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Specification

Edexcel Diplomas

Specification Edexcel Dip lomas Edexcel Level 3 Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance Issue 2

Edexcel Level 3 Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance

Issue 2

April 2010

Edexcel Dip lomas Edexcel Level 3 Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance Issue 2 April

Edexcel, a Pearson company, is the UK’s largest awarding body, offering academic and vocational qualifications to more than 25,000 schools, colleges, employers and other places of learning in the UK and in over 100 countries worldwide. Qualifications include GCSEs, AS and

A Levels, NVQs, Diplomas and our BTEC suite of vocational qualifications from entry level to

BTEC Higher National Diplomas, recognised by employers and higher education institutions

worldwide.

We deliver 9.4 million exam scripts each year, with more than 90% of exam papers marked onscreen annually. As part of Pearson, Edexcel continues to invest in cutting-edge technology that has revolutionised the examinations and assessment system. This includes the ability to provide detailed performance data to tutors and students which helps to raise attainment.

This specification is Issue 2. Key changes are sidelined. We will inform centres of any changes

to this issue. The latest issue can be found on the Edexcel website: www.edexcel.com

References to third-party material made in this specification are made in good faith. Edexcel does not endorse, approve or accept responsibility for the content of materials, which may be subject to change, or any opinions expressed therein. (Material may include textbooks, journals, magazines and other publications and websites.)

Authorised by Roger Beard Prepared by Roger Field

Publications Code DP020775

All the material in this publication is copyright

© Edexcel Limited 2010

Contents

Introduction to Edexcel’s Diplomas

1

What are the Diplomas?

1

How are the Diplomas structured?

2

What do Diplomas include?

3

Principal Learning

3

Generic Learning

3

Functional skills and personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS)

3

Additional and Specialist Learning (ASL)

4

Structure and aims of Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance

5

The Edexcel Diplomas in Business, Administration and Finance: Principal Learning

5

Edexcel Level 3 Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance

5

Unit format

6

Assessment and grading of the Principal Learning

9

Internal assessment

9

External assessment

11

Calculation of the Principal Learning grade

11

Calculation of the Diploma grade

11

Programme design and delivery

12

Mode of study

12

Applied learning

12

Delivery of applied learning

12

Resources

13

Personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS)

14

Coverage

14

How personal, learning and thinking skills are used to support formative feedback

15

Access and recruitment

Access arrangements and special considerations

Further information

Useful publications

15

15

16

16

Professional development and training

17

Level 3 units

19

Unit 1: Business Enterprise

21

Unit 2: Business Administration and Events

45

Unit 3: Personal Finance and Financial Services

65

Unit 4: Business Finance and Accounting

77

Unit 5: Marketing and Sales in Business

91

Unit 6: Customer Service in Business

117

Unit 7: Teams and Communication in Business

141

Unit 8: Responding to Change in Business

163

Unit 9: Corporate Social Responsibility

175

Unit 10: Careers and Employment in Business

187

List of annexes

209

Annexe A: Qualification codes

211

Annexe B: Personal, learning and thinking skills

213

Annexe C: Wider curriculum mapping

219

Annexe D: Glossary of terms

221

Annexe E: Internal Assessment of Principal Learning Units: Controls for Task Setting, Task Taking and Task Marking

225

Annexe F: Learning outcomes and assessment criteria for each unit

233

Introduction to Edexcel’s Diplomas

What are the Diplomas?

Diplomas have been developed to provide new and innovative qualifications for 14 to 19 year- old learners. They are a defined set of qualifications that have been combined according to a set of rules.

Diplomas are designed to support progression to further study, training or employment. Learners will have the opportunity to develop and practise work-related skills within a chosen employment sector.

Diplomas will be developed in 17 ‘lines of learning’ which relate to different employment sectors. Employers in each sector have been involved in their design.

The 17 lines of learning are:

For teaching from September 2008

Construction and the Built Environment

Creative and Media

Engineering

Information Technology

Society, Health and Development

For teaching from September 2009

Business, Administration and Finance

Environmental and Land-based Studies

Hair and Beauty Studies

Hospitality

Manufacturing and Product Design

Each Diploma will be available at three levels:

Foundation – Level 1

Higher – Level 2

Advanced – Level 3

Progression – Level 3.

For teaching from September 2010

Public Services

Retail

Sport and Leisure

Travel and Tourism

For teaching from September 2011

Science

Languages

Humanities

The Foundation Diploma is broadly equivalent to five GCSEs. Similarly, the Higher Diploma broadly equates to seven GCSEs, whilst the Advanced Diploma broadly equates to three and a half GCE ‘A’ levels and the Progression Diploma to two and a half GCE ‘A’ levels.

How are the Diplomas structured?

Foundation Diploma — 600 Guided Learning Hours (GLH)

Principal Learning *

240

GLH; at least 50 per cent must be applied learning

Generic Learning

Work experience (minimum of 10 days);

functional skills * (English, ICT and mathematics)

120

GLH;

project * 60 GLH;

personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS) 60 GLH

Additional and specialist learning *

120

GLH

Higher Diploma — 800 Guided Learning Hours (GLH)

Principal Learning *

420

GLH; at least 50 per cent must be applied learning

Generic Learning

Work experience (minimum of 10 days);

functional skills * (English, ICT and mathematics) 80 GLH;

project * 60 GLH;

personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS) 60 GLH

Additional and specialist learning *

180

GLH

Advanced Diploma — 1080 Guided Learning Hours (GLH)

Principal Learning *

540

GLH; at least 50 per cent must be applied learning

Generic Learning

Work experience (minimum of 10 days);

extended project * 120 GLH;

personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS) 60 GLH

Additional and specialist learning *

360

GLH

Progression Diploma (Level 3) — 720 Guided Learning Hours (GLH)

Principal Learning *

540

GLH; at least 50 per cent must be applied learning

Generic Learning

Work experience (minimum of 10 days);

extended project * 120 GLH;

personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS) 60 GLH

* These components of the Diplomas are also freestanding qualifications in their own right.

What do Diplomas include?

As can be seen from the structure diagrams, Diplomas consist of three components:

Principal Learning

Generic Learning (including a project and work experience)

Additional and/or specialist learning.

Principal Learning

Principal Learning is a freestanding qualification which is sector related, focusing on developing knowledge, understanding and skills that are relevant to the chosen sector and applying these to work-based situations.

It emphasises learning through the practical application of knowledge, understanding and skills to relevant work experience and work-related tasks, problems and contexts.

Generic Learning

Generic Learning consists of:

functional skills in English, ICT and mathematics

personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS)

a project

work experience.

Functional skills and personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS)

Functional skills are offered as stand alone qualifications at Level 1 for the Foundation Diploma and at Level 2 for the Higher and Advanced Diplomas.

Opportunities to develop personal, learning and thinking skills will be embedded throughout the Principal Learning for the Diplomas, and will be assessed as part of these qualifications.

Generic skills are integrated into and reinforced within the Principal Learning. This means that the Principal Learning assessments will include opportunities for learners to achieve the personal, learning and thinking skills.

The Diplomas provide opportunities for learners to develop and apply functional skills and personal, learning and thinking skills within sector-related contexts. Further opportunities for learners to demonstrate these skills may also be offered in the project and in the work experience.

Project and extended project

The project and extended project are offered as stand alone qualifications. As part of the Foundation and Higher Diplomas learners will complete the project qualification. Learners will complete the extended project as part of the Advanced Diploma.

They aim to enable learners to:

develop as inquisitive and independent learners

be inspired and enthused by new areas or methods of study

extend their planning, research, analysis and presentation skills

apply their personal, learning and thinking skills

use their learning experiences to support their personal aspirations for further and higher education and career development.

Work experience

Each Diploma has a requirement for a minimum of 10 days’ work experience, related to work- based activities, to support the programme of study.

Work experience will:

support the development and recognition of work-related learning

build on previous work experience

develop sector skills when set in relevant settings

develop general employability skills

enhance the overall learning experience

allow flexibility around how evidence of attainment is achieved.

It allows learners to draw together, apply and add to their knowledge and enable them to develop confidence and expertise.

