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Chapter No.

2
Recall
A fraction is a number that expresses a part of group.
a
Fractions are written in the form of b , where [a] & [b] are

whole numbers and [b] 0. The [a] is called the numerator [nr]
and [b] is called the denominator [dr].

Types of fractions :-

1. Proper fraction :- Fractions having numerator less than the

3 5
denominator are called proper fraction, as 7 , 7 , etc.
2. Improper fractions:- Fractions having numerator greater
than the denominator or equal to their denominator are

12 6
called improper fraction as 5 , 6 , etc.
3. Mixed number:-Number having a whole number part & a

b 1
fractional part are called mixed number a c . as 4 3 ,2

2
5 etc.
4. Decimal fractions:- Fractions having denominator as 10 ,
100 , 1000 or any other higher powers of 10 are called

40 35
decimal fractions. As 100 , 1000 , etc.
5. Vulgar fractions:- Fractions having denominator as whole
numbers other than power of 10 are called vulgar fractions.

5 413 837
As 31 , 999 , 8000 , etc.

Exercise 2.1

Q1:- Solve:

3
i. 2- 5

103
Sol: = 5

7
= 5

7
ii. 4+ 8

32+7
Sol: = 8
39
= 8

7
=4 8

9 4
iv. 11 - 15

13544
Sol: = 165

91
= 165

7 2 3
v. 10 + 5 + 2

Sol: L.C.M of 10 , 5 and 2

= 10

2 2 4
5 x 2 = 10

3 5 15
2 x 5 = 10

7 +4 +15
= 10
26
= 10

13 3
= 5 or =2 5

Q2. Arrange the following in ascending order:

4 2 4 8
i. 7 , 5 , 35 , 7

Sol:- L.C.M of 7 , 5 , 35 and 7

= 35

Now,

4 5 20
7 x 5 = 35

2 7 14
5 x 7 = 35

4 1 4
35 x 1 = 35

8 5 40
7 x 5 = 35

4 14 20 40
Here 35 < 35 < 35 < 35
Ascending order

4 14 20 40
35 , 35 , 35 , 35

4 2 4 8
I ,e. 35 , 5 , 7 , 7

1
Q3. A rectangular sheet of paper is 12 2 cm long and 10

2
3 cm wide. Find its perimeter.

1 25
Sol: Length of rectangular sheet = 12 2 cm => 2

cm.

2 32
Breadth of rectangular sheet = 10 3 cm => 3 cm

Perimeter of rectangular sheet = 2 x [ l + b]

25 32
=2[ 2 + 3 ]

25 x 3+32 x 2
=2[ 6 ]

75+ 64
=2 [ 6 ]
139
=2[ 6 ]

139
= 3 cm

1
Or 46 3 cm

Q4. Find the perimeter of :

i. Triangle ABC

ii. The square BCEF in given figure. Whose


perimeter is greater ? {NOTE:- Figure on book}

2
Sol:- Sides of ABC , AB = 3 8 cm

26
= 8 cm

1 3
AC = 2 4 cm , BC = 2 2 cm

9 7
= 4 cm , = 2 cm

Perimeter of ABC = Sum of all sides

= AB + BC + AC
26 9 7
= 8 + 4 + 2

L.C.M of 8 , 4 , 2 = 8

26 +7 x 4+9 x 2
= 8

26 +28+18
= 8

72
= 8

= 9 cm.

7
ii. Side of square BC = EF = 2 cm

Perimeter of square = 4 x side.

7
=4x 2

= 14 cm

perimeter of square is greater than as compare to

perimeter of triangle.

Q5. Salim wants to put a picture in a frame. The picture is

3
7 5 cm wide. To fit in the frame the picture cannot
3
be more than 7 10 cm wide. How much should the

picture be trimmed ?

