Discussion of “Hydraulics of TangentialVortex Intake for Urban Drainage”

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Discussion of “Hydraulics of TangentialVortex Intake for Urban Drainage”

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Discussion of Hydraulics of Tangential ever, at the downstream end vicinity, for Q = 8 and 10 l / s, the

Vortex Intake for Urban Drainage by D. Yu sharp increase observed in the flow depth is not predicted by Eq.

and J. H. W. Lee 2. Runs for Q = 12, 14, and 16 l / s are further considered in Figs.

March 2009, Vol. 135, No. 3, pp. 164174.

DOI: 10.1061/ASCE0733-94292009135:3164

Oscar Castro-Orgaz1

1

Research Engineer, Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible, Consejo Superior

de Investigaciones Cientificas, Finca Alameda del Obispo, E-14080,

Cordoba, Spain. E-mail: oscarcastro@ita.csic.es

The discusser has read with interest this work on tangential vortex

intakes, where a systematic 1D approach was proposed. The au-

thors proved that flow features such as the head-discharge rela-

tionship or the vortex flow zone may be approximated

theoretically. However, other important results including the ex-

perimental free surface profiles in the nonprismatic inlet were

presented but not further analyzed. The authors argued that due to

the energy loss within a hydraulic jump and zones with rapidly

varied flow, the 1D approach may not be used. However, as dem-

onstrated by Castro-Orgaz et al. 2008, nonprismatic channel

flow may be approximated by a relatively simple approach based

on the gradually varied flow theory. The present discussion aims

at providing a 1D analysis of the data presented by the authors

using this approach, a point so far overlooked in the paper. Limi-

tations for the 1D analysis are highlighted, and questions on fea-

tures of general interest are asked of the authors.

The energy head H for sloping channel flow with streamlines

nearly parallel to the bed is given by Montes 1994; Hager 1999

Q2

H=z+h+ 1 + S2o 1

2gA2

where z = channel bed elevation; h = flow depth measured verti-

cally; Q = discharge; b = channel width; A = cross-sectional area

= b h; and So = bed slope. Differentiation of Eq. 1 assuming po-

tential flow, that is, dH / dx = 0, results in

Q2 A

So + 1 + S2o

dh gA3 x

= 2

dx Q2 A

1 1 + S2o 3

gA h

Eq. 2 was numerically solved using a standard fourth-order

Runge-Kutta method, with the critical point as the boundary con-

dition at the corresponding extreme of the nonprismatic channel.

A singular point analysis Castro-Orgaz et al. 2008 for this study

results in spirals i.e., there are no control sections inside the

nonprismatic channel reach. For a nonprismatic channel the criti-

cal depth varies with x, such that different control points results

for the up- and downstream extreme sections. Fig. 1 shows the

solution of Eq. 2 for Test 1 in dimensionless form using the

upstream critical depth for a horizontal channel hc = Q2 / gB21/3 Fig. 1. Comparison between computed Eq. 2 and observed free

as the scaling. surface profiles for nonprismatic tapering channel, Test 1, and Q

For discharges of Q = 4, 8, and 10 l / s the critical point was = a 4 l / s, b 8 l / s, c 10 l / s, d 12 l / s, e 14 l / s, f 16 l / s, g

taken at the upstream channel section, resulting in excellent 17 l / s, and h 20 l / s

high dh / dx value near the critical depth. The good agreement of

computations with observation for Test 1 indicates that a 1D mod-

els does not necessarily involve a failure in the solution due to

energy dissipation within a hydraulic jump, as stated by the au-

thors. It simply means that two different backwater curves for

potential flow may be computed starting from the extremes of the

tapering channel if a hydraulic jump appears, and that the energy

loss is concentrated to a local hydraulic jump.

Fig. 2 shows the solution of Eq. 2 for Test 3. Runs for Q

= 2, 4, 6, and 7 l / s involved a supercritical flow profile i.e., an

upstream critical depth control. The agreement between compu-

tations and observations is again excellent, as shown in Figs.

2ad. Runs for Q = 7.5, 9 and 11 l / s corresponding to subcritical

flow with a downstream critical depth control are considered in

Figs. 2eg, resulting in good agreement. As previously ob-

served, the major discrepancies also appear here at the down-

stream end vicinity, because nonhydrostatic pressure effects are

not accounted for by Eq. 2.

In conclusion, the 1D model is a reasonable approach for free

surface profiles in nonprismatic channels, despite the inherent

limitations of this theory. Discrepancies result mainly at the

downstream end of the vicinity, because streamline curvature may

be important there. The discusser would like to ask the authors:

1. Are there pressure readings, or ADV measurements, avail-

able from their experimental program? In the photos of the

paper it appears that no pressure taps were installed. These

data may be useful to highlight the influence of streamline

curvature on the flow features.

2. Did the authors record the 2D shock-wave pattern in the

nonprismatic channel reach i.e., their shape and position? It

may have influenced several flow features, particularly the

flow depth at the junction vicinity.

References

flow due to channel contraction. J. Hydraul. Eng., 1344, 492496.

Hager, W. H. 1999. Wastewater hydraulics: Theory and practice,

Springer, Berlin.

Montes, J. S. 1994. Potential flow solution to the 2D transition form

mild to steep slope. J. Hydraul. Eng., 1205, 601621.

surface profiles for non-prismatic tapering channel, Test 3, and Q Closure to Hydraulics of Tangential Vortex

= a 2 l / s, b 4 l / s, c 6 l / s, d 7 l / s, e 7.5 l / s, f 9 l / s, and g Intake for Urban Drainage by D. Yu and J.

11 l / s H. W. Lee

March 2009, Vol. 135, No. 3, pp. 164174.