Additional and Specialist Learning (ASL)

Additional and specialist learning consists of accredited qualifications at the same level as, or one level above, the Diploma which have been approved under Section 96 of the Learning and Skills Act 2000. It may include qualifications which are also available to learners not taking the Diploma, or qualifications specifically developed to be part of the Diploma.

Additional learning is intended to:

broaden the learning experience by including qualifications from other sectors

and specialist learning is intended to:

allow learners to specialise further in the sector by undertaking qualifications from the same sector as the Diploma.

Qualifications for additional and specialist learning must be selected from the ASL catalogue through the National Database of Accredited Qualifications (NDAQ). The catalogue includes qualifications which have the approval of the Diploma Development Partnership (DDP) and will expand over time as more qualifications are approved. To access the catalogue go to www.ndaq.org.uk and select ‘Browse Diploma Qualifications’.

Structure and aims of Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance

This specification contains the Edexcel Level 3 Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance.

The Edexcel Diplomas in Business, Administration and Finance: Principal Learning

The Edexcel Level 3 Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance aims to:

allow learners to develop a range of skills that will be useful both in the workplace and for future learning

provide learners with detailed business knowledge that will help to enter the workplace

be practical and motivating, allowing learners to apply knowledge and skills in relevant meaningful learning and assessment activities

provide learners with the skills and theoretical knowledge to progress into higher education

promote the development of personal, learning and thinking skills.

Edexcel Level 3 Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance

All units are compulsory.

Unit

Title

GLH

Assessment

number

1

Business Enterprise

90

Internal

2

Business Administration and Events

60

Internal

3

Personal Finance and Financial Services

60

External

4

Business Finance and Accounting

60

External

5

Marketing and Sales in Business

60

Internal

6

Customer Service in Business

60

Internal

7

Teams and Communication in Business

60

Internal

8

Responding to Change in Business

30

External

9

Corporate Social Responsibility

30

External

10

Careers and Employment in Business

30

Internal

Unit format

All units in Edexcel Principal Learning qualifications have a standard format which is designed to provide clear guidance on the requirements of the qualification for learners, tutors, assessors and those responsible for monitoring national standards.

Each unit is set out in the following way:

Unit title

The unit title is accredited by QCDA and this form of words will appear on the learner’s Notification of Performance (NOP).

Level

This is the level of study of the qualification.

Internal/external

Further details of the mode of assessment are given later in the unit.

assessment

Guided learning hours (GLH)

In the Principal Learning qualifications each unit consists of 30, 60 or 90 guided learning hours depending on the level.

Guided learning hours is ‘a notional measure of the substance of a unit’. It includes an estimate of time that might be allocated to direct teaching, instruction and assessment, together with other structured learning time such as directed assignments or supported individual study. It excludes learner-initiated private study.

Centres are advised to consider this definition when planning the programme of study associated with this specification.

About this unit

This section is designed to give the reader an appreciation of the value of the unit in the vocational setting of the qualification as well as highlighting the focus of the unit.

It provides the reader with a snapshot of the aims of the unit and the key knowledge, skills and understanding developed while studying the unit. The unit abstract also emphasises links to the sector by describing what the unit offers the sector.

Learning outcomes

Learning outcomes state exactly what a learner should ‘know’, ‘understand’ or ‘be able to’ do as a result of completing the unit.

What you need to learn

This section identifies the depth and breadth of knowledge, skills and understanding needed to achieve each of the learning outcomes. This is illustrated by the range of subject material for the programme of learning and specifies the skills, knowledge and understanding required for achievement to the level required to comply with all mark bands.

Each learning outcome is stated in full and then expanded with further detail on the right-hand side. Internally-assessed units may contain ‘egs’ within this section. These are used to show indicative lists of content only.

Teaching this unit – Delivery guidance

This section is designed to give tutors additional guidance and amplification on the unit in order to provide a coherence of understanding and a consistency of delivery. This section includes guidance on, for example:

links to other units

explaining the relationship between the content and the learning outcomes

guidance about possible approaches to delivery

possible approaches to employer engagement.

Learning outcomes and assessment criteria

This section contains learning outcomes and assessment criteria for the externally assessed units. Learning outcomes and assessment criteria for internally assessed units can be found in Annexe F.

Assessment information for learners – How you will be assessed

This section gives information about the assessment activities required for this unit.

Assessment information for assessors

This section provides assessors details in the following sub- headings:

Instructions and controls for setting assessment assignments

Sector-relevant purpose

Evidence structure

Level of demand

Assessment duration

Instructions and controls for taking assessment assignments

Guidance for assessment.

Marking grid(s)

Internally-assessed units have a marking grid(s) which contains a list of assessment foci, with statements ordered into three mark bands. When work is marked it is judged against these statements and an appropriate mark awarded.

The marking grids are supported with further information under the following sub-headings:

Using the marking grid

Learner assistance

Level descriptors.

Delivery of personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS)

This section identifies where there may be opportunities within the unit for the generation of evidence to meet the requirements of PLTS.

Assessors should take care to become familiar with PLTS and not to rely on the contents of this section when presenting evidence for moderation. The full PLTS framework is included in this document as Annexe B, but centres should refer to the QCDA website (www.qcda.gov.uk) for the latest version of the PLTS framework.

Functional skills

This section identifies where there may be opportunities within the unit for the generation of evidence to meet the functional skill requirements.

Work experience

This section includes guidance relating to the use of work experience within the unit.

Specialist resources

This section includes information relating to specialist resources the centre will need to have access to in order to deliver the unit.

Reference material

This section includes information relating to reference material that will enhance the delivery of the unit and the learning experience. Note it is not intended to be comprehensive. Examples are given. In relation to websites, tutors and learners should use website links to extend their searches.

Assessment and grading of the Principal Learning

The purpose of assessment is to ensure that effective learning of each unit has taken place. Principal Learning units are assessed either internally by tutors or externally by Edexcel. Each unit is labelled clearly as internally or externally assessed.

It is essential that tutors familiarise themselves with and follow the guidelines set out in the document Internal Assessment of Principal Learning Units: Controls for Task Setting, Task Taking and Task Marking (see Annexe E) when developing assignments for internally-assessed units.

Internal assessment

Internal assessment will be used to facilitate assessment of generic and practical skills. It will be quality assured through internal and external moderation. It will be supervised and completed under controlled conditions.

Each unit is assessed through a single assignment which has an overall purpose that reflects the aim of the unit, and is described in the How you will be assessed section. An assignment may be broken down into a few separate tasks. Tasks may be further broken down into smaller activities. The Internal Assessment of Principal Learning Units: Controls for Task Setting, Task Taking and Task Marking document details the nature of the controls that need to be applied to each type of task/activity and its outcome.

Where a unit is internally assessed, centres can use the sample assignments provided by Edexcel, or can design and quality assure suitable assignments. When designing assignments, centres are required to be aware of the following design principles (see relevant Tutor Support Materials for further guidance).

Assignments should be:

Fit for purpose

They should consist of tasks which are related to the subject matter and content of the unit. For example, where a unit is centred on IT, the assessment will use IT at the core of the task.

Manageable

They should be designed to be manageable for both the learner and for the centre.

Secure

They should be delivered under controlled conditions, where centres can guarantee the work produced is truly that of the individual learner.

Reliable

They should produce judgements of a similar standard from occasion to occasion and between different assessors.

Valid

They should assess what they are intended to assess in terms of the learning outcomes.

Transparent

They should be expressed in ways that can be readily understood by learners, tutors and assessors.

Balanced

They should fairly reflect the content and associated learning outcomes, avoiding confusing learning with assessment and not adversely affecting teaching and learning.

Flexible

They should provide opportunities for learners to produce a variety of different forms of evidence.

Centres are encouraged to use a variety of assessment methods, which might include, for example, the use of case studies, work-based assessments, projects, performance observation and time-constrained assessments. Centres are encouraged to place emphasis on practical application, providing a realistic scenario for learners to adopt, and making maximum use of practical activities and work experience.

The creation of assignments that are fit for purpose is vital to learners’ achievement and its importance cannot be over emphasised.

When reading the marking grids and designing assignments, centres should note the following.

