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# Chapter No.

2
Recall
A fraction is a number that expresses a part of group.
a
Fractions are written in the form of b , where [a] & [b] are

whole numbers and [b] 0. The [a] is called the numerator [nr]
and [b] is called the denominator [dr].

Types of fractions :-

## 1. Proper fraction :- Fractions having numerator less than the

3 5
denominator are called proper fraction, as 7 , 7 , etc.
2. Improper fractions:- Fractions having numerator greater
than the denominator or equal to their denominator are

12 6
called improper fraction as 5 , 6 , etc.
3. Mixed number:-Number having a whole number part & a

b 1
fractional part are called mixed number a c . as 4 3 ,2

2
5 etc.
4. Decimal fractions:- Fractions having denominator as 10 ,
100 , 1000 or any other higher powers of 10 are called

40 35
decimal fractions. As 100 , 1000 , etc.
5. Vulgar fractions:- Fractions having denominator as whole
numbers other than power of 10 are called vulgar fractions.

5 413 837
As 31 , 999 , 8000 , etc.

Exercise 2.1

Q1:- Solve:

3
i. 2- 5

103
Sol: = 5

7
= 5

7
ii. 4+ 8

32+7
Sol: = 8
39
= 8

7
=4 8

9 4
iv. 11 - 15

13544
Sol: = 165

91
= 165

7 2 3
v. 10 + 5 + 2

= 10

2 2 4
5 x 2 = 10

3 5 15
2 x 5 = 10

7 +4 +15
= 10
26
= 10

13 3
= 5 or =2 5

## Q2. Arrange the following in ascending order:

4 2 4 8
i. 7 , 5 , 35 , 7

## Sol:- L.C.M of 7 , 5 , 35 and 7

= 35

Now,

4 5 20
7 x 5 = 35

2 7 14
5 x 7 = 35

4 1 4
35 x 1 = 35

8 5 40
7 x 5 = 35

4 14 20 40
Here 35 < 35 < 35 < 35
Ascending order

4 14 20 40
35 , 35 , 35 , 35

4 2 4 8
I ,e. 35 , 5 , 7 , 7

1
Q3. A rectangular sheet of paper is 12 2 cm long and 10

2
3 cm wide. Find its perimeter.

1 25
Sol: Length of rectangular sheet = 12 2 cm => 2

cm.

2 32
Breadth of rectangular sheet = 10 3 cm => 3 cm

25 32
=2[ 2 + 3 ]

25 x 3+32 x 2
=2[ 6 ]

75+ 64
=2 [ 6 ]
139
=2[ 6 ]

139
= 3 cm

1
Or 46 3 cm

i. Triangle ABC

## ii. The square BCEF in given figure. Whose

perimeter is greater ? {NOTE:- Figure on book}

2
Sol:- Sides of ABC , AB = 3 8 cm

26
= 8 cm

1 3
AC = 2 4 cm , BC = 2 2 cm

9 7
= 4 cm , = 2 cm

## Perimeter of ABC = Sum of all sides

= AB + BC + AC
26 9 7
= 8 + 4 + 2

L.C.M of 8 , 4 , 2 = 8

26 +7 x 4+9 x 2
= 8

26 +28+18
= 8

72
= 8

= 9 cm.

7
ii. Side of square BC = EF = 2 cm

7
=4x 2

= 14 cm

## perimeter of square is greater than as compare to

perimeter of triangle.

## Q5. Salim wants to put a picture in a frame. The picture is

3
7 5 cm wide. To fit in the frame the picture cannot
3
be more than 7 10 cm wide. How much should the

picture be trimmed ?

## Sol: The picture should be trimmed

3 3
[7 5 - 7 10 ]

38 73
=[ 5 - 10 ]

= L.C.M. of 5 and 10 = 10

7673
= 10

3
= 10 cm

Exercise 2.3

Q1. Find

1 1
I. 4 of (a) 4

1 1
Sol: 4 x 4

1
= 16
1 2
ii. 7 of (a) 9

1 2
Sol: 7 x 9

2
= 63

## Q2: Multiply and reduce to lowest form (if possible):

2 2
i) 3 x2 3

2 8
Sol: 3 x 3

16
= 9

7
=1 9 (Lowest form)

2 7
ii) 7 x 9

14
Sol: 63

2
= 9 (lowest form)

## Q3. Multiply of following fractions:

2 1
i) 5 x 5 4

2 21
Sol: 5 x 4

42
= 20

21
= 10

1
=2 10

2 7
ii) 6 5 x 9

32 7
Sol: 5 x 9

224
= 45

44
=4 45

Exercise 2.4

Q1. Find:

3
i) 12 4
3
Sol: 12 x reciprocal of 4

4
= 12 x 3

48
= 3

=16

1 1
Vii: 3 2 2 3

7 7
Sol: 2 3

7 7
= 2 x reciprocal Of 3

7 3
= 2 x 7

3
= 2

## Q2. Find the reciprocal of each of the following fractions.

Classify the reciprocals as proper fraction, improper
fraction and whole numbers.

3
I) 7
3 7
Sol: reciprocal of 7 = 3

## Here numerator greater than denominator.

7
Therefore 3 is improper fraction.

Q3. Find:

7
i) 3 2

7
Sol: 3 reciprocal of 2

7 1
= 3 2

7
= 6

1
Iv: 4 3 3

13
Sol: 3 x reciprocal of 3

13 1
= 3 x 3
13
= 9

Q4: Find:

2 1
I. 5 2

2 2
Sol: 5 1

4
= 5

1 3
iv. 2 2 5

5 5
Sol: 2 x 3

25
= 6

1 1
viii) 2 5 1 5

11 6 11 5
Sol: 5 5 = 5 x 6

55
= 30 (ans)
Exercise 2.5

i) 0.5 or 0.05

ii. 7 or 0.7

i. 7 paisa

Sol. Rs 0.07

Sol. Rs 7.07

iii. 50 paisa

Sol. Rs 0.50

Sol. Rs 2.35

## Q3. i. Express 5 cm in meter and km

1
Sol. Since 1m = 100cm and 1cm = 100 m,

1
1m = 1000 km

ii. 35mm

35
Sol: 10 cm

= 3.5cm

=0.035m

= 0.000035km

i. 200g

## Sol. 1kg = 1000g

1 200
1g = 1000 kg, = 1000 kg

= 0.2kg

ii. 3470 g

Sol: 3470 g

3470
= 1000 kg

= 3.470 kg

iii) 4kg 8g

Sol: 4.008 kg

Exercise 2.6

Q1. Find :

(Ans)

## Sol: Length of rectangle = 5.7 cm.

Breadth of rectangle = 3 cm
Area = l x b

= 3.7 x 3

= 17.1 cm2

= 156.25 cm2

Exercise 2.7

Q1. Find:

## i) 0.4 2 iii) 2.48 4 vii) 3.96 4

4 248 396
Sol: 10 2 Sol: 100 4 Sol: 100 4

4 1 248 1
= 10 x 2 = 100 x 4

396 1
= 100 x 4
4 248
= 20 = 400 =

396
400

= 0.99 (Ans)

Q2. Find :

## i) 4.8 10 iv) 33.1 10 vii)

3.06910

48 331
Sol: 10 10 Sol: 10 10

3069
Sol. 1000 10

48 1 331 1
= 10 x 10 = 10 x 10

3069 1
= 1000 x 10

48 331 3069
= 100 = 100 = 10000

## = 0.48 (Ans) = 3.31 (Ans) =0.3069

Q3.Find:
i) 2.7100 iii) 0.78100 iv)
432.6100

(ans)

vii) 98.53100

## Sol: 0.9853 (ans)

Chapter no. 5
Recall
Angle:0 An angle is an inclination between the two rays with
the same initial point. The initial point is the vertex and the two
rays are the arms of the angle. An angle is represented by the
symbol <.

Types of angles :-

## 1. Acute angle :- Whose magnitude is more than 00 but less

than 900 is called an acute angle.
2. Obtuse angle:- Whose magnitude is more than 900 but less
than 1800 is called obtuse angle.
3. Reflex angle:-Whose magnitude lies between 1800 and
3600 is called reflex angle.

Pairs of angles :-

opposite angles.

Exercise 5.1

## Q1. Find the complement of each of the following :)

Sol:) When the sum of measures of two angles is 900, the angles
are called complementary angles. (NOTE: Figures On Book
Pages No.144)
a. 200

b. 630

c. 570

## Q2. Find the supplement of each of the following angles:

Sol: When the sum of measure of two angles is 1800 , the angles
are supplementary angles:

a) 1050

## Sol:) Sum of supplementary angles = 1800

1800 - 1050 = 750

b) 870

c) 1540

## Q3. Identify which of the following pairs of angles are

complimentary and which are supplementary.

## Sol: 650 + 1150 = 1800 Sol:) 630 + 270 = 900

So, it is a supplementary So it is a
complementary .
Exercise 5.2

## Q1. State the property that is used in each of the

following statement.

ll b.

## III) The pairs of interior angles on the same side of

the transversal.

Sol: /2 , /5 : /3 , /8

## iv) The vertically opposite angles.

Sol: /5 = /7, /8 = /6, /1 = /3 , /2 = /4

angles.

Sol: P ll Q

/e = 1800 - 1250

/e = 550

i.e. /f = 550

550 + /d = 1800

/d = 1800 - 550

/d = 1250

## /d = /b (Vertically opposite angles)

/b = 1250

/e = /a (Corresponding angles)

/a = 550
/a = /c (Vertically opposite angles)

/c = 550

L ll M.
T L M
1100 b 1000 x

L a

x 800
m b

## /1100 + /b = 1800 (L.P) x = 1000

(Corresponding angles)

/b = 1800 1100

/b = 700

/b = /x (Corresponding angles)

x = 700

## Q5) In the given figure, the arms of two angles are

parallel. If /ABC = 700, Then find :

## i) /DGC ii) /DEF

Sol: (i) AB ll DE
/ABC = /DGC (Corresponding angles)

/DGC = 700

ii) /DEF

to M.

1260 +440=1700

1800

III)
570

L
P

1230
m

## 570 + 1230 = 1800

1800 = 1800

L ll M.

Chapter. 8
Recall
Ratio:- A ratio is the comparison of two or more quantities of the
same kind using [a :b]

Important points :

## (i) In a ratio, the order of terms is very important.

(ii) Since ratio is a fraction ,the ratio will remain
unchanged if each term of the ratio is multiplied or
divided by the same non- zero number.
(iii) Ratio exists between quantities of the same kind.
(iv) To find a ratio between quantities of the same kind,
quantities should be expressed in the same units.
(v) Percent means per 100.The symbol for percent is .

S .p=C .p +Profit

S .p=C .p-Loss

Exercise:- 8.1

## Q1). Find the ratio of :

a). Rs 5 to 50 paise

Ratio =500/50

=10 : 1 (ans)

## Sol: 15x 1000 g = 15000g

Ratio = 15000/210

=500:7 ( ans)

( c ): 9m to 27 cm

Sol: 9x100cm=900cm

Ratio = 900/27

= 100:3 ( ans )

## Q2. In a computer lab, there are 3 computers for 6

students. How many computer will be needed for 24
students?

## Hence, for 24 students computers needed =3/6 x24

3 x 4= 12 computers.

## Therefore 12 computers are needed for 24 students.

Q3. Population of Rajasthan=570 lakhs and population U.
P= 1660lakhs.Area of Rajasthan =3 lakh km2 and
area of U P =2lakh km2.

these states?

Exercise:-8.2

## Q1. Convert the given fractional numbers to per cents.

1 5
a. 8 b. 4

1 100 5 100
Sol. 8 x 100 Sol. 4 x 100

100 1 500 1
= 8 x 100 = 4 x 100

25 1
= 2 X 100 =125% (ans)

=12.5% (Ans)

a. 0.65 b. 0.02

=65% =2%

## Q3. Estimate what part of the figures is coloured and

hence find the per cent which is coloured .

## [Note. Figures on book page no.213]

1 3
Sol: a. Fraction = 4 b. Fraction = 5
1 100 3
Percent = 4 x 100 Percent = 5

100
x 100

` =25% =60%

Q4. Find.

## a. 15% of 250 b. 1% of 1hr

15 1
Sol. 100 x 250 Sol. 100 x1

750
= 20 =0.01

=37.5

1080

=p

## 5%x p =600 12% x p =1080

5 12
100 x p =600 100 xp

60000
=1080 P= 5

108000
P= 12

P=12000 P = 9000

## Q6. Convert given % to decimal fractions and also to

fractions in simplest form.

a) 25 % c) 20%

25 20
Sol: 100 Sol: 100

## = 0.25 (Decimal fraction) = 0.2(Decimal fraction)

25 20
Fractions = 100 Fractions = 100

1
[simplest form] = 4 [simplest form]

1
= 5

## Q7. In a city, 30% are females , 40% are males and

remaining are children. What per cent are children.
Sol. Total percent = 100%

Exercise: 8.3

## Q1. Tell what is the profit or loss in the following

transactions. Also find profit percent or loss percent
in each case.

## a. Gardening shears bought for RS 250 and sold for

Rs325.
Sol : C.P =Rs250
S .p = RS 325
Profit = S. p C. p
=Rs 325 Rs 250
= Rs 75
Profit
Profit % = C . p x 100
75
= 250 x 100
= 30%
b. A refrigerator bought for Rs 12,000 and sold at Rs
13,500.
Sol. C .p = 12,000
S .p =13,500
Profit = S . p C .p
= 13,500 12,000
=1,500
Profit
Profit % = C . p x 100
1500
= 1200 x 100
=12.5%

a. 3:1 b. 2:3:5

## Sol : Sum of ratio 3+1 = 4 Sol : Sum of ratio

2+3+5= 10
3 2
1st part = 4 x 100 % 1st part = 10

x 100 %
= 75% = 20%
1 3
2nd part = 4 x 100 % 2nd part = 10

x 100 %
=25 % =30%
5
3rd
part = 10 x 100

%
=50%

## Q3. The population of a city decreased from 25,000 to

24,000.Find the percentage decrease.

## No. of decreased population (loss) =25000-24500

=500

decreased
Percentage decreased = population x100

500
= 25000 x100
=2%

Q4. Atif brought a car for Rs. 3,50,000. The next year, the
price went up to Rs. 3,70,000. What was the
percentage of price increase?

## Increased in price =Rs.3,70,000 3,50,000

= 20,000

increase
Percentage of price increase = price x100

20,000
= 3,50,000 x100
200
= 35
40
= 7 %
5
= 5 7 %