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STUDY PACKAGE
Subject : Mathematics
Topic : LIMITS
Available Online : www.MathsBySuhag.com

Index
1. Theory
2. Short Revision
3. Exercise (Ex. 1 + 5 = 6)
4. Assertion & Reason
5. Que. from Compt. Exams
6. 39 Yrs. Que. from IIT-JEE(Advanced)
7. 15 Yrs. Que. from AIEEE (JEE Main)

Students Name :______________________


Class :______________________
Roll No. :______________________
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Limit
1. Limit of a function f(x) is said to exist as,
x a when,
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Limit f (a h) = Limit f (a + h) = some finite value M.
h0 h0
(Left hand limit) (Right hand limit)
Note that we are not interested in knowing about what happens at x = a. Also note that if L.H.L. &
R.H.L. are both tending towards ' ' or then it is said to be infinite limit.
Remember, Limit x a
x a
Solved Example # 1

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Find xLimit
/ 2 f(x)

Solution.
Here Limit f(x) = 1
x / 2

Solved Example # 2

Find Limit
x1 f(x)

Solution.
Left handed limit = 1 Right handed limit = 2
Limit
Hence x1 f(x) = does not exist.
Solved Example # 3
(i) Find limit f(x)x 0
(ii) Find limit f(x)x 1
(iii) Find lim it f(x)
x 3

Solution.
(i) limit f(x) = does not exists
x 0
because left handed limit right handed limit
(ii) limit f(x) = 0 (iii) limit f(x) = 1
x 1 x 3
2. Indeterminant Forms:
0
, , 0 , , 0, and 1 .
0
Solved Example # 4
Which of the following limits are forming indeterminant from also indicate the form

(i) lim 1 (ii) lim 1 x


x 0 x x 0
1 x2
1 1
(iii) lim x n x (iv) lim
x 0 x 0 x x2

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(v) lim (sin x)x (vi) lim (n x)x
x 0 x 0
1

(vii) lim 1 sin x x


(viii) lim (1)1/x
x 0 x 0

Solution
0
(i) No (ii) Yes from
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page 3 of 18
0
(iii) Yes 0 form (iv) Yes ( ) form
(v) Yes, (0) form (vi) Yes () form
(vii) Yes (1) form (viii)
NOTE :
(i) ' 0 ' doesn't means exact zero but represent a value approaching towards zero similary to ' 1 ' and
infinity.
(ii) +=

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(iii) x =
(iv) (a/ ) = 0 if a is finite
a
(v) is not defined for any a R.
0
(vi) a b = 0, if & only if a = 0 or b = 0 and a & b are finite.

3. Method of Removing Indeterminancy


To evaluate a limit, we must always put the value where ' x ' is approaching to in the function. If we get
a determinate form, then that value becomes the limit otherwise if an indeterminant form comes. Then
apply one of the following methods:
(i) Factorisation (ii) Rationalisation or double rationalisation
(iii) Substitution (iv) Using standard limits
(v) Expansions of functions.
1. Factorization method :-
We can cancel out the factors which are leading to indeterminancy and find the limit of the remaing
expression.
Solved Example # 5
6
limit x 24 x 16
x 2
x 3 2x 12
Solution.
6 ( x 2)( x 5 2x 4 4x 3 8 x 2 16 x 8)
limit x 24 x 16 = limit
x 2
x 3 2x 12 x 2 ( x 2 2x 6)( x 2)
168
= = 12
14
2. Rationalization /Double Rationalization.
We can rationalize the irrational expression by multiplying with their conjugates to remove the
indeterminancy.

4 5x 1
Solved Example # 6 limit .
x 1 2 3x 1
4 5x 1
Solution. limit
x 1 2 3x 1
( 4 5 x 1)(2 3 x 1)( 4 5 x 1)
= lim it
x 1 (2 3 x 1)(4 5 x 1)(2 3 x 1)
(15 5x ) 2 3x 1 5
= lim it =
(3 3 x )
x 1 4 5x 1 6
Solved Example # 7
1 2 ( 2x 3) 1 x 1 x
Evaluate : (i) lim 3 (ii) lim
x 2
x 2 x 3 x 2 2x x 0
x

(iii)

lim (2x 3) x 1
x 1
2x 2 x 3
Solution (i) We have
1 2 ( 2x 3) 1 2 ( 2x 3)
lim 3 = xlim
x 2
x 2
x 3 x 2 2x 2 x 2 x (

x 1)( x 2)

x( x 1) 2(2x 3)
= xlim
2
x( x 1)( x 2)
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x 2 5x 6
lim
= x 2 x( x 1)( x 2)

( x 2)( x 3) x3 1
= xlim = lim =
2
x( x 1)( x 2) x 2
x( x 1) 2
0
(ii) The given limit taken the form when x 0. Rationalising the numerator, we get
0
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1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x
lim 1 x 1 x = lim
x 0
x x 0
x 1 x 1 x
(1 x) (1 x )
= xlim
0 x

1 x 1 x
2x 2

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2
= xlim = xlim
0 x
1 x 1 x 0
=
1 x 1 x 2
=1
(iii) We have

lim

( 2x 3) x 1
= lim
( 2x 3) x 1

2 x 1 ( 2x 3 )( x 1)
2x x 3
x 1

( 2x 3) x 1

= xlim
1 (2 x 3)

x 1 x 1
2x 3 1 1
= xlim
1 ( 2x 3)

x 1 =
(5)(2)
=
10

4. Fundamental Theorems on Limits:


Let Limit Limit
x a f (x) = & x a g (x) = m. If & m exists then:
Limit { f (x) g (x) } = m Limit { f(x). g(x) } = . m
(i) x a (ii) x a

(iii) Limit f ( x) = , provided m 0


x a
g ( x) m
(iv) Limit k f(x) = k Limit f(x) ; where k is a constant.
x a x a


(v) Limit f [g(x)] = f Limit g ( x ) = f (m); provided f is continuous at g (x) = m.
x a x a

Solved Example # 8 Evaluate
2
(i) lim (x + 2) (ii) lim x(x 1) (iii) lim x 4 (iv) lim cos (sin x)
x 2 x 2 x 2 x 0
x2
2 2
(v) lim x 3 x 2 (vi) lim x 3 x 2
x 1 2 x 1
x 1 x2 1
Solution (i) x + 2 being a polynomial in x, its limit as x 2 is given by xlim
2
(x + 2) = 2 + 2 = 4
(ii) Again x(x 1) being a polynomial in x, its limit as x 2 is given by
lim x(x 1) = 2 (2 1) = 2
x 2
2 2
(iii) By (II) above, we have lim x 4 = (2) 4 = 2
x 2
x2 22

lim cos (sin x) = cos lim sin x = cos 0 = 1
(iv) x 0 x 0
(v) Note that for x = 1 both the numerator and the denominator of the given fraction vanish. Therefore
x 2 3x 2 ( x 1)( x 2) x2 1
by (III) above, we have xlim 1 2
= xlim
1 ( x 1)( x 1)
= xlim
1 x 1
=
x 1 2
(vi) Note that for x = 1, the numerator of the given expression is a non-zero constant 6 and the
6
denominator is zero. Therefore, the given limit is of the form . Hence, by (IV) above, we
0
2
lim x 3 x 2 does not exist
conclude that
x 1
x2 1
1 1
5. Standard Limits: (a) Limit sin x = 1 = Limit tanx = Limit tan x = Limit sin x
x 0 x 0 x 0 x 0
x x x x
[ Where x is measured in radians ]
x

(b) Limit (1 + x)1/x = e ; Limit 1 1 = e


x 0 x x

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x x
(c) Limit e 1 = 1; Limit a 1 = log a, a > 0
x 0 x 0 e
x x
n n
Limit n (1 x ) Limit x a = nan 1.
(d) x 0 =1 (e) x a
x x a
sin 2x
Solved Example # 9: Find Limit
x 0
x
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Limit sin 2x Limit sin 2x
Solution. x 0 x 0 .2 =2
x 2x
e3x 1
Solved Example # 10: Limit x 0
x/2
3x 3x
Solution. Limit e 1 Limit 2 3 e 1 = 6.
x 0 x 0
x/2 3x

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tan x sin x
Solved Example # 11 Limit x 0
x3
Solution. Limit tan x sin x
x 0
x3
tan x(1 cos x )
= Limit
x 0
x3
2
x
2 x sin
tan x . 2 sin tan x 2
= Limit
x 0
2 = Limit
x 0 . x = 1.
x3 x
2
sin 2x
Solved Example # 12 Compute xlim 0 sin 3 x

sin 2x 2x 3x
Solution We have lim sin 2x = xlim 2x . 3 x . sin 3 x
x 0 sin 3 x 0
sin 2x 2 3x
= 2lim . . 3lim ,x0
x 0 2 x 3 x 0 sin 2x
2 sin 3 x 2 2
=1. + 3lim = 1=
3 x 0 3x 3 3
x
2
Solved Example # 13 Evaluate xlim

1
x
x 2
Solution lim 1 2 = e xlim
x
.x
= e2.
x
x
x 3 x
Solved Example # 14 Compute (i) lim e e (ii) lim x(e 1)
x 3 x 3 x 0 1 cos x
Solution (i) Put y = x 3. So, as x 3, y 0. Thus
3y
x 3
lim e e3
lim e e =
x 3 y 0 y
x 3
e3 . e y e3
= ylim
0 y
ey 1
= e3 ylim
0 = e3 . 1 = e3
y
(ii) We have
x
lim x(e 1) x(e x 1)
(ii) x 0 1 cos x
= xlim
0
x
2 sin2
2

ex 1 x2
1 lim .
= . x 0 x x = 2.
2 sin 2
2
3
x 8
Solved Example # 15 Evaluate xlim2
x2 4
Solution (First Method)
The given expression is of the form
x 3 ( 2 )3 x 3 ( 2 )3 x 2 ( 2) 2
2 2 =
x ( 2) x2 x2
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3
lim x 8 x 3 ( 2 )3 2
lim x (2)
2
x 2
= xlim
2
x 2
x2 4 x2 x2
x n an
= 3(22) 2(21) (using xlim
a
= nan1 )
x a
= 12 4 = 3
(Second Method)
The numerator and denominator have a common factor (x 2). Cancelling this factor, we obtain
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x3 8 x 2 2x 4 3
lim x 8
2
lim x 2 x 4
= x 2
= x 2
x2 4 x2 x2 4 x2
2
(2) 2(2) 4 12
= = =3
22 4
Note : Since x 2, x 2 is not zero, so the cancellation of the factor x 2 in the above example is
carried out.
6. Use of Subsitution in Solving Limit Problems

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Sometimes in solving limit problem we convert xlim
a
f(x) by subtituting x = a + h or x = a h as
lim f(a + h) or lim f(a h) according as need of the problem.
h 0 h 0

1 tan x
Solved Example # 16 lim it
x / 4 1 2 sin x

Solution. Put x= +h x h0
4 4

1 tan h
4
limit
h0 1 2 sin
h
4
1 tan h
1
lim it 1 tan h
= h0 =
1 sin h cos h
2 tan h
1 tan h
= lim
h0
it
h h h
2 sin2 2 sin cos
2 2 2
2 tan h 1
= lim it
h0 h h h (1 tanh)
2 sin 2 2 sin cos
2 2 2
tanh
2
h 1 2
= lim it
h = = 2.
h0
sin (1 tanh) 1
2 sin h cos h
h 2 2
2
7. Limit When x
1
Since x 0 hence in this type of problem we express most of the part of expression
x
1 1
in terms of and apply 0. We can see this approch in the given solve examples.
x x

Solved Example # 17 lim it x sin 1


x
x
lim it 1
Solution. x x sin
x
sin 1 / x
= lim
x
it =1
1/ x
Solved Example # 18 lim it x 2
x 2x 3

Solution. lim it x 2
x 2x 3

lim it 1 2 / x = 1 .
x 2 3 / x
2
2
Solved Example # 19 lim it x 4 x 5
x
3x 2 x 3 2
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lim it x 2 4x 5
Solution. x
3x 2 x 3 2
1 4 5

x x 2 x3
= lim
x
it 3 2 =0
1 3
x x
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lim 3x 2 2
Solved Example # 20 x
x2
lim 3x 2 2
Solution. x
x2
1
Put x = x t 0+
t

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1
3 2t 2 .
t2
= xlim
0 1 2t
t
3 2t 2 t 3
= xlim
0 = = 3.
(1 2t ) | t | 1
8. Limits Using Expansion
x ln a x 2 ln2 a x 3 ln3 a x x2 x3
(i) a x 1 .........a 0 (ii) e x 1 ......
1! 2! 3! 1! 2! 3!
x2 x3 x4 x3 x5 x7
(iii) ln (1+x) = x .........for 1 x 1 (iv) sin x x .....
2 3 4 3! 5! 7!
x2 x4 x6 x 3 2x 5
(v) cosx 1 ..... (vi) tan x = x ......
2! 4! 6! 3 15
x 3 x5 x7 12 3 12.3 2 5 12.3 2.5 2 7
(vii) tan-1x = x .... (viii) sin-1x = x x x x .....
3 5 7 3! 5! 7!
x 2 5 x 4 61x 6
(ix) sec-1x = 1 ......
2! 4! 6!
n(n 1) n(n 1)(n 2)
(x) for |x| < 1, n R (1 + x)n = 1 + nx + 1. 2
x 2
+ 1. 2 . 3
x 3 + ............

lim ex 1 x
Solved Example # 21 x 0
x2
x
lim e 1 x
Solution. x 0
x2
2
1 x x ....... 1 x
2! 1
= xlim =
0
x 2 2
lim tan x sin x
Solved Example # 22 x 0
x3
lim tan x sin x
Solution. x 0
x3
3 3
x x ........ x x .......
lim 3 3 ! 1 1 1
= x 0 = + = .
3 3 6 2
x
7 x )1/ 3 2
Solved Example # 23 xlim 0
x 1
(8 h)1/ 3 2
Solution. Put x 1 + h hlim 0
h
1/ 3
h
2 . 1 2
lim 8
h0
h
2
1 1 h
1
1 h 33 8
2 1 . ....... 1
3 8 1. 2

= hlim
0

h
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1 1
= hlim
0 2 =
24 12
x2
n(1 x ) sin x
Solved Example # 24 lim 2
x 0
x tan x sin x
2
x
n(1 x ) sin x
lim 2
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x 0
x tan x sin x
2 3 3 5 2
x x x ..... x x x ..... x
2 3 3! 5!
2 1 1 1
= xlim
0 tan x sin x = + =
x3 . . 3 6 2
x x
9. Limits of form

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0
All these forms can be convered into form in the following ways
0
( i ) I f x 1, y , then z = (x) y
nx
n z = y n x n z =
(1/ y )
1
Since y hence y 0 and x 1 hence nx 0
(ii) If x 0, y 0, then z = x y n z = y n x
y 0
n z = = form
1/ ny 0
(iii) If x , y 0, then z = x y n z = y n x
y 0
n z = = form
1/ nx 0

also for (1) type of problems we can use following rules.
(i) lim (1 + x)1/x = e (ii) lim [f(x)] g(x)
x 0 x a
where f(x) 1 ; g(x) as x a
1
{ f ( x ) 1} . g( x )

= xlim
f ( x ) 1

a 1 f ( x ) 1
= e xlim
a
[ f ( x )1] g( x )

4 x 2
2
Solved Example # 25 lim 2 x 1
x 2x 2 3

Solution. Since it is in the form of 1
4 x 2
2 2x 2 1 2x 2 3
lim 2 x 1 = e xlim


(4x 2 + 2)
= e8
x 2x 2 3 2x 2 3

lim
Solved Example # 26: x (tan x)tan 2x
4
lim (tan x 1) tan 2x

x
Solution = e 4

2 tan x
lim (tan x 1)
x
1 tan 2 x
= e 4

tan / 4
2
1(1 tan / 4 ) 1
= e = e1 =
e
x
tan
a 2a
Solved Example # 27 Evaluate xlim
a
2 .
x
x
tan
lim 2 a
2a
Solution. x a
x
h
tan
put x=a+h lim 1 h 2 2a
h 0
(a h)
h
cot h h
lim 1 h 2a lim cot . 1 1
h0 2a a h
h 0 e
ah
h 2a

lim 2a .
h0 h a h
tan
2a = e2/
e

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Solved Example # 28: lim x x
x 0

Solution. y = xlim
0
xx
n y = xlim
0
x n x
1
n 1
x = 0
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page 9 of 18
= xlim
0
y=1
1 x
x
1 0 . Sandwich Theorem or Squeeze Play Theorem:
If f(x) g(x) h(x) x & Limit Limit Limit
x a f(x) = = x a h(x) then x a g(x) = .

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[ x] [2x] [3 x] .... [nx ]
Solved Example # 29: Evaluate nlim

n2
Where [ ] denotes the greatest integer function.
Solution.
We know that, x 1 < |x| x
2x 1 < [2x] 2x
3x 1 < [3x] 3x
....................
....................
nx 1 < [nx] nx
(x + 2x + 3x + .... + nx) n < [x] + [2x] + ..... +[nx] (x + 2x + .... + nx)
n
xn(n 1) x.n(n 1)

2
n< [r x]
r 1
2
[ x] [ 2x] .... [nx ]
Thus, nlim

n2
1 1
lim x 1 1 < lim [ x] [ 2x] .... [nx ] lim x 1
n 2 n n 2 n 2 n
n n
x [ x] [ 2x] .... [nx ] x lim [ x] [ 2x] .... [nx ] = x
< nlim 2
2
n 2 n
n2 2
Aliter We know that [x] = x {x}
n

r x
r 1
= [x] + [2x] + .... + nx [nx]
= (x + 2x + 3x + ... + nx) ({x} + {2x} + .... + {nx})
xn(n 1)
= ({x} + {2x} + .. + {nx})
2
n
1 x 1 1 {x } {2 x} .... {nx}

n 2 [r x ] =
r 1

2 n

n2
n

Since, 0 {rx} < 1, 0 [r x ] < n


r 1
n n n

lim
[rx] lim
[rx] x 1 1 {rx}
r 1 =0 r 1 = nlim lim r 1
n
2
n 2 n n
n n2 n2
n

lim
[rx] x
n
r 1 =
2
n2
Solved Example # 30 limit x sin 1
x 0 x
limit x sin 1
Solution. x 0 x
= 0 (some value in [ 1, 1]) = 0

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1 1 . Some Important Notes :
lim nx = 0
x
(i) (ii) lim =0
x x x ex
As x , n x increnes much slower than any (+ve) power of x where ex increases much faster than
(+ve) power of x
(iii) Limit (1 h)n = 0 & Limit (1 + h)n where h > 0.
n n

page 10 of 18
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(iv) If Limit Limit


x a f(x) = A > 0 & x a (x) = B (a finite quantity) then;
Limit [f(x)] (x) = ez where z = Limit (x). ln[f(x)] = eBlnA = AB
x a x a

x 1000
Solved Example # 31 xlim

ex
1000
lim x

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Solution. =0
x
ex
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Short Revesion (LIMIT)
THINGS TO REMEMBER :
1. Limit of a function f(x) is said to exist as, xa when
Limit Limit
x a f(x) = x a f(x) = finite quantity..
2. FUNDAMENTAL THEOREMS ON LIMITS :
Let Limit Limit
x a f (x) = l & x a g (x) = m. If l & m exists then :
(i) Limit f (x) g (x) = l m
x a (ii) Limit .
x a f(x) g(x) = l. m

(iii) Limit f (x) , provided m 0


x a g (g) m
(iv) Limit k f(x) = k Limit f(x) ; where k is a constant.
x a x a

Limit
(v) x a f [g(x)] = f Limit
xa
g (x) = f (m) ; provided f is continuous at g (x) = m.


For example Limit Limit f (x) l n l (l > 0).
x a l n (f(x) = l n x a REMEMBER

Limit x a
x a
3. STANDARD LIMITS :
Limit sinx tan x tan 1 x Limit sin 1 x
(a) x 0 = 1 = Limit
x0 = Limit
x 0 = x0
x x x x
[ Where x is measured in radians ]
x
Limit 1 Limit
(b) x 0 (1 + x)1/x = e = Limit
x
1 note however there h0 (1 - h )n = 0
x n
Limit
and h0
n
(1 + h )n
(c) If Limit f(x) = 1 and Limit (x) = , then ;
x a x a

Limit f ( x ) ( x ) e Limit
x a ( x )[ f ( x ) 1]
x a
Limit f(x) = A > 0 & Limit
(d) If x a x a (x) = B (a finite quantity) then ;
Limit [f(x)](x) = ez where z = Limit BlnA = AB
x a x a (x). ln[f(x)] = e
x x
(e) Limit a 1 = 1n a (a > 0). In particular Limit e 1 = 1
x 0 x x 0 x
n n
(f) Limit x a n a n 1
x a xa
4. SQUEEZE PLAY THEOREM :If f(x) g(x) h(x) x & Limit Limit Limit
x a f(x) = l = x a h(x) then x a g(x) = l.
0
5. INDETERMINANT FORMS : , , 0 x , 0 , , and 1
0
Note : (i) We cannot plot on the paper. Infinity () is a symbol & not a number. It does not
obey the laws of elementry algebra. (ii) += (iii) =
a
(iv) (a/) = 0 if a is finite (v) is not defined , if a 0.
0
(vi) a b = 0 , if & only if a = 0 or b = 0 and a & b are finite.
6. The following strategies should be born in mind for evaluating the limits:
(a) Factorisation (b) Rationalisation or double rationalisation
(c) Successful
Use of trigonometric transformation ;
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appropriate substitution and using standard limits
(d) Expansion of function like Binomial expansion, exponential & logarithmic expansion, expansion of sinx ,
cosx , tanx should be remembered by heart & are given below :
x 1n a x 2 1n 2 a x 3 1n 3a x x2 x3
(i) a x 1 ......... a 0 (ii) e x 1 ............
1! 2! 3! 1! 2! 3!
2 3 4 3 5
x x x x x x7
(iii) ln (1+x) = x ......... for 1 x 1 (iv) sin x x .......
2 3 4 3! 5! 7!

page 11 of 18
x2 x 4 x6
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x 3 2x 5
(v) cos x 1 ...... (vi) tan x = x ........
2! 4 ! 6 ! 3 15
x 3 x5 x7
(vii) tan-1x = x .......
3 5 7
-1 12 3 12 .32 5 12 .32 .5 2 7 x 2 5x 4 61x 6
(viii) sin x = x x x x ....... (ix) sec-1x = 1 ......
3! 5! 7! 2! 4! 6!

EXERCISE1

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13
x2 x x 7 x 2
Lim x x.1nx 1nx 1
Q 1. Lim
x 1
Q 2. Lim Q3. x 1
x 1 x 1 5 x 3 x x 1
1/ 3 1/ 5
p q Lim 2 x 3x 5x 1 3 tan x
Q 4. Lim p, q N Q 5. Q 6. Lim
x 1 1 x p 1 x q x 3x 2 (2x 3)1/ 3 1 2 cos 2 x
x
4
1 a
Q 7. (a) Lim tan where a R
x 0 x2
2x x
(b) Plot the graph of the function f(x) = Lim tan 1 2
t 0 t
100 k
x 100
Q 8. Lim K 1
x 1 x 1
Q 9. Find the sum of an infinite geometric series whose first term is the limit of the function
tan x sin x
f(x) = as x 0 and whose common ratio is the limit of the function
sin 3 x
1 x
g(x) = as x 1. (Use of series expansion or L Hospitals rule is not allowed.)
(cos 1 x) 2
et e t
Q 10. Lim
x (x l n cosh x) where cosh t = .
2
Lim Lim 1 tan x
Q 11. x 2 cos1 [cot x] where [ ] denotes greatest integer function Q 12. x 4
1 2 sin x
sec 4x sec 2 x
Q 13. Lim [ln (1 + sinx). cot(ln2 (1 + x))] Q 14. Lim
x 0
x 0 sec 3x sec x
cos x
Lim 2 cos sin Lim 2 1
Q 15. 4 Q 16. x 2 x ( x )
(4 ) 2 2
Q 17. If Lim a sin x 3 sin 2x is finite then find the value of 'a' & the limit.
x 0 tan x
2 2 2 2 x 1
Lim 8 1 cos x cos x cos x cos x Lim (1n (1 x) 1n2)(3.4 3x)
Q 18. x 0 8
x 2 4 2 4 Q 19. x 1 1 1
[(7 x ) 3 (1 3x) 2 ].sin(x 1)
1 1 1 1
Q 20. Using Sandwich theorem to evaluate nLim ...........
n 2 2
n 1 2
n 2 2
n 2n
1
Q21. Given f (x)= Lim
n
tan1 (nx); g (x) = Lim
n
sin2n x and sin(h(x) ) = [cos (g(x)) +cos(2 f (x))]
2
Find the domain and range of h (x).
1 sin 2x (x 3 27 ) 1n (x 2)
Q 22. Lim
x Q 23. Lim
x 3 2
4 4x x 9
x x
(cos ) (sin ) 1 27 9x 3x 1
x
Q 24. Lim
x 2
Lim
Q 25. x 0
x2 2 1 cos x

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x
Q 26. Let f ( x ) , x 0 and g( x ) x 3, x 1
sin x
2 x, x 0 x 2 2x 2, 1 x 2
x 5, x2
find LHL and RHL of g f (x ) at x = 0 and hence find Lim g f ( x ) .
x0
Pn 1 Pn
Q 27. Let Pn a 1 , n = 2, 3,.......and Let P1 = ax 1 where a R+ then evaluate Lim .

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x0 x
(3x 4 2 x 2 ) sin 1x | x |3 5
Q 28. xLim

| x |3 | x |2 | x | 1
2f ( x ) 1
Q.29 If f ( x ) ln cosec ( x) 0 x 1 and g (x) = f ( x ) then
ln sin (2 x) 1 x 3/ 2 3 1
find tan1 (g (1 )) and sec1 (g (1 )) .

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Q.30 At the end-points and the midpoint of a circular arc AB tangent lines are drawn, and the points A and B
are joined with a chord. Prove that the ratio of the areas of the two triangles thus formed tends to 4 as the
arc AB decreases indefinitely.
EXERCISE2
2 1/ x
2
8x 3 x 1 x 1/ x
Q 1. Lim 2x 3 Q 2. Lim xc
4 then find c Lim
Q 3. x 0 e
x 2
2x 5 x x c


sec 2 F I
Q 4. Lim
2
x 0 sin


2 ax
2 bx
Q.5 Lim
x
GH
x 2 sin n cos

x JK
x2
a tan 2x
Lim x x
Q 6. x cos

2 aR Q 7. Lim tan
1 x x 1
4

1 nx
x 1 cos x x x1 1 1 1
x
Lim a 1 a 2 a 3 ..... a n
x x

Q 8. Lim
x 0 Q 9. x n where a1,a2,a3,......an > 0
x
sin 1 (1 {x}).cos 1 (1 {x})
Q 10. Let f(x) = then find xLim
0
f(x) and xLim
0
f(x), where {x} denotes the fractional
2{x} . (1 {x})
part function.
ae x b cos x ce x
Q 11. Find the values of a, b & c so that Lim
x 0 2
x. sin x
1 a2 x2 a x
Lim
Q 12. x a 2 2 sin sin where a is an odd integer
2 2
(a x ) ax 2 2
2 2
Lim tan x x x n f (x) g(x)
Q 13. x 0 Q 14. Lim xR
x 2 tan 2 x x 1 n n

Q 15. Lim [1 .x ] [ 2.x ][ 3.x ].....[ n.x ] , Where [.] denotes the greatest integer function.
n
n2
1 x ln x
Q 16. Without using series expansion or L'Hospital's rule evaluate, Lim
x 1 1 cos x
ay by
exp x ln(1 ) exp x1n(1 )
x x
Q 17. Lim Limit
x y
y0


Q 18. If sn be the sum of n terms of the series, sin x + sin 2x + sin 3x +..... + sin nx then show that
Limit s1 s 2 ...... s n = 1 cot x (x 2 k , k I)
n
n 2 2
n (1 x)1 x 1
Q 19. Lim
x 0 2

x x
23 1 33 1 4 3 1 n3 1
Q 20. Let Pn . . ....... . Evaluate Lim Pn
23 1 33 1 4 3 1 n3 1 n

Q 21. A circular arc of radius 1 subtends an angle of x radians, 0 < x < as shown in
2
the figure. The point C is the intersection of the two tangent lines at A & B. Let
T(x) be the area of triangle ABC & let S(x) be the area of the shaded region.
Compute :
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(a) T(x) (b) S(x) & (c) the limit of T(x) as x 0.


S(x )

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x
Q 22. (a) Lim
x (b) Lim
x x x x x
x x x
n
2
Q 23. If f (n,)= 1 tan r , then compute Lim f (n , )
r 1 2 n
x x x a
x a a x
Q 24. Let l = Lim
x a & m = Lim
x a
where a > 0. If l = m then find the value of ' a '.
x a xa

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
2
x

cosh t t
2 (tan x sin x) x 3
Q 25. Lim x where cosh t = e e Q 26. Lim
x 0 x5
x 2
cos
x
Q 27. Through a point A on a circle, a chord AP is drawn & on the tangent at A a point T is taken such that
AT = AP. If TP produced meet the diameter through A at Q, prove that the limiting value of AQ when P
moves upto A is double the diameter of the circle.
Q 28. Using Sandwich theorem, evaluate
1
1 2 n
Lim
(a) n + + ......... + Lim n n n
(b) n (a b ) , 0 < a < b
1 n2 2 n2 n n2
x2 1 x 2 x 1 ax b = 0
Lim
Q 29. Find a & b if : (i) x x 1 ax b = 0 (ii) xLim



xh
sin (x h) (sin x )x
Q 30. Show that Lim
h 0 = (sin x)x [ x cot x + l n sin x ]
h

EXERCISE3
1
2 2
Q.1 Lim 1 5x x = ______. [ IIT96, 1 ]
x0 2
1 3x
Lim 1 cos 2 (x 1)
Q.2 x1
[ IIT 98, 2 ]
x 1
(A) exits and it equals 2 (B) exits and it equals - 2
(C) does not exist because x - 1
(D) does not exist because left hand limit is not equal to right hand limit.

Q.3 Lim x tan 2x 2x tan x is : [ JEE '99, 2 (out of 200) ]


x 0 2
(1 cos 2x)
1 1
(A) 2 (B) 2 (C) (D)
x
2 2
x 3
Q.4 For x R , Lim
x = [ JEE 2000, Screening]
x 2
(A) e (B) e 1 (C) e 5 (D) e5
2
sin( cos x )
Q.5 Lim equals [ JEE 2001, Screening]
x 0 x2

(A) (B) (C) (D) 1
2

a tan x a sin x
Q.6 Evaluate Lim , a > 0. [REE 2001, 3 out of 100]
x 0 tan x sin x
(cos x 1)(cos x e x )
Q.7 The integer n for which Lim is a finite non-zero number is
x 0 xn
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4
[JEE 2002 (screening), 3]
sin( n x )[(a n )n x tan x ]
Q.8 If Lim 0 (n > 0) then the value of 'a' is equal to
x 0 x2

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1 n2 1
(A) (B) n2 + 1 (C) (D) None
n n
[JEE 2003 (screening)]
2 1
Q.9 Find the value of Lim (n 1) cos 1 n . [ JEE ' 2004, 2 out of 60]
n n
EXERCISE4

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n 1 n 2n
Limit 5 3 2
1. n = (A) 5 (B) 3 (C) 1 (D) zero
5 2 n 32 n 3
n

cos2 cos2x
2. Limit =
x 1 x2 | x |
(A) 2 cos 2 (B) 2 cos 2 (C) 2 sin 2 (D) 2 sin 2

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1 1 cos2x
3. The value of Limit
x 0 is:
x 2
(A) 1 (B) 1 (C) 0 (D) none
4. Limit sin1 (sec x).
x 0
(A) is equal to /2 (B) is equal to 1 (C) is equal to zero (D) none of these
2
5. Limit x 9 x 20 where [x] is the greatest integer not greater than x:
x 5 x [x ]
(A) is equal to 1 (B) 0 (C) 4 (D) none
|x|
6. Limit :
x sinx
(A) is equal to 1 (B) is equal to 1 (C) is equal to (D) does not exist
3

7. Limit ( x 27 ) ln ( x 2) =
x3 2 ( x 9 )
(A) 8 (B) 8 (C) 9 (D) 9
100
k
x 100
8. Limit k 1
=
x 1
x 1
(A) 0 (B) 5050 (C) 4550 (D) 5050
9. Limit
x ( x a)(x b) x =
ab
(A) ab (B) (C) ab (D) none
2
x 3 . sin 1x x 1
10. Limit =
x
x2 x 1
(A) 0 (B) 1/2 (C) 1 (D) none

11. Limit ( n 2) ! ( n 1) ! , n N=
n
(n 3) !
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 1
12. Limit | x |sinx =
x 0
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 1 (D) none of these
x
2
13. Limit x 2 x 1 =
x 2
x 4x 2
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) e2 (D) e
x (1 a cos x ) b sin x
14. The values of a and b such that xLim = 1 are
0
x3
5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3
(A) , (B) , (C) , (D) ,
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2 3 sin x cos x
Limit 6 6
15. =
x 0

x 3 3 cos x sin x
(A) 1/3 (B) 2/3 (C) 4/3 (D) 4/3
x 1 , x 1 x 1 , x0
16. If f(x) = 2 , g(x) = 2 and h(x) = |x|
2x 2 , x 1 x 1 , x 0
then find Lim f(g(h(x)))
x 0
(A) 1 (B) 0 (C) 1 (D) does not exists
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17. Limit (1 x + [x 1] + [1 x]) = where [x] denotes greatest integer function.
x 1
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 1 (D) does not exist
sin x 3
18. Lt , where [ . ] denotes greatest integer function is :
x0
[ x 3]
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) does not exist (D) sin 1
1 1

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x sin sin 2 x 0
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19. Let f (x) = x x , then xlim


f(x) equals
0 x0
(A) 0 (B) 1/2 (C) 1 (D) none of these.
3 3
| x| x
20. lim (a > 0), where [x] denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to x is
a
a
xa

(A) a2 1 (B) a2 1 (C) a2 (D) a2

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Lim ax 2 bx c
21. Let , be the roots of ax2
+ bx + c = 0, where 1 < < . Then x x = 1 then which of the
0
ax 2 bx c
following statements is incorrect
(A) a > 0 and x0 < 1 (B) a > 0 and x0 >
(C) a < 0 and < x0 < (D) a < 0 and x0 < 1

22. Limit 1.n 2(n1)3(n2)...... n.1 has the value :


n
12 2 2 3 2 ...... n 2
1 1 1
(A) (B) (C) (D) 1
2 3 4
sin x
23. x0

Lim 1 e x
x is (where [] represents greatest integral part function)
(A) 1 (B) 1 (C) 0 (D) does not exist
24. lim lim
If = x (sin x 1 sin x ) and m = x [sin x 1 sin x ] where [.] denotes the greatest integer
function then :
(A) = m = 0 (B) = 0 ; m is undefined
(C) , m both do not exist (D) = 0, m 0 (although m exist)
n
1 1
25. If f(x) = x x then lim f(0) is.
1 n
1
(A) 1 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) None

n sin n tan
26. The limit lim
0 , where [x] is the greatest integer function and n , is

(A) 2n (B) 2n + 1 (C) 2n 1 (D) does not exist
1
27. The limit Limit x x 2
n 1 is equal to :
x x
(A) 1/2 (B) 3/2 (C) 1/3 (D) 1

x 2
28. lim is : (where [.] represents greatest integer function.
x / 2 cos x

(A) 1 (B) 0 (C) 2 (D) does not exist
29. If f(x) = sin x , x n, n = 0 , 1 , 2 , 3, ,....
= 2 , otherwise and
g(x) = x + 1 , x 0 , 2
= 4 , x=0
= 5 , x=2
Limit
then x 0 g [f(x)] is :
(A) 1 (B) 0 (C) 4 (D) does not exists
2x x
30. The graph of the function f(x) = tLim cot 1 2 , is
0 t

(A) (B) (C) (D)

cos (sin x ) cosx


31. The value of Limit
x0 is equal to:
x4
(A) 1/5 (B) 1/6 (C) 1/4 (D) 1/2
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1 1
x xn e x 3 x n e x
e 2

32. Limit , n N is equal to :
x n
x
(A) 0 (B) ln(2/3) (C) ln(3/2) (D) none

ay by
exp x ln 1 x exp x ln 1 x

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33. Limit Limit y
=
x
y 0


(A) a + b (B) a b (C) b a (D) (a + b)

EXERCISE5

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
1. Evaluate the following limits, where [ . ] represents greatest integer function and { . } represents
fractional part function
x
(i) lim [sin x] (ii) lim (iii) lim sgn [tan x]
x 2 2 x
x
2
x 2 2 , x 2 2x , x 1
2. If f(x) = and g(x) = , evaluate xlim f (g(x)).
1 x , x 2 3 x , x 1 1

3. Evaluate each of the following limits, if exists


x2 4 a 2x 3 x
(i) lim (ii) lim ,a0
x 2 x 2 3x 2 x a 3a x 2 x
4. Evaluate the following limits, if exists
5 5

(i) lim
tan 3 x 2x
(ii) xlim ( x 2) 2 (a 2) 2 (iii) lim x e
2 x
e2
x 0 3 x sin 2 x a x 0 1 cos x
x a
5. Evaluate the following limits, if exist :
1 2 x
(i) lim x2 x 1 x (ii) lim 2 .... 2
x x 2
x x x
(iii) Limit
x cos
x1 cos x (iv) lim
x
2
x 8x + x

tan 2 x
e x 1 sin x
6. Evaluate the following limits using expansions :(i) lim 2
x 0
x3
x
a b sin x cos x ce
(ii) If xlim
0
exists, then find values of a, b, c. Also find the limit
x3
[1 . 2x ] [ 2 . 3x] ..... [n . (n 1) x]
7. Evaluate xlim
where [ . ] denotes greatest integer function
n3
x 2n 1
8. If f(x) = nLim
2n , find range of f(x).
x 1
9. Evaluate the following limits
(ln (1 x ) ln 2)(3.4 x 1 3x ) x x
(i) Limit (ii) Limit (cos ) (sin ) cos2 , 0 ,
x 1
1 1
x4 x4
[(7 x ) 3 (1 3 x ) 2 ]. sin( x 1) 2
10. Evaluate the following limits

x 5 tan 1 3 | x |2 7
2
(i) Limit x 3 2
x 1 x x 2
4
(ii) Limit x
x x
| x |3 7 | x | 8

sec2
2 bx
11. Evaluate the following limits (i) Limit sin2
x 0
2 a x
nx
1/ x a 1/ x a 1/ x ....... a 1/ x
(ii) Limit a 1 2 3 n
x n , where a1, a2, a3,......., an > 0.

12. Find the values of a & b so that: (i) Limit


(1 a x sin x) (b cos x) may find to a definite limit.
x 0
x4
(ii) lim x 4 ax 3 3 x 2 bx 2 x 4 2x 3 cx 2 3 x d = 4
x
n 1 x (1 x ) 1
13. Find the limits using expansion : Limit
x 0
x2 x
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sin 1(1 { x }) . cos 1(1 { x})
14. Let f(x) = then find Limit Limit
x0 f(x) and x0 f(x), where {.} denotes the fractional
2{ x} . (1 { x})
part function.

15. Let f (x) = Limit




2m

Limit cos (n!x ) where x R. Prove that
m n
1 if x is rational

page 17 of 18
f (x) = 0 if x is irrational .
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[12 (sinx) x ] [ 22 (sinx ) x ] .......[n2 (sinx )x ]
Limit Limit
16.
Evaluate x 0 n 3 ,
n
where [. ] denotes the greatest integer function.
17. Evaluate the following limits

(i) Limit cos x cos x cos x ........ cos x

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
n n
2 4 8 2
Limit 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x
(ii) n tan + 2 tan 2 + 3 tan 3 +...... + n tan n .
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
(iii) Limit logx 1( x ). logx ( x 1). logx 1( x 2). logx 2 ( x 3 ).....logk ( x 5 ) ; where k = x 5 1.
x
3
Limit P = 2 .
3
23 1 3 1 4 1 n3 1
(iv) Let Pn = . 3
. 3
.......... . Prove that n n
23 1 3 1 4 1 n3 1 3

ANSWER
EXERCISE1
45 pq 2 1
Q 1. 3 Q 2. Q 3. 2 Q 4. Q 5. Q.6
91 2 3 3
Q 7. (a) /2 if a > 0 ; 0 if a = 0 and /2 if a < 0(b) f(x) = | x |
1 1 2
Q 8. 5050 Q 9. a =
;r= ;S= Q 10. l n 2 Q 11. does not exist Q 12. 2
2 4 3
3 1 21n 2
Q 13. 1 Q 14. Q 15. Q 16.
2 16 2
1 9 4
Q 17. a = 2 ; limit = 1 Q 18. Q 19. 1n Q 20. 2
32 4 e
n
Q 21. Domain, x R, Range, x = ,nI Q 22. does not exist Q 23. 9
2
Q 24. cos lnCos + SinlnSin Q 25. 8 2 (1n 3) 2 Q 26. 3, 3, 3
Q 27. (ln a)n Q 28. 2 Q 29. 0, 0 Q. 30 4
EXERCISE2
12 a 2 / b2 2 2 2 a2
Q 1. e -8
Q 2. c = ln2 Q 3. e Q 4. e Q.5 Q 6. e Q 7. e-1
4
2a 2 4
Q 8. e-1/2 Q 9. (a1.a 2.a 3....an ) Q 10. , Q 11. a = c = 1, b = 2 Q 12.
2 2 2 16a 4
2 g(x ) f (x)
Q 13. Q 14. f(x) when x> 1 ; g(x) when x < 1 ; when x = 1 & not defined when x = -1
3 2
x 1 2
Q 15. Q 16. 2 Q 17. a - b Q 19. 1/2 Q 20.
2 3
1 x x sinx 1 1 3
Q 21. T(x) = tan2 . sin x or tan , S(x) = x sin x , limit =
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 2
Q 22. (a) 1 (b) Q 23.
Q 24. a = e2 Q 25. e

2 tan
1 1
Q 26. Q 28. (a) 1/2, (b) b Q 29. (i) a =1, b = 1 (ii) a = 1 , b =
4 2
EXERCISE3
Q 1. e Q 2. D Q 3. C Q 4. C Q5. B
2
Q6. lna Q7. C Q8. C Q.9 1

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EXERCISE4
1. D 2. C 3. D 4. D 5. D 6. D 7. C 8. B 9. B 10. C
11. A 12. B 13. C 14. C 15. C 16. B 17. C 18. C 19. C 20. C

page 18 of 18
21. D 22. A 23. A 24. B 25. A 26. C 27. A 28. C 29. A 30. C
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31. B 32. B 33. B


EXERCISE5

1. (i) 0 (ii) Limit does not exists (iii) Limit does not exists
2 5
2. 6 3. (i) ( 8) (ii) 4. (i) 1/3 (ii) (a + 2)3/2 (iii) 2e 2
3 3 2
1 1

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5. (i) 1/2 (ii) 1/2 (iii) zero (iv) 6. (i) (ii)a = 2, b = 1, c = 1 and value =
3 3
x 9 4
7. 8. {1, 0, 1} 9. (i) ln (ii) cos4 a ln (cos a) - sin4 a ln (sin a)
3 4 e 2
a

1 1 b2
10. (i) (ii) 11. (i) e (ii) (a 1 a 2 a 3 ....... a n)
4 2
1 1
12. (i) a =
,b = 1 (ii) a = 2, b R, c = 5, d R 13.
2 2
1 sin x 1
14. , 16. 17. (i) (ii) cot x (iii) 5
2 2 2 3 x x

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Successful People Replace the words like; "wish", "try" & "should" with "I Will". Ineffective People don't.