Each internally-assessed unit has either 60, 75 or 90 available marks in total.

In some units the marking grid has been split into two grids – A and B. Marking grid A contains all of the marking criteria for the unit except those which assess a learner’s performance in practical activities which are recorded as a learner observation record (see the Edexcel Diploma website for further information). These make up Marking grid B.

Centres must ensure that learners undertake appropriate assessment tasks to enable them to achieve the requirements of each unit’s marking grid(s).

The basic principle is that this is a ‘best fit’ grid – ie the assessor must match the overall standard of work for an assessment focus to a band. It is NOT a hurdle approach, whereby the assessor cannot award marks from the next mark band if one item for an assessment focus from a lower mark band has been omitted, regardless of the quality of the rest of the work for that assessment focus.

If a learner completes all they are asked to do in a band for an assessment focus, they can be awarded the full marks for that mark band.

If a learner has clearly done more on one aspect of work for an assessment focus required by a mark band, the assessor should consider whether the learner can be awarded marks from the bottom of the next mark band.

If a learner has completed less than required in any aspect of work for an assessment focus, or indeed omitted an aspect, then the mark moves down within the mark band.

Marking is completely separate for each assessment focus – ie a learner can get mark band 3 on one assessment focus, mark band 1 on another etc, then all marks are added together for the unit total. It may be possible, depending on weighting of an assessment focus for a learner to pass a unit even if 0 has been given in marks for one assessment focus in the unit. Relevant Tutor Support Materials may contain further information relating to marking.

A 0 mark should be used only where a learner provides no valid evidence. Any work that starts to address the requirements of the grid should normally be awarded at least one mark.

Evidence generated for Marking grid A will be moderated. This must be in the form of hard evidence which a moderator can reassess, such as learner produced written documents (eg short question answers, multiple choice question answers, materials from presentations, research notes), videos (dated) of practical activities or artefacts.

Marks gained from Marking grid A will be reported separately from those gained from Marking grid B.

External assessment

There is a requirement that some units in the Principal Learning will be externally assessed. These external assessments will be made available by Edexcel on agreed, published dates during the year.

For the Edexcel Level 3 Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance, the following units will be externally assessed:

Level

Unit number(s)

Unit title(s)

Advanced

3

Personal Finance and Financial Services

Advanced

4

Business Finance and Accounting

Advanced

8

Responding to Change in Business

Advanced

9

Corporate Social Responsibility

Calculation of the Principal Learning grade

Performance in each unit of Principal Learning will be assessed against criteria given in the marking grid, giving rise to unit marks.

Unit marks will be allocated according to marking criteria that do not bear a direct relationship to grading mark bands; that is, assessors will be clear that they are allocating marks and are not grading learners directly.

There will be no pre-published unit grade boundaries.

Once units have been completed by learners and marked, they will be graded by Edexcel through a separate process involving professional judgement of performance and of technical and statistical data. This will produce unit grade boundaries and hence unit grades which will be reported.

To permit the calculation of a Principal Learning qualification grade, Principal Learning unit marks will be converted to points. Points for all Principal Learning units will be added together to devise a Principal Learning score. Using published thresholds the Principal Learning score will be converted to a Principal Learning grade.

Calculation of the Diploma grade

The overall grade for the Diploma will be based only on grades obtained from Principal Learning and the project. However, achievement of all components within the Diploma will be required in order to gain the Diploma qualification.

Points for Principal Learning units (weighted as appropriate) will be added to points for the project to derive a Diploma score. Using published thresholds the Diploma score will be converted into a Diploma grade.

Programme design and delivery

These Principal Learning qualifications consist of units of assessment. Each unit is 30, 60, or 90 guided learning hours in length depending on the level. The definition of guided learning hours is ‘a notional measure of the substance of a qualification’. It includes an estimate of time that might be allocated to direct teaching, instruction and assessment, together with other structured learning time such as directed assignments or supported individual study. It excludes learner- initiated private study. Centres are advised to consider this definition when planning the programme of study associated with this specification.

Mode of study

Edexcel does not define the mode of study for the Principal Learning of Diplomas but there is an explicit requirement that for at least 50 per cent of the time learners will be engaged in applied learning.

Applied learning

Acquiring and applying knowledge, skills and understanding through tasks set in sector contexts that have many of the characteristics of real work, or are set within the workplace. Most importantly, the purpose of the task in which learners apply their knowledge, skills and understanding must be relevant to real work in the sector.

Reference: The Diploma (Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, 2007)

Centres are free to offer the qualifications using any mode of delivery that meets the needs of their learners and the requirements of applied learning. For example this may be through a combination of traditional classroom teaching, open learning and distance learning. Whatever mode of delivery is used, centres must ensure that learners have appropriate access to the required resources (see individual units) and to the subject specialists delivering the units.

Assignments based on the work environment should be encouraged. Those planning the programme should aim to enhance the vocational nature of the Diploma by:

liaising with employers to ensure a course relevant to the specific needs of the learners

accessing and using non-confidential data and documents from workplaces

including sponsoring employers in the delivery of the programme and, where appropriate, in the assessment

linking with company-based/workplace training programmes

making full use of the variety of experience of work and life that learners bring to the programme.

Delivery of applied learning

It is important that centres develop an approach to teaching and learning that supports the applied learning requirement of the Diploma. The Principal Learning specifications contain a balance of practical skill development and knowledge requirements, some of which can be theoretical in nature. Tutors and assessors need to ensure that appropriate links are made between theory and practice and that the knowledge base is applied to the sector. This will

require the development of relevant and up-to-date teaching materials that allow learners to apply their learning to actual events and activity within the sector.

Tutors are reminded that experiential learning techniques are required and that the opportunities for formative assessment where learners benefit from regular and structured feedback are a necessary requirement of a Diploma programme.

Where learners are performing an activity by practically applying their knowledge and skills, they are essentially behaving in the required applied nature of the Diploma. By then reviewing that learning and considering how improvements can be made and implemented, experiential learning will take place (see Figure 1).

Do Review
Do
Review
Do Review Experiential learning Plan

Experiential

learning

Plan

Do Review Experiential learning Plan

Figure 1: Experiential learning cycle

Resources

One aim of Diplomas is to prepare learners to progress to employment in specific sectors. Physical resources need to support the delivery of the programme and the proper assessment of the learning outcomes and therefore should normally be of industry standard.

Staff delivering programmes and conducting the assessments should be fully familiar with current practice and standards in the sector concerned.

Centres will need to meet any specialist resource requirements when they seek approval from Edexcel.

Assessment and learning

Summative assessment

Summative assessment serves to inform an overall judgement of achievement, which may be needed for reporting and review, perhaps on transfer between years in a school or on transfer between schools, perhaps for providing certificates at the end of schooling.

Although learners are working to satisfy a summative assessment (the marking grids reflect a final overall judgement) the benefit of formative assessment should be strongly emphasised throughout the learning.

Formative assessment

Formative assessment is concerned with the short-term collection and use of evidence as guidance of learning, mainly in day-to-day classroom practice.

In order for formative assessment to occur, the learner must understand what they have learned, what they have yet to learn and what they need to do to learn it. The responsibility of helping learners through a process of planning and reviewing their learning lies with the tutor.

Personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS)

Personal, learning and thinking skills are necessary for work and for general learning. Learners will have opportunities to develop, apply and assess all the personal, learning and thinking skills within Principal Learning. Personal, learning and thinking skills consist of the following six skills:

independent enquiry

creative thinking

reflective learning

team working

self-management

effective participation.

Annexe B contains detailed information relating to each of the six personal, learning and thinking skills.

Each unit requires learners to demonstrate personal, learning and thinking skills, which are a mandatory requirement and a key feature of the Diplomas. Personal, learning and thinking skills are to be used as both a guide on the delivery of each unit and also as a motivating formative indicator for the learner.

Coverage

All personal, learning and thinking skills are required to be covered and assessed during the delivery and assessment of the whole Diploma and provide the context for the delivery and assessment of the programme of learning. A final summary of the coverage is also provided in Annexe B which collates the coverage of personal, learning and thinking skills throughout the programme.

