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Organ (anatomy)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In biology, an organ or viscus is a collection of tissues


joined in a structural unit to serve a common function.[1] In Organ
anatomy, a viscus (/vsks/) is an internal organ, and
viscera (/vsr/) is the plural form.[2][3]

Organs are composed of main tissue, parenchyma, and


"sporadic" tissues, stroma. The main tissue is that which is
unique for the specific organ, such as the myocardium, the
main tissue of the heart, while sporadic tissues include the
nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissues. Functionally
related organs often cooperate to form whole organ
systems. Organs exist in all higher biological organisms, in The liver and gallbladder of a sheep seen from
particular they are not restricted to animals, but can also be behind. The liver is one of the main organs in
identified in plants. In single-cell organisms like bacteria, the body.
the functional analogue of an organ is called organelle.
Identifiers
A hollow organ is a visceral organ that forms a hollow tube FMA 67498 (http://xiphoid.biostr.washington.e
or pouch, such as the stomach or intestine, or that includes du/fma/fmabrowser-hierarchy.html?fmaid
a cavity, like the heart or urinary bladder.
=67498)
Anatomical terminology
[edit on Wikidata]
Contents
1 Organ systems
2 Other animals
3 Plants
4 History
4.1 Etymology
4.2 Seven Vital Organs of Antiquity
5 See also
6 References

Organ systems
Two or more organs working together in the execution of a specific body function form an organ system,
also called a biological system or body system. The functions of organ systems often share significant
overlap. For instance, the nervous and endocrine system both operate via a shared organ, the
hypothalamus. For this reason, the two systems are combined and studied as the neuroendocrine system.
The same is true for the musculoskeletal system because of the relationship between the muscular and
skeletal systems.

Mammals such as humans have a variety of organ systems. These specific systems are also widely studied
in human anatomy.
Cardiovascular system: pumping and channeling blood to and from the body and lungs with heart,
blood and blood vessels.
Digestive system: digestion and processing food with salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver,
gallbladder, pancreas, intestines, colon, rectum and anus.
Endocrine system: communication within the body using hormones made by endocrine glands such
as the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pineal body or pineal gland, thyroid, parathyroids and adrenals,
i.e., adrenal glands.
Excretory system: kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra involved in fluid balance, electrolyte balance
and excretion of urine.
Lymphatic system: structures involved in the transfer of lymph between tissues and the blood
stream, the lymph and the nodes and vessels that transport it including the Immune system:
defending against disease-causing agents with leukocytes, tonsils, adenoids, thymus and spleen.
Integumentary system: skin, hair and nails.
Muscular system: movement with muscles.
Nervous system: collecting, transferring and processing information with brain, spinal cord and
nerves.
Reproductive system: the sex organs, such as ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vulva, vagina, testes,
vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and penis.
Respiratory system: the organs used for breathing, the pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs and
diaphragm.
Skeletal system: structural support and protection with bones, cartilage, ligaments and tendons.

Other animals
The organ level of organisation in animals can be first detected in flatworms and the more advanced
phyla. The less-advanced taxons (like Placozoa, Porifera and Radiata) do not show consolidation of their
tissues into organs.

Plants
The study of plant organs is referred to as plant morphology, rather
than anatomy, as in animal systems. Organs of plants can be divided
into vegetative and reproductive. Vegetative plant organs are roots,
stems, and leaves. The reproductive organs are variable. In flowering
plants, they are represented by the flower, seed and fruit. In conifers,
the organ that bears the reproductive structures is called a cone. In
other divisions (phyla) of plants, the reproductive organs are called
strobili, in Lycopodiophyta, or simply gametophores in mosses.

The vegetative organs are essential for maintaining the life of a plant.
While there can be 11 organ systems in animals, there are far fewer The flower is the angiosperm's
in plants, where some perform the vital functions, such as reproductive organ. This Hibiscus
photosynthesis, while the reproductive organs are essential in flower is hermaphroditic, and it
reproduction. However, if there is asexual vegetative reproduction, contains stamen and pistils.
the vegetative organs are those that create the new generation of
plants (see clonal colony).

History
Etymology

The English word "organ" derives from the Latin organum, meaning
"instrument", itself from the Greek word , rganon
("implement; musical instrument; organ of the body"). The Greek
word is related to , rgon ("work").[4] The viscera, when
removed from a butchered animal, are known collectively as offal.
Internal organs are also informally known as "guts" (which may also
refer to the gastrointestinal tract), or more formally, "innards".

Aristotle used the word frequently in his philosophy, both to describe


the organs of plants or animals (e.g. the roots of a tree, the heart or
liver of an animal), and to describe more abstract "parts" of an
interconnected whole (e.g. his philosophical works, taken as a whole,
are referred to as the "organon").

The English word "organism" is a neologism coined in the 17th


century, probably formed from the verb to organize. At first the word
referred to an organization or social system. The meaning of a living
animal or plant is first recorded in 1842.[4] Plant organs are made
from tissue built up from different types of tissue. When there are Strobilus of Equisetum telmateia.
three or more organs it is called an organ system.

The adjective visceral, also splanchnic, is used for anything pertaining


to the internal organs. Historically, viscera of animals were examined
by Roman pagan priests like the haruspices or the augurs in order to
divine the future by their shape, dimensions or other factors. This
practice remains an important ritual in some remote, tribal societies.

The term "visceral" is contrasted with the term "parietal", meaning "of
or relating to the wall of a body part, organ or cavity". The two terms
are often used in describing a membrane or piece of connective
tissue, referring to the opposing sides.

Seven Vital Organs of Antiquity

Some alchemists (e.g. Paracelsus) adopted the Hermetic Qabalah


assignment between the seven vital organs and the seven classical
planets as follows:[5]

Human viscera
Planet Organ
Sun Heart
Moon Brain
Mercury Lungs
Venus Kidneys
Mars Gall bladder
Jupiter Liver
Saturn Spleen

See also
List of organs of the human body
Cloning
Fascia
Laboratory-grown organ
Artificial organ
Organ transplant
Organelles, analogous sub-cellular structures

References
1. Widmaier EP; Raff H; Strang KT (2014). Vander's 3. "Viscera". MeSH. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
Human Physiology (12th ed.). ISBN978-0-07- 4. Barnhart's Concise Dictionary of Etymology
128366-3. 5. Philip Ball, The Devil's Doctor: Paracelsus and the
2. "Viscus - Definition". Merriam-Webster Online World of Renaissance Magic and Science, ISBN 978-
Dictionary. Retrieved 14 December 2009. 0-09-945787-9
3. "Viscera". MeSH. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
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Categories: Organ systems Organs (anatomy)

This page was last modified on 23 January 2017, at 04:00.


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