I Z Z)1/2H

is dense in H. This implies that (I Z Z)1/2F(H) is dense

in F(H) and hence (I Z Z)1/2K(H) is dense in K(H).

6.3 Some General Results

Proposition 5:

(i) M (A) = {T A : T B(H)}

(ii) If A is unital, then A = A.

(iii) If T A, then T A.

Proof of (i): If x M (A), then zx = x(I xx)1/2

M (A). Since x is bounded, kZxk < 1 and (I ZxZx)1

M (A), so xA.

Conversely, if T A and T B(H), then kZT k < 1 and

T = ZT (I ZT ZT )1/2 M (A).

The next propositions are more involved.

Proposition 6: Functional calculus of normal operators:

Let T A be normal. Then there exists a unique homo-

morphism T : C((T )) A such that T (f ) = f (T ).

Proposition 7:

(i) If T A, then T A.

(ii) If x M (A) and T A, then (T + x)A.

(iii) If x M (A) is invertible and T A, then xT A.

Proposition 8: Suppose that T C(H) and (T ) 6= .

Then T A if and only if (T I)1 M (A) and

(T I)1A and (T I)1A are dense in A for one

[resp. for all] (T ).

Proposition 9 and Corollary 10 of Lecture 3 require additio-

nal considerations. It is planned treat them in a forthcoming

research paper.

6.4 What is the Relation between Regular Operators

and Affiliated Operators?

I. Let A be a C -algebra on a Hilbert space H and let

T C(H).

Suppose T A. Then D(T ) = (I ZT ZT )1/2H. We consider

T as operator on A with dense domain (I ZT ZT )1/2A.

Then (I + T T )A = (I ZT ZT )A is dense in A, so T is a

regular operator on the Hilbert C -module E = A.

Conversely, if T is regular on E = A, then T A.

II. Let t be a closed operator on a Hilbert C -module E. Set

A = K(E). Then L(E) = M (A) be the Green-Kasparov

theorem.

Suppose t is regular. Then zt L(E) = M (A). Since t is

regular, (I + tt)E (I ztzt)E is dense in E and hence

(I ztzt)K(E) is dense in K(E), so tK(E).

Conversely, if tK(E), then t is regular.

Regular operators and affiliated operators are equivalent

notions.

7. C -algebras Generated by Unbounded Operators

7.1 Definition and Basic Results

Let A be a C -algebra and let T1, . . ., TnA.

Definition 11: (S. L. Woronowicz 1995)

The C -algebra A is generated by the set {T1, . . ., Tn} if

the following is true:

If Rep(A, H) and B is a C -algebra on H such that

(T1), . . ., (Tn) are affiliated with B, then Mor(A, B).

The next proposition says that the C -algebra generated by

a given set is unique if it exists.

Proposition 12: Let A and B be C -algebras and let

jMor(B, A) injective. Suppose that S1, . . ., SnB and A

is generated by T1 := j(S1), . . ., Tn := j(Sn). Then j is

an isomorphism, that is, j(B) = A.

Proof. We realize A faithfully on a Hilbert space H and

identity B with j(B). Since j Mor(B, A), BA = A.

Applying the above condition to =id ARep(A, H), we

obtain id AMor(A, B), that is, AB=B.

Therefore, A=B. 2

Example 3: (A. Hertsch, Diplomarbeit, Leipzig)

Suppose is irrational. For (n) l2(Z), let

u(n) = (e2in),

V ( , n, ) = ( , n1, ).

Then U V = e2iV U .

Since ker(I U ) = ker(I V ) = {0},

A := i(I + U )(I U )1, B := i(I + V )(I V )1

are selfadjoint operators on l2(Z).

It can be shown that the set {A, B} does not generate a

C -algebra!

Theorem 13: S.L. Woronowicz (1995) Let A be a C -

algebra and T1, . . ., TnA.

Assumptions:

is, if 1, 2 Rep(A, H) and 1(Tk ) = 2(Tk ) for k =

1, . . ., n, then 1 = 2.