Personal, learning and thinking skills are an essential, embedded feature of the delivery and assessment of the Principal Learning. Learners may also develop and apply personal, learning and thinking skills within the other components of the Diploma.

Centres should design the programme of study so that approximately 60 GLH will be allowed to enable learners to develop, plan and review the application of their personal, learning and thinking skills across their learning programme. Personal, learning and thinking skills will not be separately assessed as part of the Diploma but all six personal, learning and thinking skills will be integrated into the assessment criteria for Principal Learning. Each learner’s achievement of personal, learning and thinking skills will be recorded in the Diploma transcript.

How personal, learning and thinking skills are used to support formative feedback

Personal, learning and thinking skills provide an excellent structural guide for the tutor when providing formative feedback to the learner. Tutors will be able to structure assessment and learning opportunities around personal, learning and thinking skills and should use a pro forma sheet to indicate to the learner where progress has been made and where the learner needs to focus further development. A suggested sheet (‘PLTS Performance Indicator’) for this activity is provided in Annexe B.

The ‘PLTS Performance Indicator’ can be used by the assessor to feed back on work to the learner showing the level of success that has been demonstrated during each assignment. The indicator is filled in by the assessor or supervisor to record the learner’s performance at regular intervals during the course and ideally after every assignment. This informs the learner of their strengths and weaknesses and illustrates graphically where the learner should concentrate their efforts in the future.

Access and recruitment

Edexcel’s policy regarding access to its qualifications is that:

the qualifications should be available to everyone who is capable of reaching the required standards

the qualifications should be free from any barriers that restrict access and progression

there should be equal opportunities for all wishing to access the qualifications.

Centres are required to recruit learners to Edexcel qualifications with integrity. This will include ensuring that applicants have appropriate information and advice about the qualifications and that the qualification will meet their needs.

Centres should take appropriate steps to assess each applicant’s potential and make a professional judgement about their ability to successfully complete the programme of study and achieve the qualification. This assessment will need to take account of the support available to the learner within the centre during their programme of study and any specific support that might be necessary to allow the learner to access the assessment for the qualification. Centres should also show regard for Edexcel’s policy on learners with particular requirements.

Access arrangements and special considerations

Edexcel’s policy on access arrangements and special considerations aims to enhance access to the qualifications for learners with disabilities and other difficulties (as defined by the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 and the amendments to the Act) without compromising the assessment of skills, knowledge, understanding or competence.

Further information

For further information please call Customer Services on 0844 576 0028 (calls may be recorded for training purposes) or visit our website at www.edexcel.com.

Useful publications

Further copies of this document and related publications can be obtained from:

Edexcel Publications Adamsway Mansfield Nottinghamshire NG18 4FN

Telephone:

01623 467 467

Fax:

01623 450 481

Email:

publications@linney.com

Related information and publications include:

Accreditation of Prior Learning available on our website: www.edexcel.com

Guidance for Centres Offering Edexcel/BTEC NQF Accredited Programmes (Edexcel, distributed to centres annually)

Operating Rules for Component and Diploma Awarding Bodies (QCA, 2007)

The Diploma Structure and Standards, Version 2 (QCA, 2007)

Regulatory Arrangements for the Qualification and Credit Framework (Ofqual, August

2008)

What is a Diploma? (DfES and QCA, 2007)

the ASL catalogue on the National Database of Accredited Qualifications (NDAQ) website:

www.ndaq.org.uk

the current Edexcel publications catalogue and update catalogue

the latest news on the Diploma from QCDA available on their website:

www.QCDA.gov.uk/diploma

the latest news on Edexcel Diplomas available on our website:

NB: Most of our publications are priced. There is also a charge for postage and packing. Please check the cost when you order.

Professional development and training

Edexcel supports UK and international customers with training related to our qualifications. This support is available through a choice of training options offered in our published training directory or through customised training at your centre.

The support we offer focuses on a range of issues including:

planning for the delivery of a new programme

planning for assessment and grading

developing effective assignments

building your team and teamwork skills

developing student-centred learning and teaching approaches

building key skills into your programme

building in effective and efficient quality assurance systems.

The national programme of training we offer can be viewed on our website (www.edexcel.com/training). You can request customised training through the website or by contacting one of our advisers in the Training from Edexcel team via Customer Services to discuss your training needs.

Our customer service numbers are:

The Diploma

0844 576 0028

BTEC and NVQ

0844 576 0026

GCSE

0844 576 0027

GCE

0844 576 0025

DIDA and other qualifications

0844 576 0031

Calls may be recorded for training purposes.

The training we provide:

is active – ideas are developed and applied

is designed to be supportive and thought provoking

builds on best practice.

Level 3 units

LEVEL 3 UNIT 1: BUSINESS ENTERPRISE

Unit 1: Business Enterprise

Principal Learning unit

Level 3

Guided Learning Hours: 90

Internally assessed

About this unit

All businesses aim to succeed, but the difference between business success and failure can be small. A single unforeseen event or economic conditions over which the business has no control can make all the difference. You will learn about these factors, which will make you better prepared when planning and running your own enterprise. You will learn about what makes a good idea for a business, and what makes an idea innovative.

You will come up with your own idea for a business and prepare a business plan, drawing on skills and knowledge from other units to identify the resources you need, produce forecasts, plan how it will be marketed. You’ll present the idea to potential investors and then structure your business, identifying team members’ roles.

Finally, you will set up, run and close down the company. At the end, you will need to reflect on what has happened, so that next time you run a business enterprise you are able to learn from your experiences.

Learning outcomes

On completing this unit, a learner should:

LO.1

Know the factors that impact on the chances of business success

LO.2

Be able to develop a viable business idea

LO.3

Be able to produce a business plan

LO.4

Be able to present a business idea

LO.5

Be able to structure a business

LO.6

Be able to run and review a business.

LEVEL 3 UNIT 1: BUSINESS ENTERPRISE

What you need to learn

LO.1

Know the factors that impact on the chances of business success

You need to learn about some of the factors that can affect the success of a business enterprise:

poor planning and research

problems with product or service offered, eg flawed design, production problems, distribution problems, uncompetitive pricing

cash flow problems, eg spending or borrowing too much, poor forecasting, poor cost control, customers failing to pay what they owe

failure to market the business successfully

poor risk management, eg over-dependency on small number of customers

lack of adaptability, eg failure to react to changes in market, technology.

Businesses can be vulnerable to illegal activities, which can hurt both their reputation and profits. You need to learn about the sorts of illegal activities that businesses face, eg:

from customers and member of the public: shoplifting; payment fraud; internet activities (hacking, viruses, identify theft fraud)

from staff: theft of stock, money and supplies; expense claims and false accounting.

There are a number of security counter measures that can be taken, eg:

secure storage of stock, stock taking, security staff, CCTV

robust financial record keeping and accounting procedures

internet security features, eg passwords, firewalls, secure payment systems

staff selection procedures and disciplinary procedures.

LO.2

Be able to develop a viable business idea

LEVEL 3 UNIT 1: BUSINESS ENTERPRISE

Before you can develop a business idea, you need to learn about the features of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurs are people who are enterprising, that is they have ideas. They often possess some of the following qualities:

a willingness to make decisions and take risks

being motivated, self-reliant and dedicated

flexibility and ability to adapt

ability to communicate the idea to others

being a creative/lateral thinker

organisation and planning ability.

You also need to consider the benefits of entrepreneurship for:

the entrepreneur: personal satisfaction; financial reward; freedom to be your own boss

society and the economy: benefits for consumers; providing competition to others; generating wealth and employment; inspiring others.

You need to learn about the process of developing a business idea:

generating ideas for a product/service:

looking for opportunities

brainstorming techniques

assessing ideas in terms of innovation and creativity:

how they are new, different or better than alternatives, unique selling points

comparing the ideas and deciding which ideas are viable:

time, money and resources available

your knowledge and skills

whether there seems to be a market for it

laws and regulations

any other obstacles you will need to overcome

sustainability over duration of the enterprise

choosing the best idea and developing it:

what it is

who it is for

what makes the idea different/better than competition

how you could sell it

LEVEL 3 UNIT 1: BUSINESS ENTERPRISE

LO.3

Be able to produce a business plan

Planning for a business involves making a number of important decisions and pre-empting problems. You need to learn about the different forms of trading:

different forms of trading: sole traders; partnerships; limited companies; charities

key considerations affecting choice: limited and unlimited liability; risks and rewards; legal considerations, costs and bureaucracy.

