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solutions is + 2n, + 2n, + 2n, +

5-3 Solving Trigonometric Equations

2n, .

1.5 sin x + 2 = sin x

SOLUTION:

SOLUTION:

solutions on the interval . The solutions on

The period of cosine is 2, so you only need to find

this interval are and . Solutions on the solutions on the interval . The solutions on

interval ( , ), are found by adding integer this interval are , , , and . Solutions on

multiples of 2.Therefore, the general form of the

the interval ( , ), are found by adding integer

solutions is +2n, +2n, . multiples of 2.Therefore, the general form of the

solutions is + 2n, + 2n, + 2n, +

2.5=sec2 x + 3 2n, .

SOLUTION: 4.4 tan x 7 = 3 tan x 6

SOLUTION:

The period of secant is 2, so you only need to find The period of tangent is , so you only need to find

solutions on the interval . The solutions on solutions on the interval . The only solution on

this interval are , , , and . Solutions on the this interval is . Solutions on the interval ( , ),

interval ( , ), are found by adding integer

multiples of 2.Therefore, the general form of the are found by adding integer multiples of .

solutions is + 2n, + 2n, + 2n, + Therefore, the general form of the solutions is +

2n, . n, .

SOLUTION: SOLUTION:

solutions on the interval . The solutions on this

eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero interval are and . Solutions on the intervalPage

( 1

The period of cosine is 2, so you only need to find , ), are found by adding integer multiples of .

solutions on the interval . The solutions on

are found by adding integer multiples of . interval ( , ), are found by adding integer

Therefore, the general form of the solutions is + multiples of 2.Therefore, the general form of the

5-3 Solving Trigonometric Equations solutions is + 2n, + 2n, .

n, .

SOLUTION: SOLUTION:

find solutions on the interval . The solutions

The period of cotangent is , so you only need to find on this interval are and . Solutions on the

solutions on the interval . The solutions on this

interval ( , ), are found by adding integer

interval are and . Solutions on the interval ( multiples of 2.Therefore, the general form of the

8.11=3csc2 x + 7

n, + n, . SOLUTION:

SOLUTION:

solutions on the interval . The solutions on The period of cosecant is 2, so you only need to

find solutions on the interval . The solutions

this interval are and . Solutions on the

interval ( , ), are found by adding integer on this interval are , , , and . Solutions

multiples of 2.Therefore, the general form of the on the interval ( , ), are found by adding integer

solutions is + 2n, + 2n, . multiples of 2.Therefore, the general form of the

solutions is + 2n, + 2n, + 2n, +

7.3 csc x = 2 csc x + 2n, .

SOLUTION:

9.6 tan2 x 2 = 4

SOLUTION:

The period of cosecant is 2, so you only need to

find solutions on the interval . The solutions

interval ( , ), are found by adding integer

multiples of 2.Therefore, the general form of the

The period of tangent is , so you only need to find

solutions is + 2n, + 2n, .

solutions on the interval . The solutions on this

eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 2

8.11=3csc2 x + 7 interval are and . Solutions on the interval (

on the interval ( , ), are found by adding integer

multiples of 2.Therefore, the general form of the ( , ), are found by adding integer multiples of

2.Therefore, the general form of the solutions is

solutions is + 2n, + 2n, + 2n, +

5-3 Solving Trigonometric Equations +2n, +2n, .

2n, .

SOLUTION: SOLUTION:

The period of tangent is , so you only need to find The period of cotangent is , so you only need to find

solutions on the interval . The solutions on this solutions on the interval . The only solution on

interval are and . Solutions on the interval ( this interval is . Solutions on the interval ( , ),

, ), are found by adding integer multiples of . are found by adding integer multiples of .

Therefore, the general form of the solutions is + Therefore, the general form of the solutions is +

n, .

n, + n, .

12.7 cos x = 5 cos x +

10.9 + sin2 x = 10

SOLUTION:

SOLUTION:

The period of sine is 2, so you only need to find solutions on the interval . The solutions on

solutions on the interval . The solutions on

this interval are and . Solutions on the

this interval are and . Solutions on the interval

interval ( , ), are found by adding integer

( , ), are found by adding integer multiples of multiples of 2.Therefore, the general form of the

2.Therefore, the general form of the solutions is

solutions is + 2n, + 2n, .