If Rep(A, H) and (T1), . . ., (Tk )B for a C -

algebra B on H, then (r)B is dense in B.

Remark: Let r be a finite product of elements

(I + TkTk )1, (I + Tk Tk)1.

Since (Tk )B implies that ((I+TkTk )1)B and

((I+Tk Tk)1)B are dense on B, then (r)B is dense

in B. So assumption (ii) is satisfied if there exists such an

element r in A.

Proof of Theorem 13:

Let Rep(A, H) and let B be a C -algebra on H such

that (T1)B, . . ., (Tn)B. By assumption (ii), (r)B

B and hence (A)B B.

To prove the opposite inclusion, set

Q := {x M (A) : (x) M (B)}.

Then Q is a unital C -subalgebra of M (A).

We show that Q separates the representations of A.

For let 1, 2Rep(A, H) such that 1(q)=2(q) for all

qQ. Since (Tk )B and (ZTk ) = Z(Tk ), ZTk Q.

Therefore, 1(ZTk )=2(ZTk ) and hence 1(Tk )=2(Tk ) for

k = 1, . . ., n. By assumption (i), 1 = 2.

Thus Q satisfies the assumptions of the Stone-Weierstra

theorem proved in Lecture 2. Therefore, Q = M (A). Hence

(A) M (B) and (A)B B.

Thus, (A)B = B and Mor(A, B). 2

7.2 Examples

Then A is generated by {T1, . . ., Tn} according to

Definition 11 iff A = C (I, T1, . . ., Tn).

Let f1, . . ., fn C(X). Suppose that {f1, . . ., fn}

P 2

separates points of X and lim k |fk (x)| = + .

|x|

Then assumption (i) and (ii) are fulfilled.

n

(Set r = k=1 (1 + |fk (x)|)1 ).

Hence C(X) is generated by {f1, . . ., fn}.

Special case: X = Rn

C0(Rn) is generated by {x1, . . ., xn}.

(It can be shown that the above assumptions are also

necessary for C0(X) being generated by {f1 , . . ., fn}.)

3.) Let T1 P = i dx d

and T2 Q = x on H = L2(R).

Then r := (1 + T22)1(1 + T12)1(1 + T22)1 is an integral

operator with kernel

K(x, y) = 21 e|xy| (1 + x2)1(1 + y 2 )1.

Since K L2(R2), r is compact, so r K(H) A.

From the irreducibility of the Schrodinger representation

it follows easily that {T1, T2} separates representations

of K(H).

Hence K(H) is generated by {P, Q}.

non-empty resolvent set (T ). Fix (T ) and set

A := C ((T I)1).

Assume that (T I)1A and (T I)1A are dense

in A.

Then T A by Proposition 8 from Section 6.

We check directly by using Definition 11 that

A = C ((T I)1) is generated by T .

Proof. Let Rep(A, H). Assume that (T )B.

Then R := ((T I)1) = ((T )I)1 M (B) and

RB is dense in B. Since R A, (A)B B.

Since R = ((T I)1) M (B), (A) M (B) and

so (A)B B. Thus Mor(A, B). 2

Let G be a connected Lie group and A := C (G).

Let {T1, . . ., Tn} be a basis of the Lie algebra of G.

We consider T1, . . ., Tn as linear operators on A.

Then it can be shown that T1, . . ., TnC (G).

Also, one can show r := (I + T1T1)1 (I + TnTn)1

belongs to A.

Notations:

Let A be a C -algebra and H a Hilbert space.

Asa - set of hermitean elements a = a of A

M (A) - Multiplier algebra of A

Rep(A, H) - nondegenerate representations of A on H

B(H) - bounded operators on H

K(H) - compact operators on H

K - compact operators on l2(N)

C(H) - densely defined closed operators on H

Mor(A, B) - -homomorphisms of A into a C -algebra

B such that (A)B is dense in B.

C (T1, . . ., Tn) - C -algebra generated by T1, . . ., Tn

C0(X) - continuous functions on X vanshing at infinity

Cb(X) - bounded continuous functions on X

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