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Cover artist: Christopher Corr

George Orwell Animal Fa r m 1

Introduccin

GEORGE ORWELL

George Orwell, cuyo verdadero nombre era Eric Blair,


naci en la ciudad de Bengala, en la India, en 1903, y falleci
en Londres, en 1950. De origen escocs, estudi en Inglaterra,
pero regres a la India, donde form parte de la polica
imperial. En 1928 volvi a Europa. Vivi en Pars, ciudad en la
que llev una dura existencia; luego se traslad a Londres y all
trabaj como maestro de escuela y en una librera. Aquellos
aos seran descritos en su primer libro Mis aos de miseria en
Pars y Londres, en el que se marca la tendencia social que
caracteriza toda la obra, de Orwell.
En 1934 public sus dos primeras novelas: Das birmanos y
La hija del cura, esta ltima sobre la vida inglesa. Dos aos
despus edit otras dos obras: la novela Mantn en alto la
aspidistra y El camino del muelle Wigan, libro en que describe los efectos de la depresin y
examina las perspectivas del socialismo en Inglaterra.
Orwell fue siempre socialista, pero extremadamente crtico. Particip en la guerra civil espaola,
donde fue herido. Durante su convalecencia escribi Homenaje a Catalua, obra en que ataca a los
comunistas de inspiracin sovitica, por su poltica partidista y monoplica, a la que atribuye las
causas de la derrota.
Con la novela Subir en busca del aire volvi al tema de la vida social inglesa. Es la ltima obra
que public antes de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, en la que no pudo intervenir por su dbil salud.
En 1943 ingres a la redaccin del diario Tribune y colabor tambin en el Observer. De esta
poca datan la mayora de sus ensayos.
En 1946 public La granja de los animales. Es una animada stira del rgimen sovitico, con la
que alcanz xito internacional. En 1949 apareci su novela de anticipacin, 1984, en la que
presenta un cuadro del mundo futuro, en una prolongacin ideal de la lnea del comunismo
sovitico llevado a sus ms desoladoras consecuencias.
En opinin de algunos de sus crticos, la importancia de Orwell reside principalmente en la
franqueza y clarividencia con que trata los problemas de poltica social.

[Los interesados en un resmen e interpretacin de la obra pueden consultar:


http://www.monografias.com/trabajos14/rebelion-granja/rebelion-granja.shtml ]
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 2

Prlogo

REBELIN EN LA GRANJA: VIAJE DE IDA Y VUELTA


por Miguel Arteche

Aunque La granja de los animales ("Animal Farm") es un aplogo, esto es, un relato falso, de
pura invencin, su atractivo reside en que lo inventado, aquello que se descubre, aparece siempre
ceido a lo cotidiano. Como en otras fbulas, en sta los animales hablan. No slo hablan, asumen,
adems, las funciones que en una granja cumplen los hombres.
Jones, el granjero, va a su cama a dormir la borrachera de cerveza. Apaga la luz. Apenas lo ha
hecho, todos los animales de esta granja inglesa se alborotan. El Viejo Mayor, cerdo premiado,
gordo, sabio y benevolente, ha tenido un extrao sueo en la noche anterior, y desea comunicarlo a
los otros animales.
Este, el sueo de un cerdo, es el gozne de plata sobre el cual gira en 180 grados la narracin: es
la puerta encontrada sbitamente en ese muro donde no hubo jams una puerta; es el puente que
permite entrar en el cuarto prohibido; es el ropero (recordemos la saga de Narnia) que da paso a
otro tiempo y otros espacios; es el cuerno que suena en el silencio de la noche para anunciar la
llegada de otro reino. "Y ahora, camaradas, dice el Viejo Cerdo Mayor, contar mi sueo de anoche.
No estoy en condiciones de describroslo. Era una visin, contina, de cmo ser la Tierra cuando
el Hombre haya desaparecido (...) El hombre es el nico enemigo real que tenemos (...). Eliminad
tan slo al Hombre, y el producto de nuestro trabajo ser propio (...). Todos los hombres son
enemigos, afirma. Todos los animales son camaradas". Poco despus el Viejo Cerdo Mayor muere,
no sin antes entonar un himno, "cantado por los animales de pocas remotas", para que las Bestias
rompan sus cadenas. Jones, luego, es expulsado de la granja por los animales, y los cerdos, que se
supone son los ms inteligentes, toman a su cargo el trabajo de ensear y organizar a los dems.
Los cerdos asumen el control total de la granja. Bajo su direccin trabajan sin descanso, y
obedecen como esclavos, perros, gallinas, ovejas, vacas, patos, caballos, gansos, una gata, un
cuervo, ratas, conejos, y hasta un gallo trompetero que ms tarde anunciar con sonoros
quiquiriques la llegada del dictador. Animales que slo caminan sobre cuatro patas, pues todo lo
que camina sobre dos pies es un enemigo, y lo que camina sobre cuatro patas o tenga alas es un
amigo". Esta es la consigna. Como toda revolucin que comienza, lo hace con hermosas promesas;
entre ellas, el vademcum de una ideologa; y, en este caso, sus siete mandamientos.
Escrita durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, entre 1943 y 1944, mientras Orwell trabajaba en la
BBC de Londres, y publicada en 1945, esto es, al trmino de esa guerra, La granja de los animales
parece situarse sobre una lnea que arranca de Toms Moro, pasa por Swift, y toca, en nuestros das,
al Huxley de Un mundo feliz ("Brave New World"), y 1984. Es la utopa, es decir, "ese proyecto de
imposible realizacin". Slo que La granja est muy cerca de ciertos proyectos totalitarios que
fueron posibles en esos aos.
Como toda obra que esconde diversos planos, esta fbula es, por una parte, un "cuento" cruel y
despiadado, y por otra un libro que pueden leer los nios, como leen el Gulliver de Swift. Pues si el
Guilliver es en el fondo una descarnada stira contra la sociedad inglesa, y puede tambin leerse
como una novela de aventuras, La granja se apoya tambin en la circunstancia de su tiempo, la
dictadura de un paranoico vido de sangre y poder: Stalin. Sin embargo, cuando se llega a la ltima
pgina de ella se desprende una conclusin an ms terrible que la misma realidad.
Al revs de lo que sucede en 1984, cuyo estilo sufre de alguna laxitud y se extiende
innecesariamente, en La granja todo est tramado como un mecanismo de relojera que funciona
con esplndida naturalidad. Esta es una manera de hacer verosmil lo que en ella ocurre. Casi no
cuenta la ideologa del autor, e incluso marcha a contrapelo de ella. El espacio fsico del relato, si
lo comparamos con el que hay en 1984, est acotado por la precisin de lo que se narra, la lnea
recta de lo que se cuenta, y, sobre todo, la progresin que mediante sutiles toques desnuda poco a
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 3

poco esa nueva clase corrupta de los cerdos.


Cuando todo termina, el arco se cierra justamente en el extremo contrario. "La revolucin",
aseguraba Chesterton, "es la parbola que describe un mvil para volver al punto de partida". La
revolucin se suele morder la cola. Lo que se haba prometido no slo no se cumple sino que se
cumple al revs: se termina por hacer lo que no se deba hacer; se prohibe lo que antes se permita;
se torna amigo el enemigo, y el enemigo, amigo; los mandamientos son manipulados, y quedan
reducidos slo a uno; se inventa el terror, y a la vez se cae bajo el dominio del terror. En La granja
domina, adems de la stira, la irona, y hasta el humorismo. Napolen, sucesor del Viejo Cerdo, ha
asumido todo el poder. ("Su cola se haba puesto rgida, y se mova nerviosamente de lado a lado,
seal de su intensa actividad mental".) Este cerdo piensa tanto como la gata que charla con algunos
gorriones. ("Les estaba diciendo que todos los animales eran ya camaradas y que cualquier gorrin
que quisiera poda posarse sobre sus garras; pero los gorriones mantuvieron la distancia".) El Viejo
haba afirmado, perentoriamente, que "ningn cerdo debe vivir en una casa, dormir en una cama,
vestir ropas, beber alcohol, fumar tabaco, recibir dinero, ocuparse del comercio, pues todas las
costumbres del Hombre son malas; ningn animal debe tiranizar a sus semejantes. Dbil o fuerte,
agregaba, listo o ingenuo, somos todos hermanos. Ningn animal debe matar a otro animal. Todos
los animales son iguales".
Pero Napolen y sus cerdos secuaces, ms los mastines de su guardia pretoriana, terminan por
hacer, y por ordenar que se haga, justamente lo contrario. Napolen ir a vivir en la casa del
granjero Jones; vestir sus ropas, beber su whisky, fumar su tabaco, recibir dinero, tiranizar a
los otros animales, algunos de los cuales sern ejecutados. Aqu no hay redencin ni trasmundo que
abra la esperanza a otro espacio, ese que el cuervo Moses promete: cuervo mentiroso y cobarde que
tal vez Orwell inventa como una caricatura de alguna clase sacerdotal. ("Pretenda conocer la
existencia de un pas misterioso llamado Monte Caramelo, al que iban los animales cuando
moran...). Todos son engaados, salvo Benjamn, el burro, que ha visto pasar muchas aguas y no
cree en "pjaros preados". Parece paradjico, en fin, que este burro escptico sea el ms sabio de
los animales. Ayer todos los animales "eran iguales"; hoy todos los animales son iguales, pero
algunos animales son ms iguales que otros". Ayer izbase la bandera verde en cuyo campo
estaban dibujadas el asta y la pata; hoy slo se levanta una bandera verde sin asta y sin pata. La
ayer Granja Manor, a la cual los cerdos dieron el nombre de Granja de los Animales, vuelve a
llamarse Granja Manor. Es evidente, para los cerdos, que animales y hombres pueden convivir.
Cuando cerdos y hombres, en el ltimo prrafo del libro, terminan por almorzar, brindar y
engaarse mutuamente en la casa que fue del granjero, "los animales (que se encontraban afuera)
miraron del cerdo al hombre, y del hombre al cerdo, y nuevamente del cerdo al hombre; pero ya era
imposible discernir quin era quin".
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 4

CHAPTER 1 CAPTULO I

MR. JONES, of the Manor Farm, had locked El seor Jones, dueo de la Granja Manor, cerr
por la noche los gallineros, pero estaba
the hen-houses for the night, but was too drunk
demasiado borracho para recordar que haba
to remember to shut the popholes. With the
dejado abiertas las ventanillas. Con la luz de la
ring of light from his lantern dancing from side
linterna bailoteando de un lado a otro cruz el
to side, he lurched across the yard, kicked off
patio, se quit las botas ante la puerta de atrs, se
his boots at the back door, drew himself a last
sirvi una ltima copa de cerveza del barril que
glass of beer from the barrel in the scullery,
estaba en la cocina y se fue derecho a la cama,
and made his way up to bed, where Mrs. Jones
donde ya roncaba la seora Jones.
was already snoring.
As soon as the light in the bedroom went out En cuanto se apag la luz en el dormitorio,
there was a stirring and a fluttering all through comenz el alboroto en toda la granja. Durante el
the farm buildings. Word had gone round da se corri la voz de que el Viejo Mayor, el
during the day that old Major, the prize Middle cerdo premiado, haba tenido un sueo extrao
White boar, had had a strange dream on the durante la noche anterior y deseaba
previous night and wished to communicate it comunicrselo a los dems animales. Haban
to the other animals. It had been agreed that acordado reunirse todos en el granero principal
they should all meet in the big barn as soon as para que el seor Jones no pudiera molestarles.
Mr. Jones was safely out of the way. Old El Viejo Mayor (as le llamaban siempre, aunque
Major (so he was always called, though the fue presentado en la exposicin bajo el nombre
name under which he had been exhibited was de Willingdon Beauty), era tan altamente
Willingdon Beauty) was so highly regarded on estimado en la granja, que todos estaban
the farm that everyone was quite ready to lose dispuestos a perder una hora de sueo para or lo
an hours sleep in order to hear what he had to que l tuviera que decirles.
say.
At one end of the big barn, on a sort of raised En un extremo del granero principal, sobre una
platform, Major was already ensconced on his especie de plataforma elevada, Mayor ya se
bed of straw, under a lantern which hung from encontraba situado en su cama de paja, bajo una
a beam. He was twelve years old and had linterna que penda de una viga. Tena doce aos
lately grown rather stout, but he was still a de edad y ltimamente se haba puesto bastante
majestic-looking pig, with a wise and gordo, pero an era un cerdo majestuoso de
benevolent appearance in spite of the fact that aspecto sabio y benevolente, a pesar de que
his tushes had never been cut. Before long the nunca le haban limado los colmillos. Haca rato
other animals began to arrive and make que haban comenzado a llegar los dems
themselves comfortable after their different animales y a colocarse cmodamente, cada cual
fashions. First came the three dogs, Bluebell, a su manera. Primero arribaron los tres perros,
Jessie, and Pincher, and then the pigs, who Bluebell, Jessie y Pincher, y luego los cerdos,
settled down in the straw immediately in front que se arrellanaron en la paja delante de la
of the platform. The hens perched themselves plataforma. Las gallinas, se posaron en el
on the window-sills, the pigeons fluttered up to alfizar de las ventanas, las palomas
the rafters, the sheep and cows lay down revolotearon hacia las vigas, las ovejas y las
behind the pigs and began to chew the cud. vacas se echaron detrs de los cerdos y se
The two cart-horses, Boxer and Clover, came dedicaron a rumiar. Los dos caballos de tiro,
in together, walking very slowly and setting Boxer y Clover, entraron juntos, caminando
down their vast hairy hoofs with great care lest despacio y posando con gran cuidado sus
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 5

there should be some small animal concealed enormes cascos peludos, por temor de que algn
in the straw. Clover was a stout motherly mare animalito pudiera hallarse oculto en la paja.
approaching middle life, who had never quite Clover era una yegua corpulenta, entrada en aos
got her figure back after her fourth foal. Boxer y de aspecto maternal, que no haba logrado
was an enormous beast, nearly eighteen hands recuperar la silueta despus de su cuarto potrillo.
high, and as strong as any two ordinary horses Boxer era una bestia enorme, de unos dieciocho
put together. A white stripe down his nose palmos de altura y tan fuerte como dos caballos
gave him a somewhat stupid appearance, and comunes juntos. Una mancha blanca a lo largo
in fact he was not of first-rate intelligence, but del hocico le daba un aspecto estpido, y por
he was universally respected for his steadiness cierto no era muy inteligente, pero s respetado
of character and tremendous powers of work. por todos dada su entereza de carcter y su
After the horses came Muriel, the white goat, tremendo poder de trabajo. Despus de los
and Benjamin, the donkey. Benjamin was the caballos llegaron Muriel, la cabra blanca, y
oldest animal on the farm, and the worst Benjamn, el burro. Benjamn era el animal ms
tempered. He seldom talked, and when he did, viejo y de peor genio de la granja. Rara vez
it was usually to make some cynical remark hablaba, y cuando lo haca, generalmente era
for instance, he would say that God had given para hacer alguna observacin cnica; poda
him a tail to keep the flies off, but that he decir, por ejemplo, que Dios le haba dado una
would sooner have had no tail and no flies. cola para espantar las moscas, pero que l
Alone among the animals on the farm he never hubiera preferido no tener ni cola ni moscas. Era
laughed. If asked why, he would say that he el nico de los animales de la granja que jams
saw nothing to laugh at. Nevertheless, without rea. Si se le preguntaba por qu, contestaba que
openly admitting it, he was devoted to Boxer; nunca encontraba motivo para hacerlo. Sin
the two of them usually spent their Sundays embargo, sin admitirlo abiertamente, senta
together in the small paddock beyond the afecto por Boxer; los dos pasaban, generalmente,
orchard, grazing side by side and never el domingo, juntos en el pequeo prado detrs de
speaking. la huerta, pastoreando hombro a hombro, sin
hablarse.
The two horses had just lain down when a Apenas se echaron los dos caballos cuando un
brood of ducklings, which had lost their grupo de patitos que haban perdido a la madre
mother, filed into the barn, cheeping feebly entr al granero piando dbilmente y yendo de
and wandering from side to side to find some un lado a otro en busca de un lugar donde no
place where they would not be trodden on. hubiera peligro de que los pisaran. Clover form
Clover made a sort of wall round them with una especie de pared con su gran pata delantera y
her great foreleg, and the ducklings nestled los patitos se anidaron all durmindose
down inside it and promptly fell asleep. At the enseguida. A ltima hora, Mollie, la bella y tonta
last moment Mollie, the foolish, pretty white yegua blanca que tiraba del coche del seor
mare who drew Mr. Joness trap, came Jones, entr cadenciosamente mascando un
mincing daintily in, chewing at a lump of terrn de azcar. Se coloc delante, coqueteando
sugar. She took a place near the front and con su nvea crin a fin de atraer la atencin hacia
began flirting her white mane, hoping to draw los moos rojos con que haba sido trenzada. La
attention to the red ribbons it was plaited with. ltima en aparecer fue la gata, que busc, como
Last of all came the cat, who looked round, as de costumbre, el lugar ms clido,
usual, for the warmest place, and finally acomodndose finalmente entre Boxer y Clover;
squeezed herself in between Boxer and Clover; all ronrone a gusto durante el desarrollo del
there she purred contentedly throughout discurso de Mayor, sin or una sola palabra de lo
Majors speech without listening to a word of que ste deca.
what he was saying.
All the animals were now present except Ya estaban presentes todos los animales, excepto
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 6

Moses, the tame raven, who slept on a perch Moses, el cuervo amaestrado, que dorma sobre
behind the back door. When Major saw that una percha detrs de la puerta trasera. Cuando
they had all made themselves comfortable and Mayor vio que estaban todos y esperaban
were waiting attentively, he cleared his throat atentos, aclar su voz y comenz:
and began:
Comrades, you have heard already about the Camaradas: vosotros os habis enterado ya
strange dream that I had last night. But I will del extrao sueo que tuve anoche. De eso
come to the dream later. I have something else hablar enseguida. Primero tengo que decir otra
to say first. I do not think, comrades, that I cosa. Yo no creo, camaradas, que est muchos
shall be with you for many months longer, and meses ms con vosotros y antes de morir, estimo
before I die, I feel it my duty to pass on to you mi deber transmitiros la sabidura adquirida. He
such wisdom as I have acquired. I have had a vivido muchos aos; dispuse de bastante tiempo
long life, I have had much time for thought as I para meditar mientras he estado a solas en mi
lay alone in my stall, and I think I may say that pocilga y creo poder afirmar que entiendo la
I understand the nature of life on this earth as naturaleza de la vida en este mundo tan bien
well as any animal now living. It is about this como cualquier otro animal viviente. Respecto a
that I wish to speak to you. eso deseo hablaros.
Now, comrades, what is the nature of this life Veamos camaradas: cul es la realidad de
of ours? Let us face it: our lives are miserable, esta vida nuestra? Mirmosla de frente: nuestras
laborious, and short. We are born, we are vidas son miserables, laboriosas y cortas.
given just so much food as will keep the breath Nacemos, nos suministran la comida necesaria
in our bodies, and those of us who are capable para mantenernos y a aquellos de nosotros
of it are forced to work to the last atom of our capaces de hacerlo nos obligan a trabajar hasta el
strength; and the very instant that our ltimo aliento de nuestras fuerzas; y en el
usefulness has come to an end we are preciso instante en que nuestra utilidad ha
slaughtered with hideous cruelty. No animal in terminado, nos matan con una crueldad
England knows the meaning of happiness or espantosa. Ningn animal en Inglaterra conoce el
leisure after he is a year old. No animal in significado de la felicidad o la holganza desde
England is free. The life of an animal is misery que cumple un ao de edad. No hay animal libre,
and slavery: that is the plain truth. en Inglaterra. La vida de un animal es la miseria
y la esclavitud; sa es la pura verdad.
But is this simply part of the order of nature? Pero es eso realmente parte del orden de la
Is it because this land of ours is so poor that it naturaleza? Es acaso porque esta tierra nuestra
cannot afford a decent life to those who dwell es tan pobre que no puede proporcionar una vida
upon it? No, comrades, a thousand times no! decorosa a todos sus habitantes? No, camaradas;
The soil of England is fertile, its climate is mil veces no. El suelo de Inglaterra es frtil, su
good, it is capable of affording food in clima es bueno; es capaz de dar comida en
abundance to an enormously greater number of abundancia a una cantidad mucho mayor de
animals than now inhabit it. This single farm animales que la que actualmente la habita.
of ours would support a dozen horses, twenty Solamente nuestra granja puede mantener una
cows, hundreds of sheepand all of them docena de caballos, veinte vacas, centenares de
living in a comfort and a dignity that are now ovejas; y todos ellos viviendo con una
almost beyond our imagining. Why then do we comodidad y dignidad que en estos momentos
continue in this miserable condition? Because estn casi fuera del alcance de nuestra
nearly the whole of the produce of our labour imaginacin. Por qu, entonces, continuamos
is stolen from us by human beings. There, en esta msera condicin? Porque los seres
comrades, is the answer to all our problems. It humanos nos arrebatan casi todo el fruto de
is summed up in a single wordMan. Man is nuestro trabajo. Ah est, camaradas, la solucin
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 7

the only real enemy we have. Remove Man de todos nuestros problemas. Est todo
from the scene, and the root cause of hunger involucrado en una sola palabra: Hombre. El
and overwork is abolished for ever. Hombre es el nico enemigo real que tenemos.
Quitad al Hombre de la escena y el motivo
originario de nuestra hambre y exceso de trabajo
ser abolido para siempre.
Man is the only creature that consumes "El Hombre es el nico ser que consume sin
without producing. He does not give milk, he producir. No da leche, no pone huevos, es
does not lay eggs, he is too weak to pull the demasiado dbil para tirar del arado y su
plough, he cannot run fast enough to catch velocidad ni siquiera le permite atrapar conejos.
rabbits. Yet he is lord of all the animals. He Sin embargo, es dueo y seor de todos los
sets them to work, he gives back to them the animales. Los hace trabajar, les devuelve el
bare minimum that will prevent them from mnimo necesario para mantenerlos con vida y lo
starving, and the rest he keeps for himself. Our dems se lo guarda para l. Nuestro trabajo labra
labour tills the soil, our dung fertilises it, and la tierra, nuestro estircol la abona y, sin
yet there is not one of us that owns more than embargo, no existe uno de nosotros que posea
his bare skin. You cows that I see before me, algo ms que su simple pellejo. Vosotras, vacas,
how many thousands of gallons of milk have que estis aqu cuntos miles de litros de leche
you given during this last year? And what has habis dado este ltimo ao? Y qu se ha hecho
happened to that milk which should have been con esa leche que deba servir para criar terneros
breeding up sturdy calves? Every drop of it has robustos? Hasta la ltima gota ha ido a parar a
gone down the throats of our enemies. And las gargantas de nuestros enemigos. Y vosotras,
you hens, how many eggs have you laid in this gallinas, cuntos huevos habis puesto este ao
last year, and how many of those eggs ever y cuntos pollitos han salido de esos huevos?
hatched into chickens? The rest have all gone Todo lo dems ha ido a parar al mercado para
to market to bring in money for Jones and his producir dinero para Jones y su gente. Y t,
men. And you, Clover, where are those four Clover, dnde estn esos cuatro potrillos que
foals you bore, who should have been the has tenido, que deban ser el sostn y solaz de tu
support and pleasure of your old age? Each vejez? Todos fueron vendidos al ao; no los
was sold at a year oldyou will never see one volvers a ver jams. Como recompensa por tus
of them again. In return for your four cuatro criaturas y todo tu trabajo en el campo
confinements and all your labour in the fields, qu has tenido, exceptuando tus magras
what have you ever had except your bare raciones y un pesebre?
rations and a stall?
And even the miserable lives we lead are not Ni siquiera nos permiten alcanzar el fin natural
allowed to reach their natural span. For myself de nuestras mseras vidas. Por m no me quejo,
I do not grumble, for I am one of the lucky porque he sido uno de los afortunados. Llevo
ones. I am twelve years old and have had over doce aos y he tenido ms de cuatrocientas
four hundred children. Such is the natural life criaturas. Es es el destino natural de un cerdo.
of a pig. But no animal escapes the cruel knife Pero ningn animal se libra del cruel cuchillo al
in the end. You young porkers who are sitting final. Vosotros, jvenes cerdos que estis
in front of me, every one of you will scream sentados delante, cada uno de vosotros va a
your lives out at the block within a year. To chillar por su vida ante el cuchillo dentro de un
that horror we all must comecows, pigs, ao. A ese horror llegaremos todos: vacas,
hens, sheep, everyone. Even the horses and the cerdos, gallinas, ovejas; todos. Ni siquiera los
dogs have no better fate. You, Boxer, the very caballos y los perros tienen mejor destino. T,
day that those great muscles of yours lose their Boxer, el mismo da en que tus grandes
power, Jones will sell you to the knacker, who msculos pierdan su fuerza, Jones te vender al
will cut your throat and boil you down for the descuartizador, quien te cortar el pescuezo y te
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 8

foxhounds. As for the dogs, when they grow hervir para los perros de caza. En cuanto a los
old and toothless, Jones ties a brick round their perros, cuando estn viejos sin dientes, Jones les
necks and drowns them in the nearest pond. ata un ladrillo al pescuezo y los ahoga en la
laguna ms cercana.
Is it not crystal clear, then, comrades, that all No resulta entonces de una claridad meridiana,
the evils of this life of ours spring from the camaradas, que todos los males de nuestras vidas
tyranny of human beings? Only get rid of Man, provienen de la tirana de los seres humanos?
and the produce of our labour would be our Eliminad tan slo al Hombre y el producto de
own. A1most overnight we could become rich nuestro trabajo ser propio. Casi de la noche a la
and free. What then must we do? Why, work maana nos volveramos ricos y libres.
night and day, body and soul, for the Entonces, qu es lo que debemos hacer?
overthrow of the human race! That is my Trabajar noche y da, con cuerpo y alma, para
message to you, comrades: Rebellion! I do not destruir a la raza humana!. Ese es mi mensaje,
know when that Rebellion will come, it might camaradas: Rebelin! Yo no s cundo vendr
be in a week or in a hundred years, but I know, esa rebelin; quiz de aqu a una semana o
as surely as I see this straw beneath my feet, dentro de cien aos; pero s s, tan ciertamente
that sooner or later justice will be done. Fix como veo esta paja bajo mis patas, que tarde o
your eyes on that, comrades, throughout the temprano se har justicia. Fijad la vista en eso,
short remainder of your lives! And above all, camaradas, durante los pocos aos que os
pass on this message of mine to those who quedan de vida! Y, sobre todo, transmitid mi
come after you, so that future generations shall mensaje a los que vendrn despus, para que las
carry on the struggle until it is victorious. futuras generaciones puedan proseguir la lucha
hasta alcanzar la victoria.
And remember, comrades, your resolution Y recordad, camaradas: vuestra voluntad jams
must never falter. No argument must lead you deber vacilar. Ningn argumento os debe
astray. Never listen when they tell you that desviar. Nunca escuchis cuando os digan que el
Man and the animals have a common interest, Hombre y los animales tienen un destino comn;
that the prosperity of the one is the prosperity que la Prosperidad de uno es tambin de los
of the others. It is all lies. Man serves the otros. Son mentiras. El Hombre no sirve los
interests of no creature except himself. And intereses de ningn ser, exceptuando el suyo. Y
among us animals let there be perfect unity, entre nosotros, los animales, que haya perfecta
perfect comradeship in the struggle. All men unidad, perfecta camaradera en la lucha. Todos
are enemies. All animals are comrades. los hombres son enemigos. Todos los animales
son camaradas.
At this moment there was a tremendous En ese momento hubo una tremenda conmocin.
uproar. While Major was speaking four large Mientras Mayor estaba hablando, cuatro grandes
rats had crept out of their holes and were ratas haban salido de sus cuevas y estaban
sitting on their hindquarters, listening to him. sentadas sobre sus cuartos traseros,
The dogs had suddenly caught sight of them, escuchndolo. Los perros las divisaron
and it was only by a swift dash for their holes repentinamente y slo merced a una precipitada
that the rats saved their lives. Major raised his carrera hasta sus cuevas lograron las ratas salvar
trotter for silence. sus vidas. Mayor levant su pata para imponer
silencio.
Comrades, he said, here is a point that must Camaradas, dijo, aqu hay un punto que debe
be settled. The wild creatures, such as rats and ser aclarado. Los animales salvajes, como los
rabbitsare they our friends or our enemies? ratones y los conejos, son nuestros amigos o
Let us put it to the vote. I propose this question nuestros enemigos? Pongmoslo a votacin. Yo
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 9

to the meeting: Are rats comrades? planteo esta pregunta a la asamblea: son
camaradas las ratas?
The vote was taken at once, and it was agreed Se pas a votacin inmediatamente,
by an overwhelming majority that rats were decidindose por una mayora abrumadora que
comrades. There were only four dissentients, las ratas eran camaradas. Hubo solamente cuatro
the three dogs and the cat, who was afterwards disidentes: los tres perros y la gata, que, como se
discovered to have voted on both sides. Major descubri luego, haba votado por ambas
continued: tendencias. Mayor continu:
I have little more to say. I merely repeat, Me resta poco que deciros. Simplemente
remember always your duty of enmity towards insisto: recordad siempre vuestro deber de
Man and all his ways. Whatever goes upon enemistad hacia el Hombre y su manera de ser.
two legs is an enemy. Whatever goes upon Todo lo que camine sobre dos pies es un
four legs, or has wings, is a friend. And enemigo. Lo que camine sobre cuatro patas o
remember also that in fighting against Man, tenga alas, es un amigo. Y recordad tambin que
we must not come to resemble him. Even en la lucha contra el Hombre, no debemos llegar
when you have conquered him, do not adopt a parecemos a l. Aun cuando lo hayis vencido,
his vices. No animal must ever live in a house, no adoptis sus vicios. Ningn animal debe vivir
or sleep in a bed, or wear clothes, or drink en una casa, dormir en una cama, vestir ropas,
alcohol, or smoke tobacco, or touch money, or beber alcohol, fumar tabaco, recibir dinero ni
engage in trade. All the habits of Man are evil. ocuparse del comercio. Todas las costumbres del
And, above all, no animal must ever tyrannise Hombre son malas. Y, sobre todas las cosas,
over his own kind. Weak or strong, clever or ningn animal debe tiranizar a sus semejantes.
simple, we are all brothers. No animal must Dbil o fuerte, listo o ingenuo, somos todos
ever kill any other animal. All animals are hermanos. Ningn animal debe matar a otro
equal. animal. Todos los animales son iguales.
And now, comrades, I will tell you about my "Y ahora, camaradas, os contar mi sueo de
dream of last night. I cannot describe that anoche. No estoy en condiciones de describroslo
dream to you. It was a dream of the earth as it a vosotros. Era una visin de cmo ser la Tierra
will be when Man has vanished. But it cuando el Hombre haya desaparecido. Pero me
reminded me of something that I had long trajo a la memoria algo que hace tiempo haba
forgotten. Many years ago, when I was a little olvidado. Muchos aos atrs, cuando yo era
pig, my mother and the other sows used to sing lechn, mi madre y las otras cerdas
an old song of which they knew only the tune acostumbraban a ensayar una vieja cancin de la
and the first three words. I had known that que slo saban la meloda y las primeras tres
tune in my infancy, but it had long since palabras. Conoca esa tonada en mi infancia,
passed out of my mind. Last night, however, it pero ya haca tiempo que la haba olvidado.
came back to me in my dream. And what is Anoche, sin embargo, volvi a m en el sueo. Y
more, the words of the song also came back ms an, las palabras de la cancin tambin; son
words, I am certain, which were sung by the palabras que, tengo la certeza, fueron cantadas
animals of long ago and have been lost to por los animales de pocas remotas y luego
memory for generations. I will sing you that olvidadas durante muchas generaciones. Os
song now, comrades. I am old and my voice is cantar esa cancin ahora, camaradas. Soy viejo
hoarse, but when I have taught you the tune, y mi voz es ronca, pero cuando os haya enseado
you can sing it better for yourselves. It is la tonada, podris cantar mejor para vosotros
called Beasts of England. mismos. Se llama Bestias de Inglaterra.
Old Major cleared his throat and began to sing. El Viejo Mayor aclar su garganta y comenz a
As he had said, his voice was hoarse, but he cantar. Tal como haba dicho, su voz era ronca,
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 10

sang well enough, and it was a stirring tune, pero lo hizo bastante bien; era una tonada
something between Clementine and La excitante, algo entre Clementina y La
Cucaracha. The words ran: Cucaracha. La letra deca as:

I
Beasts of England, beasts of Ireland, Bestias de Inglaterra, Bestias de Irlanda,
Beasts of every land and clime, animales del valle y de la selva,

Hearken to my joyful tidings Sobre vuestro futuro prodigioso prestad odo a


Of the golden future time. mis alegres nuevas!
II
Soon or late the day is coming, Tarde o temprano arribar la hora en la que el
Tyrant Man shall be oerthrown, Hombre derrocado sea,
And the fruitful fields of England y las fecundas tierras de Bretaa
Shall be trod by beasts alone. slo sern pobladas por las Bestias.
III
Rings shall vanish from our noses, Rotos caern los aros torturantes de la nariz, y
And the harness from our back, rodarn por tierra los ltigos de ttricos
Bit and spur shall rust forever, chasquidos y oxidados el freno y las espuelas.
Cruel whips no more shall crack.
IV
Riches more than mind can picture, La cebada y el heno perfumados, la remolacha,
Wheat and barley, oats and hay, el trbol y la avena toda la cornucopia de
Clover, beans, and mangel-wurzels Natura
Shall be ours upon that day. ser ese da solamente nuestra
V
Bright will shine the fields of England, Ms fresca ser el agua y transparente en los
Purer shall its waters be, hermosos campos de Inglaterra,
Sweeter yet shall blow its breezes y ms suave la brisa, el da glorioso
On the day that sets us free. en que las Bestias rompan sus cadenas.

VI
For that day we all must labour, Para ese da trabajemos todos,
Though we die before it break; aunque muramos antes que amanezca;
Cows and horses, geese and turkeys, vacas y gansos, pavos y caballos, todos deben
All must toil for freedoms sake. sumarse a esta empresa.

VII
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 11

Beasts of England, beasts of Ireland, Bestias de Inglaterra, Bestias de Irlanda,


Beasts of every land and clime, animales del valle y de la selva
Hearken well and spread my tidings sobre vuestro futuro prodigioso
Of the golden future time. prestad odo a mis alegres nuevas!

The singing of this song threw the animals into El ensayo de esta cancin puso a todos los
the wildest excitement. Almost before Major animales en un estado de salvaje excitacin. Casi
had reached the end, they had begun singing it antes de que Mayor hubiera finalizado, ellos
for themselves. Even the stupidest of them had comenzaron a cantarla. Hasta el ms estpido ya
already picked up the tune and a few of the haba retenido la meloda y parte de la letra, y
words, and as for the clever ones, such as the con ayuda de los ms inteligentes, como los
pigs and dogs, they had the entire song by cerdos y los perros, aprendieron la cancin en
heart within a few minutes. And then, after a pocos minutos. Y luego, despus de varios
few preliminary tries, the whole farm burst out ensayos preliminares, toda la granja estall en
into Beasts of England in tremendous unison. Bestias de Inglaterra, en tremendo unsono. Las
The cows lowed it, the dogs whined it, the vacas la mugieron, los perros la ladraron, las
sheep bleated it, the horses whinnied it, the ovejas la balaron, los caballos la relincharon, los
ducks quacked it. They were so delighted with patos la parparon. Estaban tan encantados con la
the song that they sang it right through five cancin, que la repitieron cinco veces seguidas y
times in succession, and might have continued haban continuado toda la noche, si no los
singing it all night if they had not been hubieran interrumpido.
interrupted.
Unfortunately, the uproar awoke Mr. Jones, Desgraciadamente, el alboroto despert al seor
who sprang out of bed, making sure that there Jones, el cual salt de la cama creyendo que
was a fox in the yard. He seized the gun which haba un zorro en los corrales. Tom la escopeta,
always stood in a corner of his bedroom, and que estaba permanentemente en un rincn del
let fly a charge of number 6 shot into the dormitorio, y descarg un tiro en la oscuridad.
darkness. The pellets buried themselves in the Los perdigones se incrustaron en la pared, del
wall of the barn and the meeting broke up granero y la asamblea se levant
hurriedly. Everyone fled to his own sleeping- precipitadamente. Cada cual huy hacia su lugar
place. The birds jumped on to their perches, de reposo. Las aves saltaron a sus perchas, los
the animals settled down in the straw, and the animales se acostaron en la paja y en un
whole farm was asleep in a moment. santiamn estaban todos durmiendo.
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 12

CHAPTER 2 CAPTULO II

THREE nights later old Major died peacefully Tres noches despus, el Viejo Mayor muri
in his sleep. His body was buried at the foot of apaciblemente mientras dorma. Su cadver fue
the orchard. enterrado al pie de un rbol de la huerta.
This was early in March. During the next three Eso sucedi a principios de marzo. Durante los
months there was much secret activity. Majors tres meses siguientes hubo mucha actividad
speech had given to the more intelligent secreta. A los animales ms inteligentes de la
animals on the farm a completely new outlook serrana el discurso de Mayor les haba hecho ver
on life. They did not know when the Rebellion la vida desde un ngulo totalmente nuevo. Ellos
predicted by Major would take place, they had no saban cundo ocurrira la rebelin que
no reason for thinking that it would be within pronosticara Mayor; no tenan motivo para creer
their own lifetime, but they saw clearly that it que aconteciera durante el transcurso de sus
was their duty to prepare for it. The work of propias vidas, pero vieron claramente que era su
teaching and organising the others fell deber prepararse para ella. El trabajo de ensear y
naturally upon the pigs, who were generally organizar a los dems recay naturalmente sobre
recognised as being the cleverest of the los cerdos, a quienes se reconoca en general
animals. Pre-eminent among the pigs were two como los ms inteligentes de los animales. Los
young boars named Snowball and Napoleon, ms destacados entre ellos eran dos cerdos
whom Mr. Jones was breeding up for sale. jvenes que se llamaban Snowball y Napolen, a
Napoleon was a large, rather fierce-looking quienes el seor Jones estaba criando para
Berkshire boar, the only Berkshire on the farm, vender. Napolen era un verraco grande de
not much of a talker, but with a reputation for aspecto feroz; el nico cerdo de raza Berkshire
getting his own way. Snowball was a more que haba en la granja; parco en el hablar, tena
vivacious pig than Napoleon, quicker in speech fama de salirse con la suya. Snowball era ms
and more inventive, but was not considered to vivaracho que Napolen, tena mayor facilidad de
have the same depth of character. All the other palabra y era ingenioso, pero lo consideraban de
male pigs on the farm were porkers. The best carcter ms dbil. Los dems puercos machos de
known among them was a small fat pig named la granja eran muy jvenes. El ms conocido
Squealer, with very round cheeks, twinkling entre ellos era un pequeo gordito que se llamaba
eyes, nimble movements, and a shrill voice. He Squealer, de mejillas muy redondas, ojos vivos,
was a brilliant talker, and when he was arguing movimientos giles y voz chillona. Era un orador
some difficult point he had a way of skipping brillante, y cuando discuta algn asunto difcil
from side to side and whisking his tail which tena una forma de saltar de lado a lado y mover
was somehow very persuasive. The others said la cola, que era en cierta manera muy persuasiva.
of Squealer that he could turn black into white. Los dems decan que Squealer era capaz de
cambiar lo negro en blanco.
These three had elaborated old Majors Estos tres haban elaborado, a base de las
teachings into a complete system of thought, to enseanzas del Viejo Mayor, un sistema completo
which they gave the name of Animalism. de pensamientos al que dieron el nombre de
Several nights a week, after Mr. Jones was Animalismo. Varias noches por semana, cuando
asleep, they held secret meetings in the barn el seor Jones ya dorma, celebraban reuniones
and expounded the principles of Animalism to secretas en el granero, durante las cuales
the others. At the beginning they met with exponan los principios del Animalismo a los
much stupidity and apathy. Some of the dems. Al comienzo encontraron mucha
animals talked of the duty of loyalty to Mr. estupidez y apata. Algunos animales hablaron del
Jones, whom they referred to as Master, or deber de lealtad hacia el seor Jones, a quien
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 13

made elementary remarks such as Mr. Jones llamaban "Amo", o hacan observaciones
feeds us. If he were gone, we should starve to elementales como: "el seor Jones nos da de
death. Others asked such questions as Why comer"; "Si l no estuviera nos moriramos de
should we care what happens after we are hambre". Otros formulaban preguntas tales como:
dead? or If this Rebellion is to happen "Qu nos importa a nosotros lo que va a suceder
anyway, what difference does it make whether cuando estemos muertos?", o bien: "Si esta
we work for it or not?, and the pigs had great rebelin se va a producir de todos modos, qu
difficulty in making them see that this was diferencia hay si trabajamos para ella o no?", y
contrary to the spirit of Animalism. The los cerdos tenan gran dificultad en hacerles ver
stupidest questions of all were asked by que eso era contrario al espritu del Animalismo.
Mollie, the white mare. The very first question Las preguntas ms estpidas fueron hechas por
she asked Snowball was: Mollie, la yegua blanca. La primera que dirigi a
Snowball, fue la siguiente:
Will there still be sugar after the Rebellion? Habr azcar despus de la rebelin?

