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By Fabien Chereau & al. - www.stellarium.org
Stellarium comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. See the COPYING file for details.
Stellarium is a free GPL software which renders realistic skies in real time
with OpenGL. It is available for Linux/Unix, Windows and MacOSX. With
Stellarium, you really see what you can see with your eyes, binoculars or a
small telescope.
Please see the INSTALL file.
Windows or linux/POSIX or CYGWIN or MACOSX environment
A 3d OpenGL 2.1+ acceleration card with GLSL1.30 and a good CPU.
On Windows, ANGLE can be used if graphics card supports DirectX9+ with PS_3_0.
If all else fails, MESA can be used to emulate the graphics card,
of course with a massive slowdown.
Navigation :
Use the direction keys or drag with the mouse to move the point of view.
Use page up and page down keys or mouse wheel to zoom in and out.
Use left mouse button to select an object, right button to select no object and
middle mouse button or SPACE to center on the selected object.
Zooming on nebulas or planets is very interesting....
Use J, K and L to increment/decrement time speed.
Press the F1 key for more help.
More help can be found on www.stellarium.org, and in the user guide.
From version 0.6.0 the most useful configuration options can be set from within
the program.
You can however change it by hand in the file config.ini in the user data
directory. See http://www.stellarium.org/doc/head/fileStructure.html
for more details on the location of the user data directory for your OS.
++ Special thanks to ++
Johan Meuris for his stunning drawings of the constellations.
(Johan is now an official member of the project)
Johannes Gajdosik for his work on planets computation and projection.
(Johannes is now an official member of the project)
Matthew Gates for his huge work on the User Guide.
(Matthew is now an official member of the project)
Nigel Kerr for his MacOSX port.
Fumio Yamamoto for his MacOSX packages, patches, support and
Tony Furr for his work on the Graphical User Interface.
Rob Spearman (Digitalis Education Solutions, Inc.) for his help and
financial support.
Valery Lainey for his L1 and MarsSat ephemeris and his prompt an kind
help with any question concerning planetary/satellite ephemeris.
Norbert Zacharias from USNO for kindly sending a cut of the NOMAD
catalogue on 4 DVD, answering NOMAD related questions, and finally
copying the entire NOMAD catalogue onto a disk.
The Trolltech Qt team for its incredible library.
++ Thanks to ++
Axel Mellinger who gave me the authorisation to use his impressive
milky way panorama.
The celestia project team from which I borrowed many code parts (GPL
The libnova team for their planet calculation algorithms (LGPL license).
All the sourceforge team for hosting my project.
Cedric Delfosse for his precious help on debian port.
The GEPI team from the Observatoire Astronomique de Paris for
the great Hipparcos catalog.
Brad Schaefer for his sky rendering algorithm.
Jean-Francois Tremblay for his porting on MacOSX.
Vincent Caron for his parser bugfix and Linux compatibility bugfixes.
Nick Porcino for his planet function.
Tangui Morlier for his help on Linux System.
Bill Gray (projectpluto.com) and Mark Huss (mark (at) mhuss.com) for all
the astro libraries.
Antje Buchholz for her translation help and logistic support :)
James Hastings-Trew who gave us the authorisation to use his beautiful a
nd realistic planet textures.
And... All the people who sent us mails and bug reports!
This program is free, but if you have nothing to do with your
money, just go there and do something useful with it :

1. Technical Articles
1.1 The tone reproductor class
The class mainly performs a fast implementation of the algorithm
from the paper [1], with more accurate values from [2]. The blue
shift formula is taken from [3] and combined with the Scotopic
vision formula from [4].
[1] "Tone Reproduction for Realistic Images", Tumblin and
Rushmeier, IEEE Computer Graphics & Application, Novembe
[2] "Tone Reproduction and Physically Based Spectral Rendering",
Devlin, Chalmers, Wilkie and Purgathofer in EUROGRAPHICS
[3] "Night Rendering", H. Wann Jensen, S. Premoze, P. Shirley,
W.B. Thompson, J.A. Ferwerda, M.M. Stark
[4] "A Visibility Matching Tone Reproduction Operator for High
Dynamic Range Scenes", G.W. Larson, H. Rushmeier, C. Pia
1.2 The skylight class
The class is a fast implementation of the algorithm from the
article "A Practical Analytic Model for Daylight" by A. J.