+2n, +2n, .

Find all solutions of each equation on [0, 2 ).

11.7 cot x =4 cot x 13.sin4 x + 2 sin2 x 3 = 0

SOLUTION: SOLUTION:

solutions on the interval . The only solution on

this Manual

eSolutions interval- Powered

is . Solutions

by Cogneroon the interval ( , ), Page 3

On the interval [0, 2), when x = and

are found by adding integer multiples of .

interval ( , ), are found by adding integer The equation cos x = 2 has no real solutions since

multiples of 2.Therefore, the general form of the the maximum value the cosine function can obtain is

5-3 solutions

Solvingis Trigonometric Equations 1. On the interval [0, 2), the equation has

+ 2n, + 2n, .

solutions 0 and .

Find all solutions of each equation on [0, 2 ). 15.4 cot x = cot x sin2 x

4 2

13.sin x + 2 sin x 3 = 0

SOLUTION:

SOLUTION:

solutions. On the interval [0, 2), the equation cot x =

On the interval [0, 2), when x = and 0 has solutions and .

16.csc2 x csc x + 9 = 11

number, the equation yieldsno SOLUTION:

additional solutions.

SOLUTION:

solution of andtheequationcscx = 2 has

solutionsof and .

The equation cos x = 2 has no real solutions since

the maximum value the cosine function can obtain is

1. On the interval [0, 2), the equation has 17.cos3 x + cos2 x cos x = 1

solutions 0 and .

SOLUTION:

15.4 cot x = cot x sin2 x

SOLUTION:

The equations sin x = 2 and sin x = 2 have no real solution of 0 and the equation cos x = 1 has a

solutions. On the interval [0, 2), the equation cot x = solutionof .

eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 4

SOLUTION:

16.csc2 x csc x + 9 = 11

On the interval [0, 2), the equation cos x = 1 has a

5-3 solution

Solving of Trigonometric x = 1 has a

0 and the equation cosEquations

solutionof .

SOLUTION: b.

solution of andtheequationsinx = has

solutionsof and .

If the distance to the net is 50 feet, then the angle

19.TENNIS A tennis ball leaves a racquet and heads wouldbe19.9or70.1.

toward a net 40 feet away. The height of the net is

the same height as the initial height of the tennis ball. 20.SKIING In the Olympics aerial skiing competition,

skiers speed down a slope that launches them into

the air, as shown. The maximum height a skier can

reach is given by h peak = ,whereg is

second squared.

a. If the ball is hit at 50 feet per second, neglecting

airresistance,use to find the

interval of possible angles of the ball needed to clear

the net.

b. Find iftheinitialvelocityremainedthesame a. If a skier obtains a height of 5 meters above the

but the distance to the net was 50 feet. end of the ramp, what was the skiers initial speed?

SOLUTION: b. Use your answer from part a to determine how

a. long it took the skier to reach the maximum height if

tpeak = .

SOLUTION:

a.

Theintervalis[15.4,74.6].

eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 5

b. The skiers initial speed was 11.67 meters per

second.

5-3 If the distance

Solving to the net is 50 feet,

Trigonometric then the angle

Equations The time it took the skier to reach the maximum

wouldbe19.9or70.1. height was about 1.0 seconds.

20.SKIING In the Olympics aerial skiing competition, Find all solutions of each equation on the

skiers speed down a slope that launches them into interval [0, 2 ).

the air, as shown. The maximum height a skier can 21.1 = cot 2 x + csc x

reach is given by h peak = ,whereg is SOLUTION:

the acceleration due to gravity or 9.8 meters per

second squared.

a. If a skier obtains a height of 5 meters above the

end of the ramp, what was the skiers initial speed?

b. Use your answer from part a to determine how

long it took the skier to reach the maximum height if

tpeak = .

SOLUTION:

a.

, , and .

The skiers initial speed was 11.67 meters per 22.sec x = tan x + 1

second.

SOLUTION:

b.

The time it took the skier to reach the maximum

height was about 1.0 seconds.

interval [0, 2 ).