No, said Snowball firmly. We have no No, respondi Snowball firmemente. No


means of making sugar on this farm. Besides, tenemos medios para fabricar azcar en esta
you do not need sugar. You will have all the granja. Adems, t no necesitas azcar. Tendrs
oats and hay you want. toda la avena y el heno que quieras.
And shall I still be allowed to wear ribbons in Y se me permitir seguir usando cintas en la
my mane? asked Mollie. crin? insisti Mollie.
Comrade, said Snowball, those ribbons that Camarada, dijo Snowball, esas cintas que tanto
you are so devoted to are the badge of slavery. te gustan son el smbolo de tu esclavitud. No
Can you not understand that liberty is worth entiendes que la libertad vale ms que esas
more than ribbons? cintas?
Mollie agreed, but she did not sound very Molli asinti, pero daba la impresin de que no
convinced. estaba muy convencida.
The pigs had an even harder struggle to Los cerdos tuvieron una lucha an mayor para
counteract the lies put about by Moses, the contrarrestar las mentiras que difunda Moses, el
tame raven. Moses, who was Mr. Joness cuervo amaestrado. Moses, que era el favorito del
especial pet, was a spy and a tale-bearer, but he seor Jones era espa y chismoso, pero era
was also a clever talker. He claimed to know of tambin un orador muy hbil. Pretenda conocer
the existence of a mysterious country called la existencia de un pas misterioso llamado Monte
Sugarcandy Mountain, to which all animals Caramelo, al que iban todos los animales cuando
went when they died. It was situated moran. Estaba situado en algn lugar del cielo,
somewhere up in the sky, a little distance un poco ms all de las nubes, deca Moses. En
beyond the clouds, Moses said. In Sugarcandy Monte Caramelo era domingo siete veces por
Mountain it was Sunday seven days a week, semana, el trbol estaba en sazn todo el ao y
clover was in season all the year round, and los terrones de azcar y las tortas de lino crecan
lump sugar and linseed cake grew on the en los cercos. Los animales odiaban a Moses
hedges. The animals hated Moses because he porque era chismoso y no haca ningn trabajo,
told tales and did no work, but some of them pero algunos crean lo del Monte Caramelo y los
believed in Sugarcandy Mountain, and the pigs cerdos tenan que argumentar mucho para
had to argue very hard to persuade them that persuadirlos de la inexistencia de tal lugar.
there was no such place.
Their most faithful disciples were the two cart- Los discpulos ms leales eran los caballos de tiro
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 14

horses, Boxer and Clover. These two had great Boxer y Clover. Ambos tenan gran dificultad en
difficulty in thinking anything out for formar su propio juicio, pero una vez que
themselves, but having once accepted the pigs aceptaron a los cerdos como maestros absorban
as their teachers, they absorbed everything that todo lo que se les deca y lo transmitan a los
they were told, and passed it on to the other dems animales mediante argumentos sencillos.
animals by simple arguments. They were Nunca faltaban a las citas secretas en el granero y
unfailing in their attendance at the secret encabezaban el canto Bestias de Inglaterra con
meetings in the barn, and led the singing of que siempre se daba trmino a las reuniones.
Beasts of England, with which the meetings
always ended.
Now, as it turned out, the Rebellion was Pero sucedi que la rebelin se llev a cabo
achieved much earlier and more easily than mucho antes y ms fcilmente de lo que ellos
anyone had expected. In past years Mr. Jones, esperaban. En aos anteriores el seor Jones, a
although a hard master, had been a capable pesar de ser un amo duro, fue un agricultor capaz,
farmer, but of late he had fallen on evil days. pero ltimamente haba adquirido algunos vicios.
He had become much disheartened after losing Se haba desanimado mucho despus de perder
money in a lawsuit, and had taken to drinking bastante dinero en un pleito, y comenz a beber
more than was good for him. For whole days at ms de la cuenta. Durante das enteros
a time he would lounge in his Windsor chair in permaneca en su silln en la cocina, leyendo los
the kitchen, reading the newspapers, drinking, diarios, bebiendo y, ocasionalmente, dndole a
and occasionally feeding Moses on crusts of Moses cortezas de pan mojado con cerveza. Sus
bread soaked in beer. His men were idle and hombres eran perezosos y deshonestos, los
dishonest, the fields were full of weeds, the campos estaban llenos de malezas, los edificios
buildings wanted roofing, the hedges were requeran arreglos, los cercos estaban
neglected, and the animals were underfed. descuidados y mal alimentados los animales.
June came and the hay was almost ready for Lleg junio y el heno estaba casi listo para ser
cutting. On Midsummers Eve, which was a cosechado. El da de San Juan, que era sbado, el
Saturday, Mr. Jones went into Willingdon and seor Jones fue a Willingdon y se emborrach de
got so drunk at the Red Lion that he did not tal manera en la taberna El Len Colorado que no
come back till midday on Sunday. The men volvi a la granja hasta el medioda del domingo.
had milked the cows in the early morning and Los peones haban ordeado las vacas de
then had gone out rabbiting, without bothering madrugada y luego se fueron a cazar conejos, sin
to feed the animals. preocuparse de dar de comer a los animales.
When Mr. Jones got back he immediately went Cuando volvi, el seor Jones se fue a dormir
to sleep on the drawing-room sofa with the inmediatamente en el sof de la sala, tapndose la
News of the World over his face, so that when cara con el peridico, de manera que al anochecer
evening came, the animals were still unfed. At los animales an estaban sin comer. Finalmente,
last they could stand it no longer. One of the stos no resistieron ms. Una de las vacas rompi
cows broke in the door of the store-shed with de una cornada la puerta del depsito de forrajes
her horn and all the animals began to help y los animales empezaron a servirse solos de los
themselves from the bins. It was just then that arcones. Justamente en ese momento se despert
Mr. Jones woke up. The next moment he and el seor Jones. De inmediato l y sus cuatro
his four men were in the store-shed with whips peones se hicieron presentes con ltigos, azotando
in their hands, lashing out in all directions. a diestra y siniestra. Eso superaba a cuanto los
This was more than the hungry animals could hambrientos animales podan soportar.
bear. With one accord, though nothing of the Unnimemente, aunque nada por el estilo haba
kind had been planned beforehand, they flung sido planeado con anticipacin, se abalanzaron
themselves upon their tormentors. Jones and sobre sus atormentadores. En forma repentina,
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 15

his men suddenly found themselves being Jones y sus peones se encontraron recibiendo
butted and kicked from all sides. The situation empellones y patadas desde todos los costados.
was quite out of their control. They had never Haban perdido el dominio de la situacin. Nunca
seen animals behave like this before, and this haban visto a los animales portarse de esa
sudden uprising of creatures whom they were manera, y esa inopinada insurreccin de bestias a
used to thrashing and maltreating just as they las que estaban acostumbrados a pegar y maltratar
chose, frightened them almost out of their wits. como queran, los aterroriz hasta hacerles perder
After only a moment or two they gave up la cabeza. A poco abandonaron todo intento de
trying to defend themselves and took to their defensa y escaparon. Un minuto despus, los
heels. A minute later all five of them were in cinco disparaban a toda carrera por el sendero
full flight down the cart-track that led to the rumbo a la puerta principal con los animales
main road, with the animals pursuing them in persiguindolos triunfalmente.
triumph.
Mrs. Jones looked out of the bedroom window, La seora Jones mir por la ventana del
saw what was happening, hurriedly flung a few dormitorio, vio lo que suceda, meti
possessions into a carpet bag, and slipped out precipitadamente algunas cosas en un bolsn y se
of the farm by another way. Moses sprang off escabull de la granja por otro camino. Moses
his perch and flapped after her, croaking salt de su percha y alete tras ella, graznando en
loudly. Meanwhile the animals had chased alta voz. Mientras tanto, los animales haban
Jones and his men out on to the road and perseguido a Jones y sus peones hasta la carretera
slammed the five-barred gate behind them. y cerraron el portn estrepitosamente tras ellos.
And so, almost before they knew what was Y as, casi sin darse cuenta de lo que ocurra, la
happening, the Rebellion had been successfully rebelin se haba llevado a cabo triunfalmente:
carried through: Jones was expelled, and the Jones haba sido expulsado y la Granja Manor era
Manor Farm was theirs. de ellos.
For the first few minutes the animals could Durante los primeros minutos los animales
hardly believe in their good fortune. Their first apenas si podan creer en su buena fortuna. Su
act was to gallop in a body right round the primera accin fue galopar todos juntos alrededor
boundaries of the farm, as though to make de los lmites de la granja, como para asegurarse
quite sure that no human being was hiding de que ningn ser humano se esconda en ella;
anywhere upon it; then they raced back to the luego volvieron a la carrera hacia los edificios
farm buildings to wipe out the last traces of para borrar los ltimos vestigios del odiado reino
Joness hated reign. The harness-room at the de Jones. Irrumpieron en el cuarto de los enseres
end of the stables was broken open; the bits, que se hallaba en un extremo del establo; los
the nose-rings, the dog-chains, the cruel knives frenos, los anillos, las cadenas de los perros, los
with which Mr. Jones had been used to castrate crueles cuchillos con los que el seor Jones
the pigs and lambs, were all flung down the acostumbraba a castrar a los cerdos y corderos,
well. The reins, the halters, the blinkers, the fueron todos arrojados al pozo. Las riendas, los
degrading nosebags, were thrown on to the cabestros, las anteojeras, los denigrantes morrales
rubbish fire which was burning in the yard. So fueron tirados al fuego en el patio, donde en ese
were the whips. All the animals capered with momento se estaba quemando basura. Igual
joy when they saw the whips going up in destino tuvieron los ltigos. Todos los animales
flames. Snowball also threw on to the fire the saltaron de alegra cuando vieron arder los
ribbons with which the horses manes and tails ltigos. Snowball tambin tir al fuego las cintas
had usually been decorated on market days. que generalmente adornaban las colas y crines de
los caballos en los das de feria.
Ribbons, he said, should be considered as Las cintas, dijo, deben considerarse como
clothes, which are the mark of a human being. ropas, que son el distintivo de un ser humano.
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 16

All animals should go naked. Todos los animales deben ir desnudos.


When Boxer heard this he fetched the small Cuando Boxer oy esto, tom el sombrerito de
straw hat which he wore in summer to keep the paja que usaba en verano para impedir que las
flies out of his ears, and flung it on to the fire moscas le entraran en las orejas y lo tir al fuego
with the rest. con todo lo dems.
In a very little while the animals had destroyed En muy poco tiempo los animales haban
everything that reminded them of Mr. Jones. destruido todo lo que poda hacerles recordar al
Napoleon then led them back to the store-shed seor Jones. Entonces Napolen los llev
and served out a double ration of corn to nuevamente al depsito de forraje y les sirvi una
everybody, with two biscuits for each dog. doble racin de maz a cada uno, con dos
Then they sang Beasts of England from end bizcochos para cada perro. Luego cantaron
to end seven times running, and after that they Bestias de Inglaterra del principio al fin siete
settled down for the night and slept as they had veces y despus de eso se acomodaron para la
never slept before. noche y durmieron como nunca lo haban hecho
anteriormente.
But they woke at dawn as usual, and suddenly Pero se despertaron al amanecer como de
remembering the glorious thing that had costumbre y, acordndose repentinamente del
happened, they all raced out into the pasture glorioso acontecimiento, salieron todos juntos a la
together. A little way down the pasture there pradera. A poca distancia de all haba una loma
was a knoll that commanded a view of most of desde donde se dominaba casi toda la granja. Los
the farm. The animals rushed to the top of it animales llegaron apresuradamente a la cumbre y
and gazed round them in the clear morning miraron a su alrededor a la clara luz de la
light. Yes, it was theirseverything that they maana. S, era de ellos: todo lo que podan ver
could see was theirs! In the ecstasy of that era suyo. En el xtasis de ese pensamiento,
thought they gambolled round and round, they brincaban por todos lados, se arrojaban al aire en
hurled themselves into the air in great leaps of grandes saltos de alegra.
excitement.
They rolled in the dew, they cropped Se revolcaban en el roco, arrancaban bocados del
mouthfuls of the sweet summer grass, they dulce pasto de verano, coceaban levantando
kicked up clods of the black earth and snuffed terrones de tierra negra y aspiraban su fuerte
its rich scent. Then they made a tour of aroma. Luego hicieron un recorrido de inspeccin
inspection of the whole farm and surveyed por toda la granja y miraron con muda
with speechless admiration the ploughland, the admiracin la tierra de labranto, el campo de
hayfield, the orchard, the pool, the spinney. It heno, la huerta, la laguna. Era como si nunca
was as though they had never seen these things hubieran visto esas cosas anteriormente, y apenas
before, and even now they could hardly believe podan creer que todo era de ellos.
that it was all their own.
Then they filed back to the farm buildings and Regresaron entonces a los edificios de la granja y,
halted in silence outside the door of the vacilantes, se pararon en silencio ante la puerta de
farmhouse. That was theirs too, but they were la casa. Tambin era suya, pero tenan miedo de
frightened to go inside. After a moment, entrar. Un momento despus, sin embargo,
however, Snowball and Napoleon butted the Snowball y Napolen embistieron la puerta con el
door open with their shoulders and the animals hombro y los animales entraron en fila india,
entered in single file, walking with the utmost caminando con el mayor cuidado por miedo de
care for fear of disturbing anything. They estropear algo. Fueron de puntillas de una
tiptoed from room to room, afraid to speak habitacin a la otra, recelosos de alzar la voz,
above a whisper and gazing with a kind of awe contemplando con una especie de temor reverente
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 17

at the unbelievable luxury, at the beds with el increble lujo que all haba; las camas con sus
their feather mattresses, the looking-glasses, colchones de plumas, los espejos, el sof, la
the horsehair sofa, the Brussels carpet, the alfombra de Bruselas, la litografa de la Reina
lithograph of Queen Victoria over the drawing- Victoria que estaba colgada encima del hogar de
room mantelpiece. They were lust coming la sala. Iban bajando la escalera cuando se dieron
down the stairs when Mollie was discovered to cuenta de que faltaba Mollie. Al volver, los
be missing. Going back, the others found that dems descubrieron que sta se haba quedado en
she had remained behind in the best bedroom. el mejor dormitorio. Haba tomado un pedazo de
She had taken a piece of blue ribbon from Mrs. cinta azul de la mesa de tocador de la seora
Joness dressing-table, and was holding it Jones y, apoyndola sobre su hombro, se estaba
against her shoulder and admiring herself in admirando en el espejo como una tonta. Los otros
the glass in a very foolish manner. The others se lo reprocharon severamente y salieron. Sacaron
reproached her sharply, and they went outside. unos jamones colgados en la cocina y les dieron
Some hams hanging in the kitchen were taken sepultura; el barril de cerveza fue destrozado
out for burial, and the barrel of beer in the mediante una coz de Boxer, y no se toc nada
scullery was stove in with a kick from Boxers ms en la casa. All mismo se resolvi por
hoof,otherwise nothing in the house was unanimidad que la casa sera conservada como
touched. A unanimous resolution was passed museo. Estaban todos de acuerdo en que jams
on the spot that the farmhouse should be debera vivir all animal alguno.
preserved as a museum. All were agreed that
no animal must ever live there.
The animals had their breakfast, and then Los animales tomaron el desayuno, y luego
Snowball and Napoleon called them together Snowball y Napolen los reunieron a todos otra
again. vez.
Comrades, said Snowball, it is half-past six Camaradas, dijo Snowball, son las seis y
and we have a long day before us. Today we media y tenemos un da largo ante nosotros. Hoy
begin the hay harvest. But there is another debemos comenzar la cosecha del heno. Pero hay
matter that must be attended to first. otro asunto que debemos resolver primero.
The pigs now revealed that during the past Los cerdos revelaron entonces que durante los
three months they had taught themselves to ltimos tres meses haban aprendido a leer y
read and write from an old spelling book which escribir mediante un libro elemental que
had belonged to Mr. Joness children and perteneciera a los chicos de la seora Jones y que
which had been thrown on the rubbish heap. haba sido tirado a la basura. Napolen mand
Napoleon sent for pots of black and white paint traer unos tarros de pintura blanca y negra y los
and led the way down to the five-barred gate llev hasta el portn que daba al camino
that gave on to the main road. Then Snowball principal. Luego Snowball (que era el que mejor
(for it was Snowball who was best at writing) escriba) tom un pincel entre los dos nudillos de
took a brush between the two knuckles of his su pata delantera, tach Granja Manor de la vara
trotter, painted out MANOR FARM from the superior de la tranquera y en su lugar pint
top bar of the gate and in its place painted Granja Animal. Ese iba a ser el nombre de la
ANIMAL FARM. This was to be the name of granja en adelante. Despus todos volvieron a los
the farm from now onwards. After this they edificios donde Snowball y Napolen mandaron
went back to the farm buildings, where buscar una escalera que hicieron colocar contra la
Snowball and Napoleon sent for a ladder pared trasera del granero principal. Ellos
which they caused to be set against the end explicaron que mediante sus estudios de los
wall of the big barn. They explained that by ltimos tres meses haban logrado reducir los
their studies of the past three months the pigs principios del Animalismo a Siete Mandamientos.
had succeeded in reducing the principles of Esos Siete Mandamientos seran inscritos en la
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 18

Animalism to Seven Commandments. These pared; formaran una ley inalterable por la cual
Seven Commandments would now be deberan regirse en adelante todos los animales de
inscribed on the wall; they would form an la Granja Animal. Con cierta dificultad (porque
unalterable law by which all the animals on no es fcil para un cerdo mantener el equilibrio
Animal Farm must live for ever after. With sobre una escalera), Snowball trep y puso manos
some difficulty (for it is not easy for a pig to a la obra con la ayuda de Squealer, que, unos
balance himself on a ladder) Snowball climbed peldaos ms abajo, le sostena el tarro de
up and set to work, with Squealer a few rungs pintura. Los Mandamientos fueron escritos sobre
below him holding the paint-pot. The la pared alquitranada con letras blancas y grandes
Commandments were written on the tarred que podan leerse a treinta yardas de distancia. La
wall in great white letters that could be read inscripcin deca as:
thirty yards away. They ran thus:

THE SEVEN COMMANDMENTS LOS SIETE MANDAMIENTOS

1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy. 1 Todo lo que camina sobre dos pies es un
2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has enemigo
wings, is a friend. 2 Todo lo que camina sobre cuatro patas, o
3. No animal shall wear clothes. tenga alas, es un amigo.
4. No animal shall sleep in a bed. 3 Ningn animal usar ropa.
5. No animal shall drink alcohol. 4 Ningn animal dormir en una cama
6. No animal shall kill any other animal. 5 Ningn animal beber alcohol
7. All animals are equal. 6 Ningn animal matar a otro animal
7 Todos los animales son iguales

It was very neatly written, and except that El letrero estaba escrito muy ntidamente y,
friend was written freind and one of the exceptuando que en vez de "pies" deca "peis" y
Ss was the wrong way round, the spelling una de las "S estaba al revs, la ortografa era
was correct all the way through. Snowball read buena. Snowball lo ley en alta voz para los
it aloud for the benefit of the others. All the dems. Todos los animales asintieron con
animals nodded in complete agreement, and inclinacin de cabeza demostrando su total
the cleverer ones at once began to learn the conformidad, y los ms inteligentes empezaron en
Commandments by heart. seguida a aprenderse de memoria los
Mandamientos.
Now, comrades, cried Snowball, throwing Ahora, camaradas, grit Snowball tirando el
down the paint-brush, to the hayfield! Let us pincel, al henar! Impongmonos el compromiso
make it a point of honour to get in the harvest de honor de terminar la cosecha en menos tiempo
more quickly than Jones and his men could del que tardaban Jones y sus hombres.
do.
But at this moment the three cows, who had Pero en ese momento las tres vacas, que desde un
seemed uneasy for some time past, set up a rato antes parecan estar intranquilas, empezaron
loud lowing. They had not been milked for a mugir muy fuerte. Haca veinticuatro horas que
twenty-four hours, and their udders were no haban sido ordeadas y sus ubres estaban casi
almost bursting. After a little thought, the pigs reventando. Despus de pensar un rato, los cerdos
sent for buckets and milked the cows fairly mandaron traer unos baldes y ordearon a las
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 19

successfully, their trotters being well adapted vacas con regular xito, pues sus patas se
to this task. Soon there were five buckets of adaptaban bastante bien a esa tarea. Al instante
frothing creamy milk at which many of the haba cinco baldes de espumante leche cremosa a
animals looked with considerable interest. la cual miraban muchos de los animales con sumo
inters.
What is going to happen to all that milk? said Qu se har con toda esa leche?, pregunt
someone. alguien.
Jones used sometimes to mix some of it in our Jones a veces empleaba una parte en nuestra
mash, said one of the hens. comida, dijo una de las gallinas.
Never mind the milk, comrades! cried No os preocupis por la leche, camaradas!
Napoleon, placing himself in front of the expuso Napolen, colocndose delante de los
buckets. That will be attended to. The harvest baldes. Eso ya se arreglar. La cosecha es ms
is more important. Comrade Snowball will importante. El camarada Snowball os guiar. Yo
lead the way. I shall follow in a few minutes. os seguir dentro de unos minutos. Adelante,
Forward, comrades! The hay is waiting. camaradas! El heno os espera.
So the animals trooped down to the hayfield to Los animales se fueron hacia el campo de heno
begin the harvest, and when they came back in para empezar la cosecha, y, cuando volvieron al
the evening it was noticed that the milk had anochecer, comprobaron que la leche haba
disappeared. desaparecido.
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 20

CHAPTER 3 CAPTULO III

HOW they toiled and sweated to get the hay Cmo trabajaron y sudaron para poder guardar el
in! But their efforts were rewarded, for the heno! Pero sus esfuerzos fueron recompensados,
harvest was an even bigger success than they pues la cosecha result mejor de lo que
had hoped. esperaban.
Sometimes the work was hard; the implements A veces el trabajo era duro; los utensilios haban
had been designed for human beings and not sido diseados para seres humanos y no para
for animals, and it was a great drawback that animales y representaba una gran desventaja el
no animal was able to use any tool that hecho de que ningn animal pudiera usar las
involved standing on his hind legs. But the herramientas, ya que lo obligaban a pararse sobre
pigs were so clever that they could think of a sus patas traseras. Pero los cerdos eran tan listos
way round every difficulty. As for the horses, que encontraron solucin a cada dificultad. En
they knew every inch of the field, and in fact cuanto a los caballos, conocan cada palmo del
understood the business of mowing and raking campo y, en realidad, entendan el trabajo de
far better than Jones and his men had ever segar y rastrillar mejor que Jones y sus hombres.
done. The pigs did not actually work, but Los cerdos en verdad no trabajaban, pero dirigan
directed and supervised the others. With their y supervisaban a los dems. A causa de sus
superior knowledge it was natural that they conocimientos superiores, era natural que ellos
should assume the leadership. Boxer and asumieran el mando. Boxer y Clover
Clover would harness themselves to the cutter enganchaban los arneses a la segadora o a la
or the horse-rake (no bits or reins were needed rastra (en aquellos das, naturalmente, no hacan
in these days, of course) and tramp steadily falta frenos o riendas) y marchaban firmemente
round and round the field with a pig walking por el campo con un cerdo caminando detrs y
behind and calling out Gee up, comrade! or dicindoles: "Arre, camarada" o "Atrs,
Whoa back, comrade! as the case might be. camarada", segn el caso. Y todos los animales,
And every animal down to the humblest incluso los ms humildes, laboraron para cortar el
worked at turning the hay and gathering it. heno y amontonarlo. Hasta los patos y las gallinas
Even the ducks and hens toiled to and fro all trabajaban yendo de un lado a otro, todo el da al
day in the sun, carrying tiny wisps of hay in sol, transportando manojitos de heno en sus picos.
their beaks. In the end they finished the harvest Al final terminaron la cosecha invirtiendo dos
in two days less time than it had usually taken das menos de lo que generalmente tardaban
Jones and his men. Moreover, it was the Jones y sus peones. Adems, era la cosecha ms
biggest harvest that the farm had ever seen. grande que se haba visto en la granja. No hubo
There was no wastage whatever; the hens and desperdicio alguno; las gallinas y los patos con su
ducks with their sharp eyes had gathered up the vista penetrante haban levantado hasta el ltimo
very last stalk. And not an animal on the farm tallo. Y ningn animal de la granja haba robado
had stolen so much as a mouthful. ni siquiera un bocado.
All through that summer the work of the farm Durante todo el verano el trabajo anduvo como
went like clockwork. The animals were happy sobre rieles. Los animales eran felices como
as they had never conceived it possible to be. jams haban concebido que podran serlo. Cada
Every mouthful of food was an acute positive bocado de comida resultaba un exquisito manjar,
pleasure, now that it was truly their own food, ya que era realmente su propia comida, producida
produced by themselves and for themselves, por ellos y para ellos y no repartida en pequeas
not doled out to them by a grudging master. porciones y de mala gana por su amo. Como ya
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 21

With the worthless parasitical human beings no estaban los inservibles y parasitarios seres
gone, there was more for everyone to eat. humanos, haba ms comida para todos. Se tenan
There was more leisure too, inexperienced ms horas libres tambin, a pesar de la
though the animals were. They met with many inexperiencia de los animales. Claro que se
difficultiesfor instance, later in the year, encontraron con muchas dificultades. Por
when they harvested the corn, they had to tread ejemplo, ms adelante, cuando cosecharon el
it out in the ancient style and blow away the maz, tuvieron que pisarlo al estilo antiguo y
chaff with their breath, since the farm eliminar los desperdicios soplando, pues la granja
possessed no threshing machinebut the pigs no tena desgranadora, pero los cerdos con su
with their cleverness and Boxer with his inteligencia y Boxer con sus msculos tremendos
tremendous muscles always pulled them los sacaban siempre de apuros. Todos admiraban
through. Boxer was the admiration of a Boxer. Haba sido un gran trabajador aun en el
everybody. He had been a hard worker even in tiempo de Jones, pero ahora aparentaba ms bien
Joness time, but now he seemed more like ser tres caballos que uno; en algunos das
three horses than one; there were days when determinados pareca que todo el trabajo
the entire work of the farm seemed to rest on descansaba sobre sus poderosos hombros. Tiraba
his mighty shoulders. From morning to night y empujaba de la maana hasta la noche y
he was pushing and pulling, always at the spot siempre donde el trabajo era ms duro. Haba
where the work was hardest. He had made an concertado con un gallo que ste lo despertara
arrangement with one of the cockerels to call media hora antes que a los dems, y efectuaba
him in the mornings half an hour earlier than algn trabajo voluntario donde ms haca falta,
anyone else, and would put in some volunteer antes de empezar la tarea de todos los das. Su
labour at whatever seemed to be most needed, respuesta para cada problema, para cada revs,
before the regular days work began. His era: "Trabajar ms fuerte!". l la haba
answer to every problem, every setback, was I adoptado como un lema personal.
will work harder!which he had adopted as
his personal motto.
But everyone worked according to his Pero cada uno actuaba conforme a su capacidad.
capacity. The hens and ducks, for instance, Las gallinas y los patos, por ejemplo, ganaron
saved five bushels of corn at the harvest by cinco bshels de maz durante la cosecha
gathering up the stray grains. Nobody stole, levantando los granos perdidos. Nadie rob, nadie
nobody grumbled over his rations, the se quej por su racin; las discusiones, peleas y
quarrelling and biting and jealousy which had envidias que forman parte natural de la vida
been normal features of life in the old days had cotidiana en los das de antao, haban
almost disappeared. Nobody shirkedor desaparecido casi por completo. Nadie eluda el
almost nobody. Mollie, it was true, was not trabajo, o casi nadie. Mollie, en verdad, no era
good at getting up in the mornings, and had a muy buena para levantarse por la maana, y tena
way of leaving work early on the ground that la costumbre de dejar el trabajo temprano
there was a stone in her hoof. aduciendo que tena una piedra en la pata.
And the behaviour of the cat was somewhat Y el comportamiento de la gata era algo raro.
peculiar. It was soon noticed that when there Pronto se not que cuando haba tarea que hacer,
was work to be done the cat could never be a la gata no la encontraban. Desapareca durante
found. She would vanish for hours on end, and horas enteras, y luego se presentaba a la hora de
then reappear at meal-times, or in the evening la comida o al anochecer, cuando cesaba el
after work was over, as though nothing had trabajo, como si nada hubiera ocurrido. Pero
happened. But she always made such excellent siempre tena tan excelentes excusas y
excuses, and purred so affectionately, that it ronroneaba tan afablemente, que era imposible
was impossible not to believe in her good dudar de sus buenas intenciones.
intentions.
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 22

Old Benjamin, the donkey, seemed quite El viejo Benjamn, el burro, pareca que no haba
unchanged since the Rebellion. He did his cambiado desde la rebelin. Haca su trabajo con
work in the same slow obstinate way as he had la misma obstinacin y lentitud que antes, nunca
done it in Joness time, never shirking and eludindolo pero nunca ofrecindose tampoco
never volunteering for extra work either. para ninguna tarea extra. No daba su opinin
About the Rebellion and its results he would sobre la rebelin o sus resultados. Cuando se le
express no opinion. When asked whether he preguntaba si no era ms feliz ahora que no
was not happier now that Jones was gone, he estaba Jones, l se reduca a contestar: "Los
would say only Donkeys live a long time. burros viven mucho tiempo. Ninguno de ustedes
None of you has ever seen a dead donkey, and ha visto un burro muerto". Y los dems deban
the others had to be content with this cryptic conformarse con tan enigmtica respuesta.
answer.
On Sundays there was no work. Breakfast was Los domingos no se trabajaba. El desayuno se
an hour later than usual, and after breakfast tomaba una hora ms tarde que de costumbre, y
there was a ceremony which was observed despus tena lugar una ceremonia que se cumpla
every week without fail. First came the todas las semanas sin excepcin. Primero se
hoisting of the flag. Snowball had found in the enarbolaba la bandera. Snowball haba
harness-room an old green tablecloth of Mrs. encontrado en el desvn un viejo mantel verde de
Joness and had painted on it a hoof and a horn la seora Jones y haba pintado sobre el mismo,
in white. This was run up the flagstaff in the en blanco, un asta y una pata. Este era izado en el
farmhouse garden every Sunday morning. The mstil del jardn todos los domingos por la
flag was green, Snowball explained, to maana. La bandera era verde, explic Snowball,
represent the green fields of England, while the para representar los campos verdes de Inglaterra,
hoof and horn signified the future Republic of mientras que el asta y la pata significaban la
the Animals which would arise when the futura Repblica de los Animales, que surgira
human race had been finally overthrown. After cuando finalmente lograran derribar totalmente a
the hoisting of the flag all the animals trooped la raza humana. Despus de izar la bandera todos
into the big barn for a general assembly which los animales se dirigan en tropel al granero
was known as the Meeting. Here the work of principal para una asamblea general, la que se
the coming week was planned out and conoca como la Reunin. All se planeaba el
resolutions were put forward and debated. It trabajo de la semana siguiente y se planteaban y
was always the pigs who put forward the debatan las resoluciones. Los cerdos eran los que
resolutions. The other animals understood how siempre proponan las resoluciones. Los otros
to vote, but could never think of any animales entendan cmo deban votar, pero
resolutions of their own. Snowball and nunca se les ocurran ideas propias. Snowball y
Napoleon were by far the most active in the Napolen eran, sin duda, los ms activos en los
debates. But it was noticed that these two were debates. Pero se not que estos dos nunca estaban
never in agreement: whatever suggestion either de acuerdo; ante cualquier sugestin que haca
of them made, the other could be counted on to uno, poda descontarse que el otro se opondra a
oppose it. Even when it was resolveda thing ella. Hasta cuando se resolvi, a lo que no habra
no one could object to in itselfto set aside podido oponerse nadie, reservar el campito de
the small paddock behind the orchard as a detrs de la huerta como hogar de descanso para
home of rest for animals who were past work, los animales que ya no estaban en condiciones de
there was a stormy debate over the correct trabajar, hubo un violento debate con referencia a
retiring age for each class of animal. The la edad de retiro correspondiente a cada clase de
Meeting always ended with the singing of animal. La Reunin siempre terminaba con la
Beasts of England, and the afternoon was cancin Bestias de Inglaterra, y la tarde la
given up to recreation. dedicaban al esparcimiento.
The pigs had set aside the harness-room as a Los cerdos hicieron del cuarto de los enseres su
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 23

headquarters for themselves. Here, in the cuartel general. Todas las noches estudiaban
evenings, they studied blacksmithing, herrera, carpintera y otros oficios necesarios en
carpentering, and other necessary arts from los libros que haban trado de la casa. Snowball
books which they had brought out of the tambin se ocup de organizar a los otros
farmhouse. Snowball also busied himself with animales en lo que denominaba Comits de
organising the other animals into what he Animales. Era incansable para eso. Form el
called Animal Committees. He was Comit de produccin de huevos para las
indefatigable at this. He formed the Egg gallinas, la Liga de las colas limpias para las
Production Committee for the hens, the Clean vacas, el Comit para reeducacin de los
Tails League for the cows, the Wild Comrades camaradas salvajes (el objeto de ste era
Re-education Committee (the object of this domesticar las ratas y los conejos), el
was to tame the rats and rabbits), the Whiter Movimiento pro lana ms blanca para las ovejas,
Wool Movement for the sheep, and various y varios otros, adems de organizar clases de
others, besides instituting classes in reading lectura y escritura. En general, esos proyectos
and writing. On the whole, these projects were resultaron un fracaso. El ensayo de domesticar a
a failure. The attempt to tame the wild los animales salvajes, por ejemplo, fall casi
creatures, for instance, broke down almost inmediatamente. Siguieron portndose
immediately. They continued to behave very prcticamente igual que antes, y cuando eran
much as before, and when treated with tratados con generosidad se aprovechaban de ello.
generosity, simply took advantage of it. The La gata se incorpor al Comit para la
cat joined the Re-education Committee and reeducacin y actu mucho en l durante algunos
was very active in it for some days. She was das. Cierta vez la vieron sentada en la azotea
seen one day sitting on a roof and talking to charlando con algunos gorriones que estaban
some sparrows who were just out of her reach. fuera de su alcance. Les estaba diciendo que
She was telling them that all animals were now todos los animales eran ya camaradas y que
comrades and that any sparrow who chose cualquier gorrin que quisiera poda posarse
could come and perch on her paw; but the sobre su garra; pero los gorriones mantuvieron la
sparrows kept their distance. distancia.
The reading and writing classes, however, Las clases de enseanza primaria, sin embargo,
were a great success. By the autumn almost tuvieron gran xito. Para el otoo casi todos los
every animal on the farm was literate in some animales, en mayor o menor grado, tenan alguna
degree. instruccin.
As for the pigs, they could already read and En lo que respecta a los cerdos, ya saban leer y
write perfectly. The dogs learned to read fairly escribir perfectamente. Los perros aprendieron la
well, but were not interested in reading lectura bastante bien, pero no les interesaba leer
anything except the Seven Commandments. otra cosa que los Siete Mandamientos. Muriel, la
Muriel, the goat, could read somewhat better cabra, lea un poco mejor que los perros, y a
than the dogs, and sometimes used to read to veces, por la noche, acostumbraba hacerlo para
the others in the evenings from scraps of los dems de los pedazos de diarios que
newspaper which she found on the rubbish encontraba en la basura. Benjamn lea tan bien
heap. Benjamin could read as well as any pig, como cualquiera de los cerdos, pero nunca
but never exercised his faculty. So far as he ejercitaba su talento. Por lo que l saba, dijo, no
knew, he said, there was nothing worth haba nada que valiera la pena leer. Clover
reading. Clover learnt the whole alphabet, but aprendi el abecedario completo, pero no poda
could not put words together. Boxer could not armar las palabras. Boxer no pudo pasar de la
get beyond the letter D. He would trace out A, letra D. Poda trazar en la tierra A, B, C, D, con
B, C, D, in the dust with his great hoof, and su enorme pata, y luego se quedaba parado
then would stand staring at the letters with his mirando absorto las letras con las orejas hacia
ears back, sometimes shaking his forelock, atrs, moviendo a veces la melena, tratando de
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 24

trying with all his might to remember what recordar lo que segua, sin lograrlo jams. En
came next and never succeeding. On several varias ocasiones, en verdad, logr aprender E, F,
occasions, indeed, he did learn E, F, G, H, but G, H, pero cuando lo hizo se descubri que haba
by the time he knew them, it was always olvidado A, B, C y D. Finalmente decidi
discovered that he had forgotten A, B, C, and conformarse con las cuatro letras, y sola
D. Finally he decided to be content with the escribirlas una o dos veces al da para, refrescar la
first four letters, and used to write them out memoria. Mollie se neg a aprender otra cosa que
once or twice every day to refresh his memory. las seis letras que componan su nombre. Las
Mollie refused to learn any but the six letters formaba con mucha pulcritud con pedazos de
which spelt her own name. She would form ramas, y luego las adornaba con una flor o dos y
these very neatly out of pieces of twig, and caminaba a su alrededor admirndolas.
would then decorate them with a flower or two
and walk round them admiring them.
None of the other animals on the farm could Ningn otro animal de la granja pudo llenar ms
get further than the letter A. It was also found all de la letra A. Tambin se descubri que los
that the stupider animals, such as the sheep, animales ms estpidos, como las ovejas, gallinas
hens, and ducks, were unable to learn the y patos, eran incapaces de aprender de memoria
Seven Commandments by heart. After much los Siete Mandamientos. Despus de mucho
thought Snowball declared that the Seven meditar, Snowball declar que los Siete
Commandments could in effect be reduced to a Mandamientos podan, en efecto, reducirse a una
single maxim, namely: Four legs good, two sola mxima, a saber: "Cuatro patas s, dos pies
legs bad. This, he said, contained the essential no!" Esto, dijo contena el principio esencial del
principle of Animalism. Whoever had Animalismo. Quien lo hubiera entendido a fondo
thoroughly grasped it would be safe from estara asegurado contra las influencias humanas.
human influences. The birds at first objected, Las aves la objetaron al principio pues les pareci
since it seemed to them that they also had two que tambin ellas tenan dos patas, pero Snowball
legs, but Snowball proved to them that this was demostr que no era as.
not so.
A birds wing, comrades, he said, is an Las alas de un pjaro, dijo, son rganos de
organ of propulsion and not of manipulation. It propulsin y no de manipulacin. Por lo tanto,
should therefore be regarded as a leg. The deben considerarse como patas. La caracterstica
distinguishing mark of man is the hand, the que distingue al hombre es la "mano", el
instrument with which he does all his instrumento con el cual hace todo el mal.
mischief.
The birds did not understand Snowballs long Las aves no entendieron la extensa perorata de
words, but they accepted his explanation, and Snowball, pero aceptaron su explicacin y hasta
all the humbler animals set to work to learn the los animales ms humildes comenzaron a
new maxim by heart. FOUR LEGS GOOD, aprender la nueva mxima de memoria. "Cuatro
TWO LEGS BAD, was inscribed on the end patas s, dos pies no", fue inscrita sobre la pared
wall of the barn, above the Seven del fondo del granero, encima de los Siete
Commandments and in bigger letters When Mandamientos y con letras ms grandes. Cuando
they had once got it by heart, the sheep la aprendieron de memoria, a las ovejas les
developed a great liking for this maxim, and encant esta mxima y muchas veces echadas en
often as they lay in the field they would all el campo empezaban todas a balar "Cuatro patas
start bleating Four legs good, two legs bad! s, dos pies no", "Cuatro patas s, dos pies no", y
Four legs good, two legs bad! and keep it up seguan as durante horas enteras, sin cansarse.
for hours on end, never growing tired of it.
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 25