Preetham, Peter Shirley and Brian Smits.
1.3 The skybright class
The class is a fast reimplementation of the VISLIMIT.BAS basic
source code from Brad Schaefer's article on pages 57-60, May
1998 _Sky & Telescope_, "To the Visual Limits". The basic
sources are available on the Sky and Telescope web site.
(code "offered as-is and without support.")
1.4 The Delta-T calculations
For implementation of calculation routines for Delta-T we used t
he following sources:
[1] Delta-T webpage by Rob van Gent: http://www.staff.science.uu
[2] "Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses", Espenak and Meeus
[3] "On the system of astronomical constants", Clemence, G. M.,
Astronomical Journal, Vol. 53, p. 169
[4] "The Rotation of the Earth, and the Secular Accelerations of
the Sun, Moon and Planets",
Spencer Jones, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Soc
iety, 99 (1939), 541-558
[5] "Polynomial approximations for the correction delta T E.T.-U
.T. in the period 1800-1975",
Schmadel, L. D.; Zech, G., Acta Astronomica, vol. 29, no. 1,
1979, p. 101-104.
[6] "ELP 2000-85 and the dynamic time-universal time relation",
Borkowski, K. M.,
Astronomy and Astrophysics (ISSN 0004-6361), vol. 205, no. 1
-2, Oct. 1988, p. L8-L10.
[7] "Empirical Transformations from U.T. to E.T. for the Period
Schmadel, L. D.; Zech, G., Astronomische Nachrichten 309, 21
[8] "Historical values of the Earth's clock error DeltaT and the
calculation of eclipses",
Morrison, L. V.; Stephenson, F. R., Journal for the History
of Astronomy (ISSN 0021-8286),
Vol. 35, Part 3, No. 120, p. 327 - 336 (2004)
[9] "Addendum: Historical values of the Earth's clock error", Mo
rrison, L. V.; Stephenson, F. R.,
Journal for the History of Astronomy (ISSN 0021-8286), Vol.
36, Part 3, No. 124, p. 339 (2005)
[10] "Polynomial approximations to Delta T, 1620-2000 AD", Meeus
, J.; Simons, L.,
Journal of the British Astronomical Association, vol.110, no
.6, 323
[11] "Einstein's Theory of Relativity Confirmed by Ancient Solar
Eclipses", Henriksson G.,
[12] "Canon of Solar Eclipses" by Mucke & Meeus (1983)
[13] "The accelerations of the earth and moon from early astrono
mical observations",
Muller P. M., Stephenson F. R.,
[14] "Pre-Telescopic Astronomical Observations", Stephenson F. R
[15] "Long-term changes in the rotation of the earth - 700 B.C.
to A.D. 1980",
Stephenson F. R., Morrison L. V.,
Philosophical Transactions, Series A (ISSN 0080-4614), vol.
313, no. 1524, Nov. 27, 1984, p. 47-70.
[16] "Long-Term Fluctuations in the Earth's Rotation: 700 BC to
AD 1990",
Stephenson F. R., Morrison L. V.,
Philosophical Transactions: Physical Sciences and Engineerin
g, Volume 351, Issue 1695, pp. 165-202
[17] "Historical Eclipses and Earth's Rotation" by F. R. Stephen
son (1997)
[18] "Astronomical Algorithms" by J. Meeus (2nd ed., 1998)
[19] "Astronomy on the Personal Computer" by O. Montenbruck & T.
Pfleger (4nd ed., 2000)
[20] "Calendrical Calculations" by E. M. Reingold & N. Dershowit
z (2nd ed., 2001)
[21] DeltaT webpage by V. Reijs: http://www.iol.ie/~geniet/eng/D
1.5 An accurate long-time precession model compatible with P03:
J. Vondrak, N. Capitaine, P. Wallace: New precession expressions
, valid for long time intervals.