21.1 = cot 2 x + csc x

eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 6

SOLUTION:

Therefore, on the interval [0, 2) the solutions are

5-3 , , and

Solving .

Trigonometric Equations is an extraneous solution. Therefore, on the

interval [0, 2) the only solution is 0.

SOLUTION: SOLUTION:

is an extraneous solution. Therefore, on the

interval [0, 2) the only solution is 0.

Therefore, on the interval [0, 2) the solutions are 0,

23.tan 2 x = 1 sec x

, and .

SOLUTION:

24.csc x + cot x = 1

SOLUTION:

Therefore,

eSolutions Manual - on the interval

Powered [0,

by Cognero 2) the solutions are 0, Page 7

, and .

Therefore, on the interval [0, 2) the solutions are 0, x= isanextraneoussolution.Therefore, on the

5-3 Solving

, and Trigonometric

. Equations interval [0, 2) the only solution is .

SOLUTION: SOLUTION:

Check

x= isanextraneoussolution.Therefore, on the

interval [0, 2) the only solution is .

SOLUTION: Therefore, on the interval [0, 2) the solutions are

, , and .

26.cos x 4 = sin x 4

SOLUTION:

Check

eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 8

Therefore, on the interval [0, 2) the solutions are Therefore, on the interval [0, 2) the only valid

5-3 Solving

, Trigonometric

, and . Equations solutions are and .

SOLUTION: SOLUTION:

solutions are and 0.

SOLUTION:

solutions are and .

is undefined. The solutions of

SOLUTION: are

Check

eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 9

are On the interval , there are no real values of x

for which , but for

5-3 Solving Trigonometric Equations

Check

29.sec2 x 1 + tan x tan x =

SOLUTION:

, , and .

SOLUTION:

for which , but for

SOLUTION:

eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 10

interval [0, 2) at and .

Therefore, on the interval [0, 2) the solutions are Therefore, the components will be equivalent when

5-3 Solving

, , Trigonometric

and . Equations .

30.sec2 x tan2 x + 3 sec2 x 2 tan2 x = 3 Find all solutions of each equation on the

interval [0, 2 ).

SOLUTION:

32. + cos x = 2

SOLUTION:

2

or equal to zero so sec x = 1 has no solutions.

Therefore, on the interval [0, 2) the only solutions

are 0 and . On the interval [0, 2), cos x = whenx = and

31.OPTOMETRY Optometrists sometimes join two

when x = .

oblique or tilted prisms to correct vision. The

resultant refractive power PR of joining two oblique

prisms can be calculated by first resolving each

prism into its horizontal and vertical components, PH 33. + =4

and PV. SOLUTION:

values of PV and PH are equivalent.

SOLUTION:

interval [0, 2) at and .

Therefore, the components will be equivalent when On the interval [0, 2),cos x = when x =

.

andwhenx = .

interval [0, 2 ).

34. + =cosx

eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 11

32. + cos x = 2 SOLUTION:

SOLUTION:

On the interval [0, 2),cos x = when x = On , whenx = andwhenx =

andwhenx = . Equations .

34. + =cosx equation on the interval [0, 2 ) by graphing.

Round to the nearest hundredth.

SOLUTION:

36.3 cos 2x = ex + 1

SOLUTION:

0.33.

which sin x = 2 and the sin x = 1 only when x = . SOLUTION:

solutions for the original equation.

35.cot x cos x + 1 = +

SOLUTION:

On the interval , the only solution is when x =

0.41.

38.x2 = 2 cos x + x

SOLUTION:

1.34.

On , whenx = andwhenx =

39.x log x + 5x cos x = 2

. SOLUTION:

GRAPHING

eSolutions CALCULATOR

Manual - Powered Solve each

by Cognero Page 12

Round to the nearest hundredth.

cos + 66.95. Because x = 1 represents

January 15, x = 1.5 represents January 31. Use the

5-3 On the interval

Solving , the only Equations

Trigonometric solution is when x =

TRACE feature to determine the temperature when

1.34.

x = 1.5.

39.x log x + 5x cos x = 2

SOLUTION:

61.3.

b. Graph y = 70. Then use the intersect feature

under the CALC menu to determine the interval on

which 8.05 cos + 66.95 > 70.

1.84 and when x = 4.49.

in degrees Fahrenheit for a city can be modeled by t

= 8.05 cos + 66.95, where x is a function of

time, x = 1 represents January 15, x = 2 represents

February 15, and so on.

a. Use a graphing calculator to estimate the

temperature on January 31.

b. Approximate the number of months that the

So, 8.05 cos + 66.95 > 70 on the interval

average daily temperature is greater than 70

throughout the entire month. 3.74 < x < 8.26. Because x = 3.74 corresponds to

c. Estimate the highest temperature of the year and about the middle of April, the temperature does not

the month in which it occurs. exceed 70 for the entire month until May.

Therefore, the average daily temperature is greater

SOLUTION: than 70 for the entire month during the months of

a. Use a graphing calculator to graph t = 8.05 May, June, and July. Therefore, the average

temperature was higher than 70 for three months.

cos + 66.95. Because x = 1 represents

January 15, x = 1.5 represents January 31. Use the c. Use the maximum feature under the CALC

TRACE feature to determine the temperature when menu to find the maximum value of the function on

x = 1.5. [0, 12].

Therefore, the temperature on January 31 is about The maximum value is 75 when x6.Therefore,

61.3. the maximum average monthly temperature is 75

May, June, and July. Therefore, the average

temperature was higher than 70 for three months. On the interval [0, 2) cos x = 0 when x = andx

5-3 c. Use the maximum

Solving feature under

Trigonometric the CALC

Equations = .

menu to find the maximum value of the function on

[0, 12].

42.

The maximum value is 75 when x6.Therefore,

the maximum average monthly temperature is 75 SOLUTION:

during the month of June. Let y = 0 and solve for x.

interval [0, 2 ).

41. On the interval [0, 2) sin x = 0 when x = 0 and x =

.

SOLUTION:

Let y = 0 and solve for x.

43.

On the interval [0, 2) cos x = 0 when x = andx SOLUTION:

Let y = 0 and solve for x.

= .

42.

On the interval [0, 2) cot x = 1 when x = andx

= .

SOLUTION:

Let y = 0 and solve for x.

44.

On the interval [0, 4) the solutions are , ,

On the interval [0, 2) cot x = 1 when x = andx

.

SOLUTION:

44.

SOLUTION:

Let y = 0 and solve for x. On the interval [0, 4) the solutions are , ,

, , , and .

, tan x = 1 when x = andx = , and tan x

= 1 when x = andx = .

interval [0, 4 ).

45.4 tan x = 2 sec2 x

SOLUTION:

, and .

48.sec x + 5 = 2 sec x + 3

SOLUTION:

46.2 sin2 x + 1 = 3 sin x

SOLUTION:

eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 15

, , , and . 49.GEOMETRY Consider the circle below.

On the interval [0, 4) the solutions are , ,

5-3 Solving

, , Trigonometric

, , , and Equations

. On the graphing calculator, find the intersection of

Y1 = 18sin and Y2 = 14.

48.sec x + 5 = 2 sec x + 3

SOLUTION:

On the interval [0, 4) the solutions are , ,

, and . b. First, substitute into the given area formula and

rearrange it.

49.GEOMETRY Consider the circle below.

Using a graphing calculator, find the intersection of

a. The length s of isgivenbys = r(2 ) where 0 Y1 = 2.88 and Y2 = sin .

. When s = 18 and AB = 14, the radius is r

= . Use a graphing calculator to find the

measure of 2 in radians.

b. The area of the shaded region is given by A =

radian measure of if the radius is 5 inches and the

area is 36 square inches. Round to the nearest When the area is 36 square inches and the radius is

hundredth. 5 inches, then the measure of is 3.01 radians.

SOLUTION: Solve each inequality on the interval [0, 2 ).

a. Rewrite the arclength formula using s = 18 and r 50.1 > 2 sin x

= . SOLUTION:

Graph y = 1 and y = 2 sin x on [0, 2). Use the

intersect feature under the CALC menu to

determine on what interval(s) 1 > 2 sin x.

Y1 = 18sin and Y2 = 14.

graph when x < and when x > . Therefore, 1

Solving is 36 square inches

Trigonometric and the radius is

Equations > 2 sin x on 0 x< or <x < 2.

5 inches, then the measure of is 3.01 radians.

50.1 > 2 sin x

SOLUTION:

SOLUTION:

Graph y = 2 cos x on [0, 2). Use the zero

Graph y = 1 and y = 2 sin x on [0, 2). Use the CALC

feature under the menu to determine on

intersect feature under the CALC menu to

determine on what interval(s) 1 > 2 sin x. what interval(s) 0 < 2 cos x .

The graphs intersect at about 0.524 or andabout

The zeros of y = 2 cos x are about 0.785 or

2.618 or . The graph of y = 1 is above the other andabout5.498or . The graph of y = 0 is

graph when x < and when x > . Therefore, 1 belowtheothergraphwhen0x < or <x <

> 2 sin x on 0 x< or <x < 2. 2.

Therefore, 0 < 2 cos x on0x < or <

SOLUTION: 52.

Graph y = 2 cos x on [0, 2). Use the zero

feature under the CALC menu to determine on SOLUTION:

what interval(s) 0 < 2 cos x .

Graph y = and y = on [0, 2). Use

belowtheothergraphwhen0x < or <x < othergraphwhen

2. x .

Therefore, 0 < 2 cos x on0x < or <

5-3 Solving Trigonometric Equations Therefore, on x .

x < 2.

SOLUTION: SOLUTION:

Graph y = and y = on [0, 2). Use Graph y = and y = tan x cot x on [0, 2).

the intersect feature under the CALC menu to Use the intersect feature under the CALC menu to

determine on what interval(s) tanx cot

determine on what interval(s) .

x.

The graphs intersect at about 3.142 or . The graph

of y = tan x cot x is at or below the other graph

when0x < 2.

Therefore, tanx cot xon0x < 2.

The graphs intersect at about 1.047 or andabout

54.cos x

2.094 or . The graph of y = is below the

othergraphwhen SOLUTION:

x .

Graph y = cos x and y = on [0, 2). Use the

Therefore, on x . intersect feature under the CALC menu to

53. tanx cot x

SOLUTION:

determine on what interval(s) tanx cot

x.

eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 18

of y = tan x cot x is at or below the other graph

other graph when x .

when0x < 2.

5-3 Therefore,

Solving Trigonometric Equations

tanx cot xon0x < 2. Therefore, cos x on x .

54.cos x

SOLUTION:

SOLUTION: Graph y = sinx 1. Use the zero feature under

the CALC menu to determine on what interval(s)

Graph y = cos x and y = on [0, 2). Use the

sinx 1 < 0.

intersect feature under the CALC menu to

The zeros of sinx 1 are about 0.785 or and

The graphs intersect at about 2.618 or andabout Therefore, sinx 1 < 0 on0x < or <

medium to another it bends or refracts, as shown.

Therefore, cos x on x .

SOLUTION:

Refraction is described by n 2 sin1 = n 1 sin2, where

Graph y = sinx 1. Use the zero feature under

the CALC menu to determine on what interval(s) n 1 is the index of refraction of the medium the light

sinx 1 < 0. is entering, n 2 is the index of refraction of the

medium the light is exiting, 1 is the angle of

incidence, and 2 is the angle of refraction.

a. Find 2 for each material shown if the angle of

incidence is 40 and the index of refraction for air is

1.00.

eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 19

medium the light is exiting, 1 is the angle of

incidence, and 2 is the angle of refraction.

a. Find for each material shown if the angle of

2

5-3 Solving Trigonometric Equations

incidence is 40 and the index of refraction for air is

1.00. water:

b. If the angle of incidence is doubled to 80 , will b. Find the angle of refraction for one of the

the resulting angles of refraction be twice as large as mediums using an angle of incidence of 80 .

those found in part a? glass:

SOLUTION:

a. glass:

80 . Therefore, the angle of refraction is not twice

as large.

ice:

57.ERROR ANALYSIS Vijay and Alicia are solving

2

tan x tan x + = tanx. Vijay thinks that

the solutions are x = +n , x = +n , x =

plastic: either of them correct? Explain your reasoning.

SOLUTION:

2

First, solve tan x tan x + = tanx.

water:

On [0, 2) tan x = 1 when x = andx = and

Sample answer: Therefore, Vijays solutions are

correct; however, they are not stated in the simplest

eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 20

form. For example, his solutions of x = +n and

b. Find the angle of refraction for one of the

mediums using an angle of incidence of 80 .

n because when n = 1, +nis equivalent to

2 25 when 1 = 40 and2 40.4 when 1 =

5-3 80 . Therefore,

Solving the angle of refraction

Trigonometric is not twice

Equations .

as large.

57.ERROR ANALYSIS Vijay and Alicia are solving CHALLENGESolve each equation on the

2 interval [0, 2].

tan x tan x + = tanx. Vijay thinks that

58.16 sin5 x + 2 sin x = 12 sin3 x

the solutions are x = +n , x = +n , x =

SOLUTION:

+n , and x = +n . Alicia thinks that the

either of them correct? Explain your reasoning.

SOLUTION:

2

First, solve tan x tan x + = tanx.

On [0, 2) tan x = 1 when x = andx = and x= , and sin x = whenx = andx = .

Therefore, after checking for extraneous solutions,

Sample answer: Therefore, Vijays solutions are the solutions are 0, , , , , , , ,

correct; however, they are not stated in the simplest

, and .

form. For example, his solutions of x = +n and

interval [0, 2].

58.16 sin5 x + 2 sin x = 12 sin3 x

SOLUTION:

eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 21

On [0, 2) sin x = 0 when x = 0 and x = , sin x = Therefore, after checking for extraneous solutions,

when x = andx = , sin x = when the solutions are , , , , , and .

the solutions are 0, , , , , , , ,

Therefore, after checking for extraneous solutions,

, and Trigonometric

5-3 Solving . Equations the solutions are , , , , , and .

59.4 cos2 x 4 sin2 x cos2 x + 3 sin2 x = 3 60.REASONING Are the solutions of csc x = and

2

SOLUTION: cot x + 1 = 2 equivalent? If so, verify your answer

algebraically. If not, explain your reasoning.

SOLUTION:

On [0, 2 ) sin x = 1 when x = , sin x=1 when

Therefore, after checking for extraneous solutions,

the solutions are , , , , , and .

The solutions to csc x = are and . Using

60.REASONING Are the solutions of csc x = and

2 2

cot x + 1 = 2 equivalent? If so, verify your answer a Pythagorean identity, cot x + 1 = 2 simplifies to

algebraically. If not, explain your reasoning. 2

csc x = 2 or csc x = . Therefore, there are

SOLUTION: two additional solutions when csc x = : and

2

. So, the solutions of csc x = andcot x + 1

= 2 are not equivalent.

that has each of the following solutions.

61.

SOLUTION:

Sample answer: When sin x = 0, x = 0 and x = .

TheManual

eSolutions solutions to cscbyxCognero

- Powered = are and . Using When sin x = ,x= andx = Page 22

. So, one

2

a Pythagorean identity, cot x + 1 = 2 simplifies to

2 equation that has solutions of 0, , , and is

two additional solutions when csc x = : and 2

and is = 0 or cos x

2

. So, the solutions of csc x = andcot x + 1

5-3 Solving Trigonometric Equations

2

=0. This can be rewritten as 4 cos x = 3.

= 2 are not equivalent.

OPEN ENDED Write a trigonometric equation 63.Writing in Math Explain the difference in the

that has each of the following solutions. techniques that are used when solving equations and

verifying identities.

SOLUTION:

When solving an equation, you use properties of

equality to manipulate each side of the equation to

isolate a variable. For example:

61.

SOLUTION:

Sample answer: When sin x = 0, x = 0 and x = .

When verifying an identity, you transform an

equation that has solutions of 0, , , and is expression on one side of the identity into the

expression on the other side through a series of

2 algebraic steps.For example:

= 0 or sin x =0. This

2

can be rewritten as 2 sin x = sinx. Verify = .

62.

SOLUTION:

. When cos x = ,x= andx = .

64. =

So, one equation that has solutions of , , ,

SOLUTION:

2

and is = 0 or cos x

2

=0. This can be rewritten as 4 cos x = 3.

techniques that are used when solving equations and

verifying

eSolutions Manualidentities.

- Powered by Cognero Page 23

SOLUTION:

When solving an equation, you use properties of

+

2 2

5-3 Solving Trigonometric Equations = cos + sin Reciprocal Identities

=1PythagoreanIdentity

Verify each identity. Find the value of each expression using the

given information.

64. = 67.tan ; sin = , tan >0

SOLUTION:

SOLUTION:

Use the Pythagorean Identity that involves sin .

65. =

SOLUTION:

66. + =1

SOLUTION:

+

2 2 68.csc ,cos = , csc <0

= cos + sin Reciprocal Identities

=1PythagoreanIdentity

SOLUTION:

Find the value of each expression using the

Use the Pythagorean Identity that involves cos .

given information.

67.tan ; sin = , tan >0

SOLUTION:

Use the Pythagorean Identity that involves sin .

in years.

a. What is the amplitude of the function? What does

it represent?

5-3 Solving Trigonometric Equations b. What is the period of the function? What does it

represent?

c. Graph the function.

68.csc ,cos = , csc <0

SOLUTION:

SOLUTION: a. The amplitude of the function is |a| = |20,000| or

Use the Pythagorean Identity that involves cos . 20,000. The amplitude represents the amount that the

population varies above and below the initial

population of 30,000.

b. The period of the function is

20 years.

Create a table listing the coordinates of the x-

Since one of the conditions is that csc < 0,

intercepts and extrema for f (x) = sin x for one

. period, 2 , on the interval [0, 2 ]. Then use the

amplitude of g(x) to find corresponding points on its

graph.

69.sec ; tan = 1, sin <0

Functions Max Min Max

SOLUTION: (0, 50) (10, 10) (20, 50)

Use the Pythagorean Identity that involves tan .

Sketch the curve through the indicated points for the

function. Then repeat the pattern to complete a

second period.

and sec must be positive. Therefore,

.

of deer can be modeled by p = 30,000 + 20,000

cos , where p is the population and t is the time

in years.

a. What is the amplitude of the function? What does

it represent?

Given f (x) = 2x 2 5x + 3 and g(x) = 6x + 4, find

b. What is the period of the function? What does it

each of the following.

represent?

71.(f g)(x)

c. Graph the function.

eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero SOLUTION: Page 25

SOLUTION:

a. The amplitude of the function is |a| = |20,000| or

5-3 Solving Trigonometric Equations

Given f (x) = 2x 2 5x + 3 and g(x) = 6x + 4, find 74.BUSINESS A small business owner must hire

each of the following. seasonal workers as the need arises. The following

71.(f g)(x) list shows the number of employees hired monthly

for a 5-month period.

SOLUTION:

standard deviation for these data? Round to the

nearest tenth.

To find the standard deviation, first find the variance.

SOLUTION: The mean of the data is 9. Use the mean to find the

variance.

73. (x)

SOLUTION: root of the variance.

=2,thenx =

A

74.BUSINESS A small business owner must hire

seasonal workers as the need arises. The following B

list shows the number of employees hired monthly

for a 5-month period.

C

standard deviation for these data? Round to the

nearest tenth. SOLUTION:

SOLUTION:

To find the standard deviation, first find the variance.

The mean of the data is 9. Use the mean to find the

variance.

Now find the standard deviation by taking the square

root of the variance.

5-3 Solving Trigonometric Equations

The standard deviation is about 3.5. The correct answer is H.

75.SAT/ACT For all positive values of m and n, if 77.Which of the following is not a solution of 0 = sin

2

=2,thenx = +cos tan ?

A

A

B

B

C 2

C D

D SOLUTION:

Try choice A.

E

SOLUTION:

Try choice B.

76.If cos x = 0.45, what is sin ? Try choice C.

F 0.55

G 0.45

H 0.45

J 0.55

Try choice D.

SOLUTION:

The correct answer is D.

The correct answer is H. Which is a solution for 2 cos =1?

77.Which of the following is not a solution of 0 = sin

2

+cos tan ?

A

eSolutions Page 27

C 2 F

5-3 Solving Trigonometric Equations

The correct answer is D.

Which is a solution for 2 cos =1?

SOLUTION:

Choice F: No

Choice G: No

Choice H: Yes

Choice J: No

The correct answer is H.

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