Napoleon took no interest in Snowballs Napolen no se interes por los comits de


committees. He said that the education of the Snowball. Dijo que la educacin de los jvenes
young was more important than anything that era ms importante que cualquier cosa que
could be done for those who were already pudiera hacerse por aquellos que ya eran adultos.
grown up. It happened that Jessie and Bluebell Sucedi que Jessie y Bluebell haban aumentado
had both whelped soon after the hay harvest, de familia, poco despus de la cosecha de heno,
giving birth between them to nine sturdy incorporando a la granja, entre ambas, nueve
puppies. As soon as they were weaned, cachorros robustos. Tan pronto como fueron
Napoleon took them away from their mothers, destetados, Napolen los separ de las madres
saying that he would make himself responsible diciendo que l se hara cargo de su educacin. Se
for their education. He took them up into a loft los llev a un desvn al que slo se poda llegar
which could only be reached by a ladder from por una escalera desde el granero y all los
the harness-room, and there kept them in such mantuvo en tal reclusin que el resto de la granja
seclusion that the rest of the farm soon forgot pronto se olvid de su existencia.
their existence.
The mystery of where the milk went to was El misterio del destino de la leche se aclar
soon cleared up. It was mixed every day into pronto. Se mezclaba todos los das en la comida
the pigs mash. The early apples were now de los cerdos. Las primeras manzanas ya estaban
ripening, and the grass of the orchard was madurando, y el pasto de la huerta estaba cubierto
littered with windfalls. The animals had de la fruta cada de los rboles. Los animales
assumed as a matter of course that these would creyeron, como cosa natural, que stas seran
be shared out equally; one day, however, the repartidas equitativamente; un da, sin embargo,
order went forth that all the windfalls were to apareci la orden de que todas las manzanas
be collected and brought to the harness-room cadas de los rboles deban ser recolectadas y
for the use of the pigs. At this some of the llevadas al granero para consumo de los cerdos. A
other animals murmured, but it was no use. All raz de eso, algunos de los otros animales
the pigs were in full agreement on this point, comenzaron a murmurar, pero en vano. Todos
even Snowball and Napoleon. Squealer was los cerdos estaban de acuerdo en este punto, hasta
sent to make the necessary explanations to the Snowball y Napolen. Squealer fue enviado para
others. dar las explicaciones necesarias.
Comrades! he cried. You do not imagine, I Camaradas, grit, vosotros no supondris, me
hope, that we pigs are doing this in a spirit of imagino, que nosotros los cerdos estamos
selfishness and privilege? Many of us actually haciendo esto con un espritu de egosmo y de
dislike milk and apples. I dislike them myself. privilegio. Muchos de nosotros, en realidad,
Our sole object in taking these things is to tenemos aversin a la leche y las manzanas. A m
preserve our health. Milk and apples (this has personalmente no me agradan. Nuestro nico
been proved by Science, comrades) contain objeto al tomar estas cosas es preservar nuestra
substances absolutely necessary to the well- salud. La leche y las manzanas (esto ha sido
being of a pig. We pigs are brainworkers. The demostrado por la ciencia, camaradas) contienen
whole management and organisation of this sustancias absolutamente necesarias para el
farm depend on us. Day and night we are bienestar del cerdo. Nosotros, los cerdos, somos
watching over your welfare. It is for your sake trabajadores del cerebro. Toda la administracin y
that we drink that milk and eat those apples. organizacin de esta granja depende de nosotros.
Do you know what would happen if we pigs Da y noche estamos velando por vuestra
failed in our duty? Jones would come back! felicidad. Por vuestro bien tomamos esa leche y
Yes, Jones would come back! Surely, comemos esas manzanas. Sabis lo que ocurrira
comrades, cried Squealer almost pleadingly, si los cerdos fracasramos en nuestro deber?
skipping from side to side and whisking his Jones volvera! S, Jones volvera!
tail, surely there is no one among you who Seguramente, camaradas, exclam Squealer casi
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 26

wants to see Jones come back? suplicante saltando de lado a lado y moviendo la
cola, seguramente no hay ninguno entre vosotros
que desee la vuelta de Jones.
Now if there was one thing that the animals Ahora bien, si haba algo de lo cual estaban
were completely certain of, it was that they did completamente seguros los animales, era que no
not want Jones back. When it was put to them queran la vuelta de Jones. Contra cuanto se
in this light, they had no more to say. The presentaba bajo esa posibilidad, no tenan nada
importance of keeping the pigs in good health que aducir. La importancia de preservar la salud
was all too obvious. So it was agreed without de los cerdos era demasiado evidente. De manera
further argument that the milk and the windfall que se decidi sin ms discusin que la leche y
apples (and also the main crop of apples when las manzanas cadas de los rboles (y tambin la
they ripened) should be reserved for the pigs cosecha principal de manzanas cuando stas
alone. maduraran) deban reservarse para los cerdos
solamente.
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 27

CHAPTER 4 CAPTULO IV

BY the late summer the news of what had Hacia fines del verano la noticia de lo sucedido
happened on Animal Farm had spread across en la Granja Animal se haba difundido por casi
half the county. Every day Snowball and todo el condado. Todos, los das Snowball y
Napoleon sent out flights of pigeons whose Napolen enviaban bandadas de palomas con
instructions were to mingle with the animals on instrucciones de mezclarse con los animales de
neighbouring farms, tell them the story of the las granjas vecinas, contarles la historia de la
Rebellion, and teach them the tune of Beasts of rebelin y ensearles la cancin Bestias de
England. Inglaterra.
Most of this time Mr. Jones had spent sitting in Durante la mayor parte de ese tiempo Jones
the taproom of the Red Lion at Willingdon, permaneca en la taberna El Len Colorado, en
complaining to anyone who would listen of the Willingdon, quejndose a cualquiera que
monstrous injustice he had suffered in being deseara escucharle de la monstruosa injusticia
turned out of his property by a pack of good-for- que haba sufrido al ser arrojado de su
nothing animals. The other farmers sympathised propiedad por una banda de animales intiles.
in principle, but they did not at first give him Los otros granjeros simpatizaban con l, en
much help. At heart, each of them was secretly principio, pero al comienzo no le dieron mucha
wondering whether he could not somehow turn ayuda. Por dentro, cada uno pensaba
Joness misfortune to his own advantage. It was secretamente si no podra en alguna forma
lucky that the owners of the two farms which transformar la mala fortuna de Jones en
adjoined Animal Farm were on permanently bad beneficio propio. Era una suerte que los dueos
terms. One of them, which was named Foxwood, de las dos granjas que lindaban con Granja
was a large, neglected, old-fashioned farm, much Animal estuvieran siempre enemistados. Una de
overgrown by woodland, with all its pastures ellas, que se llamaba Foxwood, era una granja
worn out and its hedges in a disgraceful grande, anticuada y descuidada, cubierta de
condition. Its owner, Mr. Pilkington, was an arboleda, con sus campos de pastoreo agotados
easy-going gentleman farmer who spent most of y sus cercos en un estado lamentable. Su
his time in fishing or hunting according to the propietario, el seor Pilkington, era un
season. The other farm, which was called agricultor indolente que pasaba la mayor parte
Pinchfield, was smaller and better kept. Its del tiempo pescando o cazando, segn la
owner was a Mr. Frederick, a tough, shrewd estacin. La otra granja, que se llamaba
man, perpetually involved in lawsuits and with a Pinchfield, era ms chica y mejor cuidada. Su
name for driving hard bargains. These two dueo, un tal Frederick, era un hombre duro,
disliked each other so much that it was difficult astuto, siempre metido en pleitos y que tena
for them to come to any agreement, even in fama de tacao. Los dos se odiaban tanto que
defence of their own interests. era difcil que se pusieran de acuerdo, ni aun en
defensa de sus propios intereses.
Nevertheless, they were both thoroughly Ello no obstante, ambos estaban asustados por
frightened by the rebellion on Animal Farm, and la rebelin de la Granja Animal y ansiosos por
very anxious to prevent their own animals from evitar que sus animales llegaran a saber algo de
learning too much about it. At first they lo ocurrido. Al principio aparentaban rerse y
pretended to laugh to scorn the idea of animals desdear la idea de los animales administrando
managing a farm for themselves. The whole su propia granja. "Todo el asunto estar
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 28

thing would be over in a fortnight, they said. terminado en quince das", se decan.
They put it about that the animals on the Manor Afirmaban que los animales en la Granja Manor
Farm (they insisted on calling it the Manor (insistan en llamarla Granja Manor; no podan
Farm; they would not tolerate the name Animal tolerar el nombre de Granja Animal) se
Farm) were perpetually fighting among peleaban de continuo entre s y terminaran
themselves and were also rapidly starving to murindose de hambre. Pasado un tiempo,
death. When time passed and the animals had cuando fue evidente que los animales no
evidently not starved to death, Frederick and perecan de hambre, Frederick y Pilkington
Pilkington changed their tune and began to talk cambiaron de tono y empezaron a hablar de la
of the terrible wickedness that now flourished on terrible maldad que, floreca en la Granja
Animal Farm. It was given out that the animals Animal. Difundieron el rumor de que los
there practised cannibalism, tortured one another animales practicaban el canibalismo, se
with red-hot horseshoes, and had their females in torturaban unos a otros con herraduras
common. This was what came of rebelling calentadas al rojo y despreciaban el
against the laws of Nature, Frederick and matrimonio. "Ese es el resultado de rebelarse
Pilkington said. contra las leyes de la Naturaleza", sostenan
Frederick y Pilkington.
However, these stories were never fully Sin embargo, nunca se dio mucha fe a esos
believed. Rumours of a wonderful farm, where cuentos. Rumores acerca de una granja
the human beings had been turned out and the maravillosa donde los seres humanos haban
animals managed their own affairs, continued to sido eliminados y los animales administraban
circulate in vague and distorted forms, and sus propios asuntos, continuaron circulando en
throughout that year a wave of rebelliousness ran forma vaga y falseada, y durante todo ese ao
through the countryside. Bulls which had always se extendi una ola de rebelda en la comarca.
been tractable suddenly turned savage, sheep Toros que siempre haban sido dciles, se
broke down hedges and devoured the clover, volvieron repentinamente salvajes; ovejas que
cows kicked the pail over, hunters refused their rompan los cercos, devoraban el trbol; vacas
fences and shot their riders on to the other side. que volcaban los baldes cuando las ordeaban;
Above all, the tune and even the words of caballos de caza que se negaban a saltar los
Beasts of England were known everywhere. It cercos que lanzaban a sus jinetes por el aire.
had spread with astonishing speed. The human Adems, la meloda y hasta la letra de Bestias
beings could not contain their rage when they de Inglaterra eran conocidas por doquier. Se
heard this song, though they pretended to think it haban difundido con una velocidad asombrosa.
merely ridiculous. They could not understand, Los seres humanos no podan contener su furor
they said, how even animals could bring cuando oan esta cancin, aunque aparentaban
themselves to sing such contemptible rubbish. considerarla simplemente ridcula. No podan
Any animal caught singing it was given a entender, decan, cmo hasta los animales
flogging on the spot. And yet the song was mismos se atrevan a cantar algo tan
irrepressible. The blackbirds whistled it in the despreciable. Cualquier animal que fuera
hedges, the pigeons cooed it in the elms, it got sorprendido cantndola, era azotado en el acto.
into the din of the smithies and the tune of the Sin embargo, la cancin result irreprimible.
church bells. And when the human beings Los mirlos la silbaban en los cercos, las
listened to it, they secretly trembled, hearing in it palomas la arrullaban en los lamos, se
a prophecy of their future doom. introdujo en el ruido de las fraguas y en el
taido de las campanas de las iglesias. Y
cuando los seres humanos la escuchaban,
temblaban secretamente, pues oan en ella una
profeca de su futura perdicin.
Early in October, when the corn was cut and A principios de octubre, cuando el maz haba
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 29

stacked and some of it was already threshed, a sido cortado y parte del mismo ya trillado, una
flight of pigeons came whirling through the air bandada de palomas cruz el cielo a toda
and alighted in the yard of Animal Farm in the velocidad y descendi, muy excitada, en el
wildest excitement. Jones and all his men, with patio de Granja Animal. Jones y todos sus
half a dozen others from Foxwood and obreros, con media docena ms de hombres de
Pinchfield, had entered the five-barred gate and Foxwood y Pinchfield, haban entrado por el
were coming up the cart-track that led to the portn y se aproximaban por el sendero hacia la
farm. They were all carrying sticks, except casa. Todos esgriman palos, exceptuando a
Jones, who was marching ahead with a gun in Jones, quien vena adelante con una escopeta en
his hands. Obviously they were going to attempt la mano. Evidentemente, iban a tratar de
the recapture of the farm. reconquistar la granja.
This had long been expected, and all Eso haca tiempo que estaba previsto y se
preparations had been made. Snowball, who had haban adoptado las precauciones necesarias.
studied an old book of Julius Caesars campaigns Snowball que estudiara en un viejo libro,
which he had found in the farmhouse, was in hallado en la casa, las campaas de Julio Csar,
charge of the defensive operations. He gave his estaba a cargo de las operaciones defensivas.
orders quickly, and in a couple of minutes every Dio las rdenes rpidamente, y en contados
animal was at his post. minutos cada animal ocupaba su puesto.
As the human beings approached the farm Cuando los seres humanos se acercaron a los
buildings, Snowball launched his first attack. All edificios de la granja, Snowball lanz su primer
the pigeons, to the number of thirty-five, flew to ataque. Todas las palomas, eran unas treinta y
and fro over the mens heads and muted upon cinco, volaban sobre las cabezas de los hombres
them from mid-air; and while the men were y los ensuciaban desde el aire; y mientras los
dealing with this, the geese, who had been hiding hombres estaban ocupados en eso, los gansos,
behind the hedge, rushed out and pecked escondidos detrs del cerco, los acometieron
viciously at the calves of their legs. However, picotendoles las pantorrillas furiosamente.
this was only a light skirmishing manoeuvre, Pero eso era una mera escaramuza con el
intended to create a little disorder, and the men propsito de crear un poco de desorden, y los
easily drove the geese off with their sticks. hombres ahuyentaron fcilmente a los gansos
Snowball now launched his second line of con sus palos. Snowball lanz su segunda lnea
attack. Muriel, Benjamin, and all the sheep, with de ataque: Muriel, Benjamn y todas las ovejas,
Snowball at the head of them, rushed forward con Snowball a la cabeza, avanzaron
and prodded and butted the men from every side, embistiendo y empujando a los hombres desde
while Benjamin turned around and lashed at todos lados, mientras que Benjamn se volvi y
them with his small hoofs. But once again the comenz a distribuir coces con sus patas
men, with their sticks and their hobnailed boots, traseras. Pero nuevamente los hombres, con sus
were too strong for them; and suddenly, at a palos y sus botas claveteadas, fueron demasiado
squeal from Snowball, which was the signal for fuertes para ellos; y repentinamente, al orse el
retreat, all the animals turned and fled through chillido de Snowball, que era la seal para
the gateway into the yard. retirarse, todos los animales dieron media
vuelta y se metieron por el portn al patio.
The men gave a shout of triumph. They saw, as Los hombres lanzaron un grito de triunfo.
they imagined, their enemies in flight, and they Vieron, es lo que se imaginaron, a sus enemigos
rushed after them in disorder. This was just what en fuga y corrieron tras ellos en desorden. Eso
Snowball had intended. As soon as they were era precisamente lo que Snowball quera. Tan
well inside the yard, the three horses, the three pronto como estuvieron dentro del patio, los
cows, and the rest of the pigs, who had been tres caballos, las tres vacas y los dems cerdos,
lying in ambush in the cowshed, suddenly que haban estado al acecho en el establo de las
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 30

emerged in their rear, cutting them off. Snowball vacas, aparecieron repentinamente por detrs de
now gave the signal for the charge. He himself ellos, cortndoles la retirada. Snowball dio la
dashed straight for Jones. Jones saw him coming, seal para la carga. El mismo acometi a Jones.
raised his gun and fired. The pellets scored Este lo vio venir, apunt con su escopeta e hizo
bloody streaks along Snowballs back, and a fuego. Los perdigones dejaron su huella
sheep dropped dead. Without halting for an sangrienta en el lomo de Snowball, y una oveja
instant, Snowball flung his fifteen stone against cay muerta. Sin vacilar un instante, Snowball
Joness legs. Jones was hurled into a pile of dung lanz su cuerpo contra las piernas de Jones, que
and his gun flew out of his hands. But the most fue a caer sobre una pila de estircol mientras la
terrifying spectacle of all was Boxer, rearing up escopeta se le escap de las manos. Pero el
on his hind legs and striking out with his great espectculo ms aterrador lo ofreca Boxer,
iron-shod hoofs like a stallion. His very first encabritado sobre sus miembros traseros y
blow took a stable-lad from Foxwood on the pegando con sus enormes patas herradas. Su
skull and stretched him lifeless in the mud. At primer golpe lo recibi en la cabeza un mozo de
the sight, several men dropped their sticks and la caballeriza de Foxwood, quedando tendido
tried to run. Panic overtook them, and the next exnime en el barro. Al ver ese cuadro varios
moment all the animals together were chasing hombres dejaron caer sus palos e intentaron
them round and round the yard. They were disparar. Pero los cogi el pnico y, al
gored, kicked, bitten, trampled on. There was not momento, los animales los estaban corriendo
an animal on the farm that did not take por todo el patio. Fueron corneados, pateados,
vengeance on them after his own fashion. Even mordidos, pisados. No hubo ni un animal en la
the cat suddenly leapt off a roof onto a granja que no se vengara a su manera. Hasta la
cowmans shoulders and sank her claws in his gata salt repentinamente desde una azotea
neck, at which he yelled horribly. At a moment sobre la espalda de un vaquero y le clav sus
when the opening was clear, the men were glad garras en el cuello, hacindole gritar
enough to rush out of the yard and make a bolt horriblemente. En el momento en que se
for the main road. And so within five minutes of present un claro para la salida, los hombres se
their invasion they were in ignominious retreat alegraron de poder escapar del patio y salir
by the same way as they had come, with a flock como un rayo hacia el camino principal. Y as,
of geese hissing after them and pecking at their a los cinco minutos de la invasin, se hallaban
calves all the way. en retirada ignominiosa por la misma va de
acceso, con una bandada de gansos ciscando
tras ellos y picotendoles las pantorrillas
durante todo el camino.
All the men were gone except one. Back in the Todos los hombres se haban ido, menos uno.
yard Boxer was pawing with his hoof at the All en el patio, Boxer estaba empujando con la
stable-lad who lay face down in the mud, trying pata al mozo de caballeriza que estaba boca
to turn him over. The boy did not stir. abajo en el barro, tratando de darle vuelta, el
muchacho no se mova.
He is dead, said Boxer sorrowfully. I had no Est muerto, dijo Boxer tristemente. No
intention of doing that. I forgot that I was tena intencin de hacer esto. Me olvid d que
wearing iron shoes. Who will believe that I did tena herraduras. Quin va a creer que no hice
not do this on purpose? esto adrede?
No sentimentality, comrade! cried Snowball Nada de sentimentalismos, camarada, grit
from whose wounds the blood was still dripping. Snowball, de cuyas heridas an manaba sangre.
War is war. The only good human being is a La guerra es la guerra. El nico ser humano
dead one. bueno es el que ha muerto.
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 31

I have no wish to take life, not even human Yo no deseo quitar una vida, ni siquiera
life, repeated Boxer, and his eyes were full of humana, repiti Boxer con los ojos llenos de
tears. lgrimas.
Where is Mollie? exclaimed somebody. Dnde est Mollie? inquiri alguien.
Mollie in fact was missing. For a moment there Efectivamente, faltaba Mollie. Por un momento
was great alarm; it was feared that the men might se produjo una gran alarma; se temi que los
have harmed her in some way, or even carried hombres la hubieran lastimado de alguna forma,
her off with them. In the end, however, she was o incluso que se la hubiesen llevado consigo. Al
found hiding in her stall with her head buried final, sin embargo, la encontraron escondida en
among the hay in the manger. She had taken to su corral, en el establo, con la cabeza enterrada
flight as soon as the gun went off. And when the en el heno del pesebre. Se haba escapado tan
others came back from looking for her, it was to pronto como son el tiro de la escopeta. Y,
find that the stable-lad, who in fact was only cuando los otros retornaron de su bsqueda, se
stunned, had already recovered and made off. encontraron con que el mozo de caballeriza, que
en realidad slo estaba aturdido, ya se haba
repuesto y haba huido.
The animals had now reassembled in the wildest Los animales se congregaron muy exaltados,
excitement, each recounting his own exploits in cada uno contando a voz en cuello sus hazaas
the battle at the top of his voice. An impromptu en la batalla. Enseguida se realiz una
celebration of the victory was held immediately. celebracin improvisada de la victoria. Se iz la
The flag was run up and Beasts of England was bandera y se cant varias veces Bestias de
sung a number of times, then the sheep who had Inglaterra, y luego se le dio sepultura solemne
been killed was given a solemn funeral, a a la oveja que muri en la accin, plantndose
hawthorn bush being planted on her grave. At un oxiacanto sobre su sepulcro. En dicho acto
the graveside Snowball made a little speech, Snowball pronunci un discurso, recalcando la
emphasising the need for all animals to be ready necesidad de que todos los animales estuvieran
to die for Animal Farm if need be. dispuestos a morir por Granja Animal, si fuera
necesario.
The animals decided unanimously to create a Los animales decidieron unnimemente crear
military decoration, Animal Hero, First Class, una condecoracin militar: Hroe Animal,
which was conferred there and then on Snowball Primer Grado, que les fue conferida en ese
and Boxer. It consisted of a brass medal (they mismo instante a Snowball y Boxer. Consista
were really some old horse-brasses which had en una medalla de bronce (en realidad eran unos
been found in the harness-room), to be worn on adornos de bronce para caballos que haban
Sundays and holidays. There was also Animal encontrado en el cuarto de los enseres), que
Hero, Second Class, which was conferred deba usarse los domingos y das de fiesta.
posthumously on the dead sheep. Tambin se cre la Orden Hroe Animal
Segundo Grado, que le fue otorgada
pstumamente a la oveja muerta.
There was much discussion as to what the battle Se discuti mucho el nombre que deba drsele
should be called. In the end, it was named the a la batalla. Al final se la llam la Batalla del
Battle of the Cowshed, since that was where the Establo de las Vacas, pues fue all donde se
ambush had been sprung. Mr. Joness gun had realiz la emboscada. La escopeta del seor
been found lying in the mud, and it was known Jones fue hallada en el barro y se saba que en
that there was a supply of cartridges in the la casa haba proyectiles. Se decidi emplazar la
farmhouse. It was decided to set the gun up at escopeta al pie del mstil, como si fuera una
the foot of the Flagstaff, like a piece of artillery, pieza de artillera, y dispararla dos veces al ao;
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 32

and to fire it twice a year-once on October the una vez, el cuatro de octubre, aniversario de la
twelfth, the anniversary of the Battle of the Batalla del Establo de las Vacas, y la otra, el da
Cowshed, and once on Midsummer Day, the de San Juan, aniversario de la rebelin.
anniversary of the Rebellion.
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 33

CHAPTER 5 CAPTULO V

AS winter drew on, Mollie became more and A medida que el invierno se aproximaba, Mollie
more troublesome. She was late for work every se volvi ms y ms fastidiosa. Llegaba tarde al
morning and excused herself by saying that she trabajo todas las maanas con el pretexto de que
had overslept, and she complained of se haba quedado dormida, quejndose de
mysterious pains, although her appetite was dolencias misteriosas, aun cuando su apetito era
excellent. On every kind of pretext she would excelente. Con cualquier disculpa se escapaba del
run away from work and go to the drinking trabajo para ir al bebedero, donde se quedaba
pool, where she would stand foolishly gazing parada mirando su reflejo en el agua como una
at her own reflection in the water. But there tonta. Pero tambin haba rumores de algo ms
were also rumours of something more serious. serio. Un da que Mollie entraba alegremente al
One day, as Mollie strolled blithely into the patio, meneando su larga cola y mascando un
yard, flirting her long tail and chewing at a tallo de heno, Clover la llam a un lado.
stalk of hay, Clover took her aside.
Mollie, she said, I have something very Mollie, le dijo, tengo algo muy serio que
serious to say to you. This morning I saw you decirte. Esta maana te vi mirando por encima del
looking over the hedge that divides Animal cerco que separa a Granja Animal de Foxwood.
Farm from Foxwood. One of Mr. Pilkingtons Uno de los hombres del seor Pilkington estaba
men was standing on the other side of the parado al otro lado del cerco. Yo estaba a cierta
hedge. AndI was a long way away, but I am distancia, pero estoy casi segura de que vi esto: l
almost certain I saw thishe was talking to te estaba hablando y le permitas que te acariciara
you and you were allowing him to stroke your el hocico. Qu significa eso, Mollie?
nose. What does that mean, Mollie?
He didnt! I wasnt! It isnt true! cried El no lo hizo! Yo no estaba! No es verdad!,
Mollie, beginning to prance about and paw the grit Mollie, empezando a hacer cabriolas y a
ground. patear el suelo.
Mollie! Look me in the face. Do you give me Mollie! Mrame en la cara. Puedes darme tu
your word of honour that that man was not palabra de honor de que ese hombre no te estaba
stroking your nose? acariciando el hocico?
It isnt true! repeated Mollie, but she could No es verdad!, repiti Mollie, pero no poda
not look Clover in the face, and the next mirar a la cara a Clover, y al instante tom las de
moment she took to her heels and galloped Villadiego, huyendo al galope hacia el campo.
away into the field.
A thought struck Clover. Without saying A Clover se le ocurri algo. Sin decir nada a
anything to the others, she went to Mollies nadie, se fue a la pesebrera de Mollie y revolvi,
stall and turned over the straw with her hoof. la paja con su pata. Escondida bajo la paja haba
Hidden under the straw was a little pile of una pequea pila de terrones de azcar y varios
lump sugar and several bunches of ribbon of montones de cintas de distintos colores.
different colours. Tres das despus Mollie desapareci. Durante
Three days later Mollie disappeared. For some varias semanas no se supo nada respecto a su
weeks nothing was known of her whereabouts, paradero; luego las palomas informaron que la
then the pigeons reported that they had seen haban visto al otro lado de Willingdon. Estaba
her on the other side of Willingdon. She was entre las varas de un coche elegante pintado de
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 34

between the shafts of a smart dogcart painted rojo y negro, que se encontraba parado ante una
red and black, which was standing outside a taberna. Un hombre gordo, de cara colorada, con
public-house. A fat red-faced man in check pantalones a cuadros y polainas, que pareca un
breeches and gaiters, who looked like a tabernero, le estaba acariciando el hocico y
publican, was stroking her nose and feeding dndole de comer azcar. El pelaje de Mollie
her with sugar. Her coat was newly clipped estaba recin cortado, y ella llevaba una cinta
and she wore a scarlet ribbon round her escarlata en la melena. "Daba la impresin de que
forelock. She appeared to be enjoying herself, estaba a gusto", dijeron las palomas. Ninguno de
so the pigeons said. None of the animals ever los animales volvi a mencionar a Mollie.
mentioned Mollie again.
In January there came bitterly hard weather. En enero hizo muy mal tiempo. La tierra pareca
The earth was like iron, and nothing could be de hierro y no se poda hacer nada en el campo.
done in the fields. Many meetings were held in Se realizaron muchas reuniones en el granero
the big barn, and the pigs occupied themselves principal; los cerdos se ocuparon en formular
with planning out the work of the coming planes para la temporada siguiente. Se lleg a
season. It had come to be accepted that the aceptar que los cerdos, que eran manifiestamente
pigs, who were manifestly cleverer than the ms inteligentes que los dems animales,
other animals, should decide all questions of resolveran todas las cuestiones referentes al
farm policy, though their decisions had to be manejo de la granja, aunque sus decisiones
ratified by a majority vote. This arrangement deban ser ratificadas por mayora de votos. Este
would have worked well enough if it had not arreglo habra andado bastante bien a no ser por
been for the disputes between Snowball and las discusiones entre Snowball y Napolen. Estos
Napoleon. These two disagreed at every point dos estaban siempre en desacuerdo en cada punto
where disagreement was possible. If one of donde era posible que hubiera discrepancia. Si
them suggested sowing a bigger acreage with uno de ellos sugera sembrar un mayor nmero de
barley, the other was certain to demand a hectreas con cebada, con toda seguridad que el
bigger acreage of oats, and if one of them said otro iba a exigir un mayor nmero de hectreas
that such and such a field was just right for con avena, y si uno afirmaba que tal o cual
cabbages, the other would declare that it was terreno estaba en buenas condiciones para el
useless for anything except roots. Each had his repollo, el otro deca que serva nicamente para
own following, and there were some violent nabos. Cada uno tena sus partidarios y se
debates. At the Meetings Snowball often won registraron debates violentos. En las reuniones
over the majority by his brilliant speeches, but Snowball a menudo convenca a la mayora por
Napoleon was better at canvassing support for sus discursos brillantes, pero Napolen era
himself in between times. He was especially superior para obtener apoyo fuera de las sesiones.
successful with the sheep. Of late the sheep Un xito especial logr con las ovejas.
had taken to bleating Four legs good, two legs ltimamente stas tomaron la costumbre de balar
bad both in and out of season, and they often Cuatro patas s, dos pies no en cualquier
interrupted the Meeting with this. It was momento, y muchas veces interrumpan as la
noticed that they were especially liable to Reunin. Se not que esto ocurra frecuentemente
break into Four legs good, two legs bad at en momentos decisivos de los discursos de
crucial moments in Snowballs speeches. Snowball. Este haba hecho un estudio profundo
Snowball had made a close study of some back de algunos nmeros atrasados de Granjero y
numbers of the Farmer and Stockbreeder Cabaero que encontrara en la casa, y estaba
which he had found in the farmhouse, and was lleno de planes para efectuar innovaciones y
full of plans for innovations and mejoras. Hablaba como un erudito sobre zanjas
improvements. He talked learnedly about field de desage, ensilaje y abono bsico, habiendo
drains, silage, and basic slag, and had worked elaborado un complicado esquema para que todos
out a complicated scheme for all the animals to los animales dejaran caer su estircol
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 35

drop their dung directly in the fields, at a directamente en los campos, cada da en un lugar
different spot every day, to save the labour of distinto, con el fin de ahorrar el trabajo de
cartage. Napoleon produced no schemes of his acarreo. Napolen no present ningn plan
own, but said quietly that Snowballs would propio, pero deca tranquilamente que los de
come to nothing, and seemed to be biding his Snowball quedaran en nada, y pareca aguardar
time. But of all their controversies, none was algo. Pero de todas sus controversias, ninguna fue
so bitter as the one that took place over the tan enconada como la que tuvo lugar con respecto
windmill. al molino de viento.
In the long pasture, not far from the farm En la larga pradera, cerca de los edificios, haba
buildings, there was a small knoll which was una pequea loma que era el punto ms alto de la
the highest point on the farm. After surveying granja. Despus de estudiar el terreno, Snowball
the ground, Snowball declared that this was declar que se era el lugar indicado para un
just the place for a windmill, which could be molino de viento, con el cual se poda hacer
made to operate a dynamo and supply the farm funcionar una dnamo y suministrar fuerza motriz
with electrical power. This would light the para la granja. Esta dara luz para los corrales de
stalls and warm them in winter, and would also los animales y los calentara en invierno, y
run a circular saw, a chaff-cutter, a mangel- tambin hara funcionar una sierra circular, una
slicer, and an electric milking machine. The desgranadora, una cortadora y una ordeadora
animals had never heard of anything of this elctrica. Los animales nunca haban odo hablar
kind before (for the farm was an old-fashioned de esas cosas (porque la granja era anticuada y
one and had only the most primitive contaba slo con la maquinaria ms primitiva), y
machinery), and they listened in astonishment escuchaban asombrados a Snowball mientras les
while Snowball conjured up pictures of describa cuadros de maquinarias fantsticas que
fantastic machines which would do their work haran el trabajo por ellos mientras pastaban
for them while they grazed at their ease in the tranquilamente en los campos o perfeccionaban
fields or improved their minds with reading sus mentes mediante la lectura y la conversacin.
and conversation.
Within a few weeks Snowballs plans for the En pocas semanas los planos de Snowball para el
windmill were fully worked out. The molino de viento haban sido completados. Los
mechanical details came mostly from three detalles tcnicos provenan principalmente de tres
books which had belonged to Mr. JonesOne libros que haban pertenecido al seor Jones: Mil
Thousand Useful Things to Do About the cosas tiles que realizar para la casa, Cada
House, Every Man His Own Bricklayer, and hombre, su propio albail y Electricidad para
Electricity for Beginners. Snowball used as his principiantes. Como estudio utiliz Snowball un
study a shed which had once been used for cobertizo que en un tiempo se haba usado para
incubators and had a smooth wooden floor, incubadoras y tena un piso liso de madera,
suitable for drawing on. He was closeted there apropiado para dibujar. Se encerraba en l
for hours at a time. With his books held open durante horas enteras. Mantena sus libros
by a stone, and with a piece of chalk gripped abiertos con una piedra y, empuando un pedazo
between the knuckles of his trotter, he would de tiza, se mova rpidamente de un lado a otro,
move rapidly to and fro, drawing in line after dibujando lnea tras lnea y profiriendo pequeos
line and uttering little whimpers of excitement. chillidos de entusiasmo. Gradualmente sus planos
Gradually the plans grew into a complicated se transformaron en una masa complicada de
mass of cranks and cog-wheels, covering more manivelas y engranajes que cubran ms de la
than half the floor, which the other animals mitad del suelo, y que los dems animales
found completely unintelligible but very consideraron completamente indescifrable, pero
impressive. All of them came to look at muy impresionante. Todos iban a mirar los planos
Snowballs drawings at least once a day. Even de Snowball por lo menos una vez al da. Hasta
the hens and ducks came, and were at pains not las gallinas y los patos lo hicieron y tuvieron
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 36

to tread on the chalk marks. Only Napoleon sumo cuidado de no pisar los trazos con tiza.
held aloof. He had declared himself against the nicamente Napolen se mantena a distancia. El
windmill from the start. One day, however, he se haba declarado en contra del molino de viento
arrived unexpectedly to examine the plans. He desde el principio. Un da, sin embargo, lleg en
walked heavily round the shed, looked closely forma inesperada para examinar los planos.
at every detail of the plans and snuffed at them Camin pesadamente por all, observ con
once or twice, then stood for a little while cuidado cada detalle, olfateando en una o dos
contemplating them out of the corner of his oportunidades; despus se par un rato mientras
eye; then suddenly he lifted his leg, urinated los contemplaba de reojo; luego, repentinamente,
over the plans, and walked out without uttering levant la pata, hizo aguas sobre los planos y se
a word. alej sin decir palabra.
The whole farm was deeply divided on the Toda la granja estaba muy dividida en el asunto
subject of the windmill. Snowball did not deny del molino de viento. Snowball no negaba que
that to build it would be a difficult business. construir significara un trabajo difcil. Tendran
Stone would have to be carried and built up que sacar piedras de la cantera y con ellas
into walls, then the sails would have to be levantar paredes, luego fabricar las aspas y
made and after that there would be need for despus de eso necesitaran dnamos y cables
dynamos and cables. (How these were to be (cmo se obtendran esas cosas, Snowball no lo
procured, Snowball did not say.) But he deca). Pero sostena que todo podra hacerse en
maintained that it could all be done in a year. un ao. Y en adelante, declar, se ahorrara tanto
And thereafter, he declared, so much labour trabajo que los animales slo tendran que laborar
would be saved that the animals would only tres das por semana. Napolen, por el contrario,
need to work three days a week. Napoleon, on sostena que la gran necesidad del momento era
the other hand, argued that the great need of aumentar la produccin de comestibles, y que si
the moment was to increase food production, perdan el tiempo con el molino de viento se
and that if they wasted time on the windmill moriran todos de hambre. Los animales se
they would all starve to death. The animals agruparon en dos facciones bajo los lemas: "Vote
formed themselves into two factions under the por Snowball y la semana de tres das" y "Vote
slogan, Vote for Snowball and the three-day por Napolen y el pesebre lleno". Benjamn era el
week and Vote for Napoleon and the full nico animal que no se alist en ninguna de las
manger. Benjamin was the only animal who dos facciones. Se neg a creer que habra ms
did not side with either faction. He refused to abundancia de comida o que el molino de viento
believe either that food would become more ahorrara trabajo. "Con molino o sin molino, dijo,
plentiful or that the windmill would save work. la vida seguira como siempre lo fue, es decir, un
Windmill or no windmill, he said, life would desastre.
go on as it had always gone onthat is, badly.
Apart from the disputes over the windmill, Aparte de las discusiones referentes al molino,
there was the question of the defence of the estaba la cuestin de la defensa de la granja. Se
farm. It was fully realised that though the comprenda perfectamente que aunque los seres
human beings had been defeated in the Battle humanos haban sido derrotados en la Batalla del
of the Cowshed they might make another and Establo de las Vacas, podran hacer otra tentativa,
more determined attempt to recapture the farm ms resuelta que la anterior, para volver a
and reinstate Mr. Jones. They had all the more capturar la granja y restablecer al seor Jones.
reason for doing so because the news of their Tenan an ms motivo para hacerlo, pues la
defeat had spread across the countryside and noticia de la derrota se difundi por los
made the animals on the neighbouring farms alrededores y haba puesto a los animales ms
more restive than ever. As usual, Snowball and revoltosos que nunca. Como de costumbre,
Napoleon were in disagreement. According to Snowball y Napolen estaban en desacuerdo.
Napoleon, what the animals must do was to Segn Napolen, lo que deban hacer los
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 37

procure firearms and train themselves in the animales era procurar la obtencin de armas de
use of them. According to Snowball, they must fuego y adiestrarse en su manejo. Snowball
send out more and more pigeons and stir up opinaba que deban mandar ms y ms palomas y
rebellion among the animals on the other fomentar la rebelin entre los animales de las
farms. The one argued that if they could not otras granjas. Uno argumentaba que si no podan
defend themselves they were bound to be defenderse estaban destinados a ser conquistados;
conquered, the other argued that if rebellions el otro arga que si haba rebeliones en todas
happened everywhere they would have no need partes no tendran necesidad de defenderse. Los
to defend themselves. The animals listened animales escuchaban primeramente a Napolen,
first to Napoleon, then to Snowball, and could luego a Snowball, y no podan decidir quin tena
not make up their minds which was right; razn; a decir verdad, siempre estaban de acuerdo
indeed, they always found themselves in con el que les estaba hablando en ese momento.
agreement with the one who was speaking at
the moment.
At last the day came when Snowballs plans Al fin lleg el da en que Snowball complet sus
were completed. At the Meeting on the planos. En la Reunin del domingo siguiente se
following Sunday the question of whether or iba a poner a votacin si se comenzaba o no a
not to begin work on the windmill was to be construir el molino de viento. Cuando los
put to the vote. When the animals had animales estaban reunidos en el granero principal,
assembled in the big barn, Snowball stood up Snowball se levant y, aunque de vez en cuando
and, though occasionally interrupted by era interrumpido por los balidos de las ovejas,
bleating from the sheep, set forth his reasons expuso sus razones para defender la construccin
for advocating the building of the windmill. del molino. Luego Napolen se levant para
Then Napoleon stood up to reply. He said very contestar. Dijo tranquilamente que el molino de
quietly that the windmill was nonsense and viento era una tontera y que l aconsejaba que
that he advised nobody to vote for it, and nadie lo votara, sentndose enseguida; habl
promptly sat down again; he had spoken for apenas treinta segundos, y pareca indiferente en
barely thirty seconds, and seemed almost cuanto al efecto que haba producido. Ante esto
indifferent as to the effect he produced. At this Snowball se puso de pie de un salto, y gritando
Snowball sprang to his feet, and shouting down para poder ser odo a pesar de las ovejas que
the sheep, who had begun bleating again, nuevamente haban comenzado a balar, se desat
broke into a passionate appeal in favour of the en una exhortacin apasionada a favor del molino
windmill. Until now the animals had been de viento. Hasta entonces los animales estaban
about equally divided in their sympathies, but divididos ms o menos por igual en sus simpatas,
in a moment Snowballs eloquence had carried pero en un momento la elocuencia de Snowball
them away. In glowing sentences he painted a los haba seducido. Con frases ardientes les pint
picture of Animal Farm as it might be when un cuadro de cmo podra ser Granja Animal
sordid labour was lifted from the animals cuando el vil trabajo fuera quitado de las espaldas
backs. His imagination had now run far beyond de los animales. Su imaginacin haba ido mucho
chaff-cutters and turnip-slicers. Electricity, he ms all de las desgranadoras y las guadaadoras.
said, could operate threshing machines, La electricidad, dijo, podra mover las trilladoras,
ploughs, harrows, rollers, and reapers and los arados, las rastras, los rodillos, las segadoras y
binders, besides supplying every stall with its las atadoras, adems de suministrar a cada establo
own electric light, hot and cold water, and an su propia luz elctrica, agua fra y caliente, y un
electric heater. By the time he had finished calentador elctrico. Cuando dej de hablar, no
speaking, there was no doubt as to which way quedaba duda alguna sobre el resultado de la
the vote would go. But just at this moment votacin. Pero justo en ese momento se levant
Napoleon stood up and, casting a peculiar Napolen y echando una extraa mirada de reojo
sidelong look at Snowball, uttered a high- hacia Snowball, emiti un chillido agudo como
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 38

pitched whimper of a kind no one had ever nunca le haban odo articular anteriormente.
heard him utter before.
At this there was a terrible baying sound Acto seguido se escuch afuera un terrible ladrido
outside, and nine enormous dogs wearing y nueve enormes perros, que llevaban puestos
brass-studded collars came bounding into the unos collares armados con clavos, entraron
barn. They dashed straight for Snowball, who corriendo al granero. Se lanzaron directamente
only sprang from his place just in time to hacia Snowball, quien salt de su lugar justo a
escape their snapping jaws. In a moment he tiempo para eludir sus feroces colmillos. En un
was out of the door and they were after him. instante estaba al otro lado de la puerta y ellos
Too amazed and frightened to speak, all the tras l. Demasiado asombrados y asustados para
animals crowded through the door to watch the hablar, todos los animales se agolparon en la
chase. Snowball was racing across the long puerta para observar la persecucin. Snowball iba
pasture that led to the road. He was running as a toda carrera a travs de la pradera larga que
only a pig can run, but the dogs were close on conduca a la carretera. Corra como slo puede
his heels. Suddenly he slipped and it seemed hacerlo un cerdo, pero los perros le pisaban los
certain that they had him. Then he was up talones. De repente patin y pareci seguro que
again, running faster than ever, then the dogs stos ya lo tenan. Luego se puso de nuevo en pie,
were gaining on him again. One of them all but corriendo ms veloz que nunca; despus los
closed his jaws on Snowballs tail, but perros ganaron terreno nuevamente. Uno de ellos
Snowball whisked it free just in time. Then he iba a cerrar sus mandbulas sobre la cola de
put on an extra spurt and, with a few inches to Snowball, pero ste la sac justo a tiempo.
spare, slipped through a hole in the hedge and Entonces hizo un esfuerzo supremo y por escasos
was seen no more. centmetros, logr meterse por un agujero en el
cerco y no se le vio ms.
Silent and terrified, the animals crept back into Silenciosos y aterrorizados, los animales
the barn. In a moment the dogs came bounding volvieron al granero. Tambin los perros
back. At first no one had been able to imagine regresaron dando brincos. Al principio nadie
where these creatures came from, but the poda imaginarse de dnde provenan esas
problem was soon solved: they were the bestias, pero el problema fue aclarado enseguida;
puppies whom Napoleon had taken away from eran los Cachorros que Napolen haba quitado a
their mothers and reared privately. Though not sus madres y criara en privado. Aunque no
yet full-grown, they were huge dogs, and as estaban completamente desarrollados todava,
fierce-looking as wolves. They kept close to eran perros inmensos y fieros como lobos. No se
Napoleon. It was noticed that they wagged alejaban de Napolen. Se observ que le
their tails to him in the same way as the other meneaban la cola como los otros perros
dogs had been used to do to Mr. Jones. acostumbraban hacerlo con el seor Jones.
Napoleon, with the dogs following him, now Napolen, con los canes tras l, subi entonces a
mounted on to the raised portion of the floor la plataforma donde anteriormente estuvo Mayor
where Major had previously stood to deliver cuando pronunciara su discurso. Anunci que
his speech. He announced that from now on desde ese momento se haban terminado las
the Sunday-morning Meetings would come to reuniones de los domingos por la maana. Eran
an end. They were unnecessary, he said, and innecesarias, dijo, y hacan perder tiempo. En lo
wasted time. In future all questions relating to futuro todas las cuestiones relacionadas con el
the working of the farm would be settled by a manejo de la granja seran resueltas por una
special committee of pigs, presided over by comisin especial de cerdos, presidida por l.
himself. These would meet in private and Estos se reuniran en privado y luego
afterwards communicate their decisions to the comunicaran sus decisiones a los dems. Los
others. The animals would still assemble on animales an se reuniran los domingos por la
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 39

Sunday mornings to salute the flag, sing maana para saludar la bandera, cantar Bestias de
Beasts of England, and receive their orders Inglaterra y recibir sus rdenes para la semana;
for the week; but there would be no more pero no habra ms debates.
debates.
In spite of the shock that Snowballs expulsion Si la expulsin de Snowball les produjo una gran
had given them, the animals were dismayed by impresin, este anuncio constern a los animales.
this announcement. Several of them would Algunos de ellos habran protestado de encontrar
have protested if they could have found the los argumentos apropiados. Hasta Boxer estaba
right arguments. Even Boxer was vaguely un poco aturdido. Apunt sus orejas hacia atrs,
troubled. He set his ears back, shook his agit su melena varias veces y trat con ahnco de
forelock several times, and tried hard to ordenar sus pensamientos; pero al final no se le
marshal his thoughts; but in the end he could ocurri nada que decir. Algunos de los cerdos
not think of anything to say. Some of the pigs mismos, sin embargo, fueron ms expresivos.
themselves, however, were more articulate. Cuatro jvenes puercos de la primera fila
Four young porkers in the front row uttered emitieron agudos gritos de desaprobacin, y todos
shrill squeals of disapproval, and all four of ellos se pararon de golpe y comenzaron a hablar
them sprang to their feet and began speaking at al mismo tiempo. Pero, repentinamente, los
once. But suddenly the dogs sitting round perros que estaban sentados alrededor de
Napoleon let out deep, menacing growls, and Napolen dejaron or unos profundos gruidos
the pigs fell silent and sat down again. Then amenazadores y los cerdos se callaron,
the sheep broke out into a tremendous bleating volvindose a sentar. Entonces las ovejas
of Four legs good, two legs bad! which went irrumpieron con un tremendo balido de Cuatro
on for nearly a quarter of an hour and put an patas s, dos pies no! que continu durante casi
end to any chance of discussion. un cuarto de hora y puso fin a cualquier intento
de discusin.
Afterwards Squealer was sent round the farm Luego Squealer fue enviado por toda la granja
to explain the new arrangement to the others. para explicar la nueva disposicin a los dems.
Comrades, he said, I trust that every animal Camaradas, dijo, espero que todos los animales
here appreciates the sacrifice that Comrade presentes se darn cuenta y apreciarn el
Napoleon has made in taking this extra labour sacrificio que ha hecho el camarada Napolen al
upon himself. Do not imagine, comrades, that tomar este trabajo adicional sobre s mismo. No
leadership is a pleasure! On the contrary, it is a se crean, camaradas, que ser jefe es un placer!
deep and heavy responsibility. No one believes Por el contrario, es una honda y pesada
more firmly than Comrade Napoleon that all responsabilidad. Nadie estima ms firmemente
animals are equal. He would be only too happy que el camarada Napolen el principio de que
to let you make your decisions for yourselves. todos los animales son iguales. Estara muy
But sometimes you might make the wrong contento de dejarles tomar sus propias
decisions, comrades, and then where should we determinaciones. Pero algunas veces podran
be? Suppose you had decided to follow ustedes adoptar decisiones equivocadas,
Snowball, with his moonshine of windmills camaradas, y dnde estaramos entonces
Snowball, who, as we now know, was no nosotros? Supnganse que ustedes se hubieran
better than a criminal? decidido seguir a Snowball, con sus disparatados
molinos; Snowball, que, como sabemos ahora, no
era ms que un criminal...
He fought bravely at the Battle of the l pele valientemente en la Batalla del
Cowshed, said somebody. Establo de las Vacas, dijo alguien.
Bravery is not enough, said Squealer. La valenta no es suficiente, afirm Squealer.
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 40

Loyalty and obedience are more important. La lealtad y la obediencia son ms importantes. Y
And as to the Battle of the Cowshed, I believe en cuanto a la Batalla del Establo de las Vacas, yo
the time will come when we shall find that creo que vendr el da en que nos cercioremos de
Snowballs part in it was much exaggerated. que el papel desempeado por Snowball ha sido
Discipline, comrades, iron discipline! That is muy exagerado. Disciplina, camaradas,
the watchword for today. One false step, and disciplina frrea! Esa es la consigna para hoy. Un
our enemies would be upon us. Surely, paso en falso, y nuestros enemigos estaran sobre
comrades, you do not want Jones back? nosotros. Seguramente, camaradas, que ustedes
no desean el retorno de Jones.
Once again this argument was unanswerable. Nuevamente este argumento result irrebatible.
Certainly the animals did not want Jones back; Claro est que los animales no queran que
if the holding of debates on Sunday mornings volviera Jones; si la realizacin de los debates, los
was liable to bring him back, then the debates domingos por la maana, poda implicar su
must stop. Boxer, who had now had time to regreso, entonces deban suprimirse los debates.
think things over, voiced the general feeling by Boxer, que haba tenido tiempo de coordinar sus
saying: If Comrade Napoleon says it, it must ideas, expres la opinin general diciendo: "Si el
be right. And from then on he adopted the camarada Napolen lo dice, debe estar bien." Y
maxim, Napoleon is always right, in addition desde ese momento adopt la consigna:
to his private motto of I will work harder. "Napolen siempre tiene razn", adems de su
lema particular: Trabajar ms fuerte.
By this time the weather had broken and the Para entonces el tiempo haba cambiado y
spring ploughing had begun. The shed where comenz la roturacin de primavera. El cobertizo
Snowball had drawn his plans of the windmill donde Snowball dibujara los planos del molino de
had been shut up and it was assumed that the viento, fue clausurado y se supona que los planos
plans had been rubbed off the floor. Every fueron borrados del suelo. Todos los domingos, a
Sunday morning at ten oclock the animals las diez de la maana, los animales se reunan en
assembled in the big barn to receive their el granero principal a fin de recibir las rdenes
orders for the week. The skull of old Major, para la semana. El crneo del Viejo Mayor, ya sin
now clean of flesh, had been disinterred from rastros de carne, haba sido desenterrado de la
the orchard and set up on a stump at the foot of huerta y colocado sobre un poste al pie del mstil,
the flagstaff, beside the gun. After the hoisting junto a la escopeta. Despus de izar la bandera,
of the flag, the animals were required to file los animales deban desfilar en forma reverente al
past the skull in a reverent manner before lado del crneo antes de entrar al granero. Ahora
entering the barn. Nowadays they did not sit all no se sentaban todos juntos, como acostumbraban
together as they had done in the past. hacerlo anteriormente. Napolen, con Squealer y
Napoleon, with Squealer and another pig otro cerdo llamado Mnimus, que posea un don
named Minimus, who had a remarkable gift for extraordinario para componer canciones y
composing songs and poems, sat on the front poemas, se sentaban sobre la plataforma, con los
of the raised platform, with the nine young nueve perros formando un semicrculo alrededor,
dogs forming a semicircle round them, and the y los otros cerdos sentados tras ellos. Los dems
other pigs sitting behind. The rest of the animales se colocaron enfrente, en el cuerpo
animals sat facing them in the main body of principal del granero. Napolen les lea las
the barn. Napoleon read out the orders for the rdenes para la semana en un spero estilo
week in a gruff soldierly style, and after a militar, y despus de cantar una sola vez Bestias
single singing of Beasts of England, all the de Inglaterra, todos los animales se dispersaban.
animals dispersed.
On the third Sunday after Snowballs El tercer domingo despus de la expulsin de
expulsion, the animals were somewhat Snowball, los animales se sorprendieron un poco
surprised to hear Napoleon announce that the al or a Napolen anunciar que, despus de todo,
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 41

windmill was to be built after all. He did not el molino de viento sera construido. No dio
give any reason for having changed his mind, ninguna explicacin por haber cambiado de
but merely warned the animals that this extra parecer, pero simplemente advirti a los animales
task would mean very hard work, it might even que esa tarea adicional significara un trabajo
be necessary to reduce their rations. The plans, muy duro; tal vez sera necesario reducir sus
however, had all been prepared, down to the raciones. Los planos, sin embargo, haban sido
last detail. A special committee of pigs had preparados hasta el menor detalle. Una comisin
been at work upon them for the past three especial de cerdos estuvo trabajando sobre los
weeks. The building of the windmill, with mismos durante las ltimas tres semanas. La
various other improvements, was expected to construccin del molino, con otras mejoras,
take two years. demandara, segn se esperaba, dos aos.
That evening Squealer explained privately to Esa noche, Squealer les explic privadamente a
the other animals that Napoleon had never in los otros animales que en realidad Napolen
reality been opposed to the windmill. On the nunca haba estado en contra del molino. Por el
contrary, it was he who had advocated it in the contrario, fue l quien abog por el mismo, al
beginning, and the plan which Snowball had principio, y el plano que dibujara Snowball sobre
drawn on the floor of the incubator shed had el suelo del cobertizo de incubadoras, en verdad
actually been stolen from among Napoleons fue robado de los papeles de Napolen. El molino
papers. The windmill was, in fact, Napoleons de viento era realmente una creacin propia de
own creation. Why, then, asked somebody, had Napolen. " Por qu entonces, pregunt alguien,
he spoken so strongly against it? Here Squealer se mostr l tan firmemente contra el molino?"
looked very sly. That, he said, was Comrade Aqu Squealer puso cara astuta. "Eso, dijo, fue
Napoleons cunning. He had seemed to oppose sagacidad del camarada Napolen. l haba
the windmill, simply as a manoeuvre to get rid aparentado oponerse al molino, pero
of Snowball, who was a dangerous character simplemente como una maniobra para deshacerse
and a bad influence. Now that Snowball was de Snowball, que era un sujeto peligroso y de
out of the way, the plan could go forward mala influencia. Ahora que Snowball haba sido
without his interference. This, said Squealer, eliminado, el plan poda llevarse adelante sin su
was something called tactics. He repeated a interferencia. Eso, dijo Squealer, era lo que se
number of times, Tactics, comrades, tactics! llama tctica. Repiti varias veces "Tctica,
skipping round and whisking his tail with a camaradas, tctica!", saltando y moviendo la cola
merry laugh. The animals were not certain con una risita alegre. Los animales no tenan
what the word meant, but Squealer spoke so certeza del significado de la palabra, pero
persuasively, and the three dogs who happened Squealer habl tan persuasivamente y los tres
to be with him growled so threateningly, that perros, que casualmente se hallaban all, grueron
they accepted his explanation without further en forma tan amenazante, que aceptaron su
questions. explicacin sin ms preguntas.
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 42

CHAPTER 6 CAPTULO VI

ALL that year the animals worked like slaves. Durante todo ese ao los animales trabajaron
But they were happy in their work; they como esclavos. Pero eran felices en su tarea; no
grudged no effort or sacrifice, well aware that escatimaron esfuerzo o sacrificio, pues bien,
everything that they did was for the benefit of saban que todo lo que ellos hacan era para su
themselves and those of their kind who would propio beneficio y para los de su especie que
come after them, and not for a pack of idle, vendran despus, y no para unos cuantos seres
thieving human beings. humanos rapaces y haraganes.
Throughout the spring and summer they Durante toda la primavera y el verano trabajaron
worked a sixty-hour week, and in August sesenta horas por semana, y en agosto Napolen
Napoleon announced that there would be work anunci que tambin tendran que trabajar los
on Sunday afternoons as well. This work was domingos por la tarde. Ese trabajo era
strictly voluntary, but any animal who estrictamente voluntario, pero el animal que no
absented himself from it would have his concurriera vera reducida su racin a la mitad.
rations reduced by half. Even so, it was found Aun as, fue necesario dejar varias tareas sin
necessary to leave certain tasks undone. The hacer. La cosecha fue algo menos abundante que
harvest was a little less successful than in the el ao anterior, y dos lotes que deban haberse
previous year, and two fields which should sembrado con nabos a principios del verano, no lo
have been sown with roots in the early summer fueron porque no se terminaron de arar a tiempo.
were not sown because the ploughing had not Era fcil prever que el invierno siguiente sera
been completed early enough. It was possible duro.
to foresee that the coming winter would be a
hard one.
The windmill presented unexpected El molino de viento present dificultades
difficulties. There was a good quarry of inesperadas. Haba una buena cantera de piedra
limestone on the farm, and plenty of sand and caliza en la granja, y se encontr bastante arena y
cement had been found in one of the cemento en una de las dependencias, de modo,
outhouses, so that all the materials for building que tenan a mano todos los materiales para la
were at hand. But the problem the animals construccin. Pero el problema que no pudieron
could not at first solve was how to break up the resolver al principio los animales fue el de cmo
stone into pieces of suitable size. There seemed romper la piedra en pedazos de tamao
no way of doing this except with picks and apropiado. Aparentemente no haba forma de
crowbars, which no animal could use, because hacer eso, excepto con picos y palancas de hierro,
no animal could stand on his hind legs. Only que ellos no podan usar, porque ningn animal
after weeks of vain effort did the right idea estaba en condiciones de pararse sobre sus patas
occur to somebodynamely, to utilise the traseras. Despus de varias semanas de esfuerzos
force of gravity. Huge boulders, far too big to intiles, se le ocurri a uno la idea adecuada:
be used as they were, were lying all over the utilizar la fuerza de la gravedad. Inmensas
bed of the quarry. The animals lashed ropes piedras, demasiado grandes para utilizarlas como
round these, and then all together, cows, estaban, se hallaban por todas partes en el fondo
horses, sheep, any animal that could lay hold de la cantera. Los animales las amarraban con
of the ropeeven the pigs sometimes joined in sogas, y luego todos juntos, vacas, caballos,
at critical momentsthey dragged them with ovejas, cualquiera que pudiera agarrar la soga,
desperate slowness up the slope to the top of hasta los cerdos a veces colaboraban en los
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 43

the quarry, where they were toppled over the momentos crticos, las arrastraban con una
edge, to shatter to pieces below. Transporting lentitud desesperante por la ladera hasta la
the stone when it was once broken was cumbre de la cantera, de donde las dejaban caer
comparatively simple. The horses carried it off por el borde, para que se rompieran abajo en
in cart-loads, the sheep dragged single blocks, pedazos. El trabajo de transportar la piedra una
even Muriel and Benjamin yoked themselves vez rota era relativamente sencillo. Los caballos
into an old governess-cart and did their share. llevaban los trozos en carretas, las ovejas las
By late summer a sufficient store of stone had arrastraban una a una, y hasta Muriel y Benjamn
accumulated, and then the building began, se acoplaban a un viejo sulky y hacan su parte. A
under the superintendence of the pigs. fines de verano haban acumulado una buena
provisin de piedra, y comenz entonces la
construccin, bajo la supervisin de los cerdos.
But it was a slow, laborious process. Pero era un proceso lento y laborioso.
Frequently it took a whole day of exhausting Frecuentemente les ocupaba un da entero de
effort to drag a single boulder to the top of the esfuerzo agotador arrastrar una sola piedra hasta
quarry, and sometimes when it was pushed la cumbre de la cantera, y a veces, cuando la
over the edge it failed to break. Nothing could tiraban por el borde, no se rompa. No hubieran
have been achieved without Boxer, whose podido lograr nada sin Boxer, cuya fuerza pareca
strength seemed equal to that of all the rest of igualar a la de todos los dems animales juntos.
the animals put together. When the boulder Cuando la piedra empezaba a resbalar y los
began to slip and the animals cried out in animales gritaban desesperados al verse
despair at finding themselves dragged down arrastrados por la ladera hacia abajo, era siempre
the hill, it was always Boxer who strained Boxer el que se esforzaba con la soga y lograba
himself against the rope and brought the detener la piedra. Verlo tirando hacia arriba por la
boulder to a stop. To see him toiling up the pendiente, pulgada tras pulgada, jadeante,
slope inch by inch, his breath coming fast, the clavando las puntas de sus cascos en la tierra, y
tips of his hoofs clawing at the ground, and his sus enormes costados sudados, llenaba a todos de
great sides matted with sweat, filled everyone admiracin. Clover a veces le adverta que tuviera
with admiration. Clover warned him cuidado y no se esforzara demasiado, pero Boxer
sometimes to be careful not to overstrain jams le haca caso. Sus dos lemas, "Trabajar
himself, but Boxer would never listen to her. ms fuerte" y "Napolen siempre tiene razn", le
His two slogans, I will work harder and parecan suficiente respuesta para todos los
Napoleon is always right, seemed to him a problemas. Se haba puesto de acuerdo con el
sufficient answer to all problems. He had made gallo para que ste lo despertara tres cuartos de
arrangements with the cockerel to call him hora ms temprano por la maana, en vez de
three-quarters of an hour earlier in the media hora. Y en sus ratos libres, con los cuales
mornings instead of half an hour. And in his contaba poco en esos das, se iba solo a la
spare moments, of which there were not many cantera, juntaba un montn de pedazos de piedra
nowadays, he would go alone to the quarry, y lo arrastraba por s mismo hasta el sitio del
collect a load of broken stone, and drag it molino.
down to the site of the windmill unassisted.
The animals were not badly off throughout that Los animales no estuvieron tan mal durante todo
summer, in spite of the hardness of their work. ese verano, a pesar del rigor de su trabajo. Si no
If they had no more food than they had had in disponan de ms comida de la que haban
Joness day, at least they did not have less. The dispuesto en el tiempo de Jones, de todas maneras
advantage of only having to feed themselves, no tenan menos. La ventaja de alimentarse a s
and not having to support five extravagant mismos y no tener que mantener tambin a cinco
human beings as well, was so great that it extravagantes seres humanos, era tan grande, que
would have taken a lot of failures to outweigh se habra necesitado numerosos fracasos para
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 44

it. And in many ways the animal method of sobrepasarla. Y en muchas situaciones el mtodo
doing things was more efficient and saved animal de hacer las cosas era ms eficiente y
labour. Such jobs as weeding, for instance, ahorraba trabajo. Algunas tareas, como por
could be done with a thoroughness impossible ejemplo extirpar las malezas, se podan hacer con
to human beings. And again, since no animal una eficiencia imposible para los seres humanos.
now stole, it was unnecessary to fence off Y, adems, dado que ningn animal robaba, no
pasture from arable land, which saved a lot of fue necesario hacer alambradas para separar los
labour on the upkeep of hedges and gates. campos de pastoreo de la tierra cultivable, lo que
Nevertheless, as the summer wore on, various economiz mucho trabajo en la conservacin de
unforeseen shortages began to make them los cercos y cierros. Sin embargo, a medida que
selves felt. There was need of paraffin oil, avanzaba el verano, se empez a sentir la escasez
nails, string, dog biscuits, and iron for the imprevista de varias cosas. Haba necesidad de
horses shoes, none of which could be aceite, parafina, clavos, bizcochos para los perros
produced on the farm. Later there would also y hierro para las herraduras de los caballos, nada
be need for seeds and artificial manures, de lo cual se poda producir en la granja. Ms
besides various tools and, finally, the adelante tambin habra necesidad de semillas y
machinery for the windmill. How these were to abonos artificiales, adems de varias herramientas
be procured, no one was able to imagine. y, finalmente, la maquinaria para el molino de
viento. Ninguno poda imaginar cmo se iban a
obtener esos artculos.
One Sunday morning, when the animals Un domingo por la maana, cuando los animales
assembled to receive their orders, Napoleon se reunieron para recibir rdenes, Napolen
announced that he had decided upon a new anunci que haba decidido adoptar un nuevo
policy. From now onwards Animal Farm sistema. En adelante, Granja Animal iba a
would engage in trade with the neighbouring negociar con las granjas vecinas; y no, por
farms: not, of course, for any commercial supuesto, con un propsito comercial, sino
purpose, but simply in order to obtain certain simplemente con el fin de obtener ciertos
materials which were urgently necessary. The materiales que hacan falta con urgencia. "Las
needs of the windmill must override everything necesidades del molino figuran por encima de
else, he said. He was therefore making todo lo dems", afirm. En consecuencia estaba
arrangements to sell a stack of hay and part of tomando las medidas necesarias para vender una
the current years wheat crop, and later on, if parva de heno y parte de la cosecha de trigo de
more money were needed, it would have to be ese ao, y ms adelante, si necesitaban ms
made up by the sale of eggs, for which there dinero, tendran que obtenerlo mediante la venta
was always a market in Willingdon. The hens, de huevos, para los cuales siempre haba
said Napoleon, should welcome this sacrifice compradores en Willingdon. "Las gallinas, dijo
as their own special contribution towards the Napolen, deban recibir con agrado este
building of the windmill. sacrificio como aporte especial a la construccin
del molino".
Once again the animals were conscious of a Nuevamente los animales se sintieron presa de
vague uneasiness. Never to have any dealings una vaga inquietud. "Jams tener trato alguno con
with human beings, never to engage in trade, los seres humanos; nunca dedicarse a comerciar;
never to make use of moneyhad not these nunca usar dinero", no fueron sas las primeras
been among the earliest resolutions passed at resoluciones adoptadas en aquella reunin
that first triumphant Meeting after Jones was triunfal, despus de haber expulsado a Jones?
expelled? All the animals remembered passing Todos los animales recordaron haber aprobado
such resolutions: or at least they thought that tales resoluciones, o por lo menos, crean
they remembered it. The four young pigs who recordarlo. Los cuatro jvenes cerdos que haban
had protested when Napoleon abolished the protestado cuando Napolen aboli las reuniones,
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 45

Meetings raised their voices timidly, but they levantaron sus voces tmidamente, pero fueron
were promptly silenced by a tremendous silenciados inmediatamente con un tremendo
growling from the dogs. Then, as usual, the gruido de los perros. Entonces, como de
sheep broke into Four legs good, two legs costumbre, las ovejas irrumpieron con su
bad! and the momentary awkwardness was "Cuatro patas s, dos pies no!" y la turbacin
smoothed over. Finally Napoleon raised his momentnea fue allanada. Finalmente, Napolen
trotter for silence and announced that he had levant la pata para imponer silencio y anunci
already made all the arrangements. There que ya haba decidido todos los arreglos. No
would be no need for any of the animals to habra necesidad de que ninguno de los animales
come in contact with human beings, which entrara en contacto con los seres humanos, lo que
would clearly be most undesirable. He sera altamente indeseable. Tena la intencin de
intended to take the whole burden upon his tomar todo el peso sobre sus propios hombros. Un
own shoulders. A Mr. Whymper, a solicitor tal seor Whymper, un comisionista que viva en
living in Willingdon, had agreed to act as Willingdon, haba accedido a actuar de
intermediary between Animal Farm and the intermediario entre Granja Animal y el mundo
outside world, and would visit the farm every exterior, visitara la Granja todos los lunes por la
Monday morning to receive his instructions. maana para recibir sus instrucciones. Napolen
Napoleon ended his speech with his usual cry finaliz su discurso con su grito acostumbrado de
of Long live Animal Farm! and after the "Viva la Granja Animal!", y despus de cantar
singing of Beasts of England the animals Bestias de Inglaterra, despidi a los animales.
were dismissed.
Afterwards Squealer made a round of the farm Luego Squealer dio una vuelta por la granja y
and set the animals minds at rest. He assured tranquiliz a los animales. Les asegur que la
them that the resolution against engaging in resolucin prohibiendo comerciar usando dinero
trade and using money had never been passed, nunca haba sido aprobada, ni siquiera sugerida.
or even suggested. It was pure imagination, Era pura imaginacin, probablemente atribuible a
probably traceable in the beginning to lies mentiras difundidas por Snowball. Algunos
circulated by Snowball. A few animals still felt animales an tenan cierta duda, pero Squealer les
faintly doubtful, but Squealer asked them pregunt astutamente: "Estn seguros de que eso
shrewdly, Are you certain that this is not no es algo que han soado, camaradas? Tienen
something that you have dreamed, comrades? constancia de tal resolucin? Est anotada en
Have you any record of such a resolution? Is it alguna parte?" Y puesto que era cierto que nada
written down anywhere? And since it was de eso exista por escrito, los animales quedaron
certainly true that nothing of the kind existed convencidos de que estaban equivocados.
in writing, the animals were satisfied that they
had been mistaken.
Every Monday Mr. Whymper visited the farm Todos los lunes el seor Whymper visitaba la
as had been arranged. He was a sly-looking granja como se haba convenido. Era un hombre
little man with side whiskers, a solicitor in a bajito, astuto de patillas anchas, un comisionista
very small way of business, but sharp enough en pequea escala, pero lo suficientemente listo
to have realised earlier than anyone else that como para darse cuenta, antes que cualquier otro,
Animal Farm would need a broker and that the que Granja Animal iba a necesitar un corredor y
commissions would be worth having. The que las comisiones valdran la pena. Los animales
animals watched his coming and going with a observaban su ir y venir con cierto temor, y lo
kind of dread, and avoided him as much as eludan en todo lo posible. Sin embargo, la escena
possible. Nevertheless, the sight of Napoleon, de Napolen, sobre sus cuatro patas, dndole
on all fours, delivering orders to Whymper, rdenes a Whymper, que se paraba sobre dos
who stood on two legs, roused their pride and pies, despert su orgullo y los reconcili en parte
partly reconciled them to the new arrangement. con la nueva situacin. Sus relaciones con la raza
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 46

Their relations with the human race were now humana no eran como haban sido antes. Los
not quite the same as they had been before. seres humanos, por su parte, no odiaban menos a
The human beings did not hate Animal Farm Granja Animal ahora que estaba prosperando; al
any less now that it was prospering; indeed, contrario, la odiaban ms que nunca. Cada ser
they hated it more than ever. Every human humano tena por seguro que, tarde o temprano,
being held it as an article of faith that the farm la granja iba a declararse en quiebra, y sobre todo,
would go bankrupt sooner or later, and, above que el molino de viento sera un fracaso. Se
all, that the windmill would be a failure. They reunan en las cantinas y se demostraban los unos
would meet in the public-houses and prove to a los otros por medio de diagramas que el molino
one another by means of diagrams that the estaba destinado a caerse o, si se mantena en pie,
windmill was bound to fall down, or that if it que jams funcionara. Y, sin embargo, contra sus
did stand up, then that it would never work. deseos, llegaron a tener cierto respeto por la
And yet, against their will, they had developed eficacia con que los animales estaban
a certain respect for the efficiency with which administrando sus propios asuntos. Uno de los
the animals were managing their own affairs. sntomas de eso fue que empezaron a llamar a
One symptom of this was that they had begun Granja Animal por su verdadero nombre y
to call Animal Farm by its proper name and dejaron de pretender que se llamaba Granja
ceased to pretend that it was called the Manor Manor. Tambin desistieron de apoyar a Jones, el
Farm. They had also dropped their cual haba perdido las esperanzas de recuperar su
championship of Jones, who had given up hope granja y se fue a vivir a otro lugar del condado.
of getting his farm back and gone to live in Exceptuando a Whymper, an no exista contacto
another part of the county. Except through alguno entre Granja Animal y el mundo exterior,
Whymper, there was as yet no contact between pero circulaban constantes rumores de que
Animal Farm and the outside world, but there Napolen iba a celebrar definitivamente un
were constant rumours that Napoleon was convenio comercial con el seor Pilkington, de
about to enter into a definite business Foxwood, o con el seor Frederick, de Pinchfield;
agreement either with Mr. Pilkington of pero nunca se haca notar con los dos
Foxwood or with Mr. Frederick of simultneamente.
Pinchfieldbut never, it was noticed, with
both simultaneously.
It was about this time that the pigs suddenly Fue ms o menos en esa poca cuando los cerdos,
moved into the farmhouse and took up their repentinamente, se mudaron a la casa de la granja
residence there. Again the animals seemed to y establecieron all su residencia. Otra vez los
remember that a resolution against this had animales creyeron recordar que se haba aprobado
been passed in the early days, and again una resolucin contra eso en los primeros
Squealer was able to convince them that this tiempos, y de nuevo Squealer pudo convencerlos
was not the case. It was absolutely necessary, de que no era as. Resultaba absolutamente
he said, that the pigs, who were the brains of necesario, dijo l, que los cerdos, que eran el
the farm, should have a quiet place to work in. cerebro de la granja, contaran con un lugar
It was also more suited to the dignity of the tranquilo para trabajar. Tambin era mas
Leader (for of late he had taken to speaking of apropiado para la dignidad del lder (porque
Napoleon under the title of Leader) to live in ltimamente haba comenzado a referirse a
a house than in a mere sty. Nevertheless, some Napolen con el ttulo de "lder") que viviera en
of the animals were disturbed when they heard una casa en vez de un simple chiquero. No
that the pigs not only took their meals in the obstante, algunos animales se molestaron al saber
kitchen and used the drawing-room as a que los cerdos no solamente coman en la cocina,
recreation room, but also slept in the beds. usaban la sala como lugar de recreo, sino que
Boxer passed it off as usual with Napoleon is tambin dorman en las camas. Boxer lo pas por
always right!, but Clover, who thought she alto, como de costumbre, con un Napolen
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 47

remembered a definite ruling against beds, siempre tiene razn!, pero Clover, que crey
went to the end of the barn and tried to puzzle recordar una disposicin definida contra las
out the Seven Commandments which were camas, fue hasta el extremo del granero e intent
inscribed there. Finding herself unable to read descifrar los Siete Mandamientos, que estaban all
more than individual letters, she fetched inscritos. Pero al comprobar que slo poda leer
Muriel. las letras individualmente, trajo a Muriel.
Muriel, she said, read me the Fourth Muriel, le dijo, leme el Cuarto Mandamiento.
Commandment. Does it not say something No dice algo respecto a no dormir nunca en una
about never sleeping in a bed? cama?
With some difficulty Muriel spelt it out. Con un poco de dificultad, Muriel lo deletre.
It says, No animal shall sleep in a bed with Dice: Ningn animal dormir en una cama
sheets, she announced finally. con sabanas, anunci finalmente.
Curiously enough, Clover had not remembered Lo curioso era que Clover no recordaba que el
that the Fourth Commandment mentioned Cuarto Mandamiento mencionara sbanas; pero
sheets; but as it was there on the wall, it must como figuraba en la pared, deba haber sido as. Y
have done so. And Squealer, who happened to Squealer, que pasaba en ese momento por all,
be passing at this moment, attended by two or acompaado de dos o tres perros, pudo colocar
three dogs, was able to put the whole matter in todo el asunto en su verdadero lugar.
its proper perspective.
You have heard then, comrades, he said, that Vosotros habis odo ya, camaradas, dijo, que
we pigs now sleep in the beds of the farmho nosotros los cerdos dormimos ahora en las camas
You have heard then, comrades, he said, that de la casa. Y por qu no? No suponais
we pigs now sleep in the beds of the seguramente que hubo alguna vez una disposicin
farmhouse? And why not? You did not contra las camas. Una cama quiere decir
suppose, surely, that there was ever a ruling simplemente un lugar para dormir. Una pila de
against beds? A bed merely means a place to paja en un establo es una cama, juzgado
sleep in. A pile of straw in a stall is a bed, correctamente. La resolucin fue contra las
properly regarded. The rule was against sheets, sbanas, que son un invento de los seres
which are a human invention. We have humanos. Hemos quitado las sbanas de las
removed the sheets from the farmhouse beds, camas de la casa y dormimos entre mantas. Y ya
and sleep between blankets. And very lo creo que son camas muy cmodas! Pero no
comfortable beds they are too! But not more son ms de lo que necesitamos, puedo afirmaros,
comfortable than we need, I can tell you, camaradas, considerando todo el trabajo cerebral
comrades, with all the brainwork we have to que tenemos hoy en da. No querris privarnos de
do nowadays. You would not rob us of our nuestro reposo, verdad, camaradas? No querris
repose, would you, comrades? You would not tenernos tan cansados como para no cumplir con
have us too tired to carry out our duties? nuestros deberes. Sin duda, ninguno de ustedes
Surely none of you wishes to see Jones back? desear que vuelva Jones.
The animals reassured him on this point Los animales lo tranquilizaron inmediatamente
immediately, and no more was said about the respecto a ese punto y no se habl ms del asunto
pigs sleeping in the farmhouse beds. And de que los puercos dorman en las camas de la
when, some days afterwards, it was announced casa. Y cuando, unos das despus, se anunci
that from now on the pigs would get up an que en adelante los cerdos se levantaran por la
hour later in the mornings than the other maana una hora ms tarde que los dems
animals, no complaint was made about that animales, tampoco hubo queja alguna al respecto.
either.
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 48

By the autumn the animals were tired but Cuando lleg el otoo, los animales estaban
happy. They had had a hard year, and after the cansados, pero contentos. Haban tenido un ao
sale of part of the hay and corn, the stores of duro y despus de la venta de parte del heno y del
food for the winter were none too plentiful, but maz, las provisiones de vveres no fueron tan
the windmill compensated for everything. It abundantes, pero el molino lo compens todo.
was almost half built now. After the harvest Estaba ya semiconstruido. Despus de la cosecha
there was a stretch of clear dry weather, and tuvieron una temporada de tiempo seco y
the animals toiled harder than ever, thinking it despejado, y los animales trabajaron ms
well worth while to plod to and fro all day with duramente que nunca, opinando que bien vala la
blocks of stone if by doing so they could raise pena correr de aqu para all todo el da con
the walls another foot. Boxer would even come bloques de piedra si as podan levantar las
out at nights and work for an hour or two on paredes un pie ms de altura. Boxer hasta sala a
his own by the light of the harvest moon. In veces de noche y trabajaba una hora o dos por su
their spare moments the animals would walk cuenta a la luz de la luna. En sus ratos libres los
round and round the half-finished mill, animales daban vueltas y vueltas alrededor del
admiring the strength and perpendicularity of molino semiterminado, admirando la fortaleza y
its walls and marvelling that they should ever la perpendicularidad de sus paredes y
have been able to build anything so imposing. maravillndose de que ellos alguna vez hubieran
Only old Benjamin refused to grow podido construir algo tan importante. nicamente
enthusiastic about the windmill, though, as el viejo Benjamn se negaba a entusiasmarse con
usual, he would utter nothing beyond the el molino, aunque, como de costumbre, insista en
cryptic remark that donkeys live a long time. su enigmtica afirmacin de que los burros vivan
mucho tiempo.
November came, with raging south-west Lleg noviembre, con sus furiosos vientos del
winds. Building had to stop because it was sudoeste. Tuvieron que parar la construccin
now too wet to mix the cement. Finally there porque haba demasiada humedad para mezclar el
came a night when the gale was so violent that cemento. Al fin vino una noche en que el
the farm buildings rocked on their foundations ventarrn fue tan violento que los edificios de la
and several tiles were blown off the roof of the granja se mecieron sobre sus cimientos y varias
barn. The hens woke up squawking with terror tejas fueron despegadas del tejado del granero.
because they had all dreamed simultaneously Las gallinas se despertaron cacareando de terror,
of hearing a gun go off in the distance. In the porque todas haban soado, simultneamente,
morning the animals came out of their stalls to que oan el estampido de un can a lo lejos. Por
find that the flagstaff had been blown down la maana los animales salieron de sus casillas y
and an elm tree at the foot of the orchard had se encontraron con el mstil derribado y un olmo,
been plucked up like a radish. They had just que estaba al pie de la huerta, arrancado como un
noticed this when a cry of despair broke from rbano. Apenas notaron esto cuando un grito de
every animals throat. A terrible sight had met desesperacin brot de la garganta de cada
their eyes. The windmill was in ruins. animal. Un cuadro terrible saltaba a la vista. El
molino estaba en ruinas.
With one accord they dashed down to the spot. De consuno se abalanzaron hacia el lugar.
Napoleon, who seldom moved out of a walk, Napolen, que rara vez se apresuraba a caminar,
raced ahead of them all. Yes, there it lay, the corra a la cabeza de todos ellos. S, all yaca el
fruit of all their struggles, levelled to its fruto de todos sus esfuerzos, arrasado hasta sus
foundations, the stones they had broken and cimientos; las piedras, que haban roto y
carried so laboriously scattered all around. trasladado tan empeosamente, estaban
Unable at first to speak, they stood gazing desparramadas por todas partes. Incapaces al
mournfully at the litter of fallen stone principio de articular palabra, no hacan ms que
Napoleon paced to and fro in silence, mirar tristemente las piedras cadas en desorden.
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 49

occasionally snuffing at the ground. His tail Napolen andaba de un lado a otro en silencio,
had grown rigid and twitched sharply from olfateando el suelo de vez en cuando. Su cola se
side to side, a sign in him of intense mental haba puesto rgida y se mova nerviosamente de
activity. Suddenly he halted as though his mind lado a lado, seal de su intensa actividad mental.
were made up. Repentinamente se par como si hubiera tomado
una decisin.
Comrades, he said quietly, do you know Camaradas, dijo con voz tranquila, sabis
who is responsible for this? Do you know the quin es responsable de esto? Sabis quin es el
enemy who has come in the night and enemigo que ha venido durante la noche y echado
overthrown our windmill? SNOWBALL! he abajo nuestro molino? Snowball! rugi
suddenly roared in a voice of thunder. repentinamente con voz de trueno. Snowball ha
Snowball has done this thing! In sheer hecho esto! De pura maldad, creyendo que iba a
malignity, thinking to set back our plans and arruinar nuestros planes y vengarse por su
avenge himself for his ignominious expulsion, ignominiosa expulsin, ese traidor se arrastr
this traitor has crept here under cover of night hasta aqu al amparo de la oscuridad y ha
and destroyed our work of nearly a year. destruido nuestro trabajo de casi un ao.
Comrades, here and now I pronounce the death Camaradas, en este momento y lugar yo sentencio
sentence upon Snowball. Animal Hero, a muerte a Snowball. Recompensar con la Orden
Second Class, and half a bushel of apples to Hroe Animal, segundo grado y medio bshel de
any animal who brings him to justice. A full manzanas al animal que lo traiga muerto. Todo un
bushel to anyone who captures him alive! bshel al que lo capture vivo.
The animals were shocked beyond measure to Los animales quedaron horrorizados al
learn that even Snowball could be guilty of comprobar que Snowball pudiera ser culpable de
such an action. There was a cry of indignation, tamaa accin. Hubo un grito de indignacin y
and everyone began thinking out ways of todos comenzaron a idear la manera de atrapar a
catching Snowball if he should ever come Snowball, si alguna vez llegaba a volver. Casi
back. Almost immediately the footprints of a inmediatamente se descubrieron las pisadas de un
pig were discovered in the grass at a little cerdo en el pasto y a poca distancia de la loma.
distance from the knoll. They could only be Estas pudieron seguirse algunos metros, pero
traced for a few yards, but appeared to lead to parecan llevar hacia un agujero en el cerco.
a hole in the hedge. Napoleon snuffed deeply Napolen las oli bien y declar que eran de
at them and pronounced them to be Snowball. Opin que Snowball probablemente
Snowballs. He gave it as his opinion that haba venido desde la direccin de la Granja
Snowball had probably come from the Foxwood.
direction of Foxwood Farm.
No more delays, comrades! cried Napoleon No hay ms tiempo que perder, camaradas!,
when the footprints had been examined. There grit Napolen una vez examinadas las huellas.
is work to be done. This very morning we Hay trabajo que realizar. Esta misma maana
begin rebuilding the windmill, and we will comenzaremos a rehabilitar el molino y lo
build all through the winter, rain or shine. We reconstruiremos durante todo el invierno, con
will teach this miserable traitor that he cannot lluvia o buen tiempo. Le ensearemos a ese
undo our work so easily. Remember, miserable traidor que l no puede deshacer
comrades, there must be no alteration in our nuestro trabajo tan fcilmente. Recordad,
plans: they shall be carried out to the day. camaradas, no debe haber ninguna alteracin en
Forward, comrades! Long live the windmill! nuestros planes, los que sern cumplidos.
Long live Animal Farm! Adelante, camaradas! Viva el molino de viento!
Viva Granja Animal!
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 50

CHAPTER 7 CAPTULO VII

IT was a bitter winter. The stormy weather Ese invierno se present muy crudo. El tiempo
was followed by sleet and snow, and then by a tormentoso fue seguido de granizo y nieve y
hard frost which did not break till well into luego de una helada fuerte que dur hasta
February. The animals carried on as best they mediados de febrero. Los animales se arreglaron
could with the rebuilding of the windmill, well como pudieron para la reconstitucin del molino,
knowing that the outside world was watching pues saban bien que el mundo exterior les estaba
them and that the envious human beings would observando y que los envidiosos seres humanos
rejoice and triumph if the mill were not se regocijaran y obtendran el triunfo si no
finished on time. terminaban la obra a tiempo.
Out of spite, the human beings pretended not Rencorosos, los seres humanos, pretendieron no
to believe that it was Snowball who had creer que fue Snowball quien haba destruido el
destroyer the windmill: they said that it had molino; afirmaron que se derrumb porque las
fallen down because the walls were too thin. paredes eran demasiado delgadas. Los animales
The animals knew that this was not the case. saban que eso no era cierto. A pesar de ello, se
Still, it had been decided to build the walls decidi esta vez construir las paredes de un metro
three feet thick this time instead of eighteen de espesor en lugar de medio metro como antes,
inches as before, which meant collecting much lo que implicaba juntar una cantidad mucho
larger quantities of stone. For a long time the mayor de piedras. Durante largo tiempo la cantera
quarry was full of snowdrifts and nothing estuvo totalmente cubierta por una capa de nieve
could be done. Some progress was made in the y no se pudo hacer nada. Se progres algo
dry frosty weather that followed, but it was durante el perodo seco y fro que vino despus,
cruel work, and the animals could not feel so pero era un trabajo cruel y los animales no podan
hopeful about it as they had felt before. They sentirse optimistas como la vez anterior. Siempre
were always cold, and usually hungry as well. tenan fro y generalmente tambin hambre.
Only Boxer and Clover never lost heart. nicamente Boxer y Clover jams perdieron el
Squealer made excellent speeches on the joy of nimo. Squealer pronunci discursos magnficos
service and the dignity of labour, but the other referentes al placer del servicio y la dignidad del
animals found more inspiration in Boxers trabajo, pero los otros animales encontraron ms
strength and his never-failing cry of I will inspiracin en la fuerza de Boxer y su infalible
work harder! grito: Trabajar ms fuerte!
In January food fell short. The corn ration was En enero escase la comida. La racin de maz
drastically reduced, and it was announced that fue reducida drsticamente y se anunci que, en
an extra potato ration would be issued to make compensacin, se iba a otorgar una racin
up for it. Then it was discovered that the suplementaria de papas. Pero luego se descubri
greater part of the potato crop had been frosted que la mayor parte de la cosecha de papas se
in the clamps, which had not been covered haba helado por no haber sido cubierta
thickly enough. The potatoes had become soft suficientemente. Los tubrculos se haban
and discoloured, and only a few were edible. ablandado, descolorido, muy pocos eran
For days at a time the animals had nothing to comibles. Durante das enteros los animales no
eat but chaff and mangels. Starvation seemed tuvieron con qu alimentarse, excepto paja y
to stare them in the face. remolacha. El espectro del hambre pareca
mirarlos cara a cara.
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 51

It was vitally necessary to conceal this fact Era fundamentalmente necesario ocultar eso al
from the outside world. Emboldened by the mundo exterior. Alentados por el
collapse of the windmill, the human beings derrumbamiento del molino, los seres humanos
were inventing fresh lies about Animal Farm. estaban inventando nuevas mentiras respecto a
Once again it was being put about that all the Granja Animal. Otra vez se deca que todos los
animals were dying of famine and disease, and animales se estaban muriendo de hambre y
that they were continually fighting among enfermedades, que se peleaban continuamente
themselves and had resorted to cannibalism entre s y haban cado en el canibalismo y el
and infanticide. Napoleon was well aware of infanticidio. Napolen conoca bien las
the bad results that might follow if the real desastrosas consecuencias que acarreara el
facts of the food situation were known, and he descubrimiento de la verdadera situacin
decided to make use of Mr. Whymper to alimentaria, y decidi utilizar al seor Whymper
spread a contrary impression. Hitherto the para difundir una impresin contraria. Hasta
animals had had little or no contact with entonces los animales tuvieron poco o ningn
Whymper on his weekly visits: now, however, contacto con Whymper en sus visitas semanales;
a few selected animals, mostly sheep, were ahora, sin embargo, unas cuantas bestias
instructed to remark casually in his hearing seleccionadas, en su mayor parte ovejas, fueron
that rations had been increased. In addition, instruidas para que comentaran casualmente, al
Napoleon ordered the almost empty bins in the alcance de su odo que las raciones haban sido
store-shed to be filled nearly to the brim with aumentadas. Adems, Napolen orden que se
sand, which was then covered up with what llenaran hasta el tope con arena los depsitos casi
remained of the grain and meal. On some vacos de los cobertizos y luego fueran cubiertos
suitable pretext Whymper was led through the con lo que an quedaba de los cereales y forrajes.
store-shed and allowed to catch a glimpse of Mediante un pretexto adecuado, Whymper fue
the bins. He was deceived, and continued to conducido a travs de esos cobertizos,
report to the outside world that there was no permitindosele echar un vistazo a los depsitos.
food shortage on Animal Farm. Fue engaado, y continu informando al mundo
exterior que no haba escasez de alimentos en
Granja Animal.
Nevertheless, towards the end of January it Sin embargo, a fines de enero era evidente la
became obvious that it would be necessary to necesidad de obtener ms cereales de alguna
procure some more grain from somewhere. In parte. En esos das, Napolen rara vez se
these days Napoleon rarely appeared in public, presentaba en pblico; pasaba todo el tiempo
but spent all his time in the farmhouse, which dentro de la casa, cuyas puertas estaban
was guarded at each door by fierce-looking custodiadas por canes de aspecto feroz. Cuando
dogs. When he did emerge, it was in a apareca, era en forma ceremoniosa, con una
ceremonial manner, with an escort of six dogs escolta de seis perros que lo rodeaban de cerca y
who closely surrounded him and growled if gruan si alguien se aproximaba demasiado. Ya
anyone came too near. Frequently he did not ni se le vea los domingos por la maana, sino
even appear on Sunday mornings, but issued que daba sus rdenes por intermedio de algn
his orders through one of the other pigs, otro cerdo, generalmente Squealer.
usually Squealer.
One Sunday morning Squealer announced that Un domingo por la maana, Squealer anunci que
the hens, who had just come in to lay again, las gallinas que comenzaban a poner nuevamente,
must surrender their eggs. Napoleon had deban entregar sus huevos. Napolen haba
accepted, through Whymper, a contract for aceptado, por intermedio de Whymper, un
four hundred eggs a week. The price of these contrato por cuatrocientos huevos semanales. El
would pay for enough grain and meal to keep precio de stos alcanzara para comprar suficiente
the farm going till summer came on and cantidad de cereales y comida para que la granja
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 52

conditions were easier. pudiera subsistir hasta que llegara el verano y las
condiciones mejorasen.
When the hens heard this, they raised a terrible Cuando las gallinas oyeron esto levantaron una
outcry. They had been warned earlier that this gran gritera. Haban sido advertidas con
sacrifice might be necessary, but had not anterioridad de que sera necesario ese sacrificio,
believed that it would really happen. They pero no creyeron que en realidad ocurrira esto.
were just getting their clutches ready for the Estaban preparando sus nidadas para la
spring sitting, and they protested that to take empolladura de primavera y protestaron
the eggs away now was murder. For the first expresando que quitarles los huevos era un
time since the expulsion of Jones, there was crimen. Por mera vez desde la expulsin de Jones
something resembling a rebellion. Led by three haba algo que se asemejaba una rebelin.
young Black Minorca pullets, the hens made a Dirigidas por tres pollas Black-Minorca, las
determined effort to thwart Napoleons wishes. gallinas hicieron un decidido intento por frustrar
Their method was to fly up to the rafters and los deseos de Napolen. Su mtodo fue volar
there lay their eggs, which smashed to pieces hasta las vigas y poner all sus huevos, que se
on the floor. Napoleon acted swiftly and hacan pedazos en el suelo. Napolen actu
ruthlessly. He ordered the hens rations to be rpidamente, y sin piedad. Orden que fueran
stopped, and decreed that any animal giving so suspendidas las raciones de las gallinas y decret
much as a grain of corn to a hen should be que cualquier animal que le diera aunque fuera un
punished by death. The dogs saw to it that grano de maz a una gallina, sera castigado con
these orders were carried out. For five days the la muerte. Los perros tuvieron cuidado de que las
hens held out, then they capitulated and went rdenes fueran cumplidas. Las gallinas resistieron
back to their nesting boxes. Nine hens had died durante cinco das, luego capitularon y volvieron
in the meantime. Their bodies were buried in a sus nidos. Nueve gallinas murieron mientras
the orchard, and it was given out that they had tanto. Sus cadveres fueron enterrados en la
died of coccidiosis. Whymper heard nothing of huerta y se comunic que haban muerto de
this affair, and the eggs were duly delivered, a coccidiosis. Whymper no se enter de este asunto
grocers van driving up to the farm once a y los huevos fueron debidamente entregados; el
week to take them away. camin de un almacenero acuda semanalmente a
la granja para llevrselos.
All this while no more had been seen of Durante todo este tiempo no se tuvo seal de
Snowball. He was rumoured to be hiding on Snowball. Se rumoreaba que estaba oculto en una
one of the neighbouring farms, either Foxwood de las granjas vecinas: Foxwood o Pinchfield.
or Pinchfield. Napoleon was by this time on Napolen mantena mejores relaciones que antes
slightly better terms with the other farmers con los otros granjeros. Resultaba que en el patio
than before. It happened that there was in the haba una pila de madera para construccin
yard a pile of timber which had been stacked colocada all haca diez aos, cuando se haba
there ten years earlier when a beech spinney talado un bosque de hayas. Estaba en buen estado
was cleared. It was well seasoned, and y Whymper aconsej a Napolen que la vendiera;
Whymper had advised Napoleon to sell it; both tanto el seor Pilkington como el seor Frederick
Mr. Pilkington and Mr. Frederick were anxious se mostraban ansiosos por comprarla. Napolen
to buy it. Napoleon was hesitating between the estaba indeciso entre los dos, incapaz de adoptar
two, unable to make up his mind. It was una resolucin. Se not que cuando pareca estar
noticed that whenever he seemed on the point a punto de llegar a un acuerdo con Frederick, se
of coming to an agreement with Frederick, deca que Snowball estaba ocultndose en
Snowball was declared to be in hiding at Foxwood, y cuando se inclinaba hacia Pilkington,
Foxwood, while, when he inclined toward se afirmaba que Snowball se encontraba en
Pilkington, Snowball was said to be at Pinchfield.
Pinchfield.
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 53

Suddenly, early in the spring, an alarming Repentinamente, a principios de primavera, se


thing was discovered. Snowball was secretly descubri algo alarmante. Snowball frecuentaba
frequenting the farm by night! The animals en secreto la granja por las noches! Los animales
were so disturbed that they could hardly sleep estaban tan alterados que apenas podan dormir
in their stalls. Every night, it was said, he came en sus corrales. Todas las noches, se deca, l se
creeping in under cover of darkness and introduca al amparo de la oscuridad y haca toda
performed all kinds of mischief. He stole the clase de daos. Robaba el maz, volcaba los
corn, he upset the milk-pails, he broke the baldes de leche, rompa los huevos, pisoteaba los
eggs, he trampled the seedbeds, he gnawed the semilleros, roa la corteza de los rboles frutales.
bark off the fruit trees. Whenever anything Cuando algo andaba mal, se acostumbr
went wrong it became usual to attribute it to atriburselo a Snowball. Si se rompa una ventana
Snowball. If a window was broken or a drain o se tapaba un desage, era cosa segura que
was blocked up, someone was certain to say alguien dira que Snowball durante la noche lo
that Snowball had come in the night and done haba hecho, y cuando se perdi la llave del
it, and when the key of the store-shed was lost, cobertizo de los comestibles, toda la granja estaba
the whole farm was convinced that Snowball convencida de que Snowball la haba tirado al
had thrown it down the well. Curiously Pozo. Cosa curiosa, siguieron creyendo esto aun
enough, they went on believing this even after despus de encontrarse la llave extraviada debajo
the mislaid key was found under a sack of de una bolsa de harina. Las vacas declararon
meal. The cows declared unanimously that unnimemente que Snowball se desliz dentro del
Snowball crept into their stalls and milked establo y las orde mientras dorman. Tambin
them in their sleep. The rats, which had been se dijo que los ratones, que molestaron bastante
troublesome that winter, were also said to be in ese invierno, estaban en connivencia con
league with Snowball. Snowball.
Napoleon decreed that there should be a full Napolen dispuso que se hiciera una amplia
investigation into Snowballs activities. With investigacin acerca de las actividades de
his dogs in attendance he set out and made a Snowball. Con su squito de perros sali de
careful tour of inspection of the farm buildings, inspeccin por los edificios de la granja,
the other animals following at a respectful siguindole los dems animales a prudente
distance. At every few steps Napoleon stopped distancia. Cada tantos pasos, Napolen se paraba
and snuffed the ground for traces of y ola el suelo buscando rastros de las pisadas de
Snowballs footsteps, which, he said, he could Snowball, las que, dijo l, poda reconocer por el
detect by the smell. He snuffed in every corner, olfato. Estuvo olfateando en todos los rincones,
in the barn, in the cow-shed, in the henhouses, en el granero, en el establo de las vacas, en los
in the vegetable garden, and found traces of gallineros, en la huerta de legumbres y encontr
Snowball almost everywhere. He would put his rastros de Snowball en casi todos lados.
snout to the ground, give several deep sniffs, Adhiriendo el hocico al suelo husmeaba
ad exclaim in a terrible voice, Snowball! He profundamente varias veces, y exclamaba con
has been here! I can smell him distinctly! and terrible voz: "Snowball! El ha estado aqu! Lo
at the word Snowball all the dogs let out huelo perfectamente!", y al escuchar la palabra
blood-curdling growls and showed their side "Snowball" todos los perros dejaban or unos
teeth. gruidos horribles y mostraban sus colmillos.
The animals were thoroughly frightened. It Los animales estaban terriblemente asustados.
seemed to them as though Snowball were some Les pareca que Snowball era una especie de
kind of invisible influence, pervading the air maleficio invisible, infestando el aire alrededor y
about them and menacing them with all kinds amenazndolos con clase de peligros. Al
of dangers. In the evening Squealer called anochecer, Squealer los reuni a todos, y con el
them together, and with an alarmed expression rostro alterado les anunci que tena noticias
on his face told them that he had some serious serias que comunicarles.
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 54

news to report.
Comrades! cried Squealer, making little Camaradas, grit Squealer, dando unos saltitos
nervous skips, a most terrible thing has been nerviosos, se ha descubierto algo terrible!
discovered. Snowball has sold himself to Snowball se ha vendido a Frederick, de la Granja
Frederick of Pinchfield Farm, who is even now Pinchfield y en este momento debe estar
plotting to attack us and take our farm away conspirando para atacarnos y quitamos nuestra
from us! Snowball is to act as his guide when granja! Snowball har de gua cuando comience
the attack begins. But there is worse than that. el ataque. Pero hay algo peor an. Nosotros
We had thought that Snowballs rebellion was habamos credo que la rebelin de Snowball fue
caused simply by his vanity and ambition. But motivada simplemente por su vanidad y su
we were wrong, comrades. Do you know what ambicin. Pero estbamos equivocados,
the real reason was? Snowball was in league camaradas. Sabis cul era la verdadera razn?
with Jones from the very start! He was Joness Snowball estaba de acuerdo con Jones desde el
secret agent all the time. It has all been proved comienzo mismo! Fue agente secreto de Jones
by documents which he left behind him and todo el tiempo. Esto ha sido comprobado por
which we have only just discovered. To my documentos que dej abandonados y que ahora
mind this explains a great deal, comrades. Did hemos descubierto. Para m esto explica mucho,
we not see for ourselves how he attempted camaradas: no hemos visto nosotros mismos
fortunately without successto get us defeated cmo l intent, afortunadamente sin xito,
and destroyed at the Battle of the Cowshed? provocar nuestra derrota y aniquilamiento en la
Batalla del Establo de las Vacas?
The animals were stupefied. This was a Los animales quedaron estupefactos. Esta era una
wickedness far outdoing Snowballs maldad mucho mayor que la destruccin del
destruction of the windmill. But it was some molino por Snowball. Pero tardaron varios
minutes before they could fully take it in. They minutos en comprender su significado. Todos
all remembered, or thought they remembered, ellos recordaron, o creyeron recordar, cmo
how they had seen Snowball charging ahead of haban visto a Snowball encabezando el ataque en
them at the Battle of the Cowshed, how he had la Batalla del Establo de las Vacas, cmo l los
rallied and encouraged them at every turn, and haba reunido y alentado en cada revs, y cmo
how he had not paused for an instant even no vacil un solo instante, aun cuando los
when the pellets from Joness gun had perdigones de la escopeta de Jones le hirieron en
wounded his back. At first it was a little el lomo. Al principio result un poco difcil
difficult to see how this fitted in with his being entender cmo combinaba esto con el hecho de
on Joness side. Even Boxer, who seldom estar l de parte de Jones. Hasta Boxer, que rara
asked questions, was puzzled. He lay down, vez hacia preguntas, estaba perplejo. Se acost,
tucked his fore hoofs beneath him, shut his acomod sus patas delanteras debajo de su pecho,
eyes, and with a hard effort managed to cerr los ojos, y con gran esfuerzo logr ordenar
formulate his thoughts. sus pensamientos.
I do not believe that, he said. Snowball Yo no creo eso, dijo, Snowball pele
fought bravely at the Battle of the Cowshed. I valientemente en la Batalla del Establo de las
saw him myself. Did we not give him Animal Vacas. Yo mismo lo vi. Acaso no le otorgamos
Hero, first Class, immediately afterwards? inmediatamente despus la condecoracin Hroe
Animal, primer grado?
That was our mistake, comrade. For we know Ese fue nuestro error, camarada. Porque ahora
nowit is all written down in the secret sabemos, figura todo escrito en los documentos
documents that we have foundthat in reality secretos que hemos encontrado, que en realidad l
he was trying to lure us to our doom. nos arrastraba hacia nuestra perdicin.
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 55

But he was wounded, said Boxer. We all Pero estaba herido, aleg Boxer. Todos lo
saw him running with blood. vimos sangrando.
That was part of the arrangement! cried Eso era parte del acuerdo!, grit Squealer. El
Squealer. Joness shot only grazed him. I tiro de Jones solamente lo rasgu. Yo os podra
could show you this in his own writing, if you mostrar esto, escrito de su puo y letra, si
were able to read it. The plot was for vosotros pudierais leerlo. El plan era que
Snowball, at the critical moment, to give the Snowball, en el momento crtico, diera la seal
signal for flight and leave the field to the para la fuga dejando el campo en poder del
enemy. And he very nearly succeededI will enemigo. Y casi lo consigue. Dir ms,
even say, comrades, he would have succeeded camaradas: lo hubiera logrado a no ser por
if it had not been for our heroic Leader, nuestro heroico lder, el camarada Napolen.
Comrade Napoleon. Do you not remember Recordis cmo, justo en el momento que Jones
how, just at the moment when Jones and his y sus hombres llegaron al patio, Snowball
men had got inside the yard, Snowball repentinamente se volvi y huy, y muchos
suddenly turned and fled, and many animals animales lo siguieron? Y recordis tambin que
followed him? And do you not remember, too, justamente en ese momento, cuando cunda el
that it was just at that moment, when panic was pnico y pareca que estaba todo perdido, el
spreading and all seemed lost, that Comrade camarada Napolen salt hacia delante con el
Napoleon sprang forward with a cry of Death grito "Muera la Humanidad!", y hundi sus
to Humanity! and sank his teeth in Joness dientes en la pierna de Jones? Seguramente os
leg? Surely you remember that, comrades? acordis de eso, camaradas, exclam Squealer,
exclaimed Squealer, frisking from side to side. saltando de lado a lado.
Now when Squealer described the scene so Como Squealer describi la escena tan
graphically, it seemed to the animals that they grficamente, les pareci a los animales que lo
did remember it. At any rate, they remembered recordaban. De cualquier modo, saban que en el
that at the critical moment of the battle momento crtico de la batalla se haba vuelto para
Snowball had turned to flee. But Boxer was huir. Pero Boxer an estaba algo indeciso.
still a little uneasy.
I do not believe that Snowball was a traitor at Yo no creo que Snowball fuera un traidor al
the beginning, he said finally. What he has comienzo, dijo finalmente. Lo que ha hecho
done since is different. But I believe that at the desde entonces es distinto. Pero yo creo que en la
Battle of the Cowshed he was a good Batalla del Establo de las Vacas l fue un buen
comrade. camarada.
Our Leader, Comrade Napoleon, announced Nuestro lder, el camarada Napolen, anunci
Squealer, speaking very slowly and firmly, Squealer, hablando lentamente y con firmeza, ha
has stated categoricallycategorically, manifestado categricamente, camaradas, que
comradethat Snowball was Joness agent Snowball fue agente de Jones desde el mismo
from the very beginningyes, and from long comienzo; s, y desde mucho antes que se pensara
before the Rebellion was ever thought of. siquiera en la Rebelin.
Ah, that is different! said Boxer. If Comrade Ah, eso es distinto!, grit Boxer. Si el
Napoleon says it, it must be right. camarada Napolen lo dice, debe ser as.
That is the true spirit, comrade! cried Ese es el verdadero espritu, camarada! grit
Squealer, but it was noticed he cast a very ugly Squealer, pero se not que lanz a Boxer una
look at Boxer with his little twinkling eyes. He mirada maligna con sus relampagueantes ojillos.
turned to go, then paused and added Se volvi para irse, luego se detuvo y agreg en
impressively: I warn every animal on this forma impresionante: Yo le advierto a todo
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 56

farm to keep his eyes very wide open. For we animal de esta granja que tenga los ojos bien
have reason to think that some of Snowballs abiertos, porque tenemos motivos para creer que
secret agents are lurking among us at this algunos agentes secretos de Snowball estn al
moment! acecho entre nosotros en este momento!
Four days later, in the late afternoon, Napoleon Cuatro das despus, al atardecer, Napolen
ordered all the animals to assemble in the yard. orden a los animales que se congregaran en el
When they were all gathered together, patio. Cuando estuvieron todos reunidos,
Napoleon emerged from the farmhouse, Napolen sali de la casa, luciendo sus dos
wearing both his medals (for he had recently medallas (porque recientemente se haba
awarded himself Animal Hero, First Class, nombrado l mismo Hroe Animal, primer grado
and Animal Hero, Second Class), with his y Hroe Animal, segundo grado), con sus nueve
nine huge dogs frisking round him and uttering enormes perros brincando alrededor, y emitiendo
growls that sent shivers down all the animals gruidos que produjeron escalofros a los
spines. They all cowered silently in their animales. Todos ellos se recogieron
places, seeming to know in advance that some silenciosamente en sus lugares, pareciendo saber
terrible thing was ab out to happen. de antemano que iba a ocurrir algo terrible.
Napoleon stood sternly surveying his audience; Napolen se qued observando severamente a su
then he uttered a high-pitched whimper. auditorio; luego emiti un gruido agudo.
Immediately the dogs bounded forward, seized Inmediatamente los perros saltaron hacia delante,
four of the pigs by the ear and dragged them, agarraron a cuatro de los cerdos por las orejas y
squealing with pain and terror, to Napoleons los arrastraron, chillando de dolor y terror, hasta
feet. The pigs ears were bleeding, the dogs los pies de Napolen. Las orejas de los cerdos
had tasted blood, and for a few moments they estaban sangrando; los perros haban probado
appeared to go quite mad. To the amazement sangre y por unos instantes parecan
of everybody, three of them flung themselves enloquecidos. Ante el asombro de todos, tres de
upon Boxer. Boxer saw them coming and put ellos se abalanzaron sobre Boxer. Este los vio
out his great hoof, caught a dog in mid-air, and venir y estir su enorme pata, par a uno en el
pinned him to the ground. The dog shrieked for aire y lo aplast contra el suelo. El perro chill
mercy and the other two fled with their tails pidiendo misericordia y los otros dos huyeron con
between their legs. Boxer looked at Napoleon el rabo entre las piernas. Boxer mir a Napolen
to know whether he should crush the dog to para saber si deba aplastar al perro matndolo o
death or let it go. Napoleon appeared to change si deba soltarlo. Napolen pareci cambiar de
countenance, and sharply ordered Boxer to let semblante y le orden bruscamente que soltara al
the dog go, whereat Boxer lifted his hoof, and perro, con lo cual Boxer levant su pata y el can
the dog slunk away, bruised and howling. huy magullado y gimiendo.
Presently the tumult died down. The four pigs Pronto ces el tumulto. Los cuatro cerdos
waited, trembling, with guilt written on every esperaban temblando y con la culpabilidad escrita
line of their countenances. Napoleon now en cada surco de sus semblantes. Napolen les
called upon them to confess their crimes. They exigi que confesaran sus crmenes. Eran los
were the same four pigs as had protested when mismos cuatro cerdos que haban protestado
Napoleon abolished the Sunday Meetings. cuando Napolen aboli las reuniones de los
Without any further prompting they confessed domingos. Sin otra exigencia, confesaron que
that they had been secretly in touch with haban estado clandestinamente en contacto con
Snowball ever since his expulsion, that they Snowball desde su expulsin, haban colaborado
had collaborated with him in destroying the con l en la destruccin del molino y convinieron
windmill, and that they had entered into an en entregar Granja Animal al seor Frederick.
agreement with him to hand over Animal Farm Agregaron que Snowball haba admitido, en
to Mr. Frederick. They added that Snowball confianza, que l era agente secreto del seor
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 57

had privately admitted to them that he had Jones desde muchos aos atrs. Cuando
been Joness secret agent for years past. When terminaron su confesin, los perros, sin perder
they had finished their confession, the dogs tiempo, les desgarraron las gargantas y con voz
promptly tore their throats out, and in a terrible terrible, Napolen pregunt si algn otro animal
voice Napoleon demanded whether any other tena algo que confesar.
animal had anything to confess.
The three hens who had been the ringleaders in Las tres gallinas, que fueron las cabecillas del
the attempted rebellion over the eggs now conato de rebelin por los huevos, se adelantaron
came forward and stated that Snowball had y declararon que Snowball se les haba aparecido
appeared to them in a dream and incited them en un sueo, incitndolas a desobedecer las
to disobey Napoleons orders. They, too, were rdenes de Napolen. Tambin ellas fueron
slaughtered. Then a goose came forward and destrozadas. Luego un ganso se adelant
confessed to having secreted six ears of corn confesando que ocult seis espigas de maz
during the last years harvest and eaten them in durante la cosecha del ao anterior y que se las
the night. Then a sheep confessed to having haba comido de noche. Luego una oveja admiti
urinated in the drinking poolurged to do this, que hizo aguas en el bebedero, instigada a
so she said, by Snowballand two other sheep hacerlo, dijo ella, por Snowball y otras dos ovejas
confessed to having murdered an old ram, an confesaron que asesinaron a un viejo carnero,
especially devoted follower of Napoleon, by muy adicto a Napolen, persiguindole alrededor
chasing him round and round a bonfire when de una fogata cuando tosa. Todos ellos fueron
he was suffering from a cough. They were all ejecutados all mismo. Y as continu la serie de
slain on the spot. And so the tale of confesiones y ejecuciones, hasta que una pila de
confessions and executions went on, until there cadveres yaca a los pies de Napolen y el aire
was a pile of corpses lying before Napoleons estaba impregnado con el olor de la sangre, lo
feet and the air was heavy with the smell of cual era desconocido desde la expulsin de Jones.
blood, which had been unknown there since
the expulsion of Jones.
When it was all over, the remaining animals, Cuando termin esto, los animales restantes,
except for the pigs and dogs, crept away in a exceptuando los cerdos y los perros, se alejaron
body. They were shaken and miserable. They juntos. Estaban estremecidos y se sentan
did not know which was more shockingthe desdichados. No saban qu era ms espantoso: si
treachery of the animals who had leagued la traicin de los animales que se conjuraron con
themselves with Snowball, or the cruel Snowball o la cruel represin que acababan de
retribution they had just witnessed. In the old presenciar. Antao hubo muchas veces escenas de
days there had often been scenes of bloodshed matanza igualmente terribles, pero a todos les
equally terrible, but it seemed to all of them pareca mucho peor ahora, al suceder esto entre
that it was far worse now that it was happening ellos mismos. Desde que Jones haba abandonado
among themselves. Since Jones had left the la granja, ningn animal mat a otro animal. Ni
farm, until today, no animal had killed another siquiera un ratn. Llegaron a la pequea loma
animal. Not even a rat had been killed. They donde estaba el molino semiconstruido y, de
had made their way on to the little knoll where comn acuerdo, se recostaron todos como si se
the half-finished windmill stood, and with one agruparan para calentarse: Clover, Muriel,
accord they all lay down as though huddling Benjamn, las vacas, las ovejas y toda una
together for warmthClover, Muriel, bandada de gansos y gallinas: todos, en verdad,
Benjamin, the cows, the sheep, and a whole exceptuando el gato, que haba desaparecido
flock of geese and henseveryone, indeed, repentinamente justo antes de que Napolen
except the cat, who had suddenly disappeared ordenara a los animales que se reunieran. Durante
just before Napoleon ordered the animals to algn tiempo nadie habl. nicamente Boxer
assemble. For some time nobody spoke. Only permaneca de pie. Se mova impaciente de un
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 58

