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interval ( , ), are found by adding integer

multiples of 2.Therefore, the general form of the


solutions is + 2n, + 2n, + 2n, +
5-3 Solving Trigonometric Equations
2n, .

Solve each equation for all values of x. 3.2 = 4 cos2 x + 1


1.5 sin x + 2 = sin x
SOLUTION:
SOLUTION:

The period of sine is 2, so you only need to find


solutions on the interval . The solutions on
The period of cosine is 2, so you only need to find
this interval are and . Solutions on the solutions on the interval . The solutions on

interval ( , ), are found by adding integer this interval are , , , and . Solutions on
multiples of 2.Therefore, the general form of the
the interval ( , ), are found by adding integer
solutions is +2n, +2n, . multiples of 2.Therefore, the general form of the
solutions is + 2n, + 2n, + 2n, +
2.5=sec2 x + 3 2n, .
SOLUTION: 4.4 tan x 7 = 3 tan x 6
SOLUTION:

The period of secant is 2, so you only need to find The period of tangent is , so you only need to find
solutions on the interval . The solutions on solutions on the interval . The only solution on
this interval are , , , and . Solutions on the this interval is . Solutions on the interval ( , ),
interval ( , ), are found by adding integer
multiples of 2.Therefore, the general form of the are found by adding integer multiples of .

solutions is + 2n, + 2n, + 2n, + Therefore, the general form of the solutions is +

2n, . n, .

3.2 = 4 cos2 x + 1 5.9 + cot2 x = 12


SOLUTION: SOLUTION:

The period of cotangent is , so you only need to find


solutions on the interval . The solutions on this

eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero interval are and . Solutions on the intervalPage
( 1
The period of cosine is 2, so you only need to find , ), are found by adding integer multiples of .
solutions on the interval . The solutions on
are found by adding integer multiples of . interval ( , ), are found by adding integer
Therefore, the general form of the solutions is + multiples of 2.Therefore, the general form of the
5-3 Solving Trigonometric Equations solutions is + 2n, + 2n, .
n, .

5.9 + cot2 x = 12 7.3 csc x = 2 csc x +


SOLUTION: SOLUTION:

The period of cosecant is 2, so you only need to


find solutions on the interval . The solutions

The period of cotangent is , so you only need to find on this interval are and . Solutions on the
solutions on the interval . The solutions on this
interval ( , ), are found by adding integer
interval are and . Solutions on the interval ( multiples of 2.Therefore, the general form of the

, ), are found by adding integer multiples of . solutions is + 2n, + 2n, .

Therefore, the general form of the solutions is +


8.11=3csc2 x + 7
n, + n, . SOLUTION:

6.2 10 sec x = 4 9 sec x


SOLUTION:

The period of secant is 2, so you only need to find


solutions on the interval . The solutions on The period of cosecant is 2, so you only need to
find solutions on the interval . The solutions
this interval are and . Solutions on the
interval ( , ), are found by adding integer on this interval are , , , and . Solutions
multiples of 2.Therefore, the general form of the on the interval ( , ), are found by adding integer
solutions is + 2n, + 2n, . multiples of 2.Therefore, the general form of the
solutions is + 2n, + 2n, + 2n, +
7.3 csc x = 2 csc x + 2n, .
SOLUTION:
9.6 tan2 x 2 = 4
SOLUTION:
The period of cosecant is 2, so you only need to
find solutions on the interval . The solutions

on this interval are and . Solutions on the


interval ( , ), are found by adding integer
multiples of 2.Therefore, the general form of the
The period of tangent is , so you only need to find
solutions is + 2n, + 2n, .
solutions on the interval . The solutions on this
eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 2
8.11=3csc2 x + 7 interval are and . Solutions on the interval (

SOLUTION: , ), are found by adding integer multiples of .


on the interval ( , ), are found by adding integer
multiples of 2.Therefore, the general form of the ( , ), are found by adding integer multiples of
2.Therefore, the general form of the solutions is
solutions is + 2n, + 2n, + 2n, +
5-3 Solving Trigonometric Equations +2n, +2n, .
2n, .