DOI: 10.1061/ASCE0733-94292009135:3164

1df using the upstream critical point, yet the experimental data

suggest the simultaneous existence of a downstream critical point,

with a hydraulic jump forming within the channel. Therefore, a

Daeyoung Yu1 and Joseph H. W. Lee, F.ASCE2

1

Deceased; formerly Research Asst. Prof., Dept. of Civil Engineering,

backwater equation starting at the downstream control was also The Univ. of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Rd., Hong Kong SAR, China.

considered. The entire experimental free surface profile is seen to 2

Prof., Dept. of Civil Engineering, The Univ. of Hong Kong, Pokfulam

be well predicted by a combination of the two computed backwa- Rd., Hong Kong SAR, China. E-mail: hreclhw@hkucc.hku.hk

ter profiles.

Finally, runs for Q = 17 and 20 l / s Figs. 1g and h support

the existence of a downstream control from which free surface The writers would like to thank the discusser for his interest in

profiles were determined, resulting in an excellent agreement with our work on tangential vortex intakes. The comments and sugges-

observations. At the downstream end the 1D approach predicts tions are well appreciated. Essentially, the discussion revolves

flow depths below the experimental data, with the corresponding around the use of a one-dimensional 1D approach to analyze the

free surface profile in the tapering and sloping inlet; based on the 385

comparison of predicted and observed depths for model no. 1 and

model no. 3 Figs. 1 and 2 of discussion, it is claimed that the

gradually varied flow GVF analysis is a success. We would like

to clarify the nature of the complex flow in the tapering inlet, and Tangential intake

elaborate on the role of 1D analysis in the context of the hydraulic

design of tangential vortex intakes.

20

Supercritical and Transitional Flow in Vortex Inlet

10

Our proposed theory for the hydraulic design of tangential intakes 280

is based on heuristic concepts founded on the 1D theory; it rep-

20

resents an advance over previous designs based mainly on expe-

rience or physical model studies Jain and Ettema 1987. 10

However, the limitations of the 1D theory are fully recognized, as 240

there are 3D flow features in the tapering and downward sloping

inlet section, including the junction. Consider first a small dis- 20

charge that drains freely into the vortex dropshaft. The flow will 10

be supercritical in the inlet. Fig. 1 shows the measured transverse 200

free surface profile for model no. 14 cf. Table 1 of paper for

Q = 1.5 L / s. The shock wave in the supercritical flow can readily 20

be seen. The sharp reduction of channel width results in a non- 10

uniform transverse depth distribution; the water depth at the ta- 160

pering side rises substantially higher, nearly twice the depth on

the opposite side. As the shock wave propagates downstream, the 20

transverse difference in depth gradually decreases. This uneven 10

transverse water surface profile is found in the supercritical flow

120

for both smooth stable and hydraulic jump cases. In the experi-

ments, the longitudinal depth variation is measured along the cen- 20

terline of the channel. The transverse free surface profile was

10

measured for selected runs. No independent pressure measure-

ments were made. 80

For larger discharges, when the free draining capacity is ex-

ceeded Q Q f , the vortex flow in the dropshaft would exert an

upstream influence, with the formation of a hydraulic jump with

significant energy loss. In addition, the 3D swirling flow at the

downstream junction with the dropshaft and the inlet flow near

the junction are nonhydrostatic see Fig. 8 of the paper. It is

Flow direction

indeed gratifying that useful results for this complex flow can be

obtained using the 1D concepts. 0

An appreciation of the 3D flow featuresthe transverse shock 0 50 100

wave in the tapering inlet, the complex 3D flow in the dropshaft,

Fig. 1. Measured transverse water depth profile model no. 14, Q

and inlet flow near the junctioncan be gained by viewing the

= 1.5 L / s; all lengths in mm

video clips of both stable and unstable designs at http://

www.aoe-water.hku.hk/vortex.

Channel 100

approach to the design of tangential intakes. It is important that

the intake can handle the whole range of flows in a smooth and

y (mm)

0

stable manner, without any abrupt change in depth and conse-

quent overflows. The design is based on the determination of the

50

free drainage discharge Q f and the control shift discharge Qc, 2 L/s

which does not explicitly require the prediction of the free surface 4 L/s

100 6 L/s

profile in the tapering inlet channel.

For stable designs Fig. 9 of the paper, energy conservation is 50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300

a valid approximation; the approach channel depth is given by the x (mm)

head-discharge relation, and the depth at the junction is given by

the critical depth. It is well-known that a 1D analysis can be used Fig. 2. Water surface profile in tapering inlet channel model no. 3

to compute the GVF in a nonprismatic channel. For example, the by GVF computation

standard-step method accounting for bottom friction and References

expansion/contraction loss can be readily adopted to compute the

GVF using the energy equation Henderson 1966; Subramanya Henderson, F. M. 1966. Open channel flow, Macmillan, New York.

1982. Fig. 2 shows an example of such a GVF computation of Jain, S. C., and Ettema, R. 1987. Vortex-flow intakes. Swirling flow

the free surface in the tapering channel for model no. 3 adopting problems at intakes, IAHR Hydraulic Structures Design Manual, Vol.

a Mannings n = 0.009 for perspex for the supercritical flows 1, J. Knauss, ed., Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 125137.

before Qc is reached Q = 2 , 4 , 6 L / s. The upward sloping free Mehrotra, S. C. 1974. Circular jumps. J. Hydr. Div., 1008, 1133

surface toward the junction due to the reduction of cross-section 1140.

area can be clearly seen. The results would be practically the Sadler, C., and Higgens, M. 1963. Radial free surface flow. M.S.

same by neglecting friction. Although this calculation tacitly ne- thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.

glects any transverse depth variation, the computed profile in the Subramanya, K. 1982. Flow in open channels, Tata McGraw Hill, New

supercritical reach will be comparable to the measurements simi- Delhi.

lar to those shown in Fig. 1a and Fig. 1b, or Fig. 2ac of the Watson, E. J. 1964. The radial spread of a liquid jet over a horizontal

discussion. plane. J. Fluid Mech., 20, 481499.

Wong, C. K. C., Yu, D. Y., and Lee, J. H. W. 2010. Numerical simu-

On the other hand, for an unstable design such as model no.

1, for larger flows Q Q f there is downstream influence leading lation of aerated flow in a supercritical flow diversion intake. Proc.,

to a hydraulic jump induced by the vortex flow in the dropshaft. 17th IAHR-APD Congress, B. Melville, ed., The University of Auck-

land, Auckland, New Zealand.