Astronomy&Astrophysics 534, A22 (2011); DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/2
1.6 Nutation:
Dennis D. McCarthy and Brian J. Lizum: An Abridged Model of the
Precession-Nutation of the Celestial Pole.
Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy 85: 37-49, 2003.
This model provides accuracy better than 1 milli-arcsecond in th
e time 1995-2050. It is applied for years 1500..2500 only.
2. Included source code
2.1 Some computation of the sideral time (sidereal_time.h/c) and pluto
orbit contains code from the libnova library (LGPL) by Liam Gird
2.2 The orbit.cpp/h and solve.h files are directly borrowed from
Celestia (Chris Laurel). (GPL license)
2.3 Several implementations of IMCCE theories for planet and satellite
movement by Johannes Gajdosik (MIT-style license,
see the corresponding files for the license text)
2.4 The tesselation algorithms were originally extracted from the glues
library version 1.4 Mike Gorchak <mike@malva.ua> (SGI FREE SOFTW
2.5 OBJ loader in the Scenery3D plugin based on glObjViewer (c) 2007 dhpowar
2.6 Parts of the code to work with DE430 and DE431 data files have been
taken from Project Pluto (GPL license).
2.7 The SpoutLibrary.dll and header from the SpoutSDK version 2.005
available at http://spout.zeal.co (BSD license).
3. Data
3.1 The Hipparcos star catalog
From ESA (European Space Agency) and the Hipparcos mission.
ref. ESA, 1997, The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues, ESA SP-1200
3.2 The solar system data mainly comes from IMCCE and partly from
3.3 Polynesian constellations are based on diagrams from the Polynesian
Voyaging Society
3.4 Chinese constellations are based on diagrams from the Hong Kong
Space Museum
3.5 Egyptian constellations are based on the work of Juan Antonio
Belmonte, Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias
3.6 The Tycho-2 Catalogue of the 2.5 Million Brightest Stars
Hog E., Fabricius C., Makarov V.V., Urban S., Corbin T.,
Wycoff G., Bastian U., Schwekendiek P., Wicenec A.
<Astron. Astrophys. 355, L27 (2000)>
3.7 Naval Observatory Merged Astrometric Dataset (NOMAD) version 1
Norbert Zacharias writes:
"There are no fees, both UCAC and NOMAD are freely available
with the only requirement that the source of the data (U.S.
Naval Observatory) and original product name need to be provided
with any distribution, as well as a description about any
changes made to the data, if at all."
The changes made to the data are:
-) try to compute visual magnitude and color from the b,v,r
-) compute nr_of_measurements = the number of valid b,v,r values
-) throw away or keep stars (depending on magnitude,
nr_of_measurements, combination of flags, tycho2 number)
-) add all stars from Hipparcos (incl. component solutions), and
tycho2+1st supplement
-) reorganize the stars in several brigthness levels and
triangular zones according to position and magnitude
The programs that are used to generate the star files are called
"MakeCombinedCatalogue", "ParseHip", "ParseNomad", and can be
found in the util subdirectory in source code. The position,
magnitudes, and proper motions of the stars coming from NOMAD
are unchanged, except for a possible loss of precision,
especially in magnitude. When there is no v-magnitude, it is
estimated from r or b magnitude. When there is no b- or v-
magnitude, the color B-V is estimated from the other magnitudes.
Also proper motions of faint stars are neglected at all.
3.8 Stellarium's Catalog of Variable Stars based on General Catalog of V
Stars (GCVS) version 2013Apr.