9.6 tan2 x 2 = 4 11.7 cot x =4 cot x


SOLUTION: SOLUTION:

The period of tangent is , so you only need to find The period of cotangent is , so you only need to find
solutions on the interval . The solutions on this solutions on the interval . The only solution on
interval are and . Solutions on the interval ( this interval is . Solutions on the interval ( , ),
, ), are found by adding integer multiples of . are found by adding integer multiples of .
Therefore, the general form of the solutions is + Therefore, the general form of the solutions is +
n, .
n, + n, .
12.7 cos x = 5 cos x +
10.9 + sin2 x = 10
SOLUTION:
SOLUTION:

The period of cosine is 2, so you only need to find


The period of sine is 2, so you only need to find solutions on the interval . The solutions on
solutions on the interval . The solutions on
this interval are and . Solutions on the
this interval are and . Solutions on the interval
interval ( , ), are found by adding integer
( , ), are found by adding integer multiples of multiples of 2.Therefore, the general form of the
2.Therefore, the general form of the solutions is
solutions is + 2n, + 2n, .
+2n, +2n, .
Find all solutions of each equation on [0, 2 ).
11.7 cot x =4 cot x 13.sin4 x + 2 sin2 x 3 = 0
SOLUTION: SOLUTION:

The period of cotangent is , so you only need to find


solutions on the interval . The only solution on

this Manual
eSolutions interval- Powered
is . Solutions
by Cogneroon the interval ( , ), Page 3
On the interval [0, 2), when x = and
are found by adding integer multiples of .
interval ( , ), are found by adding integer The equation cos x = 2 has no real solutions since
multiples of 2.Therefore, the general form of the the maximum value the cosine function can obtain is
5-3 solutions
Solvingis Trigonometric Equations 1. On the interval [0, 2), the equation has
+ 2n, + 2n, .
solutions 0 and .

Find all solutions of each equation on [0, 2 ). 15.4 cot x = cot x sin2 x
4 2
13.sin x + 2 sin x 3 = 0
SOLUTION:
SOLUTION:

The equations sin x = 2 and sin x = 2 have no real


solutions. On the interval [0, 2), the equation cot x =
On the interval [0, 2), when x = and 0 has solutions and .

whenx = . Since isnotareal


16.csc2 x csc x + 9 = 11
number, the equation yieldsno SOLUTION:
additional solutions.

14.2 sin x = sin x cos x


SOLUTION:

On the interval [0, 2), the equation csc x = 1 has a


solution of andtheequationcscx = 2 has

solutionsof and .
The equation cos x = 2 has no real solutions since
the maximum value the cosine function can obtain is
1. On the interval [0, 2), the equation has 17.cos3 x + cos2 x cos x = 1
solutions 0 and .
SOLUTION:
15.4 cot x = cot x sin2 x
SOLUTION:

On the interval [0, 2), the equation cos x = 1 has a


The equations sin x = 2 and sin x = 2 have no real solution of 0 and the equation cos x = 1 has a
solutions. On the interval [0, 2), the equation cot x = solutionof .

0 has solutions and . 18.2 sin2 x = sin x + 1


eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 4
SOLUTION:
16.csc2 x csc x + 9 = 11
On the interval [0, 2), the equation cos x = 1 has a
5-3 solution
Solving of Trigonometric x = 1 has a
0 and the equation cosEquations
solutionof .

18.2 sin2 x = sin x + 1 Theintervalis[15.4,74.6].



SOLUTION: b.

On the interval [0, 2), the equation sin x = 1 has a


solution of andtheequationsinx = has

solutionsof and .
If the distance to the net is 50 feet, then the angle
19.TENNIS A tennis ball leaves a racquet and heads wouldbe19.9or70.1.
toward a net 40 feet away. The height of the net is
the same height as the initial height of the tennis ball. 20.SKIING In the Olympics aerial skiing competition,
skiers speed down a slope that launches them into
the air, as shown. The maximum height a skier can
reach is given by h peak = ,whereg is

the acceleration due to gravity or 9.8 meters per


second squared.
a. If the ball is hit at 50 feet per second, neglecting
airresistance,use to find the
interval of possible angles of the ball needed to clear
the net.
b. Find iftheinitialvelocityremainedthesame a. If a skier obtains a height of 5 meters above the
but the distance to the net was 50 feet. end of the ramp, what was the skiers initial speed?
SOLUTION: b. Use your answer from part a to determine how
a. long it took the skier to reach the maximum height if
tpeak = .

SOLUTION:
a.

Theintervalis[15.4,74.6].
eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 5

b. The skiers initial speed was 11.67 meters per
second.

5-3 If the distance
Solving to the net is 50 feet,
Trigonometric then the angle
Equations The time it took the skier to reach the maximum
wouldbe19.9or70.1. height was about 1.0 seconds.

20.SKIING In the Olympics aerial skiing competition, Find all solutions of each equation on the
skiers speed down a slope that launches them into interval [0, 2 ).
the air, as shown. The maximum height a skier can 21.1 = cot 2 x + csc x
reach is given by h peak = ,whereg is SOLUTION:
the acceleration due to gravity or 9.8 meters per
second squared.


a. If a skier obtains a height of 5 meters above the
end of the ramp, what was the skiers initial speed?
b. Use your answer from part a to determine how
long it took the skier to reach the maximum height if
tpeak = .

SOLUTION:
a.

Therefore, on the interval [0, 2) the solutions are


, , and .

The skiers initial speed was 11.67 meters per 22.sec x = tan x + 1
second.
SOLUTION:
b.


The time it took the skier to reach the maximum
height was about 1.0 seconds.

Find all solutions of each equation on the


interval [0, 2 ).
21.1 = cot 2 x + csc x
eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 6
SOLUTION:
Therefore, on the interval [0, 2) the solutions are

5-3 , , and
Solving .
Trigonometric Equations is an extraneous solution. Therefore, on the
interval [0, 2) the only solution is 0.

22.sec x = tan x + 1 23.tan 2 x = 1 sec x


SOLUTION: SOLUTION:


is an extraneous solution. Therefore, on the
interval [0, 2) the only solution is 0.
Therefore, on the interval [0, 2) the solutions are 0,
23.tan 2 x = 1 sec x
, and .
SOLUTION:
24.csc x + cot x = 1
SOLUTION:

Therefore,
eSolutions Manual - on the interval
Powered [0,
by Cognero 2) the solutions are 0, Page 7

, and .
Therefore, on the interval [0, 2) the solutions are 0, x= isanextraneoussolution.Therefore, on the
5-3 Solving
, and Trigonometric
. Equations interval [0, 2) the only solution is .

24.csc x + cot x = 1 25.2 2 cos2 x = sin x + 1


SOLUTION: SOLUTION:


Check

x= isanextraneoussolution.Therefore, on the

interval [0, 2) the only solution is .

25.2 2 cos2 x = sin x + 1


SOLUTION: Therefore, on the interval [0, 2) the solutions are
, , and .

26.cos x 4 = sin x 4
SOLUTION:

Check


eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 8
Therefore, on the interval [0, 2) the solutions are Therefore, on the interval [0, 2) the only valid
5-3 Solving
, Trigonometric
, and . Equations solutions are and .

26.cos x 4 = sin x 4 27.3 sin x = 3 3 cos x


SOLUTION: SOLUTION:

Therefore, on the interval [0, 2) the only valid


solutions are and 0.

28.cot2 x csc2 x cot2 x = 9


SOLUTION:

Therefore, on the interval [0, 2) the only valid


solutions are and .

27.3 sin x = 3 3 cos x


is undefined. The solutions of
SOLUTION: are


Check


eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 9
are On the interval , there are no real values of x
for which , but for
5-3 Solving Trigonometric Equations
Check
29.sec2 x 1 + tan x tan x =
SOLUTION:

Therefore, on the interval [0, 2) the solutions are


, , and .

30.sec2 x tan2 x + 3 sec2 x 2 tan2 x = 3


SOLUTION:

On the interval , there are no real values of x


for which , but for

29.sec2 x 1 + tan x tan x =


SOLUTION:


eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 10
interval [0, 2) at and .
Therefore, on the interval [0, 2) the solutions are Therefore, the components will be equivalent when
5-3 Solving
, , Trigonometric
and . Equations .

30.sec2 x tan2 x + 3 sec2 x 2 tan2 x = 3 Find all solutions of each equation on the
interval [0, 2 ).
SOLUTION:
32. + cos x = 2
SOLUTION:

The square of any real number must be greater than


2
or equal to zero so sec x = 1 has no solutions.
Therefore, on the interval [0, 2) the only solutions
are 0 and . On the interval [0, 2), cos x = whenx = and
31.OPTOMETRY Optometrists sometimes join two
when x = .
oblique or tilted prisms to correct vision. The
resultant refractive power PR of joining two oblique
prisms can be calculated by first resolving each
prism into its horizontal and vertical components, PH 33. + =4
and PV. SOLUTION:

Using the equations above, determine for what


values of PV and PH are equivalent.