For these cases, the downstream control is not precisely known,

and there is energy dissipation across the jump. It is clear the

GVF profiles presented in Fig. 1cf of the discussion deviate

greatly from the observations along most of the channel. This is

expected in view of the inability of Eq. 2 in discussion to Discussion of Analysis of PVC Pipe-Wall

account for the energy loss across the jump, and the violation of

the hydrostatic approximation near the downstream boundary

Viscoelasticity during Water Hammer by

junction. A. K. Soares, D. I. C. Covas, and L. F. R.

When a hydraulic jump is involved, a standard GVF analysis Reis

proceeds by: 1 solving the supercritical GVF profile from an September 2008, Vol. 134, No. 9, pp. 13891394.

upstream control section; 2 solving the subcritical GVF profile DOI: 10.1061/ASCE0733-94292008134:91389

from a downstream control section; and 3 determining the loca-

tion of the jump by locating the section when the momentum Huan-Feng Duan1

balance is satisfied i.e., the depth from the upstream and down- 1

Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Univ. of

stream profiles are conjugate jump heights. Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

For typical GVF calculations of open channel flows, the jump E-mail: ceduan@ust.hk

length is negligible compared with the region of interest. For the

present problem, however, the length of the jump would account

for a significant portion of the channel, and the upstream and The authors contributed a timely analysis of a PVC pipe system

downstream limits of the jump are not easily defined. This is during water hammer events. As stated in the original paper, the

further complicated by an expanding jump with changing dis- contribution of PVC pipe-wall viscoelasticity to the attenuation,

charge per unit width channel width is greater downstream and dispersion, and shape of the transient pressure head was analyzed

the ratio of jump length to jump height is unknown Sadler and based on the hydraulic-viscoelastic transient solver HVTS de-

Higgins 1963; Watson 1964; Mehrotra 1974. veloped by Covas and her coauthors Covas et al. 2004, 2005.

Our experimental investigation was supplemented by exten- This discussion mainly focuses on the provided data and model

sive GVF calculations of the free surface profile in the tapering results which present some inconsistencies on further inspections.

inlet channel. In view of the aforementioned uncertainties, the The tested system was a simplified pipeline system of length

heuristic theory was finally adopted for the hydraulic design. The about 85.40 m from tank to location P07 18.10 m from tank to

writers agree a more detailed 1D analysis of the free surface pump and 67.30 m from pump to Location P07. The model pa-

profile in the short steep channel would be beneficial. However, rameters were specified as: wave speed a = 460 m / s; diameter D

the transverse depth variation, the unknown energy losses due to = 75 mm; wall thickness e = 5.2 mm; E0 = 3.069 GP1.

the shock wave and across the hydraulic jump, and the unknown From their Fig. 2a, in the earlier stage, the total time interval

jump length all pose significant challenges to the formulation of a for three periods 1 period= 4L / a is about 1.0 s i.e., t = 1.0 s.

general robust model. Second, the downstream boundary condi- Therefore, this result seems to conflict with the provided informa-

tion at the junction is known only for stable designs for which Qc tion, as 12 L / a is much greater than t. Is there a mistake in the

can be reasonably predicted. The determination of this stable con- data provided?

dition must take into account the interaction of the tapering chan- Further, from many experiments Grellmann and Seidler

nel flow with the vortex flow in the dropshaft. Finally, we remark 2001, the PVC material is very different from some others, such

that 3D numerical model calculations using the volume-of-fluid as polyethylene PE used in Covass study, polyamide PA, and

VoF method have given reasonable predictions for this type of polyimide PI, and so on. That is, the PVC pipe holds an obvious

transcritical flows Wong et al. 2010. nonlinear deformation under the condition of external pressure

loading. And it will again be dependent on the frequency of the

Acknowledgments loaded pressure. In water hammer systems, that frequency is de-

pendent on the different system of interest. It shows that it may be

This work was supported by the Hong Kong Research Grants problematic when the linear approximated formulas from Covas

Council RGC HKU7143/06E. et al. 2004, 2005 is applied for PVC pipes. Therefore, it is also

hard to demonstrate the authors final results that the creep effect derstanding of the pressure wave reflections, Fig. 1 depicts the

in PVC pipe is much smaller than that in HDPE pipes. measured pressure signal at the downstream end of the pipeline

Location P07.

After ball valve closure at t 0.7 s, an overpressure is gen-

References erated at the downstream end of the pipeline that propagates up-

stream and is affected by different features of the pipeline: 1 the

Covas, D., Stoianov, I., Mano, J., Ramos, H., Graham, N., and Maksimo- first gradual decrease of pressure is due to five pipe branches

vic, C. 2004. The dynamic effect of pipe-wall viscoelasticity in located along the pipeline; water inside the branches is com-

hydraulic transients. Part 1: Experimental analysis and creep charac- pressed relieving the maximum overpressure; 2 the second pres-

terization. J. Hydraul. Res., 425, 516530. sure decrease is caused by a cross-sectional increase along the

Covas, D., Stoianov, I., Mano, J., Ramos, H., Graham, N., and Maksimo- electromagnetic flow meter site; the inner pipe diameter changes

vic, C. 2005. The dynamic effect of pipe-wall viscoelasticity in from 75 to 101 mm and downstream the flow meter, it reduces

hydraulic transients. Part 2: Model development, calibration and veri- again to 75 mm; 3 another cross-sectional area reduction leads

fication. J. Hydraul. Res., 431, 5670. to a pressure increase; the pipe inner diameter between pump and

Grellmann, W., and Seidler, S., eds. 2001. Deformation and fracture check valve decreases from 75 to 15 mm; 4 after the diameter

behaviour of Polymers, Springer-Verlag, Berlin. change, the pressure wave reaches the centrifugal pump and a

large pressure decrease is observed as the flow passes through the

pump impeller. The flow in the pipeline rapidly reduces to zero,

and then reverses through the pump while it is rotating in the

Closure to Analysis of PVC Pipe-Wall normal direction. The check valve located downstream the pump

did not close instantaneously and its complete closure occurred

Viscoelasticity during Water Hammer by some time after the back flow was established. This caused

A. K. Soares, D. I. C. Covas, and L. F. R. an instantaneous stoppage of the reverse flow with the corre-

Reis sponding pressure rise 5. The check valve was described by an

September 2008, Vol. 134, No. 9, pp. 13891394. in-line valve with a steady-state orifice equation, and the closure

DOI: 10.1061/ASCE0733-94292008134:91389 time and the reverse velocity were calibrated using observed data

Fig. 2.

Alexandre Kepler Soares1; Ddia I. C. Covas2; and As the check valve closes, a positive pressure wave propagates

downstream the pipeline Fig. 1, feature 5; the pressure drop

Luisa Fernanda R. Reis3

1

Asst. Prof., Dept. of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Federal feature 6, observed immediately after it, is caused by the in-

Univ. of Mato Grosso, Ave. Fernando Correa da Costa, 78060-900 crease of the pipe cross section at the flow meter location.

Cuiab, MT, Brazil. E-mail: aksoares@ufmt.br The upstream check valve closure associated with the down-

2

Asst. Prof., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Instituto Superior Tcnico, stream ball valve closure created two dead ends between which

Technical Univ. of Lisbon TULisbon, Ave. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 the transient pressure wave propagated. Fig. 3a presents dimen-

Lisbon, Portugal. E-mail: didia.covas@civil.ist.utl.pt sionless pressure variation H-Ho / HJ at Locations P06 down-

3

Prof., Dept. of Hydraulic and Sanitary Engineering, So Carlos School stream the check valve and P07 immediately upstream the ball

of Engineering, University of So Paulo, Ave. Trabalhador so- valve, in which H0 = steady state pressure head and HJ

carlense, 13566-590 So Carlos, SP, Brazil. E-mail: fernanda@

= theoretical Joukowsky overpressure HJ = a0Q0 / gA, where a0

sc.usp.br

= elastic wave speed; Q0 = initial steady state flow rate; g

= gravity acceleration; and A = pipe cross-sectional area. When

The writers would like to thank the discusser for the interest the pressure reaches its maximum value at P06, pressure at P07

shown and for the opportunity to discuss further the application of has its minimum value, and vice versa.

the viscoelastic model for hydraulic transient analyses in PVC After this detailed analysis, the wave speed was estimated

pipes presented in the paper. In response to the discussion, two based on the traveling time of the first pressure wave between two

main issues in the paper deserve special attention and are dealt consecutive pressure transducers, t* = L / a, where L is the distance

with in the following paragraphs. between the transducers. According to pressure data collected at

Locations P06 and P07, wave speed was estimated as approxi-

mately 440 m / s Fig. 3b, t* = 0.136 s, L = 59.80 m. As the wave

speed in plastic pipes is a time-dependent function rather than a

Experimental Data Analysis and Wave Speed constant parameter as it relates to linear elastic materials due to

Estimation unsteady friction and pipe-wall viscoelasticity Covas et al. 2004,

2005, the elastic wave speed was estimated as 460 m / s and the

Prior to inverse calculations, a detailed analysis of the observed PVC creep function was calibrated by using only one Kelvin

transient pressure signal was carried out to define appropriate Voigt element. This led to the wave speed variation shown in

boundary conditions i.e., determination of downstream ball valve Fig. 4.

closure, the check valve closure and back flow, etc. as well as to Given the complexity of the system, the elastic wave speed

characterize the wave speed. Observed transient pressures showed could not be estimated by the time interval for a period 1

particular wave reflections associated with different features of period= 4L / a as proposed by the discusser.

the pipeline, such as lateral pipe branches along the pipeline;

changes in main pipe cross-sectional area at the electromagnetic

flow meter and at the smaller diameter pipe between the pump PVC Rheological Behavior

and the check valve; and reverse flow due to ball valve closure.

These pressure wave reflections were extensively explored by The writers agree with the discusser concerning the PVC rheo-

Soares et al. 2008, and are summarized here. For a better un- logy. Indeed the PVC material is very different from high-density

volume fraction. Whereas viscoelasticity is the result of the dif-

fusion of molecules inside an amorphous material, PVC shows

little change in molecular structure, and its creep deformation is

very low compared with other plastics due to limited molecular

motion at room temperature, in contrast to polyethylene PE,

which has greater molecular motion in its amorphous part Aklo-

nis and MacKnight 1983; Ferry 1970; Ward and Hadley 1993.

This also validates the use of only one KelvinVoigt element for

description of PVC creep function while three elements are nec-

essary for HDPE pipes Covas et al. 2005; Gally et al. 1979.

With regard to the stressstrain behavior, at low values of

stress the time-varying creep strain is linearly related to the stress.

The creep compliance function is then independent of the magni-

tude of stress and linear viscoelasticity with the Boltzmann su-

Fig. 1. Observed transient pressure signal at the downstream end of perposition principle is applicable. At higher values of stress, the

the pipeline Location P07 linearity is no longer valid and the creep compliance function

becomes stress-dependent nonlinear viscoelasticity Dean et al.

1995. This usually happens when the deformations are large or if

the material changes its properties under deformations. For ex-

polyethylene HDPE used in Covass study. Each of these ma- ample, HDPE presents a nonlinear viscoelastic behavior at high

terials has some crystalline volume fraction, and a remaining strain levels strains 5% Zhang and Moore 1997. In Covass

amorphous volume fraction. In HDPE, the crystalline part is ap- study, the maximum strains of transient events generated were

proximately 90% and it is fixed while the amorphous part is flex-

0.3%, and the linear viscoelastic model could be used. The maxi-

ible; the PVC has an amorphous structure and little crystalline

mum strains generated in Soaress study were 0.04%. In accor-

dance with Dean et al. 1995, creep compliances for PVC also

depend on the magnitude of the applied stress when it exceeds

about 4 MPa. In Soaress study, the stress never exceeds 0.6 MPa.

Based on this analysis, the authors believe the linear viscoelas-

tic model could also be applied for PVC pipes, and the experi-

mental results showed that the PVC pipe-wall viscoelasticity is

much smaller than that in HDPE pipes.

Final Remarks

by tensile tests are important for the characterization of the vis-

coelastic behavior of PVC as a pipe material, providing a good

prior estimation. However, as stated by Covas et al. 2004, these

cannot correspond to the exact creep function of the PVC, when

integrated in a pipe system, particularly for buried pipes. This is

because mechanical tests cannot account for: 1 the variability of

Fig. 2. Observed transient pressure signal at the upstream end of the material properties; 2 a slight anisotropy of the pipe; 3 the

pipeline Location P06 and simulated flow rate at check valve increase in pipe stiffness due to axial constraints; 4 loading fre-

quency and pipe relaxation; and 5 uncertainties in unsteady fric-

Fig. 3. a Dimensionless observed pressure variation at the upstream end P06 and the downstream end of the pipeline P07; b observed

overpressure due to ball valve closure

Discussion of Unifying Criterion for the

Velocity Reversal Hypothesis in Gravel-Bed

Rivers by D. Caamao, P. Goodwin, J. M.

Buffington, J. C. P. Liou, and S.

Daley-Laursen

January 2009, Vol. 135, No. 1, pp. 6670.

DOI: 10.1061/ASCE0733-94292009135:166

1

Asst. Prof., Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. of

Waterloo, 200 University Ave. West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L

3G1. Email: macvicab@yahoo.ca

2

Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Ottawa, 161 Louis

Fig. 4. Calibrated creep function and wave speed

Pasteur St., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6N5.

3

Prof., Canada Research Chair in Fluvial Dynamics, Dept. of Geography,

Universit de Montral, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal,

Quebec, Canada H3C 3J7.

tion losses due to different inflow rates in the referred system,

unsteady friction effects are negligible when compared to pipe- The authors present a criterion to distinguish pool-riffle sequences

wall viscoelasticity, and were thus assumed to be described by the in which a velocity reversal occurs from those in which it does

creep function. not. This would explain the variability that has been found among

The calibration of transient hydraulic models involves not only various studies on the hydraulics of pools and riffles and allow an

the determination of parameters related to viscoelasticity but also assessment as to whether the velocity reversal phenomenon is

to unsteady friction if it is not included in the creep function. It significant for the formation and maintenance of pools in gravel-

further involves several analyses of boundary and internal condi- bed rivers. The criterion is based on the mass and energy conser-

tions, pressure wave reflections, wave speed estimation, steady vation equations calculated at two cross sectionsone in the pool

state friction, etc., as well as the identification of other dynamic and the other in the riffle. The application of the criterion to

effects such as cavitation and fluid-structure interaction. In view several data sets appears to distinguish the presence/absence of

of these complexities, the analysis of pressure transients in plastic velocity reversal based on the section-averaged velocity.

pipes still remains a daunting task. In spite of its apparent usefulness, the approach proposed by

the authors may suffer from important limitations. The selection

of the two cross sections included in the analysis is of critical

References importance. There is much morphological variability in pools and

riffles and guidelines should be specified for the identification of

Aklonis, J. J., and MacKnight, W. J. 1983. Introduction to polymer representative sections. More importantly, however, partial flow

viscoelasticity, 2nd Ed., Wiley, New York. velocity reversal may occur without a reversal of bulk velocity.

Covas, D. I. C., Stoianov, I., Mano, J. F., Ramos, H. M., Graham, N., and Keller 1971 originally proposed that a reversal occurs for flow

Maksimovic, C. 2004. The dynamic effect of pipe-wall viscoelas- velocity vectors near the streambed, where they are likely to have

ticity in hydraulic transients. Part I: Experimental analysis and creep a significant effect on sediment transport. The authors speculate

characterization. J. Hydraul. Res., 425, 516530. that if the bulk velocity reversal is linked to a commensurate

Covas, D. I. C., Stoianov, I., Mano, J. F., Ramos, H. M., Graham, N., and reversal of shear stress and transport capacity then the pool will

Maksimovic, C. 2005. The dynamic effect of pipe-wall viscoelas- scour relative to the riffle p. 68. Considering the lateral vari-

ticity in hydraulic transients. Part II: Model development, calibration ability of flow and shear stress in riffles and pools as discussed by

and verification. J. Hydraul. Res., 431, 5670. Booker et al. 2001 and MacWilliams et al. 2006 and the im-

Dean, G. D., Tomlins, P. E., and Read, B. E. 1995. A model for non- plications of flow depth variations on near-bed hydraulics as pre-

linear creep and physical aging in polyvinyl chloride. Polym. Eng. sented by MacVicar and Roy 2007, the link between mean flow

Sci., 3516, 12821289.

velocity at a cross section herein called bulk velocity and shear

Ferry, J. D. 1970. Viscoelastic properties of polymers, 2nd Ed., Wiley,

stress is not straightforward. Although the authors acknowledge

New York. that their one-dimensional analysis neglects the variability of flow

Gally, M., Guney, M., and Rieutord, E. 1979. An investigation of

velocity in space and time, partial or momentary reversal of ve-

pressure transients in viscoelastic pipes. J. Fluids Eng., 101, 495

locity may be common in pool and riffle sequences thus limiting

499.

Soares, A. K., Covas, D. I. C., and Reis, L. F. R. 2008. Experimental

the applicability of the proposed criterion. As will be shown in

and numerical analysis of hydraulic transients in PVC pipes. Proc.,

this discussion, a reversal of near-bed velocity can occur without

a corresponding reversal of bulk velocity. Furthermore, we show

10th International Conference on Pressure Surges: Surge Analysis

System Design, Simulation, Monitoring and Control, S. Hunt, ed.,

that flow turbulence should be considered in addition to the ve-

BHR Group Limited, Cranfield, U.K. 317332. locity for the estimation of shear stress in pools and riffles.

Ward, I. M., and Hadley, D. W. 1993. An introduction to the mechanical Field data for this discussion were obtained from the study of

properties of solid polymers, Wiley, New York. MacVicar and Roy 2007. The field site is Moras Creek, a

Zhang, C., and Moore, I. D. 1997. Nonlinear mechanical response of 6.0-m-wide and 0.70-m-deep gravel-bed river with a median bed

high-density polyethylene. Part I: Experimental investigation and particle size of 60 mm located in Quebec. The pool is forced, as

model evaluation. Polym. Eng. Sci., 372, 404413. its location is determined by a large tree and root wad that con-

Fig. 1. Mean downstream velocity U normalized by the mean profile velocity Umean and turbulent kinetic energy ke profiles for a forced-pool

field site a and b and a straight pool in a flume experiment c and d

16 m, or 2.7 times the width of the channel. The entry slope is

between 4.5 and 7. Velocity measurements were made at seven

discharges up to and including the bank-full discharge. Additional

flow measurements were made in a straight 0.6 m deep,

1.5-m-wide flume with a median bed particle size of 10 mm. A

straight pool with no width constriction was constructed in the

flume. The pool had a total length of 7.29 m or 4.9 times the

width of the channel, a residual depth of 0.25 m and entry and

exit slopes of 5.

Measurements at three sections are presented for both the

flume and field examples. The normal flow section was measured

close to the upstream limit of the pool over what is considered the

riffle. The pool head section was located in the upstream portion

of the pool where the water depth is increasing. The pool tail

section was located in the downstream portion of the pool where

the water depth is decreasing. The tree that forces the pool in the

field example was located between the pool head and pool tail

sections. Results from the middle of the pool are not critical to

our discussion but are available MacVicar and Roy 2007. Mea-

surements were made at the bank-full discharge in the thalweg for Fig. 2. Bulk velocity and the near-bed velocity in the channel thal-

the field case, and at a normal flow depth of 0.24 m in the channel weg as it varies with discharge up to the bank-full discharge

centerline for the flume case. 4.9 m3 / s for three sections in a forced-riffle pool

Estimates of mean downstream velocity U and turbulent ki- curs in the pool tail. As a result of the change in shape of the

netic energy ke were calculated from two-minute time series velocity profile, the near-bed velocity is also greater than the bulk

measured at 20 Hz for the field case and 50 Hz for the flume case. velocity for this section.

Downstream velocity U was calculated as the time-averaged Riffles and pools are defined by changes in bed elevation. We

value. Turbulent kinetic energy ke is defined as present clear evidence that bulk flow velocity cannot be assumed

to be related to shear stress in pools and riffles due to the vari-

ke = 0.5u2i + v2i + w2i 1 ability in channel bed morphology and to the presence of nonuni-

form flow. A criterion based on the bulk velocity that is driven by

where u, v, and w are the downstream, lateral, and vertical com- changes in channel width, while attractive for its simplicity, is

ponents of the flow velocity; the subscript i denotes the instanta- insufficient to determine if a near-bed velocity reversal occurs and

neous velocity fluctuation relative to the mean; and the overbar may mislead our understanding of the dynamics of pools and

indicates that it is the mean value. For the field case, only the riffles. Instead, we argue that the sensitivity of near-bed values of

downstream and vertical components of the flow were measured. both downstream velocity and turbulent kinetic energy to changes

Based on the common observation that u2i v2i w2i Nezu and in depth holds considerable promise for a critical test of the ve-

Nakagawa 1993, it was assumed that locity reversal hypothesis and an eventual explanation of pool and

riffle formation.

v2i = 0.5u2i + w2i 2

This assumption was not required for the flume case. References

Where the channel boundary is nonuniform, the shapes of U

and ke profiles differ from what is observed in normal flow Fig. Booker, D. J., Sear, D. A., and Payne, A. J. 2001. Modelling three-

1. Relative to the normal flow section, downstream velocities are dimensional flow structures and patterns of boundary shear stress in a

smaller in the pool head and greater in the pool tail in the lower natural pool-riffle sequence. Earth Surf. Processes Landforms,

third of the profile Fig. 1a and c. In the upper third of the 265, 553576.

Keller, E. A. 1971. Areal sorting of bed material: The hypothesis of

profile, the inverse effects are observed and the highest velocities

velocity reversal. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 823, 753756.

occur in the pool head. These effects are more pronounced in the Kim, S. C., Friedrichs, C. T., Maa, J. P. Y., and Wright, L. D. 2000.

field case than in the flume case, perhaps as a result of the rela- Estimating bottom stress in tidal boundary layer from Acoustic Dop-

tively shorter pool or the wood in the field case. The shape of the pler Velocimeter data. J. Hydraul. Eng., 1266, 399406.

ke profiles differs between the field and flume cases near the water MacVicar, B. J., and Roy, A. G. 2007. Hydrodynamics of a forced

surface in the normal flow section Fig. 1b and d. High turbu- riffle-pool in a gravel-bed river: 1. Mean velocity and turbulence in-

lence near to the water surface in the field case may be the result tensity. Water Resour. Res., 43, W12401.

of water surface waves and may indicate that true normal flow did MacWilliams, M. L. J., Wheaton, J. M., Pasternack, G. B., Street, R. L.,

not occur in the field case. Nevertheless, the shape of profiles in and Kitanidis, P. K. 2006. Flow convergence routing hypothesis for

the pool head and the pool tail is similar in both cases. The high- pool-riffle maintenance in alluvial rivers. Water Resour. Res., 42,

W10427.

est levels of turbulent kinetic energy occur in the lower third of

Nezu, I., and Nakagawa, H. 1993. Turbulence in open-channel flows,

the profile in the pool head in both the flume and field cases.

A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

These results are significant for a discussion of the distribution

of shear stress in pools and riffles because both the near-bed

downstream velocity and turbulent kinetic energy can be used to

estimate shear stress on the bed Kim et al. 2000. They show that

a peak in shear stress occurs in the pool-head as a result of high Discussion of Sediment Transport

turbulence, while the change in the shape of the velocity profile

results in high shear stress near to the bed in the pool tail.

Modeling ReviewCurrent and Future

To demonstrate that a near-bed velocity reversal can occur in Developments by A. N. Papanicolaou,

the absence of a bulk velocity reversal, we calculated both veloc- M. Elhakeem, G. Krallis, S. Prakash, and

ity values from field measurements at seven different discharges J. Edinger

Fig. 2. The near-bed velocity was calculated as the mean of all January 2008, Vol. 134, No. 1, pp. 114.

measurements made in the thalweg in the lower 20% of the pro- DOI: 10.1061/ASCE0733-94292008134:11

file. The bulk velocity was calculated as the cross section average

from 5 to 7 velocity profiles spaced at 1 m intervals across the

Chih Ted Yang, F.ASCE1

width of the channel. As a result of lateral flow concentration see 1

Borland Prof. of Water Resources and Director of Hydroscience and

MacVicar and Roy 2007 for discussion, near-bed velocities in the Training Center, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO 80523-1372.

thalweg are greater than the bulk velocities at relatively low dis- E-mail: ctyang@engr.colostate.edu

charges in the normal flow section and the pool head. Near-bed

velocities in these sections peak at discharges less than half of the

bank-full value and no velocity reversal occurs between the nor- The authors of the article provide a comprehensive review of

mal flow section and the pool head. In the pool tail, and similar to sediment transport models available for solving engineering prob-

results in the pool head, no reversal of bulk velocity occurs. The lems. This type of forum article should be beneficial to students,

cross-sectional area of this section is always greater than the researchers, and practicing engineers on the type of models avail-

cross-sectional area of the normal flow section. However, a ve- able and how to select a proper model for solving a particular

locity reversal does occur in the near-bed velocity between these problem. There is no universally acceptable model that can most

two sections. Above the half bank-full discharge 2.5 m3 / s, cost-effectively give the best results for all conditions. The suc-

the highest near-bed velocity of the three measured sections oc- cess of the application of a computer model depends, to a large

Fig. 1. Comparison between the measured and simulated longitudi-

nal profiles of the delta in the Tarbela Reservoir Yang and Simes

2002

Fig. 2. Comparison between the measured and calculated scour

depths along the Tigris River Othman and Wang 2004

degree, on the modelers understanding of the basic theories in

fluvial hydraulics and field conditions. If more than one model

can be used for solving a particular situation in the field, the diction of channel geometry change along an unlined emergency

discusser prefers a model based on sound simple theories with spillway of Lake Mescalero, New Mexico; Tarbala Reservoir

reliable and stable numerical solutions. sedimentation processes in Pakistan; scour depth and grain-size

The article classified computer models as one, two, and three distributions below a dam on the Tigris River in Iraq; and channel

dimensional, with their strengths and weaknesses well explained. cross section and pattern developments along the unlined emer-

Generally speaking, 1D models are suitable for long-term and gency spillway of the Willow Creek Reservoir in Montana.

large-scale simulations while 3D models are suitable for detailed Fig. 1 shows the comparison between the surveyed and com-

studies of local phenomena if 3D data are available for calibration puted bed profiles using GSTARS3 after 22 years of operation of

and verification. Under certain situations, it may be desirable to the Tarbela Reservoir in Pakistan. Fig. 2 shows the comparisons

have a model that can give quasi-2D or quasi-3D results based on between the measured and calculated scour depths using

1D numerical solutions. GSTARS 2.1 at three stations of the Tigris River below the Mosul

The article briefly mentioned the GSTARS Molinas and Yang Dam in Iraq. Fig. 3 shows comparisons between measured and

1986 computer model developed by the U.S. Bureau of Recla- calculated bed material size distributions along the Tigris River

mation USBR as a 1D model. The original GSTARS using For- below the Mosul Dam using GSTARS 2.1. All these comparisons

tran IV for mainframe computers is no longer current. Subsequent and those cited in the references show that GSTARS models can

series of models have been developed and used by USBR and accurately simulate and predict the variation of reservoir and river

others in different countries. They are GSTARS 2.0 Yang et al. morphologic changes based on the stream tube concept and mini-

1998, GSTARS 2.1 Yang and Simes 2000, and GSTARS3 mum stream power theory without using any 2D or 3D models.

Yang and Simes 2002 using Fortran 77/90/95 for PC operation. The Willow Creek Reservoir located in Montana with an un-

Most of the original and older versions of GSTARS programs lined and unprotected emergency spillway that has a concrete

have been re-written, improved, and expanded in the more recent cutoff wall at the reservoir. GSTARS Molinas and Yang 1986

models. Only GSTARS 2.1 and GSTARS3 users manuals and was used to simulate and predict the variation of channel geom-

executable code are currently available for public use. Interested etry and pattern along the unlined emergency spillway of the Wil-

readers can contact the discusser or go to his Web site, http:// low Creek Reservoir. The simulation was based on 50% of the

www.engr.colostate.edu/ce, then click Academic Faculty/ probable maximum flood. A total of three stream tubes and

Hydraulic Engineering/Chih Ted Yang/Personal Website/ Yangs 1973 sediment transport formula were used in all simu-

GSTARS, and download these manuals free of charge. lations. The simulated and predicted results shown in Fig. 4 are

An important and unique feature of all GSTARS models is the

conjunctive use of stream tube concept and the theory of mini-

mum stream power. This feature allows the simulation and pre-

diction of qusai-2D hydraulic conditions along and across a

channel or a reservoir, and qusai-3D variations of channel geom-

etry and bed profile of a river or a reservoir. Interested readers

may consult the examples in the users manual of GSTARS2.1

and GSTARS3. More detailed explanations of the theoretical

basis and examples of applications of GSTARS2.0/2.1/3 are given

by Yang and Simes 2008, Simes and Yang 2008, Yang

2008, and in the Erosion and Sedimentation Manual U.S. Bu-

reau of Reclamation 2006. Laboratory and field data to test

GSTARS2.0/2.1/3 capabilities for simulating and predicting hy-

draulic and sediment conditions include, but are not limited to,

bed sorting and armoring resulting from bed degradation; knick

point movement; bed profile evaluation; reservoir delta develop-

ment and movement; local scour at the Mississippi River Lock Fig. 3. Calculated and observed grain-size distributions along the

and Dam No. 26 Replacement site near St. Louis, Missouri; pre- Tigris River Othman and Wang 2004

Fig. 4. a Longitudinal bed and water surface profiles along the Willow Creek Reservoir emergency spillway; b narrow scour hole at station

B along the spillway; c change of channel pattern from straight to meandering; d formation of natural levee; e formation of central island and

divided flows; and f channel width change due to bedrock control

qualitative in nature because no field data are available for veri- sion processes. Fig. 4d shows that the eroded channel gradually

fication. formed a deep center channel with a natural levee on both sides.

Fig. 4a shows the longitudinal bed profile and the water sur- Fig. 4e shows that a central island is formed and the channel

face profile at time step 15 along the emergency spillway of the will have divided flows at low flows. Fig. 4f is a bedrock-

Willow Creek Reservoir. It is apparent that GSTARS can handle controlled section at Station O. The initial predicted erosion at

water surface profile computations for critical flow at stations A, time step 15 was in the vertical direction. However, the channel

F, and O; supercritical flow between A and B, F and G, and O and adjustment cannot move in the vertical direction due to bedrock

P; hydraulic jump between B and C, and H and I; and subcritical control, and erosion occurs in the lateral direction. The theory of

flow between C and E, and I and N. Fig. 4b predicted the nar- minimum stream power was used to guide GSTARS in the deter-

row scour hole at Station B immediately below the spillway crest. mination of optimum channel geometry adjustment. Fig. 4 dem-

Fig. 4c shows that a fairly uniform original cross section of a onstrates that GSTARS has the ability to make realistic

straight channel at Station C changed to an uneven cross section predictions of possible types of channel geometry and pattern

typically found at the bend of a meandering river during the ero- adjustments in accordance with the stream tube concept and the

minimum stream power theory regardless of the flow regimes and dm = 1.75q2/3S7/9 1

local constraints.

The aforementioned examples demonstrate that users are not where dm = median size of stone in the stone layer m; q = unit

limited to only 1D, 2D, or 3D models. If a 1D numerical solution discharge m3 / s / m; and S = slope of the channel m/m. In this

along stream tubes can provide reliable and realistic qusai-2D and development, it has been assumed that the value of Shields pa-

qusai-3D solutions, it may present a practical engineering tool for rameter for the critical shear stress is equal to 0.060 and that the

long-term large-scale simulation in the future. specific gravity of the stone material is equal to 2.65. Mannings

equation was used as the flow equation, with the following

Strickler-type relationship used to quantify Mannings n

References n = 0.049d1/6

m 2

For values other than 0.060, 2.65, and 0.049 as referred to above,

Molinas, A., and Yang, C. T. 1986. Computer program users manual the coefficient in Eq. 1 will be somewhat different than 1.75. In

for GSTARS (Generalized Stream Tube model for Alluvial River Simu-

fact, for the authors 76-mm sandstone particles having a specific

lation), U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Engineering and Research Cen-

gravity of 2.29, the coefficient given in Eq. 1 would be equal to

ter, Denver, Colorado.

Othman, K. I., and Wang, D. 2004. Application of GSTARS 2.1 model 2.30, which in part is indicative of the sensitivity of stone stability

for degradation in alluvial channels. Proc., 9th International Sympo- to specific gravity as also noted by Peirson and Cameron 2006.

sium on River Sedimentation, World Association of Sedimentation and A similar expression for the required stone size can also be

Erosion Research, Beijing, Vol. III, 15321537. derived from an equation developed by Stephenson 1979, as

Simes, F. J. M., and Yang, C. T. 2008. GSTARS computer models and shown by Smith and Kells 1995

their applications. Part II: Applications. Int. J. Sediment Res., 234,

dm = 1.62q2/3S7/9 3

299315.

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Technical Service Center. 2006. Erosion which is remarkably similar to Eq. 1. The coefficient in Eq. 3

and sedimentation manual, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Denver. was derived on the basis of Stephensons C coefficient having a

Yang, C. T. 1973. Incipient motion and sediment transport. J. Hydr. value of 0.245, which is the midpoint of the values reported for

Div., 9910, 16791704. smooth pebbles 0.22 and crushed granite 0.27, a stone-specific

Yang, C. T. 2008. GSTARS computer models and sediment control in gravity of 2.65, a stone mass porosity of 40%, and an angle of

surface water systems. Key Note Address, 3rd Int. Conf. on Water repose of the stone material of 35. Using the mean angle of

Resources and Arid Environment, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. repose or friction angle for the stone material reported by the

Yang, C. T., and Simes, F. J. M. 2000. Users manual for GSTARS 2.1,

authors of 48.8, a stone-specific gravity of 2.29 for their 76-mm

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Technical Service Center, Denver.

Yang, C. T., and Simes, F. J. M. 2002. Users manual for GSTARS3,

sandstone material, and a mean porosity of 46% for the randomly

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Technical Service Center, Denver. placed stone material as determined from the authors data, the

Yang, C. T., and Simes, F. J. M. 2008. GSTARS computer models and coefficient in Eq. 3 would be equal to 1.41.

their applications. Part I: Theoretical development. Int. J. Sediment Abt et al. 2008 introduce the coefficient of uniformity, Cu,

Res., 233, 197211. into the stability relationship, which they express as SI units

Yang, C. T., Trevio, M. A., and Simes, F. J. M. 1998. Users manual

for GSTARS 2.0, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Technical Service Cen-

d50 = 97.82C0.70 0.68 0.70

u qf S 4

ter, Denver. where d50 = median stone size cm, which is the same as dm when

both are defined in terms of stone weight; Cu is the coefficient of

uniformity of the stone material dimensionless; and q f = design

unit discharge m3 / s / m. For a uniformly graded stone material

with, for example, Cu = 2, Eq. 4 is very similar to that given

Discussion of Placed Rock as Protection by Smith and Kells 1995 in Eq. 1 and Stephenson 1979 in

against Erosