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NEUROBEHAVIOR SYSTEM

Disusun Oleh :

1. RATNA ENSA NOVITRA


2. ASRI SETIYANINGRUM
3. NUZULLIA KUSUMA ANGGIA

FAKULTAS ILMU KESEHATAN


PROGRAM STUDI S1-KEPERAWATAN
INSTITUT ILMU KESEHATAN BHAKTI WIYATA
KEDIRI
2016
Nervous system is a complex network of nerves and cells that carry messages to and from the
brain and spinal cord to various parts of the body.

The nervous system includes both the Central nervous system and Peripheral nervous system.
The Central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord and The Peripheral
nervous system is made up of the Somatic and the Autonomic nervous systems.

The Central nervous system

The central nervous system is divided into two major parts: the brain and the spinal
cord.

The brain lies within the skull and is shaped like a mushroom. The brain consists of
four principal parts

the brain stem

the cerebrum

the cerebellum

the diencephalon

The brain stem

The brain stem is also known as the Medulla oblongata. It is located between the pons
and the spinal cord and is only about one inch long.

the cerebrum

The cerebrum forms the bulk of the brain and is supported on the brain stem.
The cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres. Each hemisphere controls the activities of the
side of the body opposite that hemisphere

The Cerebellum

This is located behind and below the cerebrum.

The diencephalon

The diencephalon is also known as the fore brain stem. It includes the thalamus and
hypothalamus. The thalamus is where sensory and other impulses go and coalesce. The
hypothalamus is a smaller part of the diencephalon

SPINAL CORD

The spinal cord is along tube like structure which extends from the brain. The spinal
cord is composed of a series of 31 segments. A pair of spinal nerves comes out of
each segment. The region of the spinal cord from which a pair of spinal nerves
originates is called the spinal segment. Both motor and sensory nerves are located in
the spinal cord.

The spinal cord is about 43 cm long in adult women and 45 cm long in adult men and weighs
about 35-40 grams. It lies within the vertebral column, the collection of bones (back bone).

NEURON

the neuron is the basic unit in the nervous system. It is a specialized conductor cell
that receives and transmits electrochemical nerve impulses. A typical neuron has a cell
body and long arms that conduct impulses from one body part to another body part.

The Peripheral nervous system is made up of two parts:

Somatic nervous system

Autonomic nervous system

SOMATIC NERVOUS

The somatic nervous system consists of peripheral nerve fibers that pick up sensory
information or sensations from the peripheral or distant organs (those away from the
brain like limbs) and carry them to the central nervous system.

These also consist of motor nerve fibers that come out of the brain and take the
messages for movement and necessary action to the skeletal muscles. For example, on
touching a hot object the sensory nerves carry information about the heat to the brain,
which in turn, via the motor nerves, tells the muscles of the hand to withdraw it
immediately.

The whole process takes less than a second to happen. The cell body of the neuron
that carries the information often lies within the brain or spinal cord and projects
directly to a skeletal muscle.

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

Another part of the nervous system is the Autonomic Nervous System. It has three
parts:

a. the sympathetic nervous system

b. the parasympathetic nervous system

c. the enteric nervous system

This nervous system controls the nerves of the inner organs of the body on which
humans have no conscious control. This includes the heartbeat, digestion, breathing
(except conscious breathing) etc.
The nerves of the autonomic nervous system enervate the smooth involuntary muscles
of the (internal organs) and glands and cause them to function and secrete their
enzymes etc.

The Enteric nervous system is the third part of the autonomic nervous system. The
enteric nervous system is a complex network of nerve fibers that innervate the organs
within the abdomen like the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, gall bladder etc. It contains
nearly 100 million nerves.
Sistem saraf merupakan kompleks jaringan saraf dan sel-sel yang membawa pesan dari otak
dan sumsum tulang belakang ke berbagai bagian tubuh.
Sistem saraf termasuk sistem saraf pusat dan sistem saraf tepi. Sistem saraf pusat terdiri dari
otak dan sumsum tulang dan sistem saraf perifer The terdiri dari somatik dan sistem saraf
otonom.
SIstem saraf pusat
Sistem saraf pusat terbagi menjadi dua bagian utama: otak dan sumsum tulang belakang.
Otak terletak di dalam tengkorak dan berbentuk seperti jamur. Otak terdiri dari empat
bagian utama
batang otak
otak
cerebellum
diencephalon
Batang otak
Batang otak adalah juga dikenal sebagai medula oblongata. Ia terletak antara pons dan
sumsum tulang belakang dan hanya sekitar satu inci panjang.
otak
Otak membentuk sebagian besar otak dan didukung pada batang otak. Otak dibagi menjadi
dua belahan. Tiap belahan planet mengendalikan kegiatan sisi tubuh seberang belahan itu
Cerebellum
Ini terletak di belakang dan di bawah otak.
Diencephalon
Diencephalon ini juga dikenal sebagai batang otak kedepan. Ini mencakup talamus dan
hipotalamus. Thalamus adalah tempat impuls sensorik dan pergi dan menyatu. Hipotalamus
merupakan bagian kecil dari diencephalon