Samus N.N., Durlevich O.V., Kazarovets E V., Kireeva N.N., Pastu
khova E.N.,
Zharova A.V., et al., General Catalogue of Variable Stars (Samus
+ 2007-2012)
3.9 Consolidated DSO catalog was created from various data:
[1] NGC/IC data taken from SIMBAD Astronomical Database
[2] Distance to NGC/IC data taken from NED (NASA/IPAC EXTRAGALA
[3] Catalogue of HII Regions (Sharpless, 1959) taken from Vizie
[4] H- emission regions in Southern Milky W y (Rodgers+, 1960) t
ken from
http://vizier.u-str sbg.fr/viz-bin/VizieR?-source=VII/216
[5] C t logue of Reflection Nebul e (V n den Bergh, 1966) t ken
from VizieR
http://vizier.u-str sbg.fr/viz-bin/VizieR?-source=VII/21
[6] Lynds' C t logue of D rk Nebul e (LDN) (Lynds, 1962) t ken
from VizieR
http://vizier.u-str sbg.fr/viz-bin/VizieR?-source=VII/7A
[7] Lynds' C t logue of Bright Nebul e (Lynds, 1965) t ken from
http://vizier.u-str sbg.fr/viz-bin/VizieR?-source=VII/9
[8] C t log of bright diffuse G l ctic nebul e (Cederbl d, 1946
) t ken from
http://vizier.u-str sbg.fr/viz-bin/VizieR?-source=VII/231
[9] B rn rd's C t logue of 349 D rk Objects in the Sky (B rn rd
, 1927) t ken
from VizieR
http://vizier.u-str sbg.fr/viz-bin/VizieR?-source=VII/220A
[10] A C t logue of St r Clusters shown on Fr nklin-Ad ms Ch rt
Pl tes
(Melotte, 1915) t ken from NASA ADS
http:// ds bs.h rv rd.edu/ bs/1915MmRAS..60..175M
[11] On Structur l Properties of Open G l ctic Clusters nd thei
r Sp ti l
Distribution. C t log of Open G l ctic Clusters. (Collinder
, 1931) t ken
http:// ds bs.h rv rd.edu/ bs/1931AnLun...2....1C
[12] The Collinder C t log of Open St r Clusters. An Observers Ch
Edited by Thomas Watson. Taken from CloudyNights
3.10 Cross-identification of objects in consolidated DSO catalog was mak
ed with:
[1] SIMBAD Astronomical Database
[2] Merged catalogue of reflection nebulae (Magakian, 2003)
[3] Messier Catalogue was taken from Wikipedia (includes morpho
logical classification and distances)
[4] Caldwell Catalogue was taken from Wikipedia (includes morph
ological classification and distances)
3.11 Morphological classification and magnitudes (partially) for Melotte
catalogue was taken from

4. Graphics
4.1 All graphics are copyrighted by the Stellariums Team (GPL) except
the ones mentioned below :
4.2 The "earthmap" texture was created by NASA (Reto Stockli, NASA Earth
Observatory) using data from the MODIS instrument aboard the
Terra satellite (Public Domain). See chapter 10.1 for full
4.4 Moon texture map was combined from maps by USGS Astrogeology Researc
h Program,
http://astrogeology.usgs.gov (Public Domain, DFSG-free) and by L
surface textures from Celestia, based on Clementine data (Public
4.5a Saturn map and ring textures created by Bjrn Jnsson:
"All the planetary maps available on these pages are publicly
available. You do not need a special permission to use them but
you do then please mention their origin in your work [..]"
4.5b Jupiter map created by James Hastings-Trew from Cassini data. "The
maps are free to download and use as source material or resource
in artwork or rendering (CGI or real time)."
4.5c The Venus, Amalthea, Proteus, Iapetus and Phoebe maps and rings of
and Neptune are from Celestia (http://shatters.net/celestia/) un
der the
GNU General Purpose License, version 2 or any later version:
- Venus is from Bjrn Jnsson and modified by RVS.
- Amalthea is a shaded relief map by Phil Stooke, colored by
Wm. Robert Johnston.
and further modified by Jens Meyer and Grant Hutchison.
- The Proteus map is from Phil Stooke.
- Triton is probably from David Seals site (see below),
modified by Chris Laurel and Grant Hutchison.
- Iapetus and Phoebe maps are from dr. Fridger Schrempp (t00fri)
4.5d Mercury map is produced by NASA from Messenger data and modified
and colored by RVS.
4.5e Europa, Io and Callisto maps are created by John van Vliet from PDS
data and modified by RVS. License: cc-by-sa.
4.5f Ganymede map is from USGS and modified by RVS. Public domain.
4.5g Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Enceladus and Mimas maps are created by NASA
(CICLOPS team) from Cassini data, colored by RVS. Public domain.
4.5h Hyperion map created by John van Vliet from PDS data, modified by
RVS. License: cc-by-sa.
4.5i Triton: Image selection, radiometric calibration, geographic regist
ration and
photometric correction, and final mosaic assembly were performed
by Dr. Paul
Schenk at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Texas. Ima
ge data from
Voyager 2 (NASA, JPL). Original texture has "white spots", which
was filled by
Dizel777 (http://spaceengine.org/forum/19-563-25069-16-140910158
4.4j Pluto map is produced by NASA from New Horizons data and colored by R
(Courtesy NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/
Research Institute - http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19
4.4k Charon map is produced by NASA from New Horizons data and colored by
(Courtesy NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/
Research Institute - http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19
4.5l All other planet maps from David Seals site:
http://maps.jpl.nasa.gov/ see license in section 10.2
4.6 The fullsky milky way panorama is created by Axel Mellinger,
University of Potsdam, Germany. Further information and more
pictures available from
License: permission given to "Modify and redistribute this image
if proper credit to the original image is given."
4.7 All messiers nebula pictures except those mentioned below from the
Grasslands Observatory : "Images courtesy of Tim Hunter and
James McGaha, Grasslands Observatory at http://www.3towers.com."
License: permission given to "use the image freely" (including
right to modify and redistribute) "as long as it is credited."
4.8 M31, and the Pleiades pictures come from Herm Perez :
License: "Feel free to use these images, if you use them in a
commercial setting please attribute the source."
4.9 Images of M8, M33, NGC253, NGC1499, NGC2244
from Jean-Pierre Bousquet
4.10 Images of M1, M15, M16, M27, M42, M57, M97, NGC6946 from Stephane D
4.11 Images of M17, M44, NGC856, NGC884 from Maxime Spano
4.12 Constellation art, GUI buttons, logo created by Johan Meuris
(Jomejome) (jomejome at users.sourceforge.net)
License: released under the Free Art License
Icon created by Johan Meuris
License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
4.13 The "earth-clouds" texture includes imagery owned by NASA.
See NASAs Visible Earth project at http://visibleearth.nasa.gov
License: 1. The imagery is free of licensing fees
2. NASA requires that they be provided a credit as the
of the imagery
The cloud texturing was taken from Celestia (GPL),
4.14 The folder icon derived from the Tango Desktop Project, used under
the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike
4.15 Images of NGC281, NGC5139, NGC6543, NGC6960, NGC7023, NGC7317, NGC7
from Andrey Kuznetsov, Kepler Observatory
License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported
4.16 Images of NGC891, NGC1333, NGC2903, NGC3185, NGC3187, NGC3189, NGC3
NGC3193, NGC3718, NGC3729, NGC4490, NGC5981, NGC5982, NGC5985, N
from Oleg Bryzgalov
License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported
4.17 Image of eta Carinae
from Georg Zotti
License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported
4.18 Images of IC1805, IC1848, NGC6888
from Steve Tuttle
4.19 Images of IC4628, M20, M21, M47, NGC2467, IC2948, NGC3324, NGC3293,
NGC7590, RCW158
from Trevor Gerdes
4.20 Images of IC2118, NGC1532
from users of Ice In Space
4.21 Image of IC5146 from James A Weier
4.22 Images of SMC, LMC (Magellanic Clouds) and rho Oph from Albert Van
4.23 Images of NGC55, NGC300, NGC1365, NGC3628, NGC4945, NGC5128, NGC672
NGC6744, NGC6752, NGC6822, NGC7293, NGC2070
from Philip Montgomery
4.24 The Vesta and Ceres map from NASAs Photojournal site:
http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/ see license in section 10.2
4.25 Images of NGC7318, NGC7331, M3, M13, M51, M63, M64, M74, M78, M81,
M96, M101, M105, Barnard 22, Barnard 142, Barnard 173, IC405, IC
NGC1514, NGC1961, NGC2371, NGC2403, NGC246, NGC2841, NGC3310, NG
NGC4559, NGC7008, NGC7380, NGC7479, NGC7635, Sh2-101
from Peter Vasey, Plover Hill Observatory
4.26 Image of IC434 from Marc Aragnou
4.27 Image of solar corona from eclipse 2008-08-01 by Georg Zotti
4.28 Images of IC59, IC63, IC410, NGC2359, Sadr region from Carole Pope
4.29 Images of NGC3690, NGC5257, NGC6050, IC883, UGC8335 and UGC9618
from NASA, ESA, the Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Coll
License: public domain; http://hubblesite.org/copyright/
Copyright (C) 2004-2016 Fabien Chereau et al.
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Suite 500, Boston, MA 02110-1335, USA.
See the COPYING file for more information regarding the GNU General
Public License.
10.1 Full credits for image 4.2 :
Author: Reto Stockli, NASA Earth Observatory,
rstockli (at) climate.gsfc.nasa.gov
Address of correspondance:
Reto Stockli
ETH/IAC (NFS Klima) & NASA/GSFC Code 913 (SSAI)
University Irchel
Building 25 Room J53
Winterthurerstrasse 190
8057 Zurich, Switzerland
Phone: +41 (0)1 635 5209
Fax: +41 (0)1 362 5197
Email: rstockli (at) climate.gsfc.nasa.gov
Fritz Hasler and David Herring, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
This project was realized under the SSAI subcontract 2101-01-027
License :
"Any and all materials published on the Earth Observatory are
freely available for re-publication or re-use, except where
copyright is indicated."
10.2 License for the JPL planets images
Unless otherwise noted, images and video on JPL public web sites (public
sites ending with a jpl.nasa.gov address) may be used for any purpose
without prior permission, subject to the special cases noted below.
Publishers who wish to have authorization may print this page and retain
it for their records; JPL does not issue image permissions on an image
by image basis. By electing to download the material from this web site
the user agrees:
1. that Caltech makes no representations or warranties with respect to
ownership of copyrights in the images, and does not represent others
who may claim to be authors or owners of copyright of any of the
images, and makes no warranties as to the quality of the images.
Caltech shall not be responsible for any loss or expenses resulting
from the use of the images, and you release and hold Caltech harmless
from all liability arising from such use.
2. to use a credit line in connection with images. Unless otherwise
noted in the caption information for an image, the credit line should
be "Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech."
3. that the endorsement of any product or service by Caltech, JPL or
NASA must not be claimed or implied.
Special Cases:
* Prior written approval must be obtained to use the NASA insignia logo
(the blue "meatball" insignia), the NASA logotype (the red "worm"
logo) and the NASA seal. These images may not be used by persons who
are not NASA employees or on products (including Web pages) that are
not NASA sponsored. In addition, no image may be used to explicitly
or implicitly suggest endorsement by NASA, JPL or Caltech of
commercial goods or services. Requests to use NASA logos may be
directed to Bert Ulrich, Public Services Division, NASA Headquarters,
Code POS, Washington, DC 20546, telephone (202) 358-1713, fax (202)
358-4331, email bert.ulrich@hq.nasa.gov.
* Prior written approval must be obtained to use the JPL logo (stylized
JPL letters in red or other colors). Requests to use the JPL logo may
be directed to the Television/Imaging Team Leader, Media Relations
Office, Mail Stop 186-120, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena CA
91109, telephone (818) 354-5011, fax (818) 354-4537.
* If an image includes an identifiable person, using the image for
commercial purposes may infringe that persons right of privacy or
publicity, and permission should be obtained from the person. NASA
and JPL generally do not permit likenesses of current employees to
appear on commercial products. For more information, consult the NASA
and JPL points of contact listed above.
* JPL/Caltech contractors and vendors who wish to use JPL images in
advertising or public relation materials should direct requests to the
Television/Imaging Team Leader, Media Relations Office, Mail Stop
186-120, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena CA 91109, telephone
(818) 354-5011, fax (818) 354-4537.
* Some image and video materials on JPL public web sites are owned by
organizations other than JPL or NASA. These owners have agreed to
make their images and video available for journalistic, educational
and personal uses, but restrictions are placed on commercial uses.
To obtain permission for commercial use, contact the copyright owner
listed in each image caption. Ownership of images and video by
parties other than JPL and NASA is noted in the caption material
with each image.