Sol: The picture should be trimmed

3 3
[7 5 - 7 10 ]

38 73
=[ 5 - 10 ]

= L.C.M. of 5 and 10 = 10

7673
= 10

3
= 10 cm

Exercise 2.3

Q1. Find

1 1
I. 4 of (a) 4

1 1
Sol: 4 x 4

1
= 16
1 2
ii. 7 of (a) 9

1 2
Sol: 7 x 9

2
= 63

Q2: Multiply and reduce to lowest form (if possible):

2 2
i) 3 x2 3

2 8
Sol: 3 x 3

16
= 9

7
=1 9 (Lowest form)

2 7
ii) 7 x 9

14
Sol: 63

2
= 9 (lowest form)

Q3. Multiply of following fractions:


2 1
i) 5 x 5 4

2 21
Sol: 5 x 4

42
= 20

21
= 10

1
=2 10

2 7
ii) 6 5 x 9

32 7
Sol: 5 x 9

224
= 45

44
=4 45

Exercise 2.4

Q1. Find:

3
i) 12 4
3
Sol: 12 x reciprocal of 4

4
= 12 x 3

48
= 3

=16

1 1
Vii: 3 2 2 3

7 7
Sol: 2 3

7 7
= 2 x reciprocal Of 3

7 3
= 2 x 7

3
= 2

Q2. Find the reciprocal of each of the following fractions.


Classify the reciprocals as proper fraction, improper
fraction and whole numbers.

3
I) 7
3 7
Sol: reciprocal of 7 = 3

Here numerator greater than denominator.

7
Therefore 3 is improper fraction.

Q3. Find:

7
i) 3 2

7
Sol: 3 reciprocal of 2

7 1
= 3 2

7
= 6

1
Iv: 4 3 3

13
Sol: 3 x reciprocal of 3

13 1
= 3 x 3
13
= 9

Q4: Find:

2 1
I. 5 2

2 2
Sol: 5 1

4
= 5

1 3
iv. 2 2 5

5 5
Sol: 2 x 3

25
= 6

1 1
viii) 2 5 1 5

11 6 11 5
Sol: 5 5 = 5 x 6

55
= 30 (ans)
Exercise 2.5

Q1. Which is greater:

i) 0.5 or 0.05

Sol. 0.5 is greater than 0.05

ii. 7 or 0.7

Sol. 7 is greater than 0.7

iii. 1.37 or 1.49

Sol. 1.49 is greater than 1.37

iv. 0.8 or 0.88

Sol. 0.88 is greater than 0.8

Q2. Express as rupees using decimals.

i. 7 paisa

Sol. Rs 0.07

ii. 7 rupees 7 paisa

Sol. Rs 7.07

iii. 50 paisa

Sol. Rs 0.50

iv. 235 paisa


Sol. Rs 2.35

Q3. i. Express 5 cm in meter and km

1
Sol. Since 1m = 100cm and 1cm = 100 m,

1
1m = 1000 km

5cm = 0.05m = 0.00005km

ii. Express 35 mm in cm, m and km.

sol. 10mm = 1cm

ii. 35mm

35
Sol: 10 cm

= 3.5cm

=0.035m

= 0.000035km

Q4. Express in kg.

i. 200g

Sol. 1kg = 1000g


1 200
1g = 1000 kg, = 1000 kg

= 0.2kg

ii. 3470 g

Sol: 3470 g

3470
= 1000 kg

= 3.470 kg

iii) 4kg 8g

Sol: 4.008 kg

Exercise 2.6

Q1. Find :

i) 0.2 x 6 iii) 2.71 x 5 vi) 211.02 x 4

Sol: 1.2 (Ans) Sol: 13.55 (Ans) Sol: 844.08


(Ans)

Q2. I) Find the area of rectangle whose length is 5.7 cm


and breadth is 3 cm.

Sol: Length of rectangle = 5.7 cm.

Breadth of rectangle = 3 cm
Area = l x b

= 3.7 x 3

= 17.1 cm2

II) Find the area of a square whose side is 12.5 cm.