SUMSUM TULANG
Sumsum tulang adalah sepanjang tabung seperti struktur yang memanjang dari otak.
Sumsum tulang belakang terdiri dari serangkaian 31 segmen. Sepasang saraf tulang belakang
keluar setiap segmen. Wilayah sumsum tulang belakang yang sepasang saraf tulang belakang
berasal disebut segmen tulang belakang. Saraf motor dan sensorik terletak di sumsum tulang
belakang.
Sumsum tulang adalah sekitar 43 cm panjang pada wanita dewasa dan 45 cm panjang pada
pria dewasa dan beratnya sekitar 35-40 gram. Hotel ini terletak dalam kolom vertebral,
koleksi tulang (tulang belakang).
NEURON
neuron adalah unit dasar di sistem saraf. Ini adalah sel khusus konduktor yang menerima
dan mentransmisikan elektrokimia impuls saraf. Neuron khas memiliki sel tubuh dan lengan
panjang yang melakukan impuls dari satu bagian tubuh ke bagian lain tubuh.
Sistem saraf perifer terdiri dari dua bagian:
Sistem saraf somatik
Sistem saraf otonom
SOMATIK GUGUP
Sistem saraf somatik terdiri dari serabut saraf perifer yang mengambil informasi sensorik
atau sensasi dari organ perifer atau jauh (mereka dari otak seperti tungkai) dan membawa
mereka ke sistem saraf pusat.
Ini juga terdiri dari serabut saraf motor yang datang dari otak dan mengambil pesan untuk
gerakan dan tindakan yang diperlukan untuk otot rangka. Misalnya, pada sebuah objek panas
menyentuh saraf sensorik membawa informasi tentang panas ke otak, yang pada gilirannya,
melalui saraf motorik, menceritakan otot-otot tangan segera menarik.
Seluruh proses memakan waktu kurang dari satu detik terjadi. Sel tubuh neuron yang
membawa informasi sering terletak dalam otak atau sumsum tulang belakang dan proyek-
proyek langsung ke otot rangka.
SISTEM SARAF OTONOM
Bagian lain dari sistem saraf adalah sistem saraf otonom. Ini memiliki tiga bagian:
a. sistem saraf simpatik
b. saraf parasimpatik sistem
c. sistem saraf enterik
Ini gugup sistem kontrol saraf organ dalam tubuh di mana manusia tidak memiliki sadar
kontrol. Ini termasuk detak jantung, pencernaan, pernapasan (kecuali sadar pernafasan) dll.
Saraf dari sistem saraf otonom enervate otot-otot sukarela halus (organ-organ internal) dan
kelenjar dan menyebabkan mereka untuk berfungsi dan mensekresikan enzim mereka dll.
Sistem saraf enterik adalah bagian ketiga dari sistem saraf otonom. Sistem saraf enterik
adalah jaringan kompleks serabut saraf yang innervate organ-organ dalam perut seperti
saluran gastrointestinal, pankreas, kantung empedu dll. Ini mengandung hampir 100 juta
saraf.
1. Brain consists of four section mentioned !
2. Where is the sensory and motor nervous ?
3. What is the fungction of the somatic nervous?
4. Autonomic nerve has three sections, identify the piece parts!
5. Explain the difference of sensory neurons, motor neurons, and Association neurons! .
6. Describe the differences with the parasympathetic nerves sympathetic nervous sense
and functions!
7. the function of the diasefalon is
8. What is the main function of the autonomic nervous system?
9. How important is the nervous system for our bodies?
10. How the occurrence of brain death process and what impact for patients with brain
dead?

ANSWER

1. The brain consists of four principal parts

a. the brain stem


b. the cerebrum
c. the cerebellum
d. the diencephalon

2. Both motor and sensory nerves are located in the spinal cord.

3. pick up sensory information or sensations from the peripheral or distant organs (those
away from the brain like limbs) and carry them to the central nervous system.
4. It has three parts:
a. the sympathetic nervous system
b. the parasympathetic nervous system
c. the enteric nervous system

5. the sympathetic nervous system ,the parasympathetic nervous system , the enteric
nervous system

a. sensory Neurons (nerve cells of the senses), serves to continue the stimulation
from the recipient (indra) to central nervous (brain and spinal cord).The body
of these cells form ganglia huddle axons short and long dendrit.
b. motor Neurons (nerve movers), serves to bring central nervous (brain and
spinal cord) to muscles, have a short Axon and dendrite.
c. the Association Neurons, serves as a liaison to nerve impulses as a conduit of
sensory nerve impulses to motor nerves.
6. A . According to the understanding.
1) sympathetic nervous had a knot or the contained along the spine vertebrae
starting from the bottom of the neck to the tail bone.
2) The sympathetic Nerve) is a network of networks that are related to the spread
throughout the body.
B. According to their functions
1) sympathetic nervous function to: skin menegrutkan hair, speed up heart rate,
widen blood vessels, raising blood pressure.
2) The Sympathetic Nerves) works to: develop a skin, hair memeprlambat heart
rate, constricts blood vessels, lowering blood pressure.

7. The Front Of The Brain (Diensefalon)


Stimulation of sensory processing Diensefalon danmembantu start or modify the
body's reaction to the stimulation. Some examples of activities that involve the
diensefalon of which are chewing, look, eye movements, facial expression which
occurs in (e.g., smile, frown, and others), hearing, breathing, swallowing, kissing , and
balance the body.
8. The autonomic nervous system is the nervous system that works without being ruled
by the central nervous system and is located in the spinal cord that its main function is
to organize the activities of the organs in such as: heart, lungs, kidneys, muscles,
sweat glands, digestive system and vascular smooth muscle system.
9. The nervous system is very important for our body because the nervous system was
instrumental in irirtabilitas (the ability to respond to stimulation) of the body.
10. Brain death is when the entire contents of neuronal damage that is irreversible,
including intracranial brain stem and the cerebellum. With the known dead of the
brain (the brain stem dead), then it can be said of a person as a whole cannot be
revealed are living longer, so that the tools can be stopped.