Aims and objectives are designed to help an organisation achieve its purpose and they provide staff with a focus for what they do. Different types of organisation have different aims:

private sector, eg to provide goods or services, to survive, to grow, to make a profit

public sector, eg to provide a service to the community, to improve service provision

voluntary sector, eg to provide a service to a target group, to promote a cause, to survive, to make a surplus.

You need to learn about the common elements in a business plan:

what the business does and its objectives, including essential facts about the product or service

who the target market is

how the product/service will be sold and marketed

physical resources, eg premises, equipment, materials

financial resources, eg start up costs, what money will be spent on; sources of finance, eg shares, savings, loans

forecasts: profit and loss; cash flow.

You need to learn about the risk management process, which is a key part of business planning:

identifying possible risks:

financial, eg illegal activities, insufficient financing

market, eg pricing, demand, competition

operational, eg problems making the product

assessing which are most serious

deciding which can be dealt with

suggesting preventative measures.

LO.4

Be able to present a business idea

LO.5

Be able to structure a business

LEVEL 3 UNIT 1: BUSINESS ENTERPRISE

You need to learn about how to prepare and make a presentation

what information people will need to know

what order to put information in

how to be positive and identify benefits

anticipating questions you may be asked

use of supporting materials.

Communication skills:

use of voice, eg speed, clarity

body language, eye contact.

All businesses need to have some form of internal organisation. Work can be divided into different functional areas, eg:

production/operations

sales and marketing

information technology

finance

human resources

administration/facilities.

The size of the business can affect how work is organised:

large organisations: functions distributed into separate departments

small or new organisations, eg distributed to individuals, shared, combined. Organisations also differ according to the way that they are structured:

hierarchical, eg directors departmental managers supervisors/team leaders team members

flat, eg manager staff

matrix, eg using project teams.

When recruiting people to fill these structures, many organisations use formal procedures to help them identify needs, and then attract and assess applicants. You will need to learn about the purpose and contents of:

a job description: duties and responsibilities

a person specification: qualities.

LEVEL 3 UNIT 1: BUSINESS ENTERPRISE

LO.6

Be able to run and review a business

You need to learn about the process of setting up and running a company:

putting plans into action, adapting where necessary

creating promotional methods and materials, eg leaflets, adverts, notices, demonstrations, door-to-door sales

the need to make effective use of time and resources

production and the importance of monitoring: quantity, quality, taking action to put problems right

how success can be measured, eg how far original aims and objectives are met, financial and quantitative measures, feedback from users, lessons learned for the future, evidence of ability to work well as a team

the processes involved in setting up and running a company:

creating company documents, eg memorandum of association, articles of association, share certificates

record keeping, eg financial accounts, share ownership records

meetings, eg board meetings

relevant law and regulations:

business formation, financial records and taxes

consumer legislation, eg unfair trading, sale of goods, weights and measures

other regulations, eg health and safety, planning, fire

relevant environmental issues, eg

waste and recycling

energy saving.

the process of closing down a company:

agreement to close down the business

closing down of trading activities

preparation of final accounts

distribution of money and resources.

LEVEL 3 UNIT 1: BUSINESS ENTERPRISE

Teaching this unit

Delivery guidance

This unit is 90 guided learning hours (GLH) in length. Centres should allocate this amount of time within the timetable for its delivery and assessment.

Unless otherwise stated, all of the content included in the What you need to learn section needs to be taught. Sometimes an ‘eg’ or ‘for example’ is included in order to show content that is indicative: in these cases not all of the examples will need to be covered (for example, because some may not always apply in a particular situation), and tutors can introduce other examples of their own that are relevant to particular situations and to the needs of their learners.

There are opportunities to link the delivery of this unit to others, particularly Unit 5: Marketing and Sales in Business, Unit 2: Business Administration and Events, Unit 7: Teams and Communication in Business and Unit 4: Business Finance and Accounting, so that parts of those units are contextualised within the enterprise that the learners are working on in this unit: so, for example, the event that learners organise in Unit 2: Business Administration and Events could be an event at which the learners will promote their enterprise; Unit 5: Marketing and Sales could be linked to this unit at several stages: learners could carry out market research on the business idea from this unit; they could also use it to learn and then demonstrate their personal selling skills. Similarly, it would be beneficial to link the forecasting and financial planning that is required in LO.3 to Unit 4: Business Finance and Accounting. Finally, the planning and running of a business idea offer an ideal context for the meetings that learners are required to organise and support in Unit 2: Business Administration and Events.

Delivery guidance for LO.1

Learners need to understand the various factors that can affect the chances of business success, as some may have a direct bearing on their own business enterprises. There are a mix of factors that are internal and could potentially be controlled, and wider economic factors about which organisations may have little control. Real examples of business failure should be easy to find, particularly those connected to technology, for example internet start-ups. There is no requirement to go into the finance/accounting issues in great depth: understanding cash flow will be dealt with more fully in Unit 4: Business Finance and Accounting.

Illegal activities are an interesting topic, which should prove quite motivating for the learners. Learners should be encouraged to draw on their own experience as and possibly as employees:

they will probably be aware of a number of the counter measures that are taken. It may be interesting for them to compare the approaches taken by different organisations, commenting on how effective they think these are. Visiting speakers from local businesses may also be able to illuminate this subject area.

LEVEL 3 UNIT 1: BUSINESS ENTERPRISE

Delivery guidance for LO.2

By looking at the qualities of entrepreneurs, learners can prepare themselves for the enterprise activity to come. It is important to emphasise that there are likely to be many counter examples, and different entrepreneurs will possess these qualities in different proportions: in some cases, say, their persistence and expert knowledge may have played the key role; with others it may be their adaptability and ability and creativity. It is important to recognise the role that innovation and creativity play in the success of new products and services. The topic may be more accessible and enjoyable for the learners if they can consider their own experience of using a particular product or service: what is it that makes it so desirable or useful to them? Or what sorts of innovation in the near future would they really like to see? What would help them solve daily issues/annoyances? One problem is that after an idea becomes successful, the idea then seems obvious to everyone; one reason for this is that great ideas often identify needs or desires that nobody even realised they had. This can make it difficult to think back to what life was like before the idea had been thought of. One way of addressing this is to take a particular sector, eg telecommunications or electronic entertainment, and trace innovative developments over a number of years, such as mobile phones, music storage media, games consoles, etc. It is also important to emphasise, however, that innovation is not just about ideas that have never been thought of before: much innovation is about small, incremental improvements, or applying existing ideas into new contexts. Learners also need to be introduced to the concept of unique selling points.

Learners need to learn about the process of generating ideas. There are different ways of identifying opportunities, such as identifying an un-met need, or seeing what is already successful in one situation and considering whether it can be applied in a different context. Learners need to be taught about how to generate ideas in groups. Brainstorming is the most widely used method, and there are different types and classifications, but it is not necessary to go into variations. It is important that they learn that all ideas need to be recorded and that at the idea generation stage it is important not to pass judgements otherwise creativity could be stifled. Learners could practise using brainstorming techniques in groups to solve any type of problem.

Before learners are able to develop their own ideas, they will need to have some understanding of what makes an idea realistic and viable: the time, money and physical resources will be critical, as will other issues such as any relevant laws, regulations and health and safety considerations. Tutors should try to steer learners towards ideas that will work in the context of their surroundings. It would be useful to look at examples of business ideas which looked at face value as if they would be successful, but which proved to be flawed, for example by being overambitious, unrealistic, failing to see the potential obstacles in the way.

Delivery guidance for LO.3

Although the enterprise will be run as a company, learners will need to understand the different forms of trading so that they are aware of the various implications. When considering differing aims and objectives, a good place to start would be mission statements that are often available on company websites. Learners could be encouraged to comment on how successful they are at explaining what the organisation does.

