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40 vues6 pagesData mining is used to extract the information from a large amount of data. Data mining consist of two models, they are predictive and descriptive. Classification is one of the data mining technique which comes under predictive model. Classification is used in many applications such as artificial intelligent, machine learning, statistics and database system. Data mining can be applied to these problems, to improve the efficiency of systems and the designs of machines. This paper surveyed the some algorithm gives the best result. The researchers used different classification algorithm in which are namely K- Nearest Neighbour classifiers, Decision tree, Bayesian network, Support Vector Machine, Artificial Neural Networks. This paper also presented the comparison of all five algorithms used in Bioinformatics Research.

Feb 08, 2017

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Data mining is used to extract the information from a large amount of data. Data mining consist of two models, they are predictive and descriptive. Classification is one of the data mining technique which comes under predictive model. Classification is used in many applications such as artificial intelligent, machine learning, statistics and database system. Data mining can be applied to these problems, to improve the efficiency of systems and the designs of machines. This paper surveyed the some algorithm gives the best result. The researchers used different classification algorithm in which are namely K- Nearest Neighbour classifiers, Decision tree, Bayesian network, Support Vector Machine, Artificial Neural Networks. This paper also presented the comparison of all five algorithms used in Bioinformatics Research.

© All Rights Reserved

40 vues

Data mining is used to extract the information from a large amount of data. Data mining consist of two models, they are predictive and descriptive. Classification is one of the data mining technique which comes under predictive model. Classification is used in many applications such as artificial intelligent, machine learning, statistics and database system. Data mining can be applied to these problems, to improve the efficiency of systems and the designs of machines. This paper surveyed the some algorithm gives the best result. The researchers used different classification algorithm in which are namely K- Nearest Neighbour classifiers, Decision tree, Bayesian network, Support Vector Machine, Artificial Neural Networks. This paper also presented the comparison of all five algorithms used in Bioinformatics Research.

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S. Muthulakshmi1 Dr.R.Porkodi2

1

Research Scholar 2Assistant Professor

1,2

Department of Computer Science & Engineering

1,2

Bharathiar University

Abstract Data mining is used to extract the information deals with algorithms, databases and information systems,

from a large amount of data. Data mining consist of two web technologies, artificial intelligence and soft computing,

models, they are predictive and descriptive. Classification is information and computation theory, soft engineering, data

one of the data mining technique which comes under mining, image processing, modeling and simulation, single

predictive model. Classification is used in many applications processing, discrete mathematics, control and system theory,

such as artificial intelligent, machine learning, statistics and circuit theory, and statistics. Bioinformatics generates new

database system. Data mining can be applied to these knowledge and the computational tools are also used to

problems, to improve the efficiency of systems and the create that knowledge.

designs of machines. This paper surveyed the some The paper organized as follows: section 1 describes

algorithm gives the best result. The researchers used the introduction on data mining and microarray, section 2

different classification algorithm in which are namely K- describes the literature review, section 3 describes the

Nearest Neighbour classifiers, Decision tree, Bayesian various classification algorithms, section 4 describes

network, Support Vector Machine, Artificial Neural comparison of classification algorithms and finally the

Networks. This paper also presented the comparison of all paper is concluded in section 5.

five algorithms used in Bioinformatics Research.

Key words: Classification, Decision tree, Bayesian network, II. LITERATURE REVIEW

k- nearest neighbour classifier, Support vector machine, S.Archana and Dr. K.Elangovan et al. [1] discuss the

Artificial neural network classification algorithms can be implemented on different

types of data sets like data of patients, financial data

I. INTRODUCTION according to performances. Hence these classification

Classification one of data mining task which is used to techniques show how a data can be determined and grouped

predict the values. In classification should have two classes when a new set of data is available. On the basis of the

and that classes are predefined. The input of the performance of these algorithms can also be used to detect

classification model is the attribute of sample data and the the natural disasters like cloud bursting, earth quake, etc.

output is which data sample belongs to the class. David B.fogel et al. [2] had presented to develope, breast

Classification is the partition or ordering of objects into cancer by using neural network technique and the related

classes. In this method the classes are predefined and that works are also used in breast cancer diagnosis based on back

will train the classification system to allocate objects to the propagation method with multilayer perception. In contrast

classes. The training is based on training sample and that to back propagation found that evolution computational

sample will contains a set sample data. In this training, method and algorithms were used often, perform more

sample data classes are already known. In this classification classic optimization techniques.

techniques testing and validatation places an important role. Shadab Adam Pattekari et al. [3] developed a

Classifying the test data and comparing the result with the prototype Heart Disease Prediction System (HDPS) using

unknown result can determine the accuracy. Decision Trees, Naive Bayes and Neural Networks. In this

A microarray database is a repository of contains system user answers the predefined questions. Then it

microarray gene expression data. The key uses of a retrieves hidden data from stored database and it compares

microarray database are to store the extent data, manage a the users values with trained dataset.

searchable index, and create the data available to other Endo et al. [4] had implemented common machine

applications for analysis and interpretation. The models that learning algorithms to predict survival rate of breast cancer

determine to solve a problem are classified as Predictive and patient. Logistic regression had the highest accuracy;

Descriptive. Microarray technology has become one of the artificial neural network showed the highest specificity and

significant tools that many biologists use to monitoring J48 decision trees model had the best sensitivity.

genome in wide expression levels of genes in a given Sonali Agarwal, G. N. Pandey, and M. D. Tiwari et

organism. A microarray is typically a glass slide on to which al. [5] had proposed Support Vector Machines (SVM) is

DNA molecules are fixed in an orderly manner at specific established as a best classifier with maximum accuracy and

locations called spots. Classification is the process of minimum root mean square error (RMSE). This is aimed to

finding a model that describes and distinguish data classes develop a faith on Data Mining techniques so that present

or concepts. The purpose of this model used to predict the education and business system may adopt this as a strategic

class of objects and whose class label is unknown. management tool.

Bioinformatics is a combination of molecular K. Srinivas, B. Kavitha Rani and Dr. A. Goverdhan

biology and computer science. In this technology the et al.[6]discussesd examine the potential use of

computers are used to storing, extracting, organizing, classification based data mining techniques such as Rule

analysing, interpreting and integrate biological and genetic Based, Decision tree, Nave Bayes and Artificial Neural

information. Bioinformatics is very important for the use of Network to the massive volume of healthcare data. It can

identifying human diseases and genomic information. It predict the likelihood of patients getting a heart disease.

A Survey on Classification Algorithms in Data Mining of Bioinformatics

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/166)

Shweta Kharya et al.[7]discussed various data process, a decision tree can be used to visually and explicitly

mining approaches that have been utilized for breast cancer represent decisions and decision making.

diagnosis and prognosis Decision tree is found to be the best A decision tree describes data but not a decision

predictor with 93.62% Accuracy on benchmark dataset and relatively the resulting classification tree can be an input for

also on SEER data set. decision making. Decision tree is one of the popular

Tina R. Patil, Mrs. S. S. Shereka et al.[20] had algorithms which is able to handle both categorical and

proposed that to make comparative evaluation of classifiers numerical data and perform less computation. Decision trees

Naive Bayes and J48 in the context of bank dataset to are often simpler to interpret. Decision tree is a directed tree

maximize true positive rate and minimize false positive with a node and cannot having incoming edges called root.

rate of defaulters rather than achieving only higher All the nodes have one exact incoming edge. Each non-leaf

classification accuracy using WEKA tool. node called internal node or splitting node and it contains a

N. Poomani, R.Porkodi et al.[21] had compared on decision and most correct target value assign to one class is

various supervised learning algorithms to predict the best represented by leaf node. Decision tree can be used to

classifier. The experimental result shows that the highest analyze and represent classifiers models. On the other hand,

accuracy is found in J48graft classifier and the lowest error decision trees also referred to a hierarchical model of

rate 0.9587 among various classification algorithms. Based decisions and their cost. When a tree is used for

on the experimental result, it proves that the probabilistic classification, then it is said to be as a classification tree.

model is not much suitable for classify breast cancer dataset. There are some specific decision tree algorithms, namely

R. Porkodi and G. Suganya [36] had implemented ID3 (Iterative Dichotomiser3), C4.5 Algorithm, CART

classification algorithm in colon cancer dataset. The (Classification and Regression Tree).

experimental result shows that the highest accuracy is found ID3 is one of the most important decision tree

in both KNN and Neural Network classifier gives the result algorithms. In this method, information gain in advance and

Finally KNN and Neural Network classifier produces the generally to determine suitable property for each node of a

good accuracy than the Support Vector Machine, Random generated decision tree. We can select the attribute with the

Forest and Nave Bayes classifier. highest information as the test attribute based on current

node. Therefore, the use of an information approach will

III. CLASSIFICATION ALGORITHMS effectively reduce the required dividing number of object

Classification is one of the most widely used methods classification. ID3 is a supervised learning algorithm, based

of data mining in healthcare. The classification on information entropy. It is developed from several classes

algorithms can be useful to forecasting the outcome of and set of datasets. The algorithm planned a set of rules that

some diseases or its discover the genetic performance of allows predicting the class of an item and also used to

growth. This model is used to build the relating a predefined identify the attribute of the class and then differentiate from

set of classes or ideas. The classification model is used to others class. ID3 know the all dataset values and that dataset

construct by analysing database tuples are described by used to determine which attribute are important and which

attributes and also used to predict categorical class labels decision tree need to be included at which position is

and classify the data based on the training set. situated.

Classification techniques in data mining are C4.5 algorithm is the successor of ID3 algorithm. It

capable of processing a large amount of data and it can be is used to reduce the error rate by replacing the internal

used to classifying newly available data. The classification node with a leaf node.C4.5 algorithm accepts both

algorithm is a method procedure which takes some value or continuous and categorical attributes to build the decision

set of value as input and generates some value or set as tree.C4.5 has an enhance method of tree purning and reduce

output. The result of a given problem is the output that we the misclassification error due to noise. C4.5 algorithm

got after solving the problem. If the given algorithm is handle the attribute with different costs and also handling

considered to be correct for every input occurrence, then it training data with missing attribute values.

will generate the correct output and it gets completed or CART stands for Classification and Regression

otherwise it does not considered as a correct algorithm. This Trees. It is characterized by the each internal node which

paper gives the detailed description of five algorithms has exactly two outgoing edges. The splits are selected and

namely Decision tree, Bayesian network, K-nearest the obtained tree is pruned by costcomplexity. When

neighbour, Support vector machine and Artificial neural provided, CART can consider misclassification costs in the

network. tree instructed and also users to provide the prior probability

distribution. The major characteristic of CART is capacity to

A. Decision Tree generate regression trees. Regression trees are predict a real

A decision tree is a predictive modeling technique from the number and not a class.

field of data mining that builds a simple tree-like structure. B. Bayesian Network

Decision Tree (DT) is one of the classification technique in

data mining. Decision tree builds classification in the form The Naive Bayes algorithm is a simple probabilistic

of tree structure. It divides whole training set into smaller classifier that is used to calculates a set of probabilities by

subsets and at the same time decision tree incrementally using combinations of values in a data set. In all class

developed. The result is a tree with decision nodes and leaf variable attribute should be indepent in bayes theorem.

nodes. Decision tree classifier is helps to implement Bayesian network (BN) is a graphical model for probability

complex decision into easy process and the complex relationships among a set of variables. This BN consist of

decision is subdivided into simpler decision. In decision two components. First component is mainly a directed

A Survey on Classification Algorithms in Data Mining of Bioinformatics

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/166)

acyclic which contains nodes are called the random However the time to create the bootstrapped set is O (n2)

variables and the edges between the nodes or random where n is the number of training patterns. K-Nearest

variables. Second component which contain a set of Neighbor Mean Classifier (k-NNMC). Finds k nearest

parameters that describe the conditional probability of each neighbors for each class of training patterns separately. The

variable given its parents. A naive Bayes classifier assumes classification is done based to the nearest mean pattern. This

the presence or absence of a particular feature and unrelated improvisation proves to show better accuracy of

to the presence or absence of any other feature of class classification in when compared to other techniques using

variable. Naive Bayes classifiers can be trained very well in Hamamoto's bootstrapped training set.

a supervised learning and this method is important for Hamming Distance

several reasons. DH = =1 | |

Likelihood Class Prior Probability X=Y D=0

XY D=1

P(|c)P(c)

(|) = D. Support Vector Machine

()

Support vector machines (SVM) are also a type of machine

Posterior Probability Predictor Prior Probability learning tool. A support vector machine constructs a hyper

P(C|X) = P(X|C)P(X|C)..P(Xn|C)P(C) plane in infinite-dimensional space, and which can be used

P(C|X) is the posterior probability of class (target) given to classification, regression, or other tasks. SVMs were first

predictor(attribute). applied to protein sequence classification and have been

P(C) is the prior probability of class. applied to remote homology detection also. SVMs are

P(X|C) is the likelihood which is the probability of predictor supervisied binary classifiers used to find a linear separation

given class. between different classes of points in 3-D space. In 2D

P(X) is the prior probability of predictor. space, this separator is a line and in 3-D, it is a plane. This

POSTERIOR = PRIORLIKELIHOOD/EVIDENCE find an optimal separating hyper plan between members and

Where Posterior is the predicting the event will non- members of a given class in an abstract space.SVMS

occur, Prior is past experience, Likelihood is possible of as applied to gene expression data begin with a collectin of

chance and Evidence is total number of event will occur. known classifications of genes . One could build a classifier

capble of discriming between members and non-members of

C. K- Nearest Neighbors a given class.This would be useful in recognizing new

KNN Algorithm is based on similarity measure and used to members of a class, among genes of unknown function. The

store all accessible cases and used to identify the unknown classifier could be applied to original set of training data of

data point based on the nearest neighbor. It is easy to identify outliers that may have been previously

understand but has an unbelievable work in fields and unrecognized. A special property of SVM is, SVM

practice especially in classification. KNN is a supervised simultaneously minimize the empirical classification error

classification technique which is used extensively. It is an and maximize the geometric margin. So SVM called

easy to implement classification technique and Training is Maximum Margin Classifiers. The equation shown below is

very fast. KNN is particularly well suited for multimodal the hyper plane:

classes. In this method the training tuples are represented in Hyper plane, aX + bY = C

N-dimensional space and given an unknown tuple, k-nearest The main idea in SVM is an optimal hyper plane

neighbor classifier searches the k training tuples that are and which can be used in classification, for separation of

closest to the unknown sample and places the sample nearest linear patterns. The optimal hyper plane is select from the

class. The K nearest neighbor method is simple and set of hyper planes. The set of hyper planes are classifying

implement to the small sets of data, but when applied to patterns from the margin of the hyper plane. The distance

large of data and high dimensional data the results in from the hyper plane to the nearest point of each patterns.

slower performance. Accuracy in data classification is a The major purpose of SVM is to maximize the margin so the

major issue in data mining and in order to improve the classifying given patterns is correctly and large margin size

accuracy of classification. The improvements have been classifies patterns also correctly. The given pattern can be

made to the K nearest neighbor method. Weighted nearest mapped by kernel function, (x).i.e. x (x) . The different

neighbor classifier (wk-NNC) is one such method which kernel function is an important aspect in the SVM-based

adds a weight to each of the neighbors in a classification. classification. The kernel functions commonly used for

KNN using distance function. LINEAR, POLY, RBF, and SIGMOID. For e.g.: the

Distance function equation for Poly Kernel function is given as:

K(x, y) =<x, y>^p

Encliden =( )

E. Artificial Neural Networks

Manhattan = | |

Neural Networks are used in prototype recognition and

Minkowski [=(| |) ]1/q classification. A neural network is combination of nodes that

are connected in a topology with each node has input and

Hamamoto's bootstrapped training set can also be output connections to other nodes. Neural Networks are also

used as a substitute of the training patterns. The training called connectionist models because they are represented by

outlines are replaced by a weighted mean of a few of its weighted functions. The neural networks which are working

neighbors from its own class of training patterns. This with simple individual processing elements can perform

method proves to improve the accuracy of classification.

A Survey on Classification Algorithms in Data Mining of Bioinformatics

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/166)

network whose weights and biases is trained to produce a And 90% of .

correct output when presented with the corresponding input Naganandhi accuracy

vector. Artificial neural networks are connected by artificial ni. .

neurons. Artificial neural networks is used to understand the CART

accuracy

biological neural networks and for solving artificial is

intelligence problems. These problems can be solved 83.49%

without using a biological system because the real, and the To

biological nervous are highly complex. Artificial neural Vikas C4.5, Heart total Reduce

network algorithms attempt to summary this complexity and 2 Chaurasia, ID3, Datase time the the

focus on theoretically but most of the information are from Saurabh Pal CART. t taken to error

processing point of view. build rate.

Input layer Hidden layer Output layer the

model is

at 0.23

seconds.

To

The improve

K.Rajeswari SVM the

Decision

, algorith accuracy

Tree, Heart

V.Vaithiyan m is of

3 SVM, Clevel

athan and gives the Decision

Neural and

Shailaja correct tree and

Network

V.Pede accuracy Neural

84.16%. network

Fig. 1: Example of Artificial neural network

.

A neural network (NN), in the case of artificial The J48

neurons called artificial neural network (ANN) or simulated Tina R. is better To

neural network (SNN), is an interconnected group of neural Nave

Patil, Mrs. Bank than of increse

or artificial neurons that uses a mathematical or 4 Bayes,

S. S. dataset Nave accuracy

J48

computational model for information processing based on a Sherekar. bayes. level.

connectionist approach to computation. In most cases an

ANN is an adaptive system that changes its structure based Improve

C4.5 is

on external or internal information that flows through the the

better

network. Basic topology of neural network consists of feed Nave performa

Abdelghani performa

Bayes, nce of

forward neural network and recurrent network. In feed Bellaachia Breast nce than

5 C4.5, Naive

forward neural network information flow starts from the and Erhan Cancer the other

Neural bayes

input node .The information flow is one direction only from Gauven two

Network and

input node to hidden node and finally leads to the output techniqu

Neural

es.

node. In each node one or more processing elements (PE) network.

may be active.PE is used to simulate the neurons in the Neural

brain.PE receive input from the outside world or from the network

previous layer. No cycles or loops in this network. But in shows

recurrent neural network data flows bi-directionally and Naive 100% Improve

Bayes, accuracy the

feedback connections exists here. Neural network consist of Heart

Nidhi Bhatla Decision and Neural

three parts architecture, learning algorithm and the 6

Kiran Jyoti Tree,

Datase

Decision network

activation function. Neural networks are programmed to t

Neural tree also efficienc

store, recognize and retrieve patterns or database entries for Network performe y.

solving ill-defined problems, to filter noise from measured d well

data. with

99.62%.

IV. COMPARISON OF CLASSIFICATION ALGORITHMS Iterative

Support

,

The extensive survey has been conducted in classification vector

Support Human slow

algorithms in data mining for different medical datasets. The machine

7 Kharrat Vector brain training ,

gives the

outcome of the survey produces the comparison of various Machine dataset and

96.36 %

classification algorithms based on experimental dataset nonlinea

accuracy

used, outcome of their research and demerits are listed in r.

table1. Iterative

Decision

Classifica training

tree

S.N Author tion Data producer

Outcome Demerits Heart gives

o. Name Algorith Set Tu, Shin and Decision ,

8 Diseas 90% of

m Shin Tree overtrain

e accuracy

Rajendran, Decision Brain Decision Iterative ing

1 .

Madheswara tree. tumor tree training sensitive

.

A Survey on Classification Algorithms in Data Mining of Bioinformatics

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/166)

Bayes, AND To Mining in Education: Data Classification and Decision

R.Porkodi

KNN, Neural Improve Tree Approach.

Neural Colon Network the [6] K. Srinivas, B. Kavitha Rani and Dr. A. Govrdhan,

9 and

Network, cancer gives the present

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Random better correctio

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