Sol: Side of square = 12.5 cm

Area = side x side

= 12.5 cm x 12.5 cm.

= 156.25 cm2

Exercise 2.7

Q1. Find:

i) 0.4 2 iii) 2.48 4 vii) 3.96 4

4 248 396
Sol: 10 2 Sol: 100 4 Sol: 100 4

4 1 248 1
= 10 x 2 = 100 x 4

396 1
= 100 x 4
4 248
= 20 = 400 =

396
400

= 0.2 (Ans) = 0.62 (Ans)


= 0.99 (Ans)

Q2. Find :

i) 4.8 10 iv) 33.1 10 vii)


3.06910

48 331
Sol: 10 10 Sol: 10 10

3069
Sol. 1000 10

48 1 331 1
= 10 x 10 = 10 x 10

3069 1
= 1000 x 10

48 331 3069
= 100 = 100 = 10000

= 0.48 (Ans) = 3.31 (Ans) =0.3069

Q3.Find:
i) 2.7100 iii) 0.78100 iv)
432.6100

Sol: 0.027 (ans) Sol: 0.0078 (ans) Sol: 4.326


(ans)

vii) 98.53100

Sol: 0.9853 (ans)

Chapter no. 5
Recall
Angle:0 An angle is an inclination between the two rays with
the same initial point. The initial point is the vertex and the two
rays are the arms of the angle. An angle is represented by the
symbol <.

Types of angles :-

1. Acute angle :- Whose magnitude is more than 00 but less


than 900 is called an acute angle.
2. Obtuse angle:- Whose magnitude is more than 900 but less
than 1800 is called obtuse angle.
3. Reflex angle:-Whose magnitude lies between 1800 and
3600 is called reflex angle.

Pairs of angles :-

i. Adjacent angles. ii) Linear Pair. iii) Vertically


opposite angles.

iv. Complementary angles. v) Supplementary angles.

Exercise 5.1

Q1. Find the complement of each of the following :)

Sol:) When the sum of measures of two angles is 900, the angles
are called complementary angles. (NOTE: Figures On Book
Pages No.144)
a. 200

Sol:) Sum of complimentary angles = 900

900 - 200 = 700

So, 700 is the compliment of 200

b. 630

Sol:) Sum of complimentary angles = 900

900 - 630 = 270

So, 270 is the compliment of 630

c. 570

Sol:) Sum of complimentary angles = 900

900 - 570 = 330

So, 330 is the compliment of 570

Q2. Find the supplement of each of the following angles:

Sol: When the sum of measure of two angles is 1800 , the angles
are supplementary angles:

a) 1050

Sol:) Sum of supplementary angles = 1800


1800 - 1050 = 750

So, 750 is the supplement of 1050

b) 870

Sol:) Sum of supplementary angles = 1800

1800 - 870 = 930

So, 930 is the supplement of 870

c) 1540

Sol:) Sum of supplementary angles = 1800

1800 - 1540 = 260

So, 260 is the supplement of 1540

Q3. Identify which of the following pairs of angles are


complimentary and which are supplementary.

i. 650 ,1150 ii) 630 , 270

Sol: 650 + 1150 = 1800 Sol:) 630 + 270 = 900

So, it is a supplementary So it is a
complementary .
Exercise 5.2

Q1. State the property that is used in each of the


following statement.

(NOTE: Figure on book page no. 155)

i. If a ll b then /1 = /5. ii. If /4 = /6, then a


ll b.

Sol: Corresponding angles. Sol: Alt. interior angles.

iii. If /4 + /5 = 1800, then a ll b.

Sol: Same side of the transversal.

Q2. In adjoining figure , identify:

(NOTE: Figure on book page no. 155)

I) The pairs of corresponding angles.

Sol: /1 = /5, /2 = /6, /4 = /8, /3 = /7,

II) The pairs of alternate interior angles.

Sol: /2 = /8, /3 = /5,

III) The pairs of interior angles on the same side of


the transversal.

Sol: /2 , /5 : /3 , /8

iv) The vertically opposite angles.


Sol: /5 = /7, /8 = /6, /1 = /3 , /2 = /4

Q3. In the adjoining figure. P II Q. Find the unknown


angles.

(NOTE: Figure on book page no. 155)

Sol: P ll Q

/e + 1250 = 1800 (Linear Pair)

/e = 1800 - 1250

/e = 550

/e = /f (Vertically Opposite angles)

i.e. /f = 550

/f + /d = 1800 (Same side of the transversal)

550 + /d = 1800

/d = 1800 - 550

/d = 1250

/d = /b (Vertically opposite angles)

/b = 1250

/e = /a (Corresponding angles)

/a = 550
/a = /c (Vertically opposite angles)

/c = 550

Q4. Find the values of x in each of the following figures if


L ll M.
T L M
1100 b 1000 x

L a

x 800
m b

Sol: Fig. (1) Sol: Fig (2)

/1100 + /b = 1800 (L.P) x = 1000


(Corresponding angles)

/b = 1800 1100

/b = 700

/b = /x (Corresponding angles)

x = 700

Q5) In the given figure, the arms of two angles are


parallel. If /ABC = 700, Then find :

(NOTE: Figure on book page no. 156)

i) /DGC ii) /DEF

Sol: (i) AB ll DE
/ABC = /DGC (Corresponding angles)

/DGC = 700

ii) /DEF

Sol: /DEF = /DGC => 700 (Corresponding angles)

Q6. In the given figure below, decide whether L is parallel


to M.

(Note :Figures on book page no.156)

Sol. I) Fig(1) Line L is not parallel to M.

1260 +440=1700

But sum of two angles are same side of a transversal is


1800

III)
570

L
P

1230
m

Sol: /P = 570 (Vertically opposite angles)

/P + 1230 = 1800 (Same side of a transversal)

570 + 1230 = 1800


1800 = 1800

L ll M.

Chapter. 8
Recall
Ratio:- A ratio is the comparison of two or more quantities of the
same kind using [a :b]

Important points :

(i) In a ratio, the order of terms is very important.


(ii) Since ratio is a fraction ,the ratio will remain
unchanged if each term of the ratio is multiplied or
divided by the same non- zero number.
(iii) Ratio exists between quantities of the same kind.
(iv) To find a ratio between quantities of the same kind,
quantities should be expressed in the same units.
(v) Percent means per 100.The symbol for percent is .

S .p=C .p +Profit

S .p=C .p-Loss

Profit = Profit/C .p x 100.

Loss = Loss / C . p x 100.

Exercise:- 8.1

Q1). Find the ratio of :

a). Rs 5 to 50 paise

Sol: 5x 100 paise =500paise


Ratio =500/50

=10 : 1 (ans)

(b). 15kg to 210 g

Sol: 15x 1000 g = 15000g

Ratio = 15000/210

=500:7 ( ans)

( c ): 9m to 27 cm

Sol: 9x100cm=900cm

Ratio = 900/27

= 100:3 ( ans )

Q2. In a computer lab, there are 3 computers for 6


students. How many computer will be needed for 24
students?

Sol: For every 6 students there are 3 computers

So, for each student =3/6

Hence, for 24 students computers needed =3/6 x24

3 x 4= 12 computers.

Therefore 12 computers are needed for 24 students.


Q3. Population of Rajasthan=570 lakhs and population U.
P= 1660lakhs.Area of Rajasthan =3 lakh km2 and
area of U P =2lakh km2.

i). How many people are there per km2 in both


these states?

ii). Which state is less populated?

Sol. (i) Population of Rajasthan =570 lakh .

Area of Rajasthan =3 lakh km2

Population per km = 570/3

=190 lakhs people.

Population of U.P = 1660 lakhs

Area of U.P= 2 lakhs km2.