Learners need to understand the information that needs to go into a business plan. There is no set format, and learners need not look at a variety of different formats: the most important thing is that they understand what sorts of information are required. Real examples (either blank or completed) might help and blank examples can often be obtained from high street bands, but some may contain much greater or more detailed information than is required for the purposes of this unit. It would be beneficial for learners to have already studied budgets in Unit 4:

Business Finance and Accounting and marketing in Unit 5: Marketing and Sales in Business before they complete their business plan. However, if that is not possible so that this learning outcome is being delivered before that can happen, these topics could be dealt with in isolation so that learners know enough for the purposes of this unit; this knowledge can then be developed further once the other units are delivered.

LEVEL 3 UNIT 1: BUSINESS ENTERPRISE

Delivery guidance for LO.4

Learners will need to be taught about the basic principles of making presentations to stimulate interest in a business idea: the importance of structure and clarity; how software and handouts can be used; why it is important to present an idea in a positive light; and what information potential investors will want to know. However, it is important for tutors to be realistic: learners at this level will not be expected to be able to provide the sort of detailed financial and practical information that would be expected in the real world. To prepare learners for creating a presentation, learners could practise presenting personal information to each other in small groups.

Delivery guidance for LO.5

Learners will need to understand that there are common business functions that need to take place whether the business is run by a sole trader, carrying out all of the function themselves or as a large organisation with separate departments. It would also be useful to look at the structures of different organisations so that learners understand how much variety there can be in terms of how the functions are distributed and also lines of responsibility. Learners should be encouraged to consider the pros and cons of hierarchical, matrix and flat structures.

Similarly, real examples of job descriptions and person specifications would be useful. One approach would be to remove key information from each and see if learners are able to match the correct job description to its person specification.

Delivery guidance for LO.6

Learners need to be taught about the decisions and planning that are involved in implementing a business idea: there is a clear overlap here with LO.3 in that many of them need to be built into the planning but then executed during delivery. They need to know about the different promotional methods and materials they could use and why. They also need to know why it is important to monitor quality (particularly if they are producing anything tangible) and quantity (production/sales) while the enterprise is running so that they can take action if required: the actual monitoring methods are less important than the fact that some sort of monitoring needs to take place. As part of their learning activities, it would be worthwhile for learners to investigate how a variety of local businesses do this if information is available.

Learners need to be taught about the different ways in which success can be measured:

quantitative (for example profits, sales targets) and also more subjective measures such as:

customer opinions and goodwill created; identifying untapped demand that could be met in another way; lessons learned and skills developed which could be built upon in future. Learners should appreciate that a business enterprise might be judged successful under some criteria but a failure when other criteria are applied. This can be illustrated by looking at real business ventures that are conventionally judged to have been ‘failures’ and isolating ways in which it could be judged to have had aspects that were in actual fact successful. Moreover, the experience of running an unsuccessful business can be very valuable as long as lessons are learned; again there are many real examples of entrepreneurs who have eventually been successful only after failure that could be used to illustrate this point.

LEVEL 3 UNIT 1: BUSINESS ENTERPRISE

Assessment information for learners

How you will be assessed

This unit will be assessed by an assignment connected to running a business enterprise.

You will need to:

Decide on an idea for a product or service, develop it and use this to create a written business plan, including a risk analysis [LO.2, LO.3]

Create and give a presentation, based on your business plan, to potential investors [LO.4]

Develop a structure for your business: a diagram showing the organisational structure of your business enterprise; a job description and person specification for your own job role

[LO.5]

Put the business idea into practice and then write up: what decisions were taken and any changes made from the plan; how successful the business was, what you have learned from this (including about your own abilities) and what you would do differently next time [LO.6]; what problems you faced (or might face if the business were to continue), and what you did or would do about them [LO.1].

LEVEL 3 UNIT 1: BUSINESS ENTERPRISE

Assessment information for assessors

Instructions and controls for setting assessment assignments

This unit must be covered by a single assignment, which is described in the How you will be assessed section, and exemplified within the unit sample assessment material (SAM).

Sector-relevant purpose

By its nature, any business enterprise idea can be considered relevant to business, administration and finance as long as it is for a real product or service, not a simulation. The enterprise must have some sort a purpose: in other words it is not enough for it to be done in order solely to satisfy the assessment requirements; rather it must have some other purpose, such as a goal or target.

Evidence structure

Learning

Marking

Activity/section

Evidence

outcome

grid

LO.2, LO.3

A

Business plan

Written evidence: business plan

LO.4

B

Group presentation

Learner observation record, supported by hard copies of any slides, notes, handouts, etc

LO.5

A

Developing a structure for the business

Written evidence: organisational structure, job description and person specification

LO.6(.2, 3)

A

Implementation and review of business idea

Written evidence: decisions taken, assessment of success of business.

LO.1

A

Written evidence: problems and ways of dealing with them

LO.6(.1)

B

Learner observation record of learner’s contribution to the business.

Level of demand

The level of demand is exemplified in the unit sample assessment material (SAM).

It would be appropriate for the final ‘live’ stage of the business in LO.6 to be run over a fairly extended period of time (for example a few hours a week over two or three months). However, centres may wish to extend this enterprise activity over a longer period with more hours allowed. This may make particular sense if centres are contextualising the delivery or assessment of other units within the learners’ business enterprise; in this case the enterprise activity can also make use of hours allocated to those units.

Assessment duration

The suggested guided learning hours (GLH) needed to complete this assignment is 18 hours per learner. Centres can structure this time as they see fit. For LO.6, the suggested GLH only includes time spent writing up their individual accounts, not time spent running the business. Centres should note that the total class assessment time may need to be higher to allow time for separate group presentations for LO.2/3.

LEVEL 3 UNIT 1: BUSINESS ENTERPRISE

Instructions and controls for taking assessment assignments

Learners must be provided with full access to study all of the areas identified in the What you need to learn section of the specification.

Controls relating to resources and supervision are contained within Annexe E.

The enterprise should be run as a company, rather than a partnership. This does not mean that it will need to be formally registered with Companies House, but learners will be expected to set up, run and close down the company as if this were the case. They will need to work in groups of between five and eight people.

The enterprise should also have duration so that the enterprise is operating and trying to generate revenue over a period of time. For example, it cannot be geared solely to putting on a one-off event, for example a single fund raising activity. On the other hand, a one-off event could form one part of the enterprise activities.

For the first part of the assignment, (LO.2, LO.3), it will be necessary for groups to collaborate in creating the business plan. The group will jointly contribute to discussion of the business plan and risk analysis, but each person must write up a plan (see Guidance for assessment for guidance on how this can be managed). The plan must include information about all of the different categories listed in the What you need to learn section.

For the second part of the assignment (LO.4) each learner must take responsibility for creating and presenting part of the presentation within the group. Learners must be awarded individual marks for their own part of the task. Tutors must award marks to the individual, not to the group. This means that is possible for one group member to score highly on their part of the presentation while another scores less well on their part. Peer feedback could be gathered and used as supporting evidence, but assessment decisions must be made by the tutor.

Although work that leads up to the creation of the assessment evidence in the third part of the assignment (LO.5), will be done as part of a group, the learner must produce their own evidence for assessment for the organisation plan, and particularly the job description and person specification for their own job role in the enterprise.

For the final part of the assignment (LO.1, LO.6), marks are awarded not only for the written evidence submitted by the learners (marking grid A) but also for the contribution made to the running of the business, as observed by the tutor (marking grid B). Tutors will not need to be present at all stages, nor to observe every activity, but must take a holistic view based on what they see throughout the process rather than, say, at the beginning or end only. When assessing the contributions made, tutors must remember that even if the business has only limited success in meeting its objectives, it is possible for any (or even all) individual team members to make a significant and sustained contribution to the running of the business.

Summary of unit controls

Setting

Time

Resources

Supervision

Collaboration

Marking

Limited

Limited

Limited

Medium

Limited

Medium

See Annexe E for further information.

Guidance for assessment

It is recommended that assessment to take place in different stages: (business plan, group presentation, structuring of business, implementation) after the relevant learning has taken place. The assessment of LO.5 (structuring of the business and job role) could be done at the same time as that for LO.2/LO.3 (business plan). The centre may wish to consider participating in external business enterprise activities, for example Young Enterprise, Ride the Wave.

LEVEL 3 UNIT 1: BUSINESS ENTERPRISE

Although LO.1 should be taught early on as an integral part of the theme of business enterprise, the assessment of this outcome comes towards the end of the unit, with the learners relating this to any problems encountered in their own business experience.

For the first part of the assignment, learners should be encouraged to choose their business idea as a group, but these should be checked by the tutor before learners begin work and they may need to guide them to a suitable choice. The ideas they come up with need not be for brand new products or services; they could be improvements or adaptations of existing ideas or simply taking an existing idea used in one context or location to another. Each learner must contribute to the discussion. This does not mean that each person has to come up with an idea, but they should make some contribution to the discussion, for example helping to develop an idea that someone else thought of, pointing out why an idea is not practical, etc. Although learners can work together to pool ideas and agree a common approach for their business, they must write up the plan individually, calculate their own financial data, etc. It is important to emphasise the importance of setting a number of realistic and achievable objectives.

For the business plan, the learners can be shown models from which to work, and pro formas could be created for them to use and be completed individually. Commercial pro formas can also be used (and adapted if necessary) as long as they cover all aspects of the assessment requirements. Each person must complete a plan. They can continue to discuss the plan while they are writing it up, using each other as a resource, but tutors must take care to ensure that they are not simply copying from each other.

For the presentation, the ‘potential investors’ should preferably involve people external to the centre, such as a local employer/bank manager. It is not envisaged that each learner would have to talk for more than about 5-7 minutes. The potential investors should have the opportunity to ask questions to each of the learners. The investors could also include centre staff and selected learners. All-learner panels should only be used as a last resort. It could be given added purpose by being set within a scenario such as BBC’s Dragons’ Den; if so, it would help if the panel are provided with money (real or imaginary) to invest.

For assessment of the third part of the assignment, learners must indicate the structure and roles that they have allocated and draw up a person specification and job description. This should be for their own job/role. The person specification should relate to the qualities of the ideal job holder, and so it may go beyond their own qualities in some ways. The person specification should be consistent with the structure (as well as with the business plan created for LO.3), with each learner having a clearly defined role in the running of the business.

When it comes to implementing their business idea, each learner should have a distinct role, and they should attempt to follow the plan created. However, it is quite likely that plans will have to be altered as soon as learners are faced with practicalities. If circumstances change or unforeseen problems arise, the original plan may need to be abandoned and a new one put into action; this does not mean that learners will have to complete another implementation plan. Credit will be given in assessment for their ability to show why they had to make changes rather than sticking rigidly to a plan that is not working. The evidence for their decisions taken should be in writing but it could be in any appropriate format. When it comes to judging success, at this level, learners should go further than merely holistic judgements about the overall success or otherwise, and should aim to comment on how well they did at different stages and in different ways, both individually and as a group. They should be encouraged to consider quantitative and qualitative measures. The issue of ‘problems’ could focus either on actual problems faced or what they predict might happen were the enterprise to continue over a longer period: there is no need for learners to do both.

DP020775 – Specification – Edexcel Diplomas Level 3 in Business, Administration and Finance Principal Learning – Issue 2 – April 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

LEVEL 3 UNIT 1: BUSINESS ENTERPRISE

Marking grid A

34

Maximum marks available

 

6

 

6

 

12

Mark Band 3

The learner identifies and provides a clear and convincing explanation of problems. There are convincing ideas about how problems were or could be dealt with.

(5–6)

The plan shows convincingly that how the business idea is creative,

innovative and viable.

 

(5–6)

The plan is clear. The plan is detailed and convincing throughout, which indicates the learner has a good idea of what will be required. A wide range of risks are identified and there are

convincing ideas for how to manage them.

(10–12)

Mark Band 2

The learner identifies and provides a clear explanation of problems. There are reasonable ideas about how problems were or could be dealt with.

 

(3–4)

The plan provides some evidence that shows how the business idea is creative, innovative and viable.

 

(3–4)

The plan is generally clear. Some

parts of the plan are detailed, which indicates the learner has a reasonable idea of what will be required. A range of risks are identified and there are reasonable ideas for how to manage them.

(7–9)

Mark Band 1

The learner identifies and provides brief explanation of the problems. There is limited information about how problems were or could be dealt with.

 

(0–2)

The plan includes limited evidence that shows how the

business idea is creative, innovative and viable.

(0–2)

Parts of the plan may lack clarity. The plan contains brief and

limited information, which indicates the learner has a limited

idea of what will be required. A few obvious risks are identified, with limited ideas for how to manage them.

(0–6)

Assessment

focus

LO.1

Know the factors that impact on the

chances of

business success

 

Be able to develop

LO.2

viable business

idea

LO.3

Be able to produce

business plan

a

 

a

LEVEL 3 UNIT 1: BUSINESS ENTERPRISE

35

DP020775 – Specification – Edexcel Diplomas Level 3 in Business, Administration and Finance Principal Learning – Issue 2 – April 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

Maximum marks available

 

6

 

14

 

Mark Band 3

 

The structure is appropriate and clear for the business. A clear, well-structured and well- presented job description and person specification for their own role is provided, which clearly links the relevant responsibilities and required attributes.

 

they undertook to implement their business idea. There is clear information about decisions taken, which shows how the original plan was followed, with reasons given where it was adapted.

The learner produces a clear and detailed account of the activities

 

There is a well-balanced and justified evaluation of their own contribution, their own abilities and the success of the business. There are justified conclusions about what they have learned from

their experiences and could do differently next time.

 

44Total

marks

(5–6)

(5–6)

(7–8)

Mark Band 2

The structure is appropriate for the business. A generally clear job description and person specification for their own role is provided, identifying the responsibilities and required attributes.

(3–4)

The learner produces a reasonably clear account of the activities they undertook to implement their business idea. There is information about decisions taken when implementing the business, which

shows how the original plan was followed or adapted.

(3–4)

and the success of the business. There are reasonable conclusions about what they have learned from their experiences and could do differently next time, which are partially supported by evidence.

There is a well-balanced evaluation of their own contribution, their own abilities

(5–6)

Mark Band 1

The organisational structure is reasonably appropriate for the business. A limited job description and person specification for their own role is provided, identifying some of the responsibilities and required attributes.

(0–2)

The learner produces a limited account of the activities undertaken to implement their business idea. There is information about decisions taken

when implementing the business, but limited reference to how the original plan was followed or adapted.

(0–2)

There is a basic evaluation of their own contribution, their abilities and the success of the business. There are basic conclusions about what they have learned from their experiences and

could do differently next time.

(0–4)

Assessment

focus

LO.5

Be able to structure a

business

Be able to run and

LO.6(.2)

review a business

LO.6(.3)

Be able to run and

review a business

DP020775 – Specification – Edexcel Diplomas Level 3 in Business, Administration and Finance Principal Learning – Issue 2 – April 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

LEVEL 3 UNIT 1: BUSINESS ENTERPRISE

Marking grid B

36

Maximum marks available

 

10

 

6

 

Mark Band 3

 

The learner shows good communication skills in terms of structuring, audibility and supporting materials and overall, the audience can follow the learner’s presentation with little or no difficulty. Positive and relevant features of the enterprise are explained clearly. They show good confidence and fluency and provide convincing answers to any questions faced.

 

The learner makes a leading and sustained contribution to the successful running of the business.

They work well with others and show good initiative, commitment and perseverance.

 

16Total

marks

(8–10)

(5–6)

Mark Band 2

The learner shows reasonable communication skills in terms of structuring, audibility and supporting materials and overall, the audience can follow the learner’s presentation of information without much difficulty. Positive and relevant features of the enterprise are explained. They show some confidence and fluency during the presentation and provide reasonable answers to any questions faced.

(5–7)

The learner makes a reasonable contribution to the successful running of the business. They work well with others and show some initiative, commitment and

perseverance.

(3–4)

Mark Band 1

The learner shows basic communication skills in terms of structuring, audibility and supporting materials and the audience may find the learner’s presentation difficult to follow. Positive and relevant features of the enterprise are identified. They show limited confidence and fluency during the presentation and answer any questions faced with difficulty.

(0–4)

The learner makes a limited contribution to the successful running of the business. They show some ability to work with others and show limited initiative,

commitment and perseverance.

(0–2)

Assessment

focus

LO.4

Be able to present

a business idea

LO.6(.1)

Be able to run and

review a business

Assessment guidance

Using the marking grid

LEVEL 3 UNIT 1: BUSINESS ENTERPRISE

Each internally-assessed unit has either 60, 75 or 90 available marks in total.

In some units the marking grid has been split into two grids – A and B. Marking grid A contains all of the marking criteria for the unit except those which assess a learner’s performance in practical activities which are recorded as a learner observation record (see the Edexcel Diploma website for further information). These make up grid B.

Centres must ensure that learners undertake appropriate assessment tasks to enable them to achieve the requirements of each unit’s marking grid(s).

The basic principle is that this is a ‘best fit’ grid – ie the assessor must match the overall standard of work for an assessment focus to a band. It is NOT a hurdle approach, whereby the assessor cannot award marks from the next mark band if one item for an assessment focus from a lower mark band has been omitted, regardless of the quality of the rest of the work for that assessment focus.

If a learner completes all they are asked to do in a band for an assessment focus, they can be awarded the full marks for that mark band.

If a learner has clearly done more on one aspect of work for an assessment focus required by a mark band, the assessor should consider whether the learner can be awarded marks from the bottom of the next mark band.

If a learner has completed less than required in any aspect of work for an assessment focus, or indeed omitted an aspect, then the mark moves down within the mark band.

Marking is completely separate for each assessment focus – ie a learner can get mark band 3 on one assessment focus, mark band 1 on another etc, then all marks are added together for the unit total. It may be possible, depending on weighting of an assessment focus for a learner to pass a unit even if 0 has been given in marks for one assessment focus in the unit. Relevant Tutor Support Materials may contain further information relating to marking.

A 0 mark should be used only where a learner provides no valid evidence. Any work that starts to address the requirements of the grid should normally be awarded at least one mark.

Evidence generated for marking grid A will be moderated. This must be in the form of hard evidence which a moderator can reassess, such as learner produced written documents (for example short question answers, multiple choice question answers, materials from presentations, research notes), videos (dated) of practical activities or artefacts.

Marks gained from marking grid A will be reported separately from those gained from marking grid B.

LEVEL 3 UNIT 1: BUSINESS ENTERPRISE

Level 3 descriptors

Descriptor

Meaning

Appropriate

Suitable/relevant.

Basic

Limited to the fundamental features, elements or facts.

Brief/briefly

Short, lacking detail.

Clear/clearly

Well expressed, easy to understand or see.

Convincing

Believable, well argued.

Detail/detailed

Showing thoroughness.

Difficult to follow

A

considerable effort is required to understand what is being

said, and some parts are not clear.

Explain/explanation

Provide reasons for a decision, feature, etc.

Evaluate/evaluation

Assess the value, quality or importance of something.

A

few

One or two.

Full/fully

Complete/completely.

Generally

Mostly/or most of the time but not completely or consistently.

Good/well

To a high level or degree.

Identify

Mentions the key elements, facts, features, etc.

Justify /justified

Give good reasons for something.

Lack clarity

Not well expressed/not easy to understand.

Limited

Incomplete or having a narrow scope; shows only basic ability

or

understanding.

Objective

Based on facts that can be independently verified.

Obvious

Easy to identify.

Partially supported

The evidence is not wholly convincing or only some parts are supported by the evidence.

A

range

Three or four.

Reasonable

Moderate or average

Reasonably

Somewhat, fairly.

Relevant features

Key features about the business idea which will affect its success.

Some

At least two; to a certain degree, partial.

Subjective

Based purely on opinion.

Sustained

Maintained over a period of time.

Throughout

All the way through; consistently.

Well balanced

Giving appropriate weight to most significant factors/both sides.

A

wide range

Five or more.

LEVEL 3 UNIT 1: BUSINESS ENTERPRISE

Descriptor

Meaning

With little or no difficulty

The presentation is wholly or almost entirely clear and requires little effort from the audience to understand what is being said.

Without much difficulty

Either: a moderate effort is required to understand what is being said; or some parts are clear and other parts are less clear.

LEVEL 3 UNIT 1: BUSINESS ENTERPRISE

Delivery of personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS)

The following table identifies the PLTS that have been included within the assessment criteria of this unit:

Skill

When learners are …

Creative thinkers

Developing an idea for a product or service that is viable, creative and innovative [CT1]; putting the business idea into practice, adapting their ideas as circumstances change [CT6]

Reflective learners

Evaluating their experiences of being involved in a business enterprise to inform future progress [RL5]

Team workers

Working in groups to implement their business idea [TW1]

Self-managers

Anticipating risks to the business while developing their business plan, suggesting preventative measures [SM4]; working towards achieving their business goals, showing initiative commitment and perseverance [SM2]

Effective participators

Presenting the business plan to potential investors, presenting a case for action [EP2]

Although PLTS are identified within this unit as an inherent part of the assessment criteria, there are further opportunities to develop a range of PLTS through various approaches to teaching and learning.

Skill

When learners are …

Independent enquirers

Researching possible business ideas [IE2]; researching causes of business failure, analysing information and judging its relevance and value [IE4]; considering the influence of circumstances, beliefs and feelings on people’s entrepreneurial abilities [IE5]

Creative thinkers

Connecting their own and others’ preliminary ideas for a product or service to come up with an inventive idea to develop [CT3]; developing their business idea, trying out alternative approaches

[CT5]

Reflective learners

Assessing themselves and others at the end of the business implementation [RL1]; reviewing progress at the end of the business implementation in terms of what they have achieved [RL3]; inviting feedback from the investors to who they have presented the business idea, dealing positively with praise and criticism [RL4]

Team workers

Reaching agreements and managing discussions to achieve results [TW2]; showing fairness and consideration to others while implementing the business idea [TW4]

LEVEL 3 UNIT 1: BUSINESS ENTERPRISE

Skill

When learners are …

Self-managers

Preparing to implement their business idea, organising their own time and resources [SM3]; dealing with competing pressures when trying to organise the activities involved in putting a business idea into practice [SM5]; responding positively to any changes that need to be made when putting the business idea into practice, seeking advice and support from the tutor when needed [SM6]

Effective participators

Implementing their business idea, proposing practical ways forward, breaking these down into manageable steps [EP3]; identifying ways in which the product or service they have chosen will result in improvements for customers [EP4]; trying to influence others in their group when discussing which business idea to choose [EP5]; presenting a business idea to investors, which may represent a group choice of product or service rather than one that they personally wanted to choose [EP6]

LEVEL 3 UNIT 1: BUSINESS ENTERPRISE

Functional skills — Level 2

Skill

When learners are …

ICT — Use ICT systems

 

Select, interact with and use ICT systems independently for a complex task to meet a variety of needs

 

Use ICT to effectively plan work and evaluate the effectiveness of the ICT system used

 

Manage information storage to enable efficient retrieval

 

Follow and understand the need for safety and security practices

 

Troubleshoot

 

ICT — Find and select information

 

Select and use a variety of sources of information independently for a complex task

Researching the causes of business failure.

Researching their business idea.

Access, search for, select and use ICT- based information and evaluate its fitness for purpose

 

ICT — Develop, present and communicate information

 

Enter, develop and format information independently to suit its meaning and purpose, including:

Preparing a presentation of their idea for prospective investors.

text and tables

images

numbers

records.

Bring together information to suit content and purpose

Writing their business plan and structuring the business.

Present information in ways that are fit for purpose and audience

Writing their business plan; presenting their business idea to prospective investors.

Evaluate the selection and application of ICT tools and facilities used to present information

 

LEVEL 3 UNIT 1: BUSINESS ENTERPRISE

Skill

When learners are …

Select and use ICT to communicate and exchange information safely, responsibly and effectively including storage of messages and contact lists

 

Mathematics

 

Understand routine and non-routine problems in a wide range of familiar and unfamiliar contexts and situations