Boxer remained on his feet. He fidgeted to and lado para otro, golpeando su larga cola negra
fro, swishing his long black tail against his contra los costados y emitiendo de cuando en
sides and occasionally uttering a little whinny cuando un pequeo relincho de extraeza.
of surprise. Finally he said: Finalmente, dijo: No comprendo.
I do not understand it. I would not have Yo no hubiera credo que tales cosas pudieran
believed that such things could happen on our ocurrir en nuestra granja. Eso se debe
farm. It must be due to some fault in ourselves. seguramente a algn defecto nuestro. La solucin,
The solution, as I see it, is to work harder. como yo la veo, es trabajar ms fuerte. Desde
From now onwards I shall get up a full hour ahora me levantar una hora ms temprano todas
earlier in the mornings. las maanas.
And he moved off at his lumbering trot and Y se alej con su trote pesado en direccin a la
made for the quarry. Having got there, he cantera. Una vez all, junt dos carradas de
collected two successive loads of stone and piedras y las arrastr hasta el molino antes de
dragged them down to the windmill before acostarse.
retiring for the night.
The animals huddled about Clover, not Los animales se acurrucaron alrededor de Clover,
speaking. The knoll where they were lying sin hablar. La loma donde estaban acostados les
gave them a wide prospect across the ofreca una amplia perspectiva a travs de la
countryside. Most of Animal Farm was within campia. La mayor parte de Granja Animal
their viewthe long pasture stretching down estaba a la vista: la larga pradera, que se extenda
to the main road, the hayfield, the spinney, the hasta la carretera, el campo de heno, el bebedero,
drinking pool, the ploughed fields where the los campos arados donde se ergua el trigo nuevo,
young wheat was thick and green, and the red tupido y verde y los techos rojos de los edificios
roofs of the farm buildings with the smoke de la granja con el humo elevndose
curling from the chimneys. It was a clear sinuosamente de sus chimeneas. Era un claro
spring evening. The grass and the bursting atardecer primaveral. El pasto y los cercos
hedges were gilded by the level rays of the sun. florecientes estaban dorados por los rayos del sol
Never had the farmand with a kind of poniente. Nunca haba parecido la granja, y con
surprise they remembered that it was their own cierta sorpresa se acordaron que era su propia
farm, every inch of it their own property granja, cada pulgada era de su propiedad, un
appeared to the animals so desirable a place. lugar tan codiciado. Mientras Clover miraba
As Clover looked down the hillside her eyes barranco abajo, se le llenaron los ojos de
filled with tears. If she could have spoken her lgrimas. Si ella hubiera podido expresar sus
thoughts, it would have been to say that this pensamientos, hubiera sido para decir que a eso
was not what they had aimed at when they had no era a lo que aspiraban cuando emprendieron,
set themselves years ago to work for the aos atrs, el derrocamiento de la raza humana.
overthrow of the human race. These scenes of Esas escenas de terror y matanza no eran lo que
terror and slaughter were not what they had ellos soaron aquella noche cuando el Viejo
looked forward to on that night when old Mayor, por primera vez, los incit a rebelarse. Si
Major first stirred them to rebellion. If she ella misma hubiera concebido un cuadro del
herself had had any picture of the future, it had futuro, habra sido el de una sociedad de animales
been of a society of animals set free from liberados del hambre y del ltigo, todos iguales,
hunger and the whip, all equal, each working cada uno trabajando de acuerdo con su capacidad;
according to his capacity, the strong protecting el fuerte protegiendo al dbil, como ella
the weak, as she had protected the lost brood of protegiera a esos patitos perdidos con su pata
ducklings with her foreleg on the night of delantera la noche del discurso de Mayor. En su
Majors speech. Insteadshe did not know lugar, ella no saba por qu haban llegado a un
whythey had come to a time when no one estado tal que nadie se atreva a decir lo que
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 59

dared speak his mind, when fierce, growling pensaba, en el que perros feroces y gruones
dogs roamed everywhere, and when you had to merodeaban por doquier y donde uno tena que
watch your comrades torn to pieces after ver cmo sus camaradas eran despedazados
confessing to shocking crimes. There was no despus de confesarse autores de crmenes
thought of rebellion or disobedience in her horribles. No haba intencin de rebelda o
mind. She knew that, even as things were, they desobediencia en su mente. Ella saba que, aun
were far better off than they had been in the como se presentaban las cosas estaban mucho
days of Jones, and that before all else it was mejor que en los das de Jones y que, ante todo,
needful to prevent the return of the human era necesario evitar el regreso de los seres
beings. Whatever happened she would remain humanos. Sucediera lo que sucediera
faithful, work hard, carry out the orders that permanecera leal, trabajara fuerte, cumplira las
were given to her, and accept the leadership of rdenes que le dieran y aceptara las directivas de
Napoleon. But still, it was not for this that she Napolen. Pero aun as, no era eso lo que ella y
and all the other animals had hoped and toiled. los dems animales, aoraran y para lo que
It was not for this that they had built the trabajaran tanto. No era para eso que
windmill and faced the bullets of Joness gun. construyeron el molino ni hicieron frente a las
Such were her thoughts, though she lacked the balas de Jones. Tales eran sus pensamientos,
words to express them. aunque le faltaban palabras para expresarlos.
At last, feeling this to be in some way a Al final, presintiendo que eso sera en cierta
substitute for the words she was unable to find, forma un sustituto para las palabras que ella no
she began to sing Beasts of England. The poda encontrar, empez a cantar Bestias de
other animals sitting round her took it up, and Inglaterra. Los dems animales, alrededor, la
they sang it three times oververy tunefully, imitaron y cantaron tres veces, con mucho
but slowly and mournfully, in a way they had sufrimiento, lenta y tristemente, como nunca lo
never sung it before. hicieran.
They had just finished singing it for the third Apenas haban terminado de repetirlo por tercera
time when Squealer, attended by two dogs, vez cuando se acerc Squealer, acompaado de
approached them with the air of having dos perros, con el aire de quien tiene algo
something important to say. He announced importante que decir. Anunci que por un decreto
that, by a special decree of Comrade Napoleon, especial del camarada Napolen se haba abolido
Beasts of England had been abolished. From Bestias de Inglaterra. Desde ese momento
now onwards it was forbidden to sing it. quedaba prohibido cantar dicha cancin.
The animals were taken aback. Los animales quedaron asombrados.
Why? cried Muriel. Por qu? grit Muriel.
Its no longer needed, comrade, said Squealer Ya no hace falta, camarada, dijo Squealer
stiffly. Beasts of England was the song of secamente. Bestias de Inglaterra fue el canto de
the Rebellion. But the Rebellion is now la Rebelin. Pero la Rebelin ya ha terminado. La
completed. The execution of the traitors this ejecucin de los traidores esta tarde fue el acto
afternoon was the final act. The enemy both final. El enemigo, tanto exterior como interior, ha
external and internal has been defeated. In sido vencido. En Bestias de Inglaterra nosotros
Beasts of England we expressed our longing expresamos nuestras ansias por una sociedad
for a better society in days to come. But that mejor en lo futuro. Pero esa sociedad ya ha sido
society has now been established. Clearly this establecida. Realmente esta cancin ya no tiene
song has no longer any purpose. objeto.
Frightened though they were, some of the Aunque estaban asustados, algunos de los
animals might possibly have protested, but at animales hubieran protestado, pero en ese
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 60

this moment the sheep set up their usual momento las ovejas comenzaron su acostumbrado
bleating of Four legs good, two legs bad, balido de "Cuatro patas s, dos pies no", que dur
which went on for several minutes and put an varios minutos y puso fin a la discusin.
end to the discussion.
So Beasts of England was heard no more. In Y de esa forma no se escuch ms Bestias de
its place Minimus, the poet, had composed Inglaterra. En su lugar Mnimus, el poeta, haba
another song which began: compuesto otra cancin que comenzaba as:

Animal Farm, Animal Farm, Granja Animal, Granja Animal


Never through me shalt thou come to harm! Nunca por m sufrirs algn mal!

and this was sung every Sunday morning after y esto se cant todos los domingos por la maana
the hoisting of the flag. But somehow neither despus de izarse la bandera. Pero, por algn
the words nor the tune ever seemed to the motivo, a los animales les pareci que ni la letra
animals to come up to Beasts of England. ni la msica estaban a la altura de Bestias de
Inglaterra.
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 61

CHAPTER 8 CAPTULO VIII

A FEW days later, when the terror caused by Algunos das ms tarde, cuando ya haba
the executions had died down, some of the desaparecido el terror producido por las
animals rememberedor thought they ejecuciones, algunos animales recordaron, o
rememberedthat the Sixth Commandment creyeron recordar, que el Sexto Mandamiento
decreed No animal shall kill any other decretaba: Ningn animal matar a otro animal.
animal. And though no one cared to mention Y aunque nadie quiso mencionarlo al alcance del
it in the hearing of the pigs or the dogs, it was odo de los cerdos o, de los perros, exista la
felt that the killings which had taken place did sensacin que las matanzas que haban tenido
not square with this. Clover asked Benjamin to lugar no concordaban con aquello. Clover pidi a
read her the Sixth Commandment, and when Benjamn que le leyera el Sexto Mandamiento, y
Benjamin, as usual, said that he refused to cuando Benjamn, como de costumbre, dijo que
meddle in such matters, she fetched Muriel. se negaba a entremeterse en esos asuntos, ella
Muriel read the Commandment for her. It ran: inst a Muriel. Muriel le ley el Mandamiento.
No animal shall kill any other animal without Deca as: Ningn animal matar a otro animal
cause. Somehow or other, the last two words "sin motivo". Por una razn u otra, las dos ltimas
had slipped out of the animals memory. But palabras se les haban ido de la memoria a los
they saw now that the Commandment had not animales. Pero comprobaron que el Mandamiento
been violated; for clearly there was good no fue violado; porque, evidentemente, hubo
reason for killing the traitors who had leagued buen motivo para matar a los traidores que se
themselves with Snowball. aliaron con Snowball.
Throughout the year the animals worked even Durante ese ao los animales trabajaron an ms
harder than they had worked in the previous duro que el ao anterior. Reconstruir el molino,
year To rebuild the windmill, with walls twice con paredes dos veces ms gruesas que antes, y
as thick as before, and to finish it by the concluirlo para una fecha determinada, adems
appointed date, together with the regular work del trabajo en la granja, era una tarea tremenda. A
of the farm, was a tremendous labour. There veces les pareca que trabajaban ms horas y no
were times when it seemed to the animals that coman mejor que en la poca de Jones. Los
they worked longer hours and fed no better domingos por la maana Squealer, sujetando un
than they had done in Joness day. On Sunday papel largo con una pata, les lea listas de cifras
mornings Squealer, holding down a long strip demostrando que la produccin de toda clase de
of paper with his trotter, would read out to vveres haba aumentado en un doscientos por
them lists of figures proving that the ciento, trescientos por ciento o quinientos por
production of every class of foodstuff had ciento, segn el caso. Los animales no vieron
increased by two hundred per cent, three motivo para no creerle, especialmente porque no
hundred per cent, or five hundred per cent, as podan recordar con claridad cmo eran las cosas
the case might be. The animals saw no reason antes de la Rebelin. Aun as, preferan a veces
to disbelieve him, especially as they could no contar con menos cifras y ms comida.
longer remember very clearly what conditions
had been like before the Rebellion. All the
same, there were days when they felt that they
would sooner have had less figures and more
food.
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 62

All orders were now issued through Squealer Todas las rdenes eran emitidas por intermedio
or one of the other pigs. Napoleon himself was de Squealer o uno de los otros cerdos. Napolen
not seen in public as often as once in a mismo no era visto en pblico, sino, cuando
fortnight. When he did appear, he was attended mucho, una vez cada quince das. Cuando
not only by his retinue of dogs but by a black apareca estaba acompaado no solamente por su
cockerel who marched in front of him and comitiva de perros, sino tambin por un gallo
acted as a kind of trumpeter, letting out a loud negro que marchaba delante y actuaba como una
cock-a-doodle-doo before Napoleon spoke. especie de trompetero, dejando or un sonoro
Even in the farmhouse, it was said, Napoleon cacareo antes que hablara Napolen. Hasta en la
inhabited separate apartments from the others. casa, se deca, Napolen ocupaba aposentos
He took his meals alone, with two dogs to wait separados de los dems. Coma solo, con dos
upon him, and always ate from the Crown perros para servirlo, y siempre utilizaba la vajilla
Derby dinner service which had been in the que haba estado en la vitrina de cristal de la sala.
glass cupboard in the drawing-room. It was Tambin se anunci que la escopeta sera
also announced that the gun would be fired disparada todos los aos en el cumpleaos de
every year on Napoleons birthday, as well as Napolen, igual que en los otros dos aniversarios.
on the other two anniversaries.
Napoleon was now never spoken of simply as Napolen no era ya mencionado simplemente
Napoleon. He was always referred to in como "Napolen". Se le nombraba siempre en
formal style as our Leader, Comrade forma ceremoniosa como "nuestro lder,
Napoleon, and this pigs liked to invent for camarada Napolen", y a los cerdos les gustaba
him such titles as Father of All Animals, inventar para l ttulos como "Padre de todos los
Terror of Mankind, Protector of the Sheep- animales", "Terror de la humanidad", "Protector
fold, Ducklings Friend, and the like. In his del rebao de ovejas", "Amigo de los patitos", y
speeches, Squealer would talk with the tears otros por el estilo. En sus discursos, Squealer
rolling down his cheeks of Napoleons wisdom hablaba, con lgrimas que rodaban por sus
the goodness of his heart, and the deep love he mejillas, de la sabidura de Napolen, la bondad
bore to all animals everywhere, even and de su corazn y el profundo amor que senta por
especially the unhappy animals who still lived todos los animales en todas partes, especialmente
in ignorance and slavery on other farms. It had por las desdichadas bestias que an vivan en la
become usual to give Napoleon the credit for ignorancia y la esclavitud en otras granjas. Se
every successful achievement and every stroke haba hecho costumbre atribuir a Napolen toda
of good fortune. You would often hear one hen proeza afortunada y todo golpe de suerte. A
remark to another, Under the guidance of our menudo se oa que una gallina le deca a otra:
Leader, Comrade Napoleon, I have laid five "Bajo la direccin de nuestro lder, camarada
eggs in six days; or two cows, enjoying a Napolen, yo he puesto cinco huevos en seis
drink at the pool, would exclaim, Thanks to das", o dos vacas, mientras saboreaban el agua
the leadership of Comrade Napoleon, how del bebedero, solan exclamar: "Gracias a nuestro
excellent this water tastes! The general feeling lder, camarada Napolen, qu rico sabor tiene
on the farm was well expressed in a poem esta agua!" El sentimiento general de la granja
entitled Comrade Napoleon, which was estaba bien expresado en un poema titulado
composed by Minimus and which ran as Camarada Napolen, escrito por Mnimus, y que
follows: deca as:
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 63

Friend of fatherless! Amigo de los hurfanos y del desheredado!


Fountain of happiness! Seor de la pitanza, que enciendes de pasin
Lord of the swill-bucket! Oh, how my soul is on mi alma cuando posas, imponente y airado
Fire when I gaze at thy como el sol, tu mirada, en el cielo azulado
Calm and commanding eye, valiente camarada, glorioso Napolen!
Like the sun in the sky,
Comrade Napoleon!

Thou are the giver of Dador de lo que aspiran tus dciles criaturas,
All that thy creatures love, la barriga repleta, paja para el colchn,
Full belly twice a day, clean straw to roll upon; y sueo descansado, sin dolor ni amarguras,
Every beast great or small gracias a tus desvelos y propias desventuras
Sleeps at peace in his stall, valiente camarada, glorioso Napolen!
Thou watchest over all,
Comrade Napoleon!

Had I a sucking-pig, El hijo que tuviera, si Dios me diera un hijo


Ere he had grown as big apenas chiquitito, antes de ser lechn
Even as a pint bottle or as a rolling-pin, con lealtad a quererte le ensear, de fijo,
He should have learned to be y a chillarte entusiasta, mi tierno cachorrito:
Faithful and true to thee, Valiente camarada, glorioso Napolen!
Yes, his first squeak should be
Comrade Napoleon!

Napoleon approved of this poem and caused it Napolen aprob este poema y lo hizo inscribir
to be inscribed on the wall of the big barn, at en la pared del granero principal, en el extremo
the opposite end from the Seven opuesto a los Siete Mandamientos. Sobre el
Commandments. It was surmounted by a mismo haba un retrato de Napolen, de perfil,
portrait of Napoleon, in profile, executed by pintado por Squealer con pintura blanca.
Squealer in white paint.
Meanwhile, through the agency of Whymper, Mientras tanto, por intermedio de Whymper,
Napoleon was engaged in complicated Napolen estaba ocupado en negociaciones
negotiations with Frederick and Pilkington. complicadas con Frederick y Pilkington. La pila
The pile of timber was still unsold. Of the two, de madera an estaba sin vender. De los dos,
Frederick was the more anxious to get hold of Frederick era el que estaba ms ansioso por
it, but he would not offer a reasonable price. At obtenerla, pero no quera ofrecer un precio
the same time there were renewed rumours that razonable. Al mismo tiempo corran rumores
Frederick and his men were plotting to attack insistentes de que Frederick y sus hombres
Animal Farm and to destroy the windmill, the estaban conspirando para atacar Granja Animal y
building of which had aroused furious jealousy destruir el molino, cuya construccin haba
in him. Snowball was known to be still provocado en l una envidia furiosa. Se saba que
skulking on Pinchfield Farm. In the middle of Snowball an estaba al acecho en la Granja
the summer the animals were alarmed to hear Pinchfield. A mediados del verano los animales
that three hens had come forward and se alarmaron al or que tres gallinas confesaron
confessed that, inspired by Snowball, they had haber tramado, inspiradas por Snowball, un
entered into a plot to murder Napoleon. They complot para asesinar a Napolen. Fueron
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 64

were executed immediately, and fresh ejecutadas inmediatamente y se tomaron nuevas


precautions for Napoleons safety were taken. precauciones para la seguridad de Napolen.
Four dogs guarded his bed at night, one at each Cuatro perros cuidaban su cama durante la noche,
corner, and a young pig named Pinkeye was uno en cada esquina, y un joven cerdo llamado
given the task of tasting all his food before he Pinkeye fue designado para probar todos sus
ate it, lest it should be poisoned. alimentos antes de que el lder los comiera, por
temor a que estuvieran envenenados.
At about the same time it was given out that Ms o menos en esa poca se divulg que
Napoleon had arranged to sell the pile of Napolen haba convenido en vender la pila de
timber to Mr. Pilkington; he was also going to madera al seor Pinkington; tambin deba
enter into a regular agreement for the exchange celebrarse un contrato formal para el intercambio
of certain products between Animal Farm and de ciertos productos entre Granja Animal y
Foxwood. The relations between Napoleon and Foxwood. Las relaciones entre Napolen y
Pilkington, though they were only conducted Pilkington, aunque conducidas nicamente por
through Whymper, were now almost friendly. intermedio de Whymper, eran casi amistosas. Los
The animals distrusted Pilkington, as a human animales desconfiaban de Pilkington, como ser
being, but greatly preferred him to Frederick, humano, pero lo preferan mucho ms que a
whom they both feared and hated. As the Frederick, a quien teman y odiaban al mismo
summer wore on, and the windmill neared tiempo. Cuando estaba finalizando el verano y la
completion, the rumours of an impending construccin del molino llegaba a su trmino, los
treacherous attack grew stronger and stronger. rumores de un inminente ataque traicionero iban
Frederick, it was said, intended to bring against en aumento. Frederick, se deca, tena intencin
them twenty men all armed with guns, and he de traer contra ellos veinte hombres, todos
had already bribed the magistrates and police, armados con escopetas, y ya haba sobornado a
so that if he could once get hold of the title- los magistrados y a la polica, para que, en caso
deeds of Animal Farm they would ask no de que pudiera obtener los ttulos de propiedad de
questions. Moreover, terrible stories were Granja Animal, aqullos no hicieran preguntas.
leaking out from Pinchfield about the cruelties Adems, se filtraban de Pinchfield algunas
that Frederick practised upon his animals. He historias terribles respecto a las crueldades de que
had flogged an old horse to death, he starved haca objeto Frederick a los animales. Haba
his cows, he had killed a dog by throwing it azotado hasta la muerte a un caballo, mataba de
into the furnace, he amused himself in the hambre a sus vacas, haba acabado con un perro
evenings by making cocks fight with splinters arrojndolo dentro de un horno, se diverta de
of razor-blade tied to their spurs. The animals noche con rias de gallos, atndoles pedazos de
blood boiled with rage when they heard of hojas de afeitar a los espolones. La sangre les
these things being done to their comrades, and herva de rabia a los animales cuando se
sometimes they clamoured to be allowed to go enteraron de las cosas que se hacan con sus
out in a body and attack Pinchfield Farm, drive camaradas y algunas veces clamaron para que se
out the humans, and set the animals free. But les permitiera salir y atacar en masa la Granja
Squealer counselled them to avoid rash actions Pinchfield, echar a los seres humanos y liberar a
and trust in Comrade Napoleons strategy. los animales. Pero Squealer les aconsej que
evitaran los actos precipitados y que confiaran en
la estrategia de Napolen.
Nevertheless, feeling against Frederick Sin embargo, el resentimiento contra Frederick
continued to run high. One Sunday morning continu en aumento. Un domingo por la maana,
Napoleon appeared in the barn and explained Napolen se present en el granero y explic que
that he had never at any time contemplated en ningn momento haba tenido intencin de
selling the pile of timber to Frederick; he vender la pila de madera a Frederick; l
considered it beneath his dignity, he said, to consideraba por debajo de su dignidad tener trato
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 65

have dealings with scoundrels of that con bribones de esa calaa. A las palomas, que
description. The pigeons who were still sent an eran enviadas para difundir noticias
out to spread tidings of the Rebellion were referentes a la Rebelin, les fue prohibido pisar
forbidden to set foot anywhere on Foxwood, Foxwood y tambin fueron impelidas a
and were also ordered to drop their former abandonar su lema anterior de "Muerte a la
slogan of Death to Humanity in favour of Humanidad" reemplazndola por "Muerte a
Death to Frederick. In the late summer yet Frederick". A fines de verano fue puesta al
another of Snowballs machinations was laid descubierto una nueva intriga de Snowball. Los
bare. The wheat crop was full of weeds, and it campos de trigo estaban llenos de maleza y se
was discovered that on one of his nocturnal descubri que en una de sus visitas nocturnas,
visits Snowball had mixed weed seeds with the Snowball mezcl semillas de cardos con las
seed corn. A gander who had been privy to the semillas de trigo. Un ganso, cmplice del
plot had confessed his guilt to Squealer and complot, haba confesado su culpa a Squealer y se
immediately committed suicide by swallowing suicid inmediatamente ingiriendo unas bayas
deadly nightshade berries. The animals now txicas. Los animales se enteraron tambin de
also learned that Snowball had neveras que Snowball nunca haba recibido, como
many of them had believed hithertoreceived muchos de ellos creyeron hasta entonces, la
the order of Animal Hero, First Class. This Orden de Hroe Animal, primer grado. Eso era
was merely a legend which had been spread simplemente una leyenda difundida poco tiempo
some time after the Battle of the Cowshed by despus de la Batalla del Establo de las Vacas por
Snowball himself. So far from being decorated, Snowball mismo. Lejos de ser condecorado, fue
he had been censured for showing cowardice censurado por demostrar cobarda en la batalla.
in the battle. Once again some of the animals Una vez ms algunos animales escucharon esto
heard this with a certain bewilderment, but con cierta perplejidad, pero Squealer logr
Squealer was soon able to convince them that convencerlos de que sus recuerdos estaban
their memories had been at fault. equivocados.
In the autumn, by a tremendous, exhausting En el otoo, mediante un esfuerzo tremendamente
effortfor the harvest had to be gathered at agotador, porque la cosecha tuvo que realizarse
almost the same timethe windmill was casi al mismo tiempo, se concluy el molino de
finished. The machinery had still to be viento. An faltaba instalar la maquinaria y
installed, and Whymper was negotiating the Whymper negociaba su compra, pero la
purchase of it, but the structure was completed. construccin estaba terminada. A despecho de
In the teeth of every difficulty, in spite of todas las dificultades, a pesar de la inexperiencia,
inexperience, of primitive implements, of bad de herramientas primitivas, de mala suerte y de la
luck and of Snowballs treachery, the work had traicin de Snowball, el trabajo haba sido
been finished punctually to the very day! Tired terminado puntualmente en el da debido! Muy
out but proud, the animals walked round and cansados pero orgullosos, los animales daban
round their masterpiece, which appeared even vueltas y vueltas alrededor de su obra maestra,
more beautiful in their eyes than when it had que les pareci a su juicio an ms hermosa que
been built the first time. Moreover, the walls cuando fuera levantada por primera vez. Adems,
were twice as thick as before. Nothing short of el espesor de las paredes era el doble de lo que
explosives would lay them low this time! And haba sido antes. nicamente con explosivos
when they thought of how they had laboured, sera posible derrumbarlo esta vez! Y cuando
what discouragements they had overcome, and recordaban cmo trabajaron, el desaliento que
the enormous difference that would be made in haban superado y el cambio que producira en
their lives when the sails were turning and the sus vidas cuando las aspas estuvieran girando y
dynamos runningwhen they thought of all las dnamos funcionando, cuando pensaban en
this, their tiredness forsook them and they todo esto, el cansancio desapareca y brincaban
gambolled round and round the windmill, alrededor del molino, profiriendo gritos de
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 66

uttering cries of triumph. Napoleon himself, triunfo. Napolen mismo, acompaado por sus
attended by his dogs and his cockerel, came perros y su gallo, se acerc para inspeccionar el
down to inspect the completed work; he trabajo terminado; personalmente felicit a los
personally congratulated the animals on their animales por su proeza y anunci que el molino
achievement, and announced that the mill sera llamado Molino Napolen.
would be named Napoleon Mill.
Two days later the animals were called Dos das despus los animales fueron citados para
together for a special meeting in the barn. They una reunin especial en el granero. Quedaron
were struck dumb with surprise when estupefactos cuando Napolen les anunci que
Napoleon announced that he had sold the pile haba vendido la pila de madera a Frederick. Los
of timber to Frederick. Tomorrow Fredericks carros de Frederick comenzaran a llevrsela.
wagons would arrive and begin carting it away. Durante todo el perodo de su aparente amistad
Throughout the whole period of his seeming con Pilkington, Napolen en realidad haba
friendship with Pilkington, Napoleon had estado de acuerdo, en secreto, con Frederick.
really been in secret agreement with Frederick.
All relations with Foxwood had been broken Todas las relaciones con Foxwood fueron
off; insulting messages had been sent to cortadas; se haban enviado mensajes insultantes
Pilkington. The pigeons had been told to avoid a Pilkington. A las palomas se les comunic que
Pinchfield Farm and to alter their slogan from deban evitar Granja Pinchfield y que modificaran
Death to Frederick to Death to Pilkington. su lema de "Muerte a Frederick" por "Muerte a
At the same time Napoleon assured the Pilkington". Al mismo tiempo, Napolen asegur
animals that the stories of an impending attack a los animales que los rumores de un ataque
on Animal Farm were completely untrue, and inminente a Granja Animal eran completamente
that the tales about Fredericks cruelty to his falsos y que las noticias respecto a las crueldades
own animals had been greatly exaggerated. All de Frederick con sus animales haban sido
these rumours had probably originated with enormemente exageradas. Todos esos rumores
Snowball and his agents. It now appeared that probablemente haban sido originados por
Snowball was not, after all, hiding on Snowball y sus agentes. Ahora pareca que
Pinchfield Farm, and in fact had never been Snowball no estaba, despus de todo, escondido
there in his life: he was livingin considerable en la Granja Pinchfield y que, en realidad, nunca
luxury, so it was saidat Foxwood, and had in en su vida estuvo all; resida, con un lujo
reality been a pensioner of Pilkington for years extraordinario, segn decan, en Foxwood y, en
past. verdad, haba sido un protegido de Pilkington
durante muchos aos.
The pigs were in ecstasies over Napoleons Los cerdos estaban extasiados por la astucia de
cunning. By seeming to be friendly with Napolen. Mediante su aparente amistad con
Pilkington he had forced Frederick to raise his Pilkington forz a Frederick a aumentar su precio
price by twelve pounds. But the superior en doce libras. Pero la superioridad de la mente
quality of Napoleons mind, said Squealer, was de Napolen, dijo Squealer, se demostr por el
shown in the fact that he trusted nobody, not hecho de que no se fi de nadie, ni siquiera de
even Frederick. Frederick had wanted to pay Frederick. Este haba querido anticipar por la
for the timber with something called a cheque, madera algo que se llama cheque, el cual, al
which, it seemed, was a piece of paper with a parecer, era un pedazo de papel con la promesa
promise to pay written upon it. But Napoleon de pagar por lo escrito en el mismo. Pero
was too clever for him. He had demanded Napolen fue demasiado listo para l. Haba
payment in real five-pound notes, which were exigido el pago en papeles autnticos de cinco
to be handed over before the timber was libras, que deban abonarse antes de retirar la
removed. Already Frederick had paid up; and madera. Frederick ya los haba pagado y el
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 67

the sum he had paid was just enough to buy the importe que abonara alcanzaba justamente para
machinery for the windmill. comprar la maquinaria para el molino de viento.
Meanwhile the timber was being carted away Mientras tanto la madera era llevada con mucha
at high speed. When it was all gone, another prisa. Cuando ya haba sido totalmente retirada,
special meeting was held in the barn for the se efectu otra reunin especial en el granero para
animals to inspect Fredericks bank-notes. que los animales pudieran inspeccionar los
Smiling beatifically, and wearing both his billetes de banco de Frederick. Sonriendo
decorations, Napoleon reposed on a bed of beatficamente y luciendo sus dos
straw on the platform, with the money at his condecoraciones, Napolen reposaba en su lecho
side, neatly piled on a china dish from the de paja sobre la plataforma, con el dinero al lado
farmhouse kitchen. The animals filed slowly suyo, apilado con esmero sobre un plato de
past, and each gazed his fill. And Boxer put porcelana de la cocina de la casa. Los animales
out his nose to sniff at the bank-notes, and the desfilaron lentamente a su lado y lo contemplaron
flimsy white things stirred and rustled in his hasta el hartazgo. Boxer estir la nariz para oler
breath. los billetes y los delgados papeles se movieron y
crujieron ante su aliento.
Three days later there was a terrible Tres das despus se registr un terrible alboroto.
hullabaloo. Whymper, his face deadly pale, Whymper, extremadamente plido, lleg a toda
came racing up the path on his bicycle, flung it velocidad por el camino montado en su bicicleta,
down in the yard and rushed straight into the la tir al suelo en el patio y entr corriendo.
farmhouse. The next moment a choking roar of Enseguida se oy un sordo rugido de ira desde el
rage sounded from Napoleons apartments. aposento de Napolen. La noticia de lo ocurrido
The news of what had happened sped round se difundi por la granja como fuego. Los
the farm like wildfire. The banknotes were billetes de banco eran falsos! Frederick haba
forgeries! Frederick had got the timber for obtenido la madera gratis!
nothing!
Napoleon called the animals together Napolen reuni inmediatamente a todos los
immediately and in a terrible voice pronounced animales y con terrible voz pronunci la sentencia
the death sentence upon Frederick. When de muerte contra Frederick. Cuando fuera
captured, he said, Frederick should be boiled capturado, dijo, Frederick deba ser hervido vivo.
alive. At the same time he warned them that Al mismo tiempo les advirti que despus de ese
after this treacherous deed the worst was to be acto traicionero deba esperarse lo peor. Frederick
expected. Frederick and his men might make y su gente podran lanzar su tan largamente
their long-expected attack at any moment. esperado ataque en cualquier momento. Se
Sentinels were placed at all the approaches to apostaron centinelas en todas las vas de acceso a
the farm. In addition, four pigeons were sent to la granja. Adems, se enviaron cuatro palomas a
Foxwood with a conciliatory message, which it Foxwood con un mensaje conciliatorio, con el
was hoped might re-establish good relations que se esperaba poder restablecer las buenas
with Pilkington. relaciones con Pilkington.
The very next morning the attack came. The A la maana siguiente se produjo el ataque. Los
animals were at breakfast when the look-outs animales estaban tomando el desayuno cuando
came racing in with the news that Frederick los vigas entraron corriendo con el anuncio de
and his followers had already come through que Frederick y sus secuaces ya haban pasado el
the five-barred gate. Boldly enough the portn de acceso. Los animales salieron
animals sallied forth to meet them, but this audazmente para combatir, pero esta vez no
time they did not have the easy victory that alcanzaron la victoria fcil que obtuvieron en la
they had had in the Battle of the Cowshed. Batalla del Establo de las Vacas. Haba quince
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 68

There were fifteen men, with half a dozen guns hombres, con media docena de escopetas, y
between them, and they opened fire as soon as abrieron fuego tan pronto como llegaron a
they got within fifty yards. The animals could cincuenta metros de los animales. Estos no
not face the terrible explosions and the stinging pudieron hacer frente a las terribles explosiones y
pellets, and in spite of the efforts of Napoleon los punzantes perdigones y, a pesar de los
and Boxer to rally them, they were soon driven esfuerzos de Napolen y Boxer por reagruparlos,
back. A number of them were already pronto fueron rechazados. Unos cuantos de ellos
wounded. They took refuge in the farm estaban heridos. Se refugiaron en los edificios de
buildings and peeped cautiously out from la granja y espiaron cautelosamente por las
chinks and knot-holes. The whole of the big rendijas y los agujeros en los nudos de la madera.
pasture, including the windmill, was in the Toda la pradera grande, incluyendo el molino de
hands of the enemy. For the moment even viento, estaba en manos del enemigo. Por el
Napoleon seemed at a loss. He paced up and momento hasta Napolen estaba sin saber qu
down without a word, his tail rigid and hacer. Paseaba de ac para all sin decir palabra,
twitching. Wistful glances were sent in the con su cola rgida contrayndose nerviosamente.
direction of Foxwood. If Pilkington and his Se lanzaban miradas vidas en direccin a
men would help them, the day might yet be Foxwood. Si Pilkington y su gente los ayudaran,
won. But at this moment the four pigeons, who an podran salir bien. Pero en ese momento las
had been sent out on the day before, returned, cuatro palomas que haban sido enviadas el da
one of them bearing a scrap of paper from anterior volvieron, portadora una de ellas de un
Pilkington. On it was pencilled the words: trozo de papel de Pilkington. Sobre el mismo
Serves you right. figuraban escritas con lpiz las siguientes
palabras: "Se lo tienen merecido".
Meanwhile Frederick and his men had halted Mientras tanto, Frederick y sus hombres se
about the windmill. The animals watched detuvieron junto al molino. Los animales los
them, and a murmur of dismay went round. observaron, y un murmullo de angustia brot de
Two of the men had produced a crowbar and a sus labios. Dos de los hombres esgriman una
sledge hammer. They were going to knock the palanca de hierro y un martillo. Iban a echar
windmill down. abajo el molino de viento.
Impossible! cried Napoleon. We have built Imposible!, grit Napolen. Hemos construido
the walls far too thick for that. They could not las paredes demasiado gruesas para eso. No las
knock it down in a week. Courage, comrades! podrn echar abajo ni en una semana. Coraje,
camaradas!
But Benjamin was watching the movements of Pero Benjamn estaba observando con insistencia
the men intently. The two with the hammer los movimientos de los hombres. Los dos del
and the crowbar were drilling a hole near the martillo y la palanca de hierro estaban abriendo
base of the windmill. Slowly, and with an air un agujero cerca de la base del molino.
almost of amusement, Benjamin nodded his Lentamente, y con un aire casi divertido,
long muzzle. Benjamn agit su largo hocico.
I thought so, he said. Do you not see what Ya me pareca, dijo. No ven lo que estn
they are doing? In another moment they are haciendo? Enseguida van a poner plvora en ese
going to pack blasting powder into that hole. agujero.
Terrified, the animals waited. It was Los animales esperaban aterrorizados. Era
impossible now to venture out of the shelter of imposible aventurarse fuera del refugio de los
the buildings. After a few minutes the men edificios. Despus de varios minutos se vio a los
were seen to be running in all directions. Then hombres corriendo en todas direcciones. Luego se
there was a deafening roar. The pigeons oy un estruendo ensordecedor. Las palomas se
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 69

swirled into the air, and all the animals, except arremolinaron en el aire y todos los animales,
Napoleon, flung themselves flat on their bellies exceptuando a Napolen, se echaron a tierra y
and hid their faces. When they got up again, a escondieron sus caras. Cuando se incorporaron
huge cloud of black smoke was hanging where nuevamente, una enorme nube de humo negro
the windmill had been. Slowly the breeze flotaba en el lugar donde estuviera el molino de
drifted it away. The windmill had ceased to viento. Lentamente la brisa la alej. El molino
exist! haba dejado de existir!
At this sight the animals courage returned to Al ver esta escena, los animales recuperaron su
them. The fear and despair they had felt a coraje. El miedo y la desesperacin que sintieran
moment earlier were drowned in their rage momentos antes fueron ahogados por su ira
against this vile, contemptible act. A mighty contra tan vil y despreciable acto. Lanzaron una
cry for vengeance went up, and without potente gritera clamando venganza, y sin esperar
waiting for further orders they charged forth in otra orden atacaron en masa y se abalanzaron
a body and made straight for the enemy. This sobre el enemigo. Esta vez no prestaron atencin
time they did not heed the cruel pellets that a los crueles perdigones que pasaban sobre sus
swept over them like hail. It was a savage, cabezas como granizo. Fue una batalla enconada
bitter battle. The men fired again and again, y salvaje. Los hombres hicieron fuego una y otra
and, when the animals got to close quarters, vez, y cuando los animales llegaron a la lucha
lashed out with their sticks and their heavy cuerpo a cuerpo, los golpearon con sus palos y
boots. A cow, three sheep, and two geese were sus pesadas botas. Una vaca, tres ovejas y dos
killed, and nearly everyone was wounded. gansos murieron y casi todos estaban heridos.
Even Napoleon, who was directing operations Hasta Napolen, que diriga las operaciones
from the rear, had the tip of his tail chipped by desde la retaguardia, fue herido en la cola por un
a pellet. But the men did not go unscathed perdign. Pero los hombres tampoco salieron
either. Three of them had their heads broken ilesos. Tres de ellos tenan las cabezas rotas por
by blows from Boxers hoofs; another was patadas de Boxer; otro fue corneado en el
gored in the belly by a cows horn; another had estmago por una vaca; a uno casi le arrancan los
his trousers nearly torn off by Jessie and pantalones Jessie y Bluebell, y cuando los nueve
Bluebell. And when the nine dogs of perros guardaespaldas de Napolen, a quienes l
Napoleons own bodyguard, whom he had haba ordenado que hicieran un rodeo por detrs
instructed to make a detour under cover of the del cerco, aparecieron repentinamente por el
hedge, suddenly appeared on the mens flank, flanco de los hombres, ladrando ferozmente, el
baying ferociously, panic overtook them. They pnico se apoder de stos. Vieron que corran
saw that they were in danger of being peligro de ser rodeados. Frederick grit a sus
surrounded. Frederick shouted to his men to hombres que escaparan mientras an podan, y
get out while the going was good, and the next enseguida el enemigo cobarde huy a toda
moment the cowardly enemy was running for velocidad. Los animales los persiguieron hasta el
dear life. The animals chased them right down fondo del campo y lograron darles las ltimas
to the bottom of the field, and got in some last patadas cuando cruzaban el cerco de pas.
kicks at them as they forced their way through
the thorn hedge.
They had won, but they were weary and Haban vencido, pero estaban fatigados y
bleeding. Slowly they began to limp back sangraban. Lentamente y renqueando volvieron
towards the farm. The sight of their dead hacia la granja. El espectculo de los camaradas
comrades stretched upon the grass moved muertos que yacan sobre el pasto, hizo llorar a
some of them to tears. And for a little while algunos. Y durante un rato se detuvieron
they halted in sorrowful silence at the place desconsolados y en silencio en el lugar donde
where the windmill had once stood. Yes, it was antes estuviera el molino. S, ya no estaba; casi
gone; almost the last trace of their labour was hasta el ltimo rastro de su labor haba
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 70

gone! Even the foundations were partially desaparecido! Incluso los cimientos estaban
destroyed. And in rebuilding it they could not parcialmente destruidos. Y para reconstruirlo no
this time, as before, make use of the fallen podran esta vez, como antes, utilizar las piedras
stones. This time the stones had vanished too. cadas. Hasta ellas desaparecieron. La fuerza de la
The force of the explosion had flung them to explosin las arroj a cientos de yardas de
distances of hundreds of yards. It was as distancia. Era como si el molino nunca hubiera
though the windmill had never been. existido.
As they approached the farm Squealer, who Cuando se aproximaron a la granja, Squealer, que
had unaccountably been absent during the inexplicablemente estuvo ausente durante la
fighting, came skipping towards them, lucha, vino saltando hacia ellos, meneando la cola
whisking his tail and beaming with y rebosando de alegra. Y los animales oyeron,
satisfaction. And the animals heard, from the desde la direccin de los edificios de la granja, el
direction of the farm buildings, the solemn solemne estampido de una escopeta.
booming of a gun.
What is that gun firing for? said Boxer. A qu se debe ese disparo? pregunt Boxer.
To celebrate our victory! cried Squealer. Es para celebrar nuestra victoria! grit
Squealer.
What victory? said Boxer. His knees were Qu victoria?, exclam Boxer. Sus rodillas
bleeding, he had lost a shoe and split his hoof, estaban sangrando, haba perdido una herradura,
and a dozen pellets had lodged themselves in tena rajado el casco y una docena de perdigones
his hind leg. incrustados en una pata trasera.
What victory, comrade? Have we not driven Qu victoria, camarada? No hemos arrojado
the enemy off our soilthe sacred soil of al enemigo de nuestro suelo, el suelo sagrado de
Animal Farm? Granja Animal?
But they have destroyed the windmill. And we Pero han destruido el molino. Y nosotros
had worked on it for two years! hemos trabajado durante dos aos para
construirlo!
What matter? We will build another windmill. Qu importa? Construiremos otro molino.
We will build six windmills if we feel like it. Construiremos seis molinos si queremos. No
You do not appreciate, comrade, the mighty apreciis, camarada, la importancia de lo que
thing that we have done. The enemy was in hemos hecho. El enemigo estaba ocupando este
occupation of this very ground that we stand suelo que pisamos. Y ahora, gracias a la
upon. And nowthanks to the leadership of direccin del camarada Napolen, hemos
Comrade Napoleonwe have won every inch reconquistado cada pulgada del mismo!
of it back again!
Then we have won back what we had before, Entonces, hemos recuperado nuevamente lo
said Boxer. que tenamos antes? pregunt Boxer.
That is our victory, said Squealer. Esa es nuestra victoria, agreg Squealer.
They limped into the yard. The pellets under Entraron renqueando al patio. Los perdigones
the skin of Boxers leg smarted painfully. He bajo la piel de la pata de Boxer le ardan
saw ahead of him the heavy labour of dolorosamente. Vea ante s la pesada labor de
rebuilding the windmill from the foundations, reconstruir el molino desde los cimientos y, en su
and already in imagination he braced himself imaginacin, se preparaba para la tarea. Pero por
for the task. But for the first time it occurred to primera vez se le ocurri que l tena once aos
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 71

him that he was eleven years old and that de edad y que tal vez sus poderosos msculos ya
perhaps his great muscles were not quite what no fueran lo que haban sido antes.
they had once been.
But when the animals saw the green flag Pero cuando los animales vieron flamear la
flying, and heard the gun firing againseven bandera verde, sintieron disparar nuevamente la
times it was fired in alland heard the speech escopeta, siete veces fue disparada en total, y
that Napoleon made, congratulating them on escucharon el discurso que pronunci Napolen,
their conduct, it did seem to them after all that felicitndolos por su conducta, les pareci que,
they had won a great victory. The animals slain despus de todo, haban logrado una gran
in the battle were given a solemn funeral. victoria. Los muertos en la batalla recibieron un
Boxer and Clover pulled the wagon which entierro solemne. Boxer y Clover tiraron del carro
served as a hearse, and Napoleon himself que sirvi de coche fnebre y Napolen mismo
walked at the head of the procession. Two encabez la comitiva. Durante dos das enteros se
whole days were given over to celebrations. efectuaron festejos. Hubo canciones, discursos y
There were songs, speeches, and more firing of ms disparos de escopeta y se hizo un obsequio
the gun, and a special gift of an apple was especial de una manzana para cada animal, con
bestowed on every animal, with two ounces of dos onzas de maz para cada ave y tres bizcochos
corn for each bird and three biscuits for each para cada perro. Se anunci que la Batalla sera
dog. It was announced that the battle would be llamada del Molino y que Napolen haba creado
called the Battle of the Windmill, and that una nueva condecoracin, la Orden del
Napoleon had created a new decoration, the Estandarte Verde, que l se otorg a s mismo. En
Order of the Green Banner, which he had el regocijo general se olvid el infortunado
conferred upon himself. In the general incidente de los billetes de banco.
rejoicings the unfortunate affair of the
banknotes was forgotten.
It was a few days later than this that the pigs Unos das despus los cerdos hallaron un cajn de
came upon a case of whisky in the cellars of whisky en el stano de la casa. Haba sido pasado
the farmhouse. It had been overlooked at the por alto en el momento de ocupar el edificio. Esa
time when the house was first occupied. That noche se oyeron desde la casa canciones en voz
night there came from the farmhouse the sound alta, donde, para sorpresa de todos, se
of loud singing, in which, to everyones entremezclaban los acordes de Bestias de
surprise, the strains of Beasts of England Inglaterra. A eso de las nueve y media se vio a
were mixed up. At about half past nine Napolen, luciendo una vieja galera del seor
Napoleon, wearing an old bowler hat of Mr. Jones, salir por la puerta trasera, galopar
Joness, was distinctly seen to emerge from the alrededor del patio y desaparecer adentro
back door, gallop rapidly round the yard, and nuevamente. Pero, por la maana, reinaba un
disappear indoors again. But in the morning a silencio profundo en la casa. Ni un cerdo se
deep silence hung over the farmhouse. Not a mova. Eran casi las nueve cuando Squealer hizo
pig appeared to be stirring. It was nearly nine su aparicin, caminando lenta y displicentemente;
oclock when Squealer made his appearance, sus ojos estaban opacos, la cola le colgaba
walking slowly and dejectedly, his eyes dull, dbilmente y tena el aspecto de estar seriamente
his tail hanging limply behind him, and with enfermo. Reuni a los animales y les dijo que
every appearance of being seriously ill. He tena que comunicarles malas noticias. El
called the animals together and told them that camarada Napolen se estaba muriendo!
he had a terrible piece of news to impart.
Comrade Napoleon was dying!
A cry of lamentation went up. Straw was laid Las muestras de dolor se elevaron en un solo grito
down outside the doors of the farmhouse, and unnime. Se coloc paja en todas las entradas de
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 72

the animals walked on tiptoe. With tears in la casa y los animales caminaban de puntillas.
their eyes they asked one another what they Con lgrimas en los ojos se preguntaban unos a
should do if their Leader were taken away otros qu haran si perdieran a su lder. Se
from them. A rumour went round that difundi el rumor de que Snowball, a pesar de
Snowball had after all contrived to introduce todo, haba logrado introducir veneno en la
poison into Napoleons food. At eleven comida de Napolen. A las once sali Squealer
oclock Squealer came out to make another para comunicar otro anuncio. Como ltimo acto
announcement. As his last act upon earth, sobre la Tierra, el camarada Napolen emita un
Comrade Napoleon had pronounced a solemn solemne decreto: el hecho de beber alcohol sera
decree: the drinking of alcohol was to be castigado con la muerte.
punished by death.
By the evening, however, Napoleon appeared Al anochecer, sin embargo, Napolen pareca
to be somewhat better, and the following estar mejor, a la maana siguiente Squealer pudo
morning Squealer was able to tell them that he decirles que se hallaba en vas de franco
was well on the way to recovery. By the restablecimiento. Esa misma noche Napolen
evening of that day Napoleon was back at estaba en pie y al otro da se supo que haba
work, and on the next day it was learned that ordenado a Whymper que comprara en
he had instructed Whymper to purchase in Willingdon algunos folletos sobre la elaboracin
Willingdon some booklets on brewing and y destilacin de bebidas. Una semana despus
distilling. A week later Napoleon gave orders Napolen orden que el campo detrs de la
that the small paddock beyond the orchard, huerta, destinado como lugar de pastoreo para
which it had previously been intended to set animales, retirados del trabajo, fuera arado. Se
aside as a grazing-ground for animals who dijo que el campo estaba agotado y era necesario
were past work, was to be ploughed up. It was cultivarlo de nuevo, pero pronto se supo que
given out that the pasture was exhausted and Napolen tena intencin de sembrarlo con
needed re-seeding; but it soon became known cebada.
that Napoleon intended to sow it with barley.
About this time there occurred a strange Ms o menos por esa poca ocurri un incidente
incident which hardly anyone was able to raro que casi nadie entendi. Una noche, a eso de
understand. One night at about twelve oclock las doce, se oy un fuerte estrpito en el patio, y
there was a loud crash in the yard, and the los animales salieron corriendo de sus corrales.
animals rushed out of their stalls. It was a Era una clara noche de luna. Al pie de la pared
moonlit night. At the foot of the end wall of del granero principal, donde figuraban inscritos
the big barn, where the Seven Commandments los Siete Mandamientos, se encontraba una
were written, there lay a ladder broken in two escalera rota en dos pedazos. Squealer,
pieces. Squealer, temporarily stunned, was momentneamente aturdido, estaba tendido al
sprawling beside it, and near at hand there lay lado, y muy a mano haba una linterna, un pincel
a lantern, a paint-brush, and an overturned pot y un tarro volcado de pintura blanca. Los perros
of white paint. The dogs immediately made a inmediatamente formaron un crculo alrededor de
ring round Squealer, and escorted him back to Squealer, y lo escoltaron de vuelta a la casa en
the farmhouse as soon as he was able to walk. cuanto pudo caminar. Ninguno de los animales
None of the animals could form any idea as to lograba entender lo que significaba eso, excepto
what this meant, except old Benjamin, who el viejo Benjamn, que mova el hocico con aire
nodded his muzzle with a knowing air, and de entendimiento aparentando comprender, pero
seemed to understand, but would say nothing. sin decir nada.
But a few days later Muriel, reading over the Pero unos cuantos das despus Muriel, que
Seven Commandments to herself, noticed that estaba leyendo los Siete Mandamientos, not que
there was yet another of them which the haba otro de ellos que los animales recordaban
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 73

animals had remembered wrong. They had en mala forma. Ellos crean que el Quinto
thought the Fifth Commandment was No Mandamiento deca: Ningn animal beber
animal shall drink alcohol, but there were two alcohol, pero pasaron por alto dos palabras.
words that they had forgotten. Actually the Ahora el Mandamiento expresaba: Ningn animal
Commandment read: No animal shall drink beber alcohol "en exceso".
alcohol to excess.
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 74

CHAPTER 9 CAPTULO IX

BOXERS split hoof was a long time in healing. El casco malherido de Boxer tard mucho en
They had started the rebuilding of the windmill sanar. Haban comenzado la reconstruccin del
the day after the victory celebrations were ended molino al da siguiente de terminarse los
Boxer refused to take even a day off work, and festejos de la victoria. Boxer se neg a tomar ni
made it a point of honour not to let it be seen that siquiera un da franco, e hizo cuestin de honor
he was in pain. In the evenings he would admit el no dejar ver que estaba dolorido. Por las
privately to Clover that the hoof troubled him a noches le admita reservadamente a Clover que
great deal. Clover treated the hoof with poultices el casco le molestaba mucho. Clover lo curaba
of herbs which she prepared by chewing them, con emplastos de hierbas, que preparaba
and both she and Benjamin urged Boxer to work mascndolas, y tanto ella como Benjamn,
less hard. A horses lungs do not last for ever, pedan a Boxer que trabajara menos. "Los
she said to him. But Boxer would not listen. He pulmones de un caballo no son eternos", le
had, he said, only one real ambition leftto see deca ella. Pero Boxer no le haca caso. Slo le
the windmill well under way before he reached quedaba an, dijo l, una verdadera ambicin:
the age for retirement. ver el molino bien adelantado antes de llegar a
la edad de retirarse.
At the beginning, when the laws of Animal Farm Al principio, cuando se formularon las leyes de
were first formulated, the retiring age had been Granja Animal, se fijaron las siguientes edades
fixed for horses and pigs at twelve, for cows at para jubilarse: caballos y cerdos a los doce
fourteen, for dogs at nine, for sheep at seven, and aos, vacas a los catorce, perros a los nueve,
for hens and geese at five. Liberal old-age ovejas a los siete y las gallinas y los gansos a
pensions had been agreed upon. As yet no los cinco. Se establecieron pensiones liberales
animal had actually retired on pension, but of para la vejez. Hasta entonces ningn animal se
late the subject had been discussed more and haba retirado, pero ltimamente la discusin
more. Now that the small field beyond the del asunto fue en aumento. Ahora que el campo
orchard had been set aside for barley, it was detrs de la huerta qued destinado para la
rumoured that a corner of the large pasture was cebada, circulaba el rumor de que alambraran
to be fenced off and turned into a grazing-ground un rincn de la pradera larga convirtindolo en
for superannuated animals. For a horse, it was campo de pastoreo para animales jubilados.
said, the pension would be five pounds of corn a Para caballos, se deca, la pensin sera de cinco
day and, in winter, fifteen pounds of hay, with a libras de maz por da y, en invierno, quince
carrot or possibly an apple on public holidays. libras de heno, con una zanahoria o
Boxers twelfth birthday was due in the late posiblemente una manzana los das de fiesta.
summer of the following year. Boxer iba a cumplir los doce aos a fines del
verano del ao siguiente.
Meanwhile life was hard. The winter was as cold Mientras tanto, la vida segua dura. El invierno
as the last one had been, and food was even fue tan fro como el anterior, y la comida an
shorter. Once again all rations were reduced, ms escasa. Nuevamente fueron reducidas todas
except those of the pigs and the dogs. A too rigid las raciones, exceptuando las de los cerdos y las
equality in rations, Squealer explained, would de los perros. "Una igualdad demasiado rgida
have been contrary to the principles of en las raciones explic Squealer, sera contraria
Animalism. In any case he had no difficulty in a los principios del Animalismo". De cualquier
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 75

proving to the other animals that they were not in manera, no tuvo dificultad en demostrar a los
reality short of food, whatever the appearances dems que, en realidad, no estaban faltos de
might be. For the time being, certainly, it had comida, cualesquiera fueran las apariencias.
been found necessary to make a readjustment of Ciertamente, fue necesario hacer un reajuste de
rations (Squealer always spoke of it as a las raciones (Squealer siempre hablaba de un
readjustment, never as a reduction), but in "reajuste", nunca de una "reduccin"), pero
comparison with the days of Jones, the comparado con los tiempos de Jones, la mejora
improvement was enormous. Reading out the era enorme. Leyndoles las cifras con voz
figures in a shrill, rapid voice, he proved to them chillona y rpida, les demostr detalladamente
in detail that they had more oats, more hay, more que contaban con ms avena, ms heno, ms
turnips than they had had in Joness day, that nabo del que tenan en el tiempo de Jones, que
they worked shorter hours, that their drinking trabajaban menos horas, que el agua que beban
water was of better quality, that they lived era de mejor calidad, que vivan ms aos que
longer, that a larger proportion of their young una mayor proporcin de criaturas sobreviva la
ones survived infancy, and that they had more infancia y que tenan ms paja en sus corrales y
straw in their stalls and suffered less from fleas. menos pulgas. Los animales creyeron todo lo
The animals believed every word of it. Truth to que dijo. En verdad, Jones y lo que l
tell, Jones and all he stood for had almost faded representaba casi se haban borrado de sus
out of their memories. They knew that life memorias. Ellos saban que la vida era dura y
nowadays was harsh and bare, that they were spera, que muchas veces tenan hambre y fro,
often hungry and often cold, and that they were y generalmente estaban trabajando cuando no
usually working when they were not asleep. But dorman. Pero, sin duda, fue peor en los viejos
doubtless it had been worse in the old days. They tiempos. Sentanse contentos de creerlo as.
were glad to believe so. Besides, in those days Adems, en aquellos das fueron esclavos y
they had been slaves and now they were free, ahora eran libres, y eso representaba mucha
and that made all the difference, as Squealer did diferencia, como Squealer no dejaba de
not fail to point out. sealarles.
There were many more mouths to feed now. In Haba muchas bocas ms que alimentar. En el
the autumn the four sows had all littered about otoo las cuatro cerdas tuvieron cras
simultaneously, producing thirty-one young pigs simultneamente amamantando entre todas
between them. The young pigs were piebald, and treinta y una cochinillas. Los jvenes cerdos
as Napoleon was the only boar on the farm, it eran manchados, y como Napolen era el nico
was possible to guess at their parentage. It was verraco en la granja, fue posible adivinar su
announced that later, when bricks and timber had origen paterno. Se anunci que ms adelante,
been purchased, a schoolroom would be built in cuando se compraran ladrillos y maderas, se
the farmhouse garden. For the time being, the construira una escuela en el jardn. Mientras
young pigs were given their instruction by tanto, los lechones fueron educados por
Napoleon himself in the farmhouse kitchen. Napolen mismo en la cocina de la casa.
They took their exercise in the garden, and were Hacan su gimnasia en el jardn, y se les
discouraged from playing with the other young disuada de jugar con los otros animales
animals. About this time, too, it was laid down jvenes. En esa poca, se implant tambin la
as a rule that when a pig and any other animal regla que cuando un cerdo o cualquier otro
met on the path, the other animal must stand animal se encontraban en el camino, el segundo
aside: and also that all pigs, of whatever degree, deba hacerse a un lado; y asimismo que los
were to have the privilege of wearing green cerdos de cualquier categora, iban a tener el
ribbons on their tails on Sundays. privilegio de usar cintas en la cola los
domingos.
The farm had had a fairly successful year, but La granja tuvo un ao bastante prspero, pero
was still short of money. There were the bricks, aun andaban escasos de dinero. Faltaba adquirir
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 76

sand, and lime for the schoolroom to be los ladrillos, arena y cemento para la escuela e
purchased, and it would also be necessary to iba a ser necesario ahorrar nuevamente para la
begin saving up again for the machinery for the maquinaria del molino. Se requera, adems,
windmill. Then there were lamp oil and candles petrleo para las lmparas, velas para la casa,
for the house, sugar for Napoleons own table azcar para la mesa de Napolen (prohibi esto
(he forbade this to the other pigs, on the ground a los otros cerdos, basndose en que los haca
that it made them fat), and all the usual engordar) y todos los repuestos corrientes,
replacements such as tools, nails, string, coal, como herramientas, clavos, hilos, carbn,
wire, scrap-iron, and dog biscuits. A stump of alambre, hierro viejo y bizcocho para los
hay and part of the potato crop were sold off, and perros. Una parva de heno y una parte de la
the contract for eggs was increased to six cosecha de papas fueron vendidas y el contrato
hundred a week, so that that year the hens barely de huevos se aument a seiscientos por semana,
hatched enough chicks to keep their numbers at de manera que ese ao las gallinas apenas
the same level. Rations, reduced in December, empollaron suficientes pollitos para mantener
were reduced again in February, and lanterns in las cifras al mismo nivel. Las raciones,
the stalls were forbidden to save Oil. But the rebajadas en diciembre, fueron disminuidas
pigs seemed comfortable enough, and in fact nuevamente en febrero, y se prohibieron las
were putting on weight if anything. One linternas en los corrales para economizar
afternoon in late February a warm, rich, petrleo. Pero los cerdos parecan estar bastante
appetising scent, such as the animals had never cmodos en realidad, aumentaban de peso. Una
smelt before, wafted itself across the yard from tarde, a fines de febrero, un tibio, rico y
the little brew-house, which had been disused in apetitoso aroma, como jams haban percibido
Joness time, and which stood beyond the los animales, lleg al patio, transportado por la
kitchen. Someone said it was the smell of brisa, desde la casita donde se elaboraba
cooking barley. The animals sniffed the air cerveza, en desuso en los tiempos de Jones, y
hungrily and wondered whether a warm mash que se encontraba ms all de la cocina.
was being prepared for their supper. But no Alguien dijo que era el olor de la cebada
warm mash appeared, and on the following hirviendo. Los animales husmearon
Sunday it was announced that from now onwards hambrientos el aire y se preguntaban si se les
all barley would be reserved for the pigs. The estaba preparando una masa caliente para la
field beyond the orchard had already been sown cena. Pero no apareci ninguna masa caliente, y
with barley. And the news soon leaked out that el domingo siguiente se anunci que desde ese
every pig was now receiving a ration of a pint of momento toda la cebada sera reservada para
beer daily, with half a gallon for Napoleon los cerdos. El campo detrs de la huerta ya
himself, which was always served to him in the haba sido sembrado con cebada. Y pronto se
Crown Derby soup tureen. supo que todos los cerdos reciban una racin
de una pinta de cerveza por da, y medio galn
para el mismo Napolen, que siempre se la
serva en la sopera del juego guardado en la
vitrina de cristal.
But if there were hardships to be borne, they Pero si bien no faltaban penurias que aguantar,
were partly offset by the fact that life nowadays en parte estaban compensadas por el hecho de
had a greater dignity than it had had before. que la vida tena mayor dignidad que antes.
There were more songs, more speeches, more Haba ms canciones, ms discursos, ms
processions. Napoleon had commanded that procesiones. Napolen orden que vez por
once a week there should be held something semana se hiciera algo denominado
called a Spontaneous Demonstration, the object Demostracin Espontnea, cuyo objeto era
of which was to celebrate the struggles and celebrar las luchas y triunfos de Granja Animal.
triumphs of Animal Farm. At the appointed time A la hora indicada los animales abandonaban
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 77

the animals would leave their work and march sus tareas y marchaban por los lmites de la
round the precincts of the farm in military granja en formacin militar, con los cerdos a la
formation, with the pigs leading, then the horses, cabeza, luego los caballos, las vacas, las ovejas
then the cows, then the sheep, and then the y despus las aves. Los perros iban a los flancos
poultry. The dogs flanked the procession and at y a la cabeza de todos marchaba el gallo negro
the head of all marched Napoleons black de Napolen. Boxer y Clover llevaban siempre
cockerel. Boxer and Clover always carried una bandera verde marcada con el asta y la
between them a green banner marked with the pezua y el encabezamiento: "Viva el
hoof and the horn and the caption, Long live Camarada Napolen!" Luego venan recitales
Comrade Napoleon! Afterwards there were de poemas compuestos en honor de Napolen y
recitations of poems composed in Napoleons un discurso de Squealer dando los detalles de
honour, and a speech by Squealer giving los ltimos aumentos en la produccin de
particulars of the latest increases in the alimentos, y en algunas ocasiones se disparaba
production of foodstuffs, and on occasion a shot un tiro de escopeta. Las ovejas eran las ms
was fired from the gun. The sheep were the aficionadas a las Demostraciones Espontneas,
greatest devotees of the Spontaneous y si alguien, se quejaba (como lo hacan a veces
Demonstration, and if anyone complained (as a algunos animales, cuando no haba cerca cerdos
few animals sometimes did, when no pigs or ni perros) alegando que se pierde el tiempo y se
dogs were near) that they wasted time and meant aguanta un largo plantn en el fro, las ovejas lo
a lot of standing about in the cold, the sheep silenciaban infaliblemente con un tremendo:
were sure to silence him with a tremendous "Cuatro patas s, dos pies no!" Pero, a la larga,
bleating of Four legs good, two legs bad! But a los animales les gustaban esas celebraciones.
by and large the animals enjoyed these Resultaba satisfactorio el recuerdo de que,
celebrations. They found it comforting to be despus de todo, ellos eran realmente sus
reminded that, after all, they were truly their own propios amos y que todo el trabajo que
masters and that the work they did was for their efectuaban era en beneficio propio. Y as, con
own benefit. So that, what with the songs, the las canciones, las procesiones, las listas de
processions, Squealers lists of figures, the cifras de Squealer, el tronar de la escopeta, el
thunder of the gun, the crowing of the cockerel, cacareo del gallo y el flamear de la bandera,
and the fluttering of the flag, they were able to podan olvidar que sus barrigas estaban vacas,
forget that their bellies were empty, at least part al menos por algn tiempo.
of the time.
In April, Animal Farm was proclaimed a En abril, Granja Animal fue proclamada
Republic, and it became necessary to elect a Repblica, y se hizo necesario elegir un
President. There was only one candidate, Presidente. Haba un solo candidato: Napolen,
Napoleon, who was elected unanimously. On the que result elegido por unanimidad. El mismo
same day it was given out that fresh documents da se revel que se haban descubierto nuevos
had been discovered which revealed further documentos dando ms detalles referentes a la
details about Snowballs complicity with Jones. complicidad de Snowball con Jones. Pareca
It now appeared that Snowball had not, as the que Snowball no slo trat de hacer perder la
animals had previously imagined, merely Batalla del Establo de las Vacas mediante una
attempted to lose the Battle of the Cowshed by estratagema, como suponan antes los animales,
means of a stratagem, but had been openly sino que estuvo peleando abiertamente a favor
fighting on Joness side. In fact, it was he who de Jones. En realidad, fue l quien dirigi las
had actually been the leader of the human forces, fuerzas humanas y arremeti en la batalla con
and had charged into battle with the words Long las palabras "Viva la Humanidad!" Las heridas
live Humanity! on his lips. The wounds on sobre el lomo de Snowball, que varios animales
Snowballs back, which a few of the animals still an recordaban haber visto, fueron infligidas
remembered to have seen, had been inflicted by por los dientes de Napolen.
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 78

Napoleons teeth.
In the middle of the summer Moses the raven A mediados del verano, Moses, el cuervo,
suddenly reappeared on the farm, after an reapareci repentinamente en la granja, tras una
absence of several years. He was quite ausencia de varios aos. No haba cambiado
unchanged, still did no work, and talked in the nada, continuaba sin hacer trabajo alguno y se
same strain as ever about Sugarcandy Mountain. expresaba igual que siempre respecto al Monte
He would perch on a stump, flap his black Caramelo. Sola pararse sobre un poste, bata
wings, and talk by the hour to anyone who sus negras alas y hablaba durante horas a
would listen. Up there, comrades, he would say cualquiera que quisiera escucharlo. "All arriba,
solemnly, pointing to the sky with his large camaradas, deca sealando solemnemente el
beakup there, just on the other side of that cielo con su pico largo, all arriba, justo detrs
dark cloud that you can seethere it lies, de esa nube oscura que ustedes pueden ver, all
Sugarcandy Mountain, that happy country where est situado Monte Caramelo, esa tierra feliz,
we poor animals shall rest for ever from our donde nosotros, pobres animales descansaremos
labours! He even claimed to have been there on para siempre de nuestras labores". Hasta
one of his higher flights, and to have seen the sostena que estuvo all en uno de sus vuelos a
everlasting fields of clover and the linseed cake gran altura y haba visto los campos
and lump sugar growing on the hedges. Many of sempiternos de trbol y las tortas de semilla de
the animals believed him. Their lives now, they lino y los terrones de azcar creciendo en los
reasoned, were hungry and laborious; was it not cercos. Muchos de los animales le crean.
right and just that a better world should exist Actualmente, razonaban ellos, sus vidas no eran
somewhere else? A thing that was difficult to ms que hambre y trabajo; no resultaba,
determine was the attitude of the pigs towards entonces, correcto y justo que existiera un
Moses. They all declared contemptuously that mundo mejor en alguna parte? Una cosa difcil
his stories about Sugarcandy Mountain were lies, de determinar era la actitud de los cerdos hacia
and yet they allowed him to remain on the farm, Moses. Todos ellos declaraban
not working, with an allowance of a gill of beer a desdeosamente, que sus cuentos respecto a
day. Monte Caramelo eran mentiras y, sin embargo,
le permitan permanecer en la granja, sin
trabajar, con una pequea racin de cerveza por
da.
After his hoof had healed up, Boxer worked Despus de habrsele curado el casco, Boxer
harder than ever. Indeed, all the animals worked trabaj ms fuerte que nunca. En verdad, todos
like slaves that year. Apart from the regular work los animales trabajaron como esclavos ese ao.
of the farm, and the rebuilding of the windmill, Aparte de las faenas corrientes de la granja y la
there was the schoolhouse for the young pigs, reconstruccin del molino, estaba la escuela
which was started in March. Sometimes the long para los cerditos, que se comenz en marzo. A
hours on insufficient food were hard to bear, but veces las largas horas de trabajo con
Boxer never faltered. In nothing that he said or insuficiente comida eran difciles de aguantar,
did was there any sign that his strength was not pero Boxer nunca vacil. En nada de lo que l
what it had been. It was only his appearance that deca o haca se exteriorizaba seal alguna de
was a little altered; his hide was less shiny than it que su fuerza ya no fuese la de antes.
had used to be, and his great haunches seemed to nicamente su aspecto estaba un poco
have shrunken. The others said, Boxer will pick cambiado; su pelaje era menos brillante y sus
up when the spring grass comes on; but the ancas parecan haberse contrado. Los dems
spring came and Boxer grew no fatter. decan que Boxer se restablecera cuando
Sometimes on the slope leading to the top of the apareciera el pasto de primavera; pero lleg la
quarry, when he braced his muscles against the primavera y Boxer no engord. A veces, en la
weight of some vast boulder, it seemed that ladera que lleva hacia la cima de la cantera,
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 79

nothing kept him on his feet except the will to cuando esforzaba sus msculos contra el peso
continue. At such times his lips were seen to de alguna piedra enorme, pareca que nada lo
form the words, I will work harder; he had no mantena en pie, excepto su voluntad de
voice left. Once again Clover and Benjamin continuar. En dichas ocasiones se vea que sus
warned him to take care of his health, but Boxer labios formulaban las palabras "Trabajar ms
paid no attention. His twelfth birthday was fuerte"; voz no le quedaba. Nuevamente Clover
approaching. He did not care what happened so y Benjamn le advirtieron que cuidara su salud,
long as a good store of stone was accumulated pero Boxer no prest atencin. Su duodcimo
before he went on pension. cumpleaos se aproximaba. No le importaba lo
que iba a suceder con tal que se hubiera
acumulado una buena cantidad de piedra antes
de que l jubilara.
Late one evening in the summer, a sudden Un da de verano, al anochecer, se difundi
rumour ran round the farm that something had rpidamente por la granja el rumor de que algo
happened to Boxer. He had gone out alone to le haba sucedido a Boxer. Se haba ido solo a
drag a load of stone down to the windmill. And arrastrar un montn de piedras hasta el molino.
sure enough, the rumour was true. A few Y, en efecto, el rumor era verdad. Unos minutos
minutes later two pigeons came racing in with despus dos palomas llegaron a todo vuelo con
the news: Boxer has fallen! He is lying on his la noticia: "Boxer ha cado! Est tendido de
side and cant get up! costado y no se puede levantar!"
About half the animals on the farm rushed out to Aproximadamente la mitad de los animales de
the knoll where the windmill stood. There lay la granja salieron corriendo hacia la loma donde
Boxer, between the shafts of the cart, his neck estaba el molino. All yaca Boxer, entre las
stretched out, unable even to raise his head. His varas del carro, el pescuezo estirado, sin poder
eyes were glazed, his sides matted with sweat. A levantar la cabeza. Tena los ojos vidriosos y
thin stream of blood had trickled out of his sus costados estaban cubiertos de sudor. Un
mouth. Clover dropped to her knees at his side. hilillo de sangre le sala por la boca. Clover
cay de rodillas a su lado.
Boxer! she cried, how are you? Boxer! grit, cmo te sientes?
It is my lung, said Boxer in a weak voice. It Es mi Pulmn dijo Boxer, con voz dbil. No
does not matter. I think you will be able to finish importa. Yo creo que podrn terminar el molino
the windmill without me. There is a pretty good sin m. Hay una buena cantidad de piedra
store of stone accumulated. I had only another acumulada. De cualquier manera, slo me
month to go in any case. To tell you the truth, I quedaba un mes ms. A decir verdad, estaba
had been looking forward to my retirement. And esperando la jubilacin. Y como tambin
perhaps, as Benjamin is growing old too, they Benjamn se est poniendo viejo, tal vez le
will let him retire at the same time and be a permitan retirarse al mismo tiempo, y as
companion to me. seremos compaeros.
We must get help at once, said Clover. Run, Debemos obtener ayuda inmediatamente,
somebody, and tell Squealer what has reclam Clover. Corra alguien a comunicarle a
happened. Squealer lo que ha sucedido.
All the other animals immediately raced back to Todos los animales corrieron inmediatamente
the farmhouse to give Squealer the news. Only hacia la casa para darle la noticia a Squealer.
Clover remained, and Benjamin, who lay down Solamente Clover se qued, y Benjamn, que se
at Boxers side, and, without speaking, kept the acost al lado de Boxer y, sin decir palabra,
flies off him with his long tail. After about a espantaba las moscas con su larga cola. Al
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 80

quarter of an hour Squealer appeared, full of cuarto de hora apareci Squealer, demostrando
sympathy and concern. He said that Comrade alarma y sumo inters. Dijo que el camarada
Napoleon had learned with the very deepest Napolen, enterado con la mayor afliccin de
distress of this misfortune to one of the most esta desgracia que haba sufrido uno de los ms
loyal workers on the farm, and was already leales trabajadores de la granja, estaba
making arrangements to send Boxer to be treated realizando gestiones para enviar a Boxer a un
in the hospital at Willingdon. The animals felt a hospital de Willingdon para su tratamiento. Los
little uneasy at this. Except for Mollie and animales se sintieron un poco intranquilos al or
Snowball, no other animal had ever left the farm, esto. Exceptuando a Mollie y Snowball, ningn
and they did not like to think of their sick otro animal haba salido jams de la granja, y
comrade in the hands of human beings. no les agradaba la idea de dejar a su camarada
However, Squealer easily convinced them that enfermo en manos de seres humanos. Sin
the veterinary surgeon in Willingdon could treat embargo, Squealer los convenci fcilmente de
Boxers case more satisfactorily than could be que el veterinario en Willingdon poda tratar el
done on the farm. And about half an hour later, caso de Boxer ms satisfactoriamente que en la
when Boxer had somewhat recovered, he was Granja. Y media hora despus, cuando Boxer se
with difficulty got on to his feet, and managed to repuso un poco, lo levantaron con cierta
limp back to his stall, where Clover and dificultad, y as logr volver, renqueando, hasta
Benjamin had prepared a good bed of straw for su pesebrera, donde Clover y Benjamn le
him. haban preparado una confortable cama de paja.
For the next two days Boxer remained in his Durante los dos das siguientes, Boxer
stall. The pigs had sent out a large bottle of pink permaneci echado. Los cerdos haban enviado
medicine which they had found in the medicine una botella grande del remedio rosado que
chest in the bathroom, and Clover administered encontraron en el botiqun del cuarto de bao, y
it to Boxer twice a day after meals. In the Clover se lo administraba a Boxer dos veces al
evenings she lay in his stall and talked to him, da despus de las comidas. Por las tardes
while Benjamin kept the flies off him. Boxer permaneca en la pesebrera conversando con l,
professed not to be sorry for what had happened. mientras Benjamn le espantaba las moscas.
If he made a good recovery, he might expect to Boxer manifest que no lamentaba lo que haba
live another three years, and he looked forward pasado. Si se repona, podra vivir unos tres
to the peaceful days that he would spend in the aos ms, y pensaba en los das apacibles que
corner of the big pasture. It would be the first pasara en el rincn de la pradera grande. Sera
time that he had had leisure to study and improve la primera vez que tendra tiempo libre, para
his mind. He intended, he said, to devote the rest estudiar y perfeccionarse. Tena intencin, dijo,
of his life to learning the remaining twenty-two de dedicar el resto de su vida a aprender las
letters of the alphabet. veintids letras restantes del abecedario.
However, Benjamin and Clover could only be Sin embargo, Benjamn y Clover slo podan
with Boxer after working hours, and it was in the estar con Boxer despus de las horas de trabajo,
middle of the day when the van came to take him y a medioda lleg el carro para llevrselo. Los
away. The animals were all at work weeding animales estaban trabajando, eliminando las
turnips under the supervision of a pig, when they malezas de los nabos bajo la supervisin de un
were astonished to see Benjamin come galloping cerdo, cuando fueron sorprendidos al ver a
from the direction of the farm buildings, braying Benjamn venir al galope desde la casa,
at the top of his voice. It was the first time that rebuznando con todas sus fuerzas. Nunca
they had ever seen Benjamin excitedindeed, it haban notado a Benjamn tan excitado; en
was the first time that anyone had ever seen him verdad, era la primera vez que alguien lo vea
gallop. Quick, quick! he shouted. Come at galopar. "Pronto, pronto!, grit. Vengan
once! Theyre taking Boxer away! Without enseguida! Se estn llevando a Boxer!" Sin
waiting for orders from the pig, the animals esperar rdenes del cerdo, los animales
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 81

broke off work and raced back to the farm abandonaron el trabajo y corrieron hacia los
buildings. Sure enough, there in the yard was a edificios de la granja. Efectivamente, en el patio
large closed van, drawn by two horses, with haba un carro cerrado con letreros en los
lettering on its side and a sly-looking man in a costados, tirado por dos caballos, y un hombre
low-crowned bowler hat sitting on the drivers de aspecto taimado en el asiento del conductor.
seat. And Boxers stall was empty. La pesebrera de Boxer estaba vaca.
The animals crowded round the van. Los animales se agolparon junto al carro.
Good-bye, Boxer! they chorused, good-bye! Adis, Boxer!, gritaron a coro, adis!
Fools! Fools! shouted Benjamin, prancing Tontos! Estpidos! exclam Benjamn
round them and stamping the earth with his saltando alrededor de ellos y pateando el suelo
small hoofs. Fools! Do you not see what is con sus cascos menudos. Tontos! No veis lo
written on the side of that van? que est escrito en los lados de ese carro?
That gave the animals pause, and there was a Eso apacigu a los animales y se hizo el
hush. Muriel began to spell out the words. But silencio. Muriel comenz a deletrear las
Benjamin pushed her aside and in the midst of a palabras. Pero Benjamn la empuj a un lado y
deadly silence he read: en medio de un silencio sepulcral ley:
Alfred Simmonds, Horse Slaughterer and "Alfredo Simmonds, matarife de caballos y
Glue Boiler, Willingdon. Dealer in Hides and fabricante de cola, Willingdon. Comerciante en
Bone-Meal. Kennels Supplied. Do you not cueros y harina de huevos. Se suministran
understand what that means? They are taking perreras". No entienden lo que significa eso?
Boxer to the knackers! Lo llevan al descuartizador!
A cry of horror burst from all the animals. At Los animales lanzaron un grito de horror. En
this moment the man on the box whipped up his ese momento el conductor fustig a los caballos
horses and the van moved out of the yard at a y el carro parti del patio a un trote ligero.
smart trot. All the animals followed, crying out Todos los animales lo siguieron, gritando.
at the tops of their voices. Clover forced her way Clover se adelant al frente. El carro comenz a
to the front. The van began to gather speed. tomar velocidad. Clover intent galopar, pero
Clover tried to stir her stout limbs to a gallop, sus pesadas patas slo alcanzaron medio
and achieved a canter. galope.
Boxer! she cried. Boxer! Boxer! Boxer! Boxer!, grit ella. Boxer! Boxer!
And just at this moment, as though he had heard Y justo en ese momento, como si hubiera odo
the uproar outside, Boxers face, with the white el alboroto afuera, la cara de Boxer, con la
stripe down his nose, appeared at the small mancha blanca en el hocico, apareci por la
window at the back of the van. ventanilla trasera del carro.

Boxer! cried Clover in a terrible voice. Boxer! Boxer!, grit Clover con terrible voz.
Get out! Get out quickly! Theyre taking you to Boxer! Sal de ah! Sal pronto! Te llevan
your death! hacia la muerte!
All the animals took up the cry of Get out, Todos los animales se pusieron a gritar: "Sal
Boxer, get out! But the van was already de ah, Boxer, sal de ah!", pero el carro ya
gathering speed and drawing away from them. It haba tomado velocidad y se alejaba de ellos.
was uncertain whether Boxer had understood No se supo si Boxer entendi lo que dijo
what Clover had said. But a moment later his Clover. Pero un instante despus su cara
face disappeared from the window and there was desapareci de la ventanilla y se sinti el ruido
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 82

the sound of a tremendous drumming of hoofs de tamboreo de cascos dentro del carro. Estaba
inside the van. He was trying to kick his way tratando de abrirse camino a patadas. En otros
out. The time had been when a few kicks from tiempos, unas cuantas coces de los cascos de
Boxers hoofs would have smashed the van to Boxer hubieran hecho aicos el carro. Pero,
matchwood. But alas! his strength had left him; desgraciadamente, su fuerza lo haba
and in a few moments the sound of drumming abandonado; y al poco tiempo el ruido de los
hoofs grew fainter and died away. In desperation cascos, se hizo dbil y se apag. En su
the animals began appealing to the two horses desesperacin los animales comenzaron a
which drew the van to stop. Comrades, apelar a los dos caballos que tiraban del carro
comrades! they shouted. Dont take your own para que se detuvieran. "Camaradas,
brother to his death! But the stupid brutes, too camaradas!, gritaron, No llevis a vuestro
ignorant to realise what was happening, merely propio hermano hacia la muerte!" Pero las
set back their ears and quickened their pace. estpidas bestias, demasiado ignorantes para
Boxers face did not reappear at the window. darse cuenta de lo que ocurra, echaron atrs las
Too late, someone thought of racing ahead and orejas y aceleraron el paso. La cara de Boxer no
shutting the five-barred gate; but in another volvi a aparecer por la ventanilla. Era
moment the van was through it and rapidly demasiado tarde cuando a alguien se le ocurri
disappearing down the road. Boxer was never adelantarse para cerrar el portn; en un instante
seen again. el carro sali y desapareci por el camino.
Boxer no volvi a ser visto.
Three days later it was announced that he had Tres das despus se anunci que haba muerto
died in the hospital at Willingdon, in spite of en el hospital de Willingdon, no obstante recibir
receiving every attention a horse could have. toda la atencin que se poda dispensar a un
Squealer came to announce the news to the caballo, Squealer anunci la noticia a los
others. He had, he said, been present during dems. l haba estado presente, dijo, durante
Boxers last hours. las ltimas horas de Boxer.
It was the most affecting sight I have ever Fue la escena ms conmovedora que jams
seen! said Squealer, lifting his trotter and haya visto!, expres Squealer, levantando una
wiping away a tear. I was at his bedside at the pata para enjugar una lgrima. Estuve al lado de
very last. And at the end, almost too weak to su cama hasta el ltimo instante. Y al final, casi
speak, he whispered in my ear that his sole demasiado dbil para hablar, me susurr que su
sorrow was to have passed on before the nico pesar era morir antes de haberse
windmill was finished. Forward, comrades! he terminado el molino. "Adelante camaradas,
whispered. Forward in the name of the murmur. Adelante en nombre de la Rebelin.
Rebellion. Long live Animal Farm! Long live Viva Granja Animal! Viva el camarada
Comrade Napoleon! Napoleon is always right. Napolen! Napolen siempre tiene razn!"
Those were his very last words, comrades. Esas fueron sus ltimas palabras, camaradas.