Population per km = 1660/2

=830 lakhs people

ii: Rajasthan is less populated as compare to U.P

Exercise:-8.2

Q1. Convert the given fractional numbers to per cents.


1 5
a. 8 b. 4

1 100 5 100
Sol. 8 x 100 Sol. 4 x 100

100 1 500 1
= 8 x 100 = 4 x 100

25 1
= 2 X 100 =125% (ans)

=12.5% (Ans)

Q2. Convert the given decimal fraction to per cents.

a. 0.65 b. 0.02

Sol. 65/100 Sol. 2/100

=65% =2%

Q3. Estimate what part of the figures is coloured and


hence find the per cent which is coloured .

[Note. Figures on book page no.213]

1 3
Sol: a. Fraction = 4 b. Fraction = 5
1 100 3
Percent = 4 x 100 Percent = 5

100
x 100

` =25% =60%

Q4. Find.

a. 15% of 250 b. 1% of 1hr

15 1
Sol. 100 x 250 Sol. 100 x1

750
= 20 =0.01

=37.5

Q5. Find the whole quantity if.

a. 5% of it is 600. b. 12% of it is Rs.


1080

Sol. Let whole quantity = p Sol. Let whole quantity


=p

5%x p =600 12% x p =1080


5 12
100 x p =600 100 xp

60000
=1080 P= 5

108000
P= 12

P=12000 P = 9000

Q6. Convert given % to decimal fractions and also to


fractions in simplest form.

a) 25 % c) 20%

25 20
Sol: 100 Sol: 100

= 0.25 (Decimal fraction) = 0.2(Decimal fraction)

25 20
Fractions = 100 Fractions = 100

1
[simplest form] = 4 [simplest form]

1
= 5

Q7. In a city, 30% are females , 40% are males and


remaining are children. What per cent are children.
Sol. Total percent = 100%

Females percent =30%

Males percent= 40%

Therefore 30%+ 40% =70%

Therefore, children percent = 100% -70% =30% (ans)

Exercise: 8.3

Q1. Tell what is the profit or loss in the following


transactions. Also find profit percent or loss percent
in each case.

a. Gardening shears bought for RS 250 and sold for


Rs325.
Sol : C.P =Rs250
S .p = RS 325
Profit = S. p C. p
=Rs 325 Rs 250
= Rs 75
Profit
Profit % = C . p x 100
75
= 250 x 100
= 30%
b. A refrigerator bought for Rs 12,000 and sold at Rs
13,500.
Sol. C .p = 12,000
S .p =13,500
Profit = S . p C .p
= 13,500 12,000
=1,500
Profit
Profit % = C . p x 100
1500
= 1200 x 100
=12.5%

Q 2. Convert each part of the ratio to percentage.

a. 3:1 b. 2:3:5

Sol : Sum of ratio 3+1 = 4 Sol : Sum of ratio


2+3+5= 10
3 2
1st part = 4 x 100 % 1st part = 10

x 100 %
= 75% = 20%
1 3
2nd part = 4 x 100 % 2nd part = 10

x 100 %
=25 % =30%
5
3rd
part = 10 x 100

%
=50%

Q3. The population of a city decreased from 25,000 to


24,000.Find the percentage decrease.

Sol. Population of city = 25,000

Decreased population = 24,500

No. of decreased population (loss) =25000-24500


=500

decreased
Percentage decreased = population x100

500
= 25000 x100
=2%

Q4. Atif brought a car for Rs. 3,50,000. The next year, the
price went up to Rs. 3,70,000. What was the
percentage of price increase?

Sol: Atif brought a car of Rs. 3,50,000

Increased price = Rs. 3,70,000

Increased in price =Rs.3,70,000 3,50,000

= 20,000

increase
Percentage of price increase = price x100

20,000
= 3,50,000 x100
200
= 35
40
= 7 %
5
= 5 7 %