SOLUTION:

The sine and cosine have the same values in the


interval [0, 2) at and .
Therefore, the components will be equivalent when On the interval [0, 2),cos x = when x =
.
andwhenx = .

Find all solutions of each equation on the


interval [0, 2 ).
34. + =cosx
eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 11
32. + cos x = 2 SOLUTION:
SOLUTION:
On the interval [0, 2),cos x = when x = On , whenx = andwhenx =

5-3 Solving Trigonometric


andwhenx = . Equations .

GRAPHING CALCULATOR Solve each


34. + =cosx equation on the interval [0, 2 ) by graphing.
Round to the nearest hundredth.
SOLUTION:
36.3 cos 2x = ex + 1
SOLUTION:

On the interval , the only solution is when x =


0.33.

On the interval [0, 2) there are no values of x for 37.sin x + cos x = 3x


which sin x = 2 and the sin x = 1 only when x = . SOLUTION:

However, tan isundefined,sothereareno


solutions for the original equation.

35.cot x cos x + 1 = +
SOLUTION:
On the interval , the only solution is when x =
0.41.

38.x2 = 2 cos x + x
SOLUTION:

On the interval , the only solution is when x =


1.34.
On , whenx = andwhenx =
39.x log x + 5x cos x = 2
. SOLUTION:

GRAPHING
eSolutions CALCULATOR
Manual - Powered Solve each
by Cognero Page 12

equation on the interval [0, 2 ) by graphing.


Round to the nearest hundredth.
cos + 66.95. Because x = 1 represents
January 15, x = 1.5 represents January 31. Use the
5-3 On the interval
Solving , the only Equations
Trigonometric solution is when x =
TRACE feature to determine the temperature when
1.34.
x = 1.5.
39.x log x + 5x cos x = 2
SOLUTION:

Therefore, the temperature on January 31 is about


61.3.

b. Graph y = 70. Then use the intersect feature
under the CALC menu to determine the interval on
which 8.05 cos + 66.95 > 70.

On the interval , the solutions are when x =


1.84 and when x = 4.49.

40.METEOROLOGY The average daily temperature


in degrees Fahrenheit for a city can be modeled by t
= 8.05 cos + 66.95, where x is a function of
time, x = 1 represents January 15, x = 2 represents
February 15, and so on.
a. Use a graphing calculator to estimate the
temperature on January 31.
b. Approximate the number of months that the
So, 8.05 cos + 66.95 > 70 on the interval
average daily temperature is greater than 70
throughout the entire month. 3.74 < x < 8.26. Because x = 3.74 corresponds to
c. Estimate the highest temperature of the year and about the middle of April, the temperature does not
the month in which it occurs. exceed 70 for the entire month until May.
Therefore, the average daily temperature is greater
SOLUTION: than 70 for the entire month during the months of
a. Use a graphing calculator to graph t = 8.05 May, June, and July. Therefore, the average
temperature was higher than 70 for three months.
cos + 66.95. Because x = 1 represents
January 15, x = 1.5 represents January 31. Use the c. Use the maximum feature under the CALC
TRACE feature to determine the temperature when menu to find the maximum value of the function on
x = 1.5. [0, 12].

eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 13

Therefore, the temperature on January 31 is about The maximum value is 75 when x6.Therefore,
61.3. the maximum average monthly temperature is 75
May, June, and July. Therefore, the average
temperature was higher than 70 for three months. On the interval [0, 2) cos x = 0 when x = andx

5-3 c. Use the maximum
Solving feature under
Trigonometric the CALC
Equations = .
menu to find the maximum value of the function on
[0, 12].
42.


The maximum value is 75 when x6.Therefore,
the maximum average monthly temperature is 75 SOLUTION:
during the month of June. Let y = 0 and solve for x.

Find the x-intercepts of each graph on the


interval [0, 2 ).


41. On the interval [0, 2) sin x = 0 when x = 0 and x =
.
SOLUTION:
Let y = 0 and solve for x.

43.
On the interval [0, 2) cos x = 0 when x = andx SOLUTION:
Let y = 0 and solve for x.
= .

42.


On the interval [0, 2) cot x = 1 when x = andx

= .
SOLUTION:
Let y = 0 and solve for x.

eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 14

44.

On the interval [0, 4) the solutions are , ,
On the interval [0, 2) cot x = 1 when x = andx

5-3 =Solving Trigonometric Equations , and .


.

46.2 sin2 x + 1 = 3 sin x


SOLUTION:

44.
SOLUTION:
Let y = 0 and solve for x. On the interval [0, 4) the solutions are , ,

, , , and .

47.csc x cot2 x = csc x

On the interval [0, 2) tan x = 0 when x = 0 and x = SOLUTION:



, tan x = 1 when x = andx = , and tan x

= 1 when x = andx = .

Find all solutions of each equation on the


interval [0, 4 ).
45.4 tan x = 2 sec2 x
SOLUTION:

On the interval [0, 4) the solutions are , ,

On the interval [0, 4) the solutions are , , , , , , , and .

, and .
48.sec x + 5 = 2 sec x + 3
SOLUTION:
46.2 sin2 x + 1 = 3 sin x
SOLUTION:

On the interval [0, 4) the solutions are , ,

On the interval [0, 4) the solutions are , , , and .


eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 15
, , , and . 49.GEOMETRY Consider the circle below.
On the interval [0, 4) the solutions are , ,

5-3 Solving
, , Trigonometric
, , , and Equations
. On the graphing calculator, find the intersection of
Y1 = 18sin and Y2 = 14.
48.sec x + 5 = 2 sec x + 3
SOLUTION:

The value of 2 = 2(1.1968) or about 2.39 radians.


On the interval [0, 4) the solutions are , ,

, and . b. First, substitute into the given area formula and
rearrange it.
49.GEOMETRY Consider the circle below.


Using a graphing calculator, find the intersection of
a. The length s of isgivenbys = r(2 ) where 0 Y1 = 2.88 and Y2 = sin .
. When s = 18 and AB = 14, the radius is r
= . Use a graphing calculator to find the
measure of 2 in radians.
b. The area of the shaded region is given by A =

. Use a graphing calculator to find the


radian measure of if the radius is 5 inches and the
area is 36 square inches. Round to the nearest When the area is 36 square inches and the radius is
hundredth. 5 inches, then the measure of is 3.01 radians.
SOLUTION: Solve each inequality on the interval [0, 2 ).
a. Rewrite the arclength formula using s = 18 and r 50.1 > 2 sin x
= . SOLUTION:
Graph y = 1 and y = 2 sin x on [0, 2). Use the
intersect feature under the CALC menu to
determine on what interval(s) 1 > 2 sin x.

On the graphing calculator, find the intersection of


Y1 = 18sin and Y2 = 14.

eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 16

The value of 2 = 2(1.1968) or about 2.39 radians.



graph when x < and when x > . Therefore, 1

5-3 When the area


Solving is 36 square inches
Trigonometric and the radius is
Equations > 2 sin x on 0 x< or <x < 2.
5 inches, then the measure of is 3.01 radians.

Solve each inequality on the interval [0, 2 ). 51.0 < 2 cos x


50.1 > 2 sin x
SOLUTION:
SOLUTION:
Graph y = 2 cos x on [0, 2). Use the zero
Graph y = 1 and y = 2 sin x on [0, 2). Use the CALC
feature under the menu to determine on
intersect feature under the CALC menu to
determine on what interval(s) 1 > 2 sin x. what interval(s) 0 < 2 cos x .



The graphs intersect at about 0.524 or andabout
The zeros of y = 2 cos x are about 0.785 or
2.618 or . The graph of y = 1 is above the other andabout5.498or . The graph of y = 0 is
graph when x < and when x > . Therefore, 1 belowtheothergraphwhen0x < or <x <
> 2 sin x on 0 x< or <x < 2. 2.
Therefore, 0 < 2 cos x on0x < or <

51.0 < 2 cos x x < 2.

SOLUTION: 52.
Graph y = 2 cos x on [0, 2). Use the zero
feature under the CALC menu to determine on SOLUTION:
what interval(s) 0 < 2 cos x .
Graph y = and y = on [0, 2). Use

the intersect feature under the CALC menu to

determine on what interval(s) .

eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 17


belowtheothergraphwhen0x < or <x < othergraphwhen
2. x .
Therefore, 0 < 2 cos x on0x < or <
5-3 Solving Trigonometric Equations Therefore, on x .
x < 2.

52. 53. tanx cot x

SOLUTION: SOLUTION:

Graph y = and y = on [0, 2). Use Graph y = and y = tan x cot x on [0, 2).

the intersect feature under the CALC menu to Use the intersect feature under the CALC menu to
determine on what interval(s) tanx cot
determine on what interval(s) .
x.


The graphs intersect at about 3.142 or . The graph
of y = tan x cot x is at or below the other graph
when0x < 2.

Therefore, tanx cot xon0x < 2.

The graphs intersect at about 1.047 or andabout
54.cos x
2.094 or . The graph of y = is below the
othergraphwhen SOLUTION:
x .
Graph y = cos x and y = on [0, 2). Use the
Therefore, on x . intersect feature under the CALC menu to

determine on what interval(s) cos x .


53. tanx cot x

SOLUTION:

Graph y = and y = tan x cot x on [0, 2).

Use the intersect feature under the CALC menu to


determine on what interval(s) tanx cot
x.

eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 18
of y = tan x cot x is at or below the other graph
other graph when x .
when0x < 2.

5-3 Therefore,
Solving Trigonometric Equations
tanx cot xon0x < 2. Therefore, cos x on x .

55. sin x 1 < 0


54.cos x
SOLUTION:
SOLUTION: Graph y = sinx 1. Use the zero feature under
the CALC menu to determine on what interval(s)
Graph y = cos x and y = on [0, 2). Use the
sinx 1 < 0.
intersect feature under the CALC menu to

determine on what interval(s) cos x .


The zeros of sinx 1 are about 0.785 or and

about 2.356 or . The graph is below the x-axis

when0x < or <x < 2.



The graphs intersect at about 2.618 or andabout Therefore, sinx 1 < 0 on0x < or <

3.665 or . The graph of y = cos x is below the x < 2.

other graph when x . 56.REFRACTION When light travels from one


medium to another it bends or refracts, as shown.

Therefore, cos x on x .

55. sin x 1 < 0


SOLUTION:
Refraction is described by n 2 sin1 = n 1 sin2, where
Graph y = sinx 1. Use the zero feature under
the CALC menu to determine on what interval(s) n 1 is the index of refraction of the medium the light
sinx 1 < 0. is entering, n 2 is the index of refraction of the
medium the light is exiting, 1 is the angle of
incidence, and 2 is the angle of refraction.
a. Find 2 for each material shown if the angle of
incidence is 40 and the index of refraction for air is
1.00.
eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 19
medium the light is exiting, 1 is the angle of
incidence, and 2 is the angle of refraction.
a. Find for each material shown if the angle of
2
5-3 Solving Trigonometric Equations
incidence is 40 and the index of refraction for air is
1.00. water:


b. If the angle of incidence is doubled to 80 , will b. Find the angle of refraction for one of the
the resulting angles of refraction be twice as large as mediums using an angle of incidence of 80 .
those found in part a? glass:
SOLUTION:
a. glass:

2 25 when 1 = 40 and2 40.4 when 1 =


80 . Therefore, the angle of refraction is not twice
as large.
ice:
57.ERROR ANALYSIS Vijay and Alicia are solving
2
tan x tan x + = tanx. Vijay thinks that
the solutions are x = +n , x = +n , x =

+n , and x = +n . Alicia thinks that the

solutions are x = +n and x = +n . Is



plastic: either of them correct? Explain your reasoning.
SOLUTION:
2
First, solve tan x tan x + = tanx.


water:

On [0, 2) tan x = 1 when x = andx = and

tan x = when x = andx = .



Sample answer: Therefore, Vijays solutions are
correct; however, they are not stated in the simplest
eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 20
form. For example, his solutions of x = +n and
b. Find the angle of refraction for one of the
mediums using an angle of incidence of 80 .
n because when n = 1, +nis equivalent to
2 25 when 1 = 40 and2 40.4 when 1 =
5-3 80 . Therefore,
Solving the angle of refraction
Trigonometric is not twice
Equations .
as large.

57.ERROR ANALYSIS Vijay and Alicia are solving CHALLENGESolve each equation on the
2 interval [0, 2].
tan x tan x + = tanx. Vijay thinks that
58.16 sin5 x + 2 sin x = 12 sin3 x
the solutions are x = +n , x = +n , x =
SOLUTION:
+n , and x = +n . Alicia thinks that the

solutions are x = +n and x = +n . Is


either of them correct? Explain your reasoning.
SOLUTION:
2
First, solve tan x tan x + = tanx.

On [0, 2) sin x = 0 when x = 0 and x = , sin x =

when x = andx = , sin x = when

x= andx = , sin x= when x = and



On [0, 2) tan x = 1 when x = andx = and x= , and sin x = whenx = andx = .

tan x = when x = andx = .


Therefore, after checking for extraneous solutions,

Sample answer: Therefore, Vijays solutions are the solutions are 0, , , , , , , ,
correct; however, they are not stated in the simplest
, and .
form. For example, his solutions of x = +n and

x= +n could simply be stated as x = + 59.4 cos2 x 4 sin2 x cos2 x + 3 sin2 x = 3

n because when n = 1, +nis equivalent to SOLUTION:

CHALLENGESolve each equation on the


interval [0, 2].
58.16 sin5 x + 2 sin x = 12 sin3 x
SOLUTION:

On [0, 2 ) sin x = 1 when x = , sin x=1 when

x= , sin x= when x = andx = ,

and sin x = whenx = andx = .


eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 21
On [0, 2) sin x = 0 when x = 0 and x = , sin x = Therefore, after checking for extraneous solutions,
when x = andx = , sin x = when the solutions are , , , , , and .
the solutions are 0, , , , , , , ,
Therefore, after checking for extraneous solutions,
, and Trigonometric
5-3 Solving . Equations the solutions are , , , , , and .

59.4 cos2 x 4 sin2 x cos2 x + 3 sin2 x = 3 60.REASONING Are the solutions of csc x = and
2
SOLUTION: cot x + 1 = 2 equivalent? If so, verify your answer
algebraically. If not, explain your reasoning.
SOLUTION:


On [0, 2 ) sin x = 1 when x = , sin x=1 when

x= , sin x= when x = andx = ,

and sin x = whenx = andx = .



Therefore, after checking for extraneous solutions,
the solutions are , , , , , and .
The solutions to csc x = are and . Using
60.REASONING Are the solutions of csc x = and
2 2
cot x + 1 = 2 equivalent? If so, verify your answer a Pythagorean identity, cot x + 1 = 2 simplifies to
algebraically. If not, explain your reasoning. 2
csc x = 2 or csc x = . Therefore, there are
SOLUTION: two additional solutions when csc x = : and

2
. So, the solutions of csc x = andcot x + 1
= 2 are not equivalent.

OPEN ENDED Write a trigonometric equation


that has each of the following solutions.

61.
SOLUTION:
Sample answer: When sin x = 0, x = 0 and x = .
TheManual
eSolutions solutions to cscbyxCognero
- Powered = are and . Using When sin x = ,x= andx = Page 22
. So, one
2
a Pythagorean identity, cot x + 1 = 2 simplifies to
2 equation that has solutions of 0, , , and is
two additional solutions when csc x = : and 2
and is = 0 or cos x
2
. So, the solutions of csc x = andcot x + 1
5-3 Solving Trigonometric Equations
2
=0. This can be rewritten as 4 cos x = 3.
= 2 are not equivalent.

OPEN ENDED Write a trigonometric equation 63.Writing in Math Explain the difference in the
that has each of the following solutions. techniques that are used when solving equations and
verifying identities.
SOLUTION:
When solving an equation, you use properties of
equality to manipulate each side of the equation to
isolate a variable. For example:

61.
SOLUTION:
Sample answer: When sin x = 0, x = 0 and x = .

When sin x = ,x= andx = . So, one


When verifying an identity, you transform an
equation that has solutions of 0, , , and is expression on one side of the identity into the
expression on the other side through a series of
2 algebraic steps.For example:
= 0 or sin x =0. This

2
can be rewritten as 2 sin x = sinx. Verify = .

62.
SOLUTION:

Sample answer: When cos x = ,x= andx =

Verify each identity.


. When cos x = ,x= andx = .
64. =
So, one equation that has solutions of , , ,
SOLUTION:
2
and is = 0 or cos x

2
=0. This can be rewritten as 4 cos x = 3.

63.Writing in Math Explain the difference in the


techniques that are used when solving equations and
verifying
eSolutions Manualidentities.
- Powered by Cognero Page 23

SOLUTION:
When solving an equation, you use properties of
+
2 2
5-3 Solving Trigonometric Equations = cos + sin Reciprocal Identities
=1PythagoreanIdentity

Verify each identity. Find the value of each expression using the
given information.
64. = 67.tan ; sin = , tan >0
SOLUTION:
SOLUTION:
Use the Pythagorean Identity that involves sin .

Since tan ispositiveandsin is positive, cos

must be positive. So, .

65. =
SOLUTION:

66. + =1
SOLUTION:
+
2 2 68.csc ,cos = , csc <0
= cos + sin Reciprocal Identities
=1PythagoreanIdentity
SOLUTION:
Find the value of each expression using the
Use the Pythagorean Identity that involves cos .
given information.
67.tan ; sin = , tan >0

SOLUTION:
Use the Pythagorean Identity that involves sin .

eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 24


in years.
a. What is the amplitude of the function? What does
it represent?
5-3 Solving Trigonometric Equations b. What is the period of the function? What does it
represent?
c. Graph the function.
68.csc ,cos = , csc <0
SOLUTION:
SOLUTION: a. The amplitude of the function is |a| = |20,000| or
Use the Pythagorean Identity that involves cos . 20,000. The amplitude represents the amount that the
population varies above and below the initial
population of 30,000.

b. The period of the function is

The population will return to its original value every


20 years.

Create a table listing the coordinates of the x-
Since one of the conditions is that csc < 0,
intercepts and extrema for f (x) = sin x for one
. period, 2 , on the interval [0, 2 ]. Then use the
amplitude of g(x) to find corresponding points on its
graph.
69.sec ; tan = 1, sin <0
Functions Max Min Max
SOLUTION: (0, 50) (10, 10) (20, 50)
Use the Pythagorean Identity that involves tan .
Sketch the curve through the indicated points for the
function. Then repeat the pattern to complete a
second period.

Since tan isnegativeandsinis negative, cos


and sec must be positive. Therefore,
.

70.POPULATION The population of a certain species


of deer can be modeled by p = 30,000 + 20,000
cos , where p is the population and t is the time
in years.
a. What is the amplitude of the function? What does
it represent?
Given f (x) = 2x 2 5x + 3 and g(x) = 6x + 4, find
b. What is the period of the function? What does it
each of the following.
represent?
71.(f g)(x)
c. Graph the function.
eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero SOLUTION: Page 25
SOLUTION:
a. The amplitude of the function is |a| = |20,000| or
5-3 Solving Trigonometric Equations

Given f (x) = 2x 2 5x + 3 and g(x) = 6x + 4, find 74.BUSINESS A small business owner must hire
each of the following. seasonal workers as the need arises. The following
71.(f g)(x) list shows the number of employees hired monthly
for a 5-month period.
SOLUTION:

If the mean of these data is 9, what is the population


standard deviation for these data? Round to the
nearest tenth.

72.(f g)(x) SOLUTION:


To find the standard deviation, first find the variance.
SOLUTION: The mean of the data is 9. Use the mean to find the
variance.

73. (x)

Now find the standard deviation by taking the square


SOLUTION: root of the variance.

The standard deviation is about 3.5.

75.SAT/ACT For all positive values of m and n, if


=2,thenx =

A
74.BUSINESS A small business owner must hire
seasonal workers as the need arises. The following B
list shows the number of employees hired monthly
for a 5-month period.
C

If the mean of these data is 9, what is the population E


standard deviation for these data? Round to the
nearest tenth. SOLUTION:
SOLUTION:
To find the standard deviation, first find the variance.
The mean of the data is 9. Use the mean to find the
variance.

eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 26

The correct answer is D.


Now find the standard deviation by taking the square
root of the variance.
5-3 Solving Trigonometric Equations
The standard deviation is about 3.5. The correct answer is H.

75.SAT/ACT For all positive values of m and n, if 77.Which of the following is not a solution of 0 = sin
2
=2,thenx = +cos tan ?
A
A
B
B
C 2
C D

D SOLUTION:
Try choice A.
E

SOLUTION:


Try choice B.

The correct answer is D.



76.If cos x = 0.45, what is sin ? Try choice C.
F 0.55
G 0.45
H 0.45
J 0.55
Try choice D.
SOLUTION:


The correct answer is D.

78.REVIEW The graph of y = 2 cos isshown.


The correct answer is H. Which is a solution for 2 cos =1?
77.Which of the following is not a solution of 0 = sin
2
+cos tan ?
A

B Manual - Powered by Cognero


eSolutions Page 27

C 2 F
5-3 Solving Trigonometric Equations
The correct answer is D.

78.REVIEW The graph of y = 2 cos isshown.


Which is a solution for 2 cos =1?

SOLUTION:

Choice F: No

Choice G: No

Choice H: Yes

Choice J: No
The correct answer is H.

eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 28