Here Squealers demeanour suddenly changed. Aqu el porte de Squealer cambi


He fell silent for a moment, and his little eyes repentinamente. Permaneci callado un
darted suspicious glances from side to side instante, y sus ojillos lanzaron miradas de
before he proceeded. desconfianza de un lado a otro antes de
continuar.
It had come to his knowledge, he said, that a Haba llegado a su conocimiento, dijo, que un
foolish and wicked rumour had been circulated rumor disparatado y malicioso circul cuando
at the time of Boxers removal. Some of the se llevaron a Boxer. Algunos animales notaron
animals had noticed that the van which took que el carro que transport a Boxer llevaba la
Boxer away was marked Horse Slaughterer, inscripcin Matarife de caballos", y sacaron
and had actually jumped to the conclusion that precipitadamente la conclusin de que se era,
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 83

Boxer was being sent to the knackers. It was en realidad, el destino de Boxer. Resultaba casi
almost unbelievable, said Squealer, that any increble, dijo Squealer, que un animal pudiera
animal could be so stupid. Surely, he cried ser tan estpido. Seguramente, grit indignado,
indignantly, whisking his tail and skipping from agitando la cola y saltando de lado a lado,
side to side, surely they knew their beloved seguramente ellos conocan a su querido lder,
Leader, Comrade Napoleon, better than that? But camarada Napolen, mejor que eso. Pero la
the explanation was really very simple. The van explicacin, en verdad, era muy sencilla. El
had previously been the property of the knacker, carro fue anteriormente propiedad del
and had been bought by the veterinary surgeon, descuartizador y haba sido comprado por el
who had not yet painted the old name out. That veterinario, que an no haba borrado el nombre
was how the mistake had arisen. anterior. As fue como surgi el error.
The animals were enormously relieved to hear Los animales quedaron muy aliviados al
this. And when Squealer went on to give further escuchar esto. Y cuando Squealer continu
graphic details of Boxers death-bed, the dndoles ms detalles grficos del lecho de
admirable care he had received, and the muerte de Boxer, la admirable atencin que
expensive medicines for which Napoleon had recibi y las costosas medicinas que pagara
paid without a thought as to the cost, their last Napolen sin fijarse en el costo, sus ltimas
doubts disappeared and the sorrow that they felt dudas desaparecieron y el pesar que sintieran
for their comrades death was tempered by the por la muerte de su camarada fue mitigado por
thought that at least he had died happy. la idea de que, al menos, haba muerto feliz.

Napoleon himself appeared at the meeting on the Napolen mismo apareci en la reunin del
following Sunday morning and pronounced a domingo siguiente y pronunci una breve
short oration in Boxers honour. It had not been oracin a la memoria de Boxer. No era posible
possible, he said, to bring back their lamented traer de vuelta los restos de su lamentado
comrades remains for interment on the farm, but camarada para ser enterrados en la granja, pero
he had ordered a large wreath to be made from haba ordenado que se confeccionara una gran
the laurels in the farmhouse garden and sent corona con los laureles del jardn de la casa,
down to be placed on Boxers grave. And in a para ser colocada sobre la tumba de Boxer. Y
few days time the pigs intended to hold a pasados unos das los cerdos pensaban realizar
memorial banquet in Boxers honour. Napoleon un banquete conmemorativo en su honor.
ended his speech with a reminder of Boxers two Napolen finaliz su discurso recordndoles los
favourite maxims, I will work harder and dos lemas favoritos de Boxer: "Trabajar ms
Comrade Napoleon is always rightmaxims, fuerte" y "El camarada Napolen tiene razn
he said, which every animal would do well to siempre", lemas, dijo, que todo animal hara
adopt as his own. bien en adoptar para s mismo.
On the day appointed for the banquet, a grocers El da fijado para el banquete, el carro de un
van drove up from Willingdon and delivered a almacenero vino desde Willingdon y descarg
large wooden crate at the farmhouse. That night un gran cajn de madera. Esa noche se oy el
there was the sound of uproarious singing, which ruido de cantos bullangueros, seguidos por algo
was followed by what sounded like a violent que pareca una violenta disputa que termin a
quarrel and ended at about eleven oclock with a eso de las once con un tremendo estrpito de
tremendous crash of glass. No one stirred in the vidrios. Nadie se movi en la casa antes del
farmhouse before noon on the following day, medioda siguiente y se corri la voz de que, en
and the word went round that from somewhere alguna forma, los cerdos se haban agenciado
or other the pigs had acquired the money to buy dinero para comprar otro cajn de whisky.
themselves another case of whisky.
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 84

CHAPTER 10 CAPTULO X

YEARS passed. The seasons came and went, Pasaron los aos. Las estaciones llegaron y se
the short animal lives fled by. A time came fueron; las cortas vidas de los animales pasaron
when there was no one who remembered the volando. Lleg una poca en que ya no haba
old days before the Rebellion, except Clover, nadie que recordara los viejos das anteriores a la
Benjamin, Moses the raven, and a number of Rebelin, exceptuando a Clover, Benjamn,
the pigs. Moses el cuervo, y algunos cerdos.
Muriel was dead; Bluebell, Jessie, and Pincher Muriel haba muerto; Bluebell, Jessie y Pincher
were dead. Jones too was deadhe had died in haban muerto. Jones tambin muri: falleci en
an inebriates home in another part of the un hogar para borrachos en otra parte del
country. Snowball was forgotten. Boxer was condado. Snowball fue olvidado. Boxer estaba
forgotten, except by the few who had known olvidado asmismo, excepto por los pocos que lo
him. Clover was an old stout mare now, stiff in haban tratado. Clover era ya una yegua vieja y
the joints and with a tendency to rheumy eyes. gorda, con las articulaciones endurecidas y con
She was two years past the retiring age, but in tendencia al reuma. Ya haca dos aos que haba
fact no animal had ever actually retired. The cumplido la edad para retirarse, pero en realidad
talk of setting aside a corner of the pasture for ningn animal se haba jubilado. Haca tiempo
superannuated animals had long since been que no se hablaba de apartar un rincn del campo
dropped. Napoleon was now a mature boar of de pastoreo para animales jubilados. Napolen
twenty-four stone. Squealer was so fat that he era ya un cerdo maduro, de unos ciento cincuenta
could with difficulty see out of his eyes. Only kilos. Squealer estaba tan gordo que tena
old Benjamin was much the same as ever, dificultad para ver ms all de sus narices.
except for being a little greyer about the nicamente el viejo Benjamn estaba ms o
muzzle, and, since Boxers death, more morose menos igual que siempre, exceptuando que el
and taciturn than ever. hocico lo tena ms canoso y, desde la muerte de
Boxer, estaba ms malhumorado y taciturno que
nunca.
There were many more creatures on the farm Haba muchos ms animales que antes en la
now, though the increase was not so great as granja, aunque el aumento no era tan grande
had been expected in earlier years. Many como se esperara en los primeros aos. Nacieron
animals had been born to whom the Rebellion numerosos animales, para quienes la Rebelin era
was only a dim tradition, passed on by word of una tradicin casi olvidada, transmitida de
mouth, and others had been bought who had palabra; y otros, que haban sido adquiridos,
never heard mention of such a thing before jams oyeron hablar de semejante cosa antes de
their arrival. The farm possessed three horses su llegada. La granja posea ahora tres caballos,
now besides Clover. They were fine adems de Clover. Eran bestias de prestancia,
upstanding beasts, willing workers and good trabajadores de buena voluntad y excelentes
comrades, but very stupid. None of them camaradas, pero muy estpidos. Ninguno de ellos
proved able to learn the alphabet beyond the logr aprender el alfabeto ms all de la letra B.
letter B. They accepted everything that they Aceptaron todo lo que se les cont respecto a la
were told about the Rebellion and the rebelin y los principios del Animalismo,
principles of Animalism, especially from especialmente por Clover, a quien tenan un
Clover, for whom they had an almost filial respeto casi filial; pero era dudoso que hubieran
respect; but it was doubtful whether they entendido mucho de lo que se les dijo.
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 85

understood very much of it.


The farm was more prosperous now, and better La Granja estaba ms prspera mejor organizada,
organised: it had even been enlarged by two hasta haba sido ampliada con dos franjas de
fields which had been bought from Mr. tierra compradas al seor Pilkington. El molino
Pilkington. The windmill had been qued terminado al fin, y la granja posea una
successfully completed at last, and the farm trilladora, un elevador de heno propios,
possessed a threshing machine and a hay agregndose tambin varios edificios. Whymper
elevator of its own, and various new buildings se haba comprado un coche. El molino, sin
had been added to it. Whymper had bought embargo, no fue empleado para producir energa
himself a dogcart. The windmill, however, had elctrica. Se utiliz para moler maz y produjo
not after all been used for generating electrical una excelente utilidad en efectivo. Los animales
power. It was used for milling corn, and estaban trabajando mucho en la construccin de
brought in a handsome money profit. The otro molino ms: cuando ste estuviera
animals were hard at work building yet another terminado, segn se deca, se instalaran all los
windmill; when that one was finished, so it dnamos. Pero los lujos con que Snowball hiciera
was said, the dynamos would be installed. But soar a los animales, las pesebreras con luz
the luxuries of which Snowball had once elctrica y agua caliente y fra, y la semana de
taught the animals to dream, the stalls with tres das, ya no se mencionaban. Napolen haba
electric light and hot and cold water, and the censurado estas ideas por considerarlas contrarias
three-day week, were no longer talked about. al espritu del Animalismo. La verdadera
Napoleon had denounced such ideas as felicidad, dijo l, consista en trabajar mucho y
contrary to the spirit of Animalism. The truest vivir frugalmente.
happiness, he said, lay in working hard and
living frugally.
Somehow it seemed as though the farm had De algn modo pareca como si la granja se
grown richer without making the animals hubiera enriquecido sin enriquecer a los animales
themselves any richerexcept, of course, for mismos: exceptuando, naturalmente, los cerdos y
the pigs and the dogs. Perhaps this was partly los perros. Tal vez eso se debiera en parte a que
because there were so many pigs and so many haba tantos cerdos y tantos perros. No era que
dogs. It was not that these creatures did not esos animales no trabajaran su manera. Exista,
work, after their fashion. There was, as como Squealer nunca se cansaba de explicarles,
Squealer was never tired of explaining, endless un sinfn de labor en la supervisin y
work in the supervision and organisation of the organizacin de la granja. Gran parte de este
farm. Much of this work was of a kind that the trabajo tena caractersticas tales que los dems
other animals were too ignorant to understand. animales eran demasiado ignorantes para
For example, Squealer told them that the pigs concebirlo. Por ejemplo, Squealer les dijo que los
had to expend enormous labours every day cerdos tenan que realizar un esfuerzo enorme
upon mysterious things called files, reports, todos los das acerca de unas cosas misteriosas
minutes, and memoranda. These were large llamadas "legajos", "informes", "actas" y
sheets of paper which had to be closely "memorndum". Se trataba de largas hojas de
covered with writing, and as soon as they were papel que tenan que ser llenadas totalmente con
so covered, they were burnt in the furnace. escritura, y tan pronto estaban as cubiertas eran
This was of the highest importance for the quemadas en el horno. Esto era de suma
welfare of the farm, Squealer said. But still, importancia para el bienestar de la granja, seal
neither pigs nor dogs produced any food by Squealer. Pero de cualquier manera, ni los cerdos
their own labour; and there were very many of ni los perros producan nada comible mediante su
them, and their appetites were always good. propio trabajo; haba muchos de ellos, y siempre
tenan buen apetito.
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 86

As for the others, their life, so far as they En cuanto a los otros, su vida, por lo que ellos
knew, was as it had always been. They were saban, era lo que fue siempre. Generalmente
generally hungry, they slept on straw, they tenan hambre, dorman sobre paja, beban de la
drank from the pool, they laboured in the laguna, trabajaban en el campo; en invierno
fields; in winter they were troubled by the sufran los efectos del fro y en verano de las
cold, and in summer by the flies. Sometimes moscas. A veces los ms viejos entre ellos
the older ones among them racked their dim esforzaban sus turbias memorias y trataban de
memories and tried to determine whether in the determinar si en los primeros das de la Rebelin,
early days of the Rebellion, when Joness cuando la expulsin de Jones an era reciente, las
expulsion was still recent, things had been cosas fueron mejor o peor que ahora. No
better or worse than now. They could not alcanzaban a recordar. No haba con qu
remember. There was nothing with which they comparar su vida presente, no tenan en qu
could compare their present lives: they had basarse, exceptuando las listas de cifras de
nothing to go upon except Squealers lists of Squealer que, invariablemente, demostraban que
figures, which invariably demonstrated that todo mejoraba ms y ms. Los animales no
everything was getting better and better. The encontraron solucin al problema; de cualquier
animals found the problem insoluble; in any forma, tenan ahora poco tiempo para especular
case, they had little time for speculating on con estas cosas. nicamente el viejo Benjamn
such things now. Only old Benjamin professed manifestaba recordar cada detalle de su larga vida
to remember every detail of his long life and to y saber que las cosas nunca fueron, ni podran ser,
know that things never had been, nor ever mucho mejor o mucho peor; el hambre, la
could be much better or much worsehunger, opresin y el desengao eran, as dijo l, la ley
hardship, and disappointment being, so he said, inalterable de la vida.
the unalterable law of life.
And yet the animals never gave up hope. More, Y, sin embargo, los animales nunca abandonaron
they never lost, even for an instant, their sense sus esperanzas. Ms an, jams perdieron, ni por
of honour and privilege in being members of un instante, su sentido del honor y el privilegio de
Animal Farm. They were still the only farm in ser miembros de Granja Animal. Todava era la
the whole countyin all England!owned nica granja en todo el condado, en toda
and operated by animals. Not one of them, not Inglaterra!, poseda y manejada por animales.
even the youngest, not even the newcomers Ninguno, ni el ms joven, ni siquiera los recin
who had been brought from farms ten or llegados, trados desde granjas a diez o veinte
twenty miles away, ever ceased to marvel at millas de distancia, jams dej de maravillarse de
that. And when they heard the gun booming ello. Y cuando sentan tronar la escopeta y vean
and saw the green flag fluttering at the la bandera verde ondeando al tope del mstil, sus
masthead, their hearts swelled with corazones se hinchaban de orgullo inagotable, la
imperishable pride, and the talk turned always conversacin y siempre giraba en torno a los
towards the old heroic days, the expulsion of heroicos das de antao: la expulsin de Jones, la
Jones, the writing of the Seven inscripcin de los Siete Mandamientos, las
Commandments, the great battles in which the grandes batallas en que los invasores humanos
human invaders had been defeated. None of fueron derrotados. Ninguno de los viejos
the old dreams had been abandoned. The ensueos haba sido abandonado. La Repblica
Republic of the Animals which Major had de los Animales que Mayor pronosticaba, cuando
foretold, when the green fields of England los campos verdes de Inglaterra no fueran
should be untrodden by human feet, was still hollados por pies humanos, todava era su
believed in. Some day it was coming: it might creencia. Algn da llegara; tal vez no fuera
not be soon, it might not be with in the lifetime pronto, quiz no sucediera durante la existencia
of any animal now living, but still it was de la actual generacin de animales, pero vendra.
coming. Even the tune of Beasts of England Hasta la cancin Bestias de Inglaterra era
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 87

was perhaps hummed secretly here and there: seguramente tarareada a escondidas, aqu o all;
at any rate, it was a fact that every animal on de cualquier manera era un hecho que todos los
the farm knew it, though no one would have animales de la Granja la conocan, aunque
dared to sing it aloud. It might be that their ninguno se hubiera atrevido a cantarla en voz alta.
lives were hard and that not all of their hopes Podra ser que sus vidas fueran penosas y que no
had been fulfilled; but they were conscious that todas sus esperanzas se vieran cumplidas; pero
they were not as other animals. If they went tenan conciencia de no ser como otros animales.
hungry, it was not from feeding tyrannical Si pasaban hambre, no lo era por alimentar a
human beings; if they worked hard, at least tirnicos seres humanos; si trabajaban mucho, al
they worked for themselves. No creature menos lo hacan para ellos mismos. Ninguno
among them went upon two legs. No creature caminaba sobre dos pies. Ninguno llamaba a otro
called any other creature Master. All animals "amo". Todos los animales eran iguales.
were equal.
One day in early summer Squealer ordered the Un da, a principios de verano, Squealer orden a
sheep to follow him, and led them out to a las ovejas que lo siguieran, y las condujo hacia un
piece of waste ground at the other end of the pedazo de tierra no cultivada en el otro extremo
farm, which had become overgrown with birch de la granja, cubierto por retoos de abedul. Las
saplings. The sheep spent the whole day there ovejas pasaron todo el da all comiendo las hojas
browsing at the leaves under Squealers bajo la supervisin de Squealer. Al anochecer, l
supervision. In the evening he returned to the volvi a la casa, pero, como haca calor, les dijo a
farmhouse himself, but, as it was warm las ovejas que se quedaran donde estaban. Al
weather, told the sheep to stay where they final permanecieron all toda la semana y en ese
were. It ended by their remaining there for a lapso los dems animales no las vieron para nada.
whole week, during which time the other Squealer permaneca con ellas durante la mayor
animals saw nothing of them. Squealer was parte del da. Dijo que les estaba enseando una
with them for the greater part of every day. He nueva cancin, para lo cual se necesitaba el
was, he said, teaching them to sing a new song, aislamiento.
for which privacy was needed.
It was just after the sheep had returned, on a Una tarde placentera, al poco tiempo de haber
pleasant evening when the animals had vuelto las ovejas, los animales ya haban
finished work and were making their way back terminado de trabajar y regresaban hacia los
to the farm buildings, that the terrified edificios de la granja, se oy desde el patio el
neighing of a horse sounded from the yard. relincho aterrorizado de un caballo. Alarmados,
Startled, the animals stopped in their tracks. It los animales se detuvieron bruscamente. Era la
was Clovers voice. She neighed again, and all voz de Clover. Relinch de nuevo y todos se
the animals broke into a gallop and rushed into lanzaron al galope entrando precipitadamente en
the yard. Then they saw what Clover had seen. el patio. Entonces observaron lo que Clover haba
visto.
It was a pig walking on his hind legs. Era un cerdo caminando sobre sus patas traseras.
Yes, it was Squealer. A little awkwardly, as S, era Squealer. Un poco torpemente, como si no
though not quite used to supporting his estuviera del todo acostumbrado a sostener su
considerable bulk in that position, but with gran volumen en esa posicin, pero con perfecto
perfect balance, he was strolling across the equilibrio, estaba pasendose por el patio. Y un
yard. And a moment later, out from the door of rato despus, por la puerta de la casa apareci una
the farmhouse came a long file of pigs, all larga fila de cerdos, todos caminando sobre sus
walking on their hind legs. Some did it better patas traseras. Algunos lo hacan mejor que otros,
than others, one or two were even a trifle si bien uno o dos andaban un poco inseguros,
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 88

unsteady and looked as though they would dando la impresin de que les hubiera gustado el
have liked the support of a stick, but every one apoyo de un bastn, pero todos ellos dieron con
of them made his way right round the yard xito una vuelta completa por el patio.
successfully. And finally there was a Finalmente, se oy un tremendo ladrido de los
tremendous baying of dogs and a shrill perros y un agudo cacareo del gallo negro, y
crowing from the black cockerel, and out came apareci Napolen en persona, erguido
Napoleon himself, majestically upright, casting majestuosamente, lanzando miradas arrogantes
haughty glances from side to side, and with his hacia uno y otro lado y con los perros brincando
dogs gambolling round him. alrededor.
He carried a whip in his trotter. Llevaba un ltigo en la mano.
There was a deadly silence. Amazed, terrified, Se produjo un silencio de muerte. Asombrados,
huddling together, the animals watched the aterrorizados, acurrucados unos contra otros, los
long line of pigs march slowly round the yard. animales observaban la larga fila de cerdos
It was as though the world had turned upside- marchando lentamente alrededor del patio. Era
down. Then there came a moment when the como si el mundo se hubiese vuelto patas arriba.
first shock had worn off and when, in spite of Lleg un momento en que pas la primera
everythingin spite of their terror of the dogs, impresin y, a pesar de todo, a pesar de su terror a
and of the habit, developed through long years, los perros y de la costumbre adquirida durante
of never complaining, never criticising, no muchos aos, de nunca quejarse, nunca criticar,
matter what happenedthey might have podan haber emitido alguna palabra de protesta.
uttered some word of protest. But just at that Pero justo en ese instante, como obedeciendo a
moment, as though at a signal, all the sheep una seal, todas las ovejas estallaron en un
burst out into a tremendous bleating of tremendo balido:

Four legs good, two legs better! Four legs "Cuatro patas s, dos patas mejor!. Cuatro patas
good, two legs better! Four legs good, two legs s, dos patas mejor!. Cuatro patas s, dos patas
better! mejor!"
It went on for five minutes without stopping. Esto continu durante cinco minutos sin parar. Y
And by the time the sheep had quieted down, cuando las ovejas callaron, la oportunidad para
the chance to utter any protest had passed, for protestar haba pasado, pues los cerdos entraron
the pigs had marched back into the farmhouse. nuevamente en la casa.
Benjamin felt a nose nuzzling at his shoulder. Benjamn sinti que un hocico le rozaba el
He looked round. It was Clover. Her old eyes hombro. Se volvi. Era Clover. Sus viejos ojos
looked dimmer than ever. Without saying parecan ms apagados que nunca. Sin decir nada,
anything, she tugged gently at his mane and le tir suavemente de la crin y lo llev hasta el
led him round to the end of the big barn, where extremo del granero principal, donde estaban
the Seven Commandments were written. For a inscritos los Siete Mandamientos. Durante un
minute or two they stood gazing at the tatted minuto o dos estuvieron mirando la pared
wall with its white lettering. alquitranada con sus blancas letras.
My sight is failing, she said finally. Even La vista me est fallando, dijo ella finalmente.
when I was young I could not have read what Ni aun cuando era joven poda leer lo que estaba
was written there. But it appears to me that that ah escrito. Pero me parece que esa pared est
wall looks different. Are the Seven cambiada. Estn igual que antes los Siete
Commandments the same as they used to be, Mandamientos, Benjamn?
Benjamin?
For once Benjamin consented to break his rule, Por primera vez Benjamn consinti en quebrar su
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 89

and he read out to her what was written on the costumbre y ley lo que estaba escrito en el muro.
wall. There was nothing there now except a All no haba nada, excepto un solo
single Commandment. It ran: Mandamiento. Este deca:

ALL ANIMALS ARE EQUAL TODOS LOS ANIMALES SON IGUALES,


BUT SOME ANIMALS ARE MORE PERO ALGUNOS SON MS IGUALES QUE
EQUAL THAN OTHERS OTROS

After that it did not seem strange when next Despus de eso no les result extrao que al da
day the pigs who were supervising the work of siguiente los cerdos que estaban supervisando el
the farm all carried whips in their trotters. It trabajo de la granja llevaran todos ltigo en la
did not seem strange to learn that the pigs had mano. No les pareci raro enterarse de que los
bought themselves a wireless set, were cerdos se haban comprado una radio, estaban
arranging to install a telephone, and had taken gestionando la instalacin de un telfono y se
out subscriptions to John Bull, TitBits, and the haban suscrito a John Bull, Tit-Bits y el Daily
Daily Mirror. It did not seem strange when Mirror. No les result extrao cuando vieron a
Napoleon was seen strolling in the farmhouse Napolen paseando por el jardn de la casa con
garden with a pipe in his mouthno, not even una pipa en la boca; no, ni siquiera cuando los
when the pigs took Mr. Joness clothes out of cerdos sacaron la ropa del seor Jones de los
the wardrobes and put them on, Napoleon roperos y se la pusieron. Napolen apareci con
himself appearing in a black coat, ratcatcher una chaqueta negra, pantalones y polainas de
breeches, and leather leggings, while his cuero, mientras que su favorita luca el vestido de
favourite sow appeared in the watered silk seda que la seora Jones acostumbraba a usar los
dress which Mrs. Jones had been used to wear domingos.
on Sundays.

A week later, in the afternoon, a number of Una semana despus, por la tarde, cierto nmero
dogcarts drove up to the farm. A deputation of de coches lleg a la granja. Una delegacin de
neighbouring farmers had been invited to make granjeros vecinos haba sido invitada para realizar
a tour of inspection. They were shown all over una inspeccin. Recorrieron la granja y
the farm, and expressed great admiration for expresaron gran admiracin por todo lo que
everything they saw, especially the windmill. vieron, especialmente el molino. Los animales
The animals were weeding the turnip field. estaban escardando el campo de nabos.
They worked diligently hardly raising their Trabajaban casi sin despegar las caras del suelo y
faces from the ground, and not knowing sin saber si deban temer ms a los cerdos o a los
whether to be more frightened of the pigs or of visitantes humanos.
the human visitors.
That evening loud laughter and bursts of Esa noche se escucharon fuertes carcajadas y
singing came from the farmhouse. And canciones desde la casa. El sonido de las voces
suddenly, at the sound of the mingled voices, entremezcladas despert repentinamente la
the animals were stricken with curiosity. What curiosidad de los animales. Qu poda estar
could be happening in there, now that for the sucediendo all, ahora que, por primera vez,
first time animals and human beings were animales y seres humanos estaban reunidos en
meeting on terms of equality? With one accord igualdad de condiciones? De comn acuerdo se
they began to creep as quietly as possible into arrastraron en el mayor silencio hasta el jardn de
the farmhouse garden. la casa.
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 90

At the gate they paused, half frightened to go En la entrada se detuvieron, un poco asustados,
on but Clover led the way in. They tiptoed up pero Clover avanz resueltamente y los dems la
to the house, and such animals as were tall siguieron. Fueron de puntillas hasta la casa, y los
enough peered in at the dining-room window. animales de mayor estatura espiaron por la
There, round the long table, sat half a dozen ventana del comedor. All, alrededor de una larga
farmers and half a dozen of the more eminent mesa, estaban sentados media docena de
pigs, Napoleon himself occupying the seat of granjeros y media docena de los cerdos ms
honour at the head of the table. The pigs eminentes, ocupando Napolen el sitial de honor
appeared completely at ease in their chairs The en la cabecera. Los cerdos parecan encontrarse
company had been enjoying a game of cards en las sillas completamente a sus anchas. El
but had broken off for the moment, evidently grupo estaba jugando una partida de naipes, pero
in order to drink a toast. A large jug was haba dejado el juego un momento, sin duda para
circulating, and the mugs were being refilled brindar. Una jarra grande estaba pasando de mano
with beer. No one noticed the wondering faces en mano y los vasos se llenaban de cerveza una y
of the animals that gazed in at the window. otra vez.
Mr. Pilkington, of Foxwood, had stood up, his El seor Pilkington, de Foxwood, se puso en pie,
mug in his hand. In a moment, he said, he con un vaso en la mano. Dentro de un instante,
would ask the present company to drink a expres, iba a solicitar un brindis a los presentes.
toast. But before doing so, there were a few Pero, previamente, se consideraba obligado a
words that he felt it incumbent upon him to decir unas palabras.
say.
It was a source of great satisfaction to him, he Era para l motivo de gran satisfaccin, dijo, y
saidand, he was sure, to all others present estaba seguro que tambin, para todos los
to feel that a long period of mistrust and asistentes, comprobar que un largo periodo de
misunderstanding had now come to an end. desconfianza y desavenencias llegaba a su fin.
There had been a timenot that he, or any of Hubo un tiempo, no es que l o cualquiera de los
the present company, had shared such presentes, compartieron tales sentimientos, pero
sentimentsbut there had been a time when hubo un tiempo en que los respetables
the respected proprietors of Animal Farm had propietarios de Granja Animal fueron
been regarded, he would not say with hostility, considerados, l no dira con hostilidad, sino con
but perhaps with a certain measure of cierta dosis de recelo por sus vecinos humanos.
misgiving, by their human neighbours. Se produjeron incidentes infortunados, eran
Unfortunate incidents had occurred, mistaken corrientes las ideas equivocadas. Se crey que la
ideas had been current. It had been felt that the existencia de una granja poseda y manejada por
existence of a farm owned and operated by cerdos era en cierto modo anormal y que podra
pigs was somehow abnormal and was liable to tener un efecto perturbador en el vecindario.
have an unsettling effect in the neighbourhood. Demasiados granjeros supusieron, sin la debida
Too many farmers had assumed, without due investigacin, que en dicha granja prevaleca un
enquiry, that on such a farm a spirit of licence espritu de libertinaje e indisciplina. Haban
and indiscipline would prevail. They had been estado preocupados respecto a las consecuencias
nervous about the effects upon their own que ello acarreara a sus propios animales o aun
animals, or even upon their human employees. sobre sus empleados humanos. Pero todas estas
But all such doubts were now dispelled. Today dudas ya estaban disipadas. El y sus amigos
he and his friends had visited Animal Farm and acababan de visitar Granja Animal y de
inspected every inch of it with their own eyes, inspeccionar cada pulgada con sus propios ojos,
and what did they find? Not only the most up- y qu haban encontrado? No solamente los
to-date methods, but a discipline and an mtodos ms modernos, sino una disciplina y un
orderliness which should be an example to all orden que deban servir de ejemplo para todos los
farmers everywhere. He believed that he was granjeros de todas partes. l crea que estaba en
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 91

right in saying that the lower animals on lo cierto al decir que los animales inferiores de
Animal Farm did more work and received less Granja Animal hacan ms trabajo y reciban
food than any animals in the county. Indeed, he menos comida que cualquier animal del condado.
and his fellow-visitors today had observed En verdad, l y sus colegas visitantes observaron
many features which they intended to muchos detalles que pensaban implantar en sus
introduce on their own farms immediately. granjas inmediatamente.
He would end his remarks, he said, by Quera terminar su discurso, dijo, recalcando
emphasising once again the friendly feelings nuevamente el sentimiento amistoso que
that subsisted, and ought to subsist, between subsista, y que deba subsistir, entre Granja
Animal Farm and its neighbours. Between pigs Animal y sus vecinos. Entre los cerdos y los seres
and human beings there was not, and there humanos no haba, y no debera haber, ningn
need not be, any clash of interests whatever. choque de intereses de cualquier especie. Sus
Their struggles and their difficulties were one. esfuerzos y sus dificultades eran idnticos. No
Was not the labour problem the same era el problema de los obreros el mismo en todas
everywhere? Here it became apparent that Mr. partes? Aqu se puso de manifiesto que el seor
Pilkington was about to spring some carefully Pilkington se dispona a contar algn chiste bien
prepared witticism on the company, but for a preparado, pero por un instante lo domin tanto la
moment he was too overcome by amusement risa que no pudo articular palabra. Despus de
to be able to utter it. After much choking, sofocarse un rato, durante el cual sus diversas
during which his various chins turned purple, papadas, enrojecieron, logr expresarse:
he managed to get it out:
If you have your lower animals to contend Si bien ustedes tienen que lidiar con sus
with, he said, we have our lower classes! animales inferiores, dijo, nosotros tenemos
nuestras clases inferiores!
This bon mot set the table in a roar; and Mr. Esta bon mot los hizo desternillarse de risa; y el
Pilkington once again congratulated the pigs seor Pilkington nuevamente felicit a los cerdos
on the low rations, the long working hours, and por las magras raciones, las largas horas de
the general absence of pampering which he trabajo y la falta general de trato blando que
had observed on Animal Farm. observara en Granja Animal.
And now, he said finally, he would ask the Y ahora, dijo finalmente, iba a pedir a los
company to rise to their feet and make certain presentes que se pusieran de pie y se cercioraran
that their glasses were full. de que sus vasos estaban llenos.
Gentlemen, concluded Mr. Pilkington, Seores, concluy el seor Pilkington,
gentlemen, I give you a toast: To the seores, les propongo un brindis: Por la
prosperity of Animal Farm! prosperidad de Granja Animal!
There was enthusiastic cheering and stamping Hubo un vitoreo entusiasta y un golpear de pies y
of feet. Napoleon was so gratified that he left patas. Napolen estaba tan complacido, que dej
his place and came round the table to clink his su lugar y dio la vuelta a la mesa para chocar su
mug against Mr. Pilkingtons before emptying vaso contra el del seor Pilkington antes de
it. When the cheering had died down, vaciarlo. Cuando termin el vitoreo, Napolen,
Napoleon, who had remained on his feet, que permaneca de pie, insinu que tambin l
intimated that he too had a few words to say. tena que decir algunas palabras.

Like all of Napoleons speeches, it was short Como en todos sus discursos, Napolen fue breve
and to the point. He too, he said, was happy y al grano. El tambin, dijo, estaba contento de
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 92

that the period of misunderstanding was at an que el perodo de desavenencias llegara a su fin.
end. For a long time there had been rumours Durante mucho tiempo hubo rumores propalados,
circulated, he had reason to think, by some l tena motivos para creer que por algn enemigo
malignant enemythat there was something maligno, de que exista algo subversivo y hasta
subversive and even revolutionary in the revolucionario entre su punto de vista y el de sus
outlook of himself and his colleagues. They colegas. Se les atribuy la intencin de fomentar
had been credited with attempting to stir up la rebelin entre los animales de las granjas
rebellion among the animals on neighbouring vecinas. Nada poda estar ms lejos de la verdad!
farms. Nothing could be further from the truth! Su nico deseo, ahora y en el pasado, era vivir en
Their sole wish, now and in the past, was to paz y mantener relaciones normales con sus
live at peace and in normal business relations vecinos. Esta granja que l tena el honor de
with their neighbours. This farm which he had controlar, agreg, era una empresa cooperativa.
the honour to control, he added, was a co- Los ttulos de propiedad, que estaban en su poder,
operative enterprise. The title-deeds, which pertenecan a todos los cerdos en conjunto.
were in his own possession, were owned by the
pigs jointly.
He did not believe, he said, that any of the old El no crea, dijo, que an quedaran rastros de las
suspicions still lingered, but certain changes viejas sospechas, pero se acababan de introducir
had been made recently in the routine of the ciertos cambios en la rutina de la granja que
farm which should have the effect of tendran el efecto de promover an ms la
promoting confidence stiff further. Hitherto the confianza. Hasta entonces los animales de la
animals on the farm had had a rather foolish granja tenan una costumbre algo tonta de
custom of addressing one another as dirigirse unos a otros como "camarada". Eso iba a
Comrade. This was to be suppressed. There ser suprimido. Tambin exista una modalidad
had also been a very strange custom, whose muy rara, cuyo origen era desconocido: la de
origin was unknown, of marching every desfilar todo los domingos por la maana ante el
Sunday morning past a boars skull which was crneo de un cerdo clavado en un poste del jardn.
nailed to a post in the garden. This, too, would Eso tambin iba a ser eliminado, y el crneo ya
be suppressed, and the skull had already been fue enterrado. Sus visitantes haban observado
buried. His visitors might have observed, too, asimismo la bandera verde que ondeaba al tope
the green flag which flew from the masthead. del mstil. En ese caso, seguramente notaron que
If so, they would perhaps have noted that the el asta y la pezua blanca con que estaba marcada
white hoof and horn with which it had anteriormente fueron eliminados. En adelante,
previously been marked had now been sera simplemente una bandera verde.
removed. It would be a plain green flag from
now onwards.
He had only one criticism, he said, to make of Tena que hacer una sola crtica al magnfico y
Mr. Pilkingtons excellent and neighbourly amistoso discurso del seor Pilkington. El seor
speech. Mr. Pilkington had referred throughout Pilkington hizo referencia en todo momento a
to Animal Farm. He could not of course Granja Animal. No poda saber, naturalmente,
knowfor he, Napoleon, was only now for the porque l, Napolen, ahora lo anunciaba por
first time announcing itthat the name primera vez, que el nombre Granja Animal haba
Animal Farm had been abolished. sido abolido. Desde ese momento la granja iba a
Henceforward the farm was to be known as ser conocida como Granja Manor, el cual, crea,
The Manor Farmwhich, he believed, was fue su nombre verdadero y original.
its correct and original name.
Gentlemen, concluded Napoleon, I will give Seores, concluy Napolen, os voy a
you the same toast as before, but in a different proponer el mismo brindis de antes, pero en otra
George Orwell Animal Fa r m 93

form. Fill your glasses to the brim. Gentlemen, forma, llenad los vasos hasta el borde. Seores,
here is my toast: To the prosperity of The ste es mi brindis: Por la prosperidad de Granja
Manor Farm! Manor!
There was the same hearty cheering as before, Se repiti el mismo cordial vitoreo de antes y los
and the mugs were emptied to the dregs. But as vasos fueron vaciados de un trago. Pero a los
the animals outside gazed at the scene, it animales que desde fuera observaban la escena
seemed to them that some strange thing was les pareci que algo raro estaba ocurriendo. Qu
happening. What was it that had altered in the era lo que se haba alterado en los rostros de los
faces of the pigs? Clovers old dim eyes flitted cerdos? Los viejos y apagados ojos de Clover
from one face to another. Some of them had pasaron rpida y alternativamente de un rostro a
five chins, some had four, some had three. But otro. Algunos tenan cinco papadas, otros tenan
what was it that seemed to be melting and cuatro, aqullos tenan tres. Pero qu era lo que
changing? Then, the applause having come to pareca diluirse y transformarse? Luego;
an end, the company took up their cards and finalizados los aplausos, los concurrentes
continued the game that had been interrupted, tomaron nuevamente los naipes y continuaron la
and the animals crept silently away. partida interrumpida, alejndose los animales en
silencio.
But they had not gone twenty yards when they Pero no haban dado veinte pasos cuando se
stopped short. An uproar of voices was coming pararon bruscamente. Un alboroto de voces vena
from the farmhouse. They rushed back and desde la casa. Corrieron de vuelta y miraron
looked through the window again. Yes, a nuevamente por la ventana. S, se estaba
violent quarrel was in progress. There were desarrollando una violenta discusin: gritos,
shoutings, bangings on the table, sharp golpes sobre la mesa, miradas penetrantes y
suspicious glances, furious denials. The source desconfiadas, negativas furiosas. El origen del
of the trouble appeared to be that Napoleon conflicto pareca ser que tanto Napolen como el
and Mr. Pilkington had each played an ace of seor Pilkington haban jugado simultneamente
spades simultaneously. un as de espadas cada uno.
Twelve voices were shouting in anger, and Doce voces estaban gritando enfurecidas, y eran
they were all alike. No question, now, what todas iguales. No exista duda de lo que sucediera
had happened to the faces of the pigs. The a las caras de los cerdos. Los animales de afuera
creatures outside looked from pig to man, and miraron del cerdo al hombre, y del hombre al
from man to pig, and from pig to man again; cerdo, y nuevamente del cerdo al hombre; pero ya
but already it was impossible to say which was era imposible discernir quin era quin.
which.

November 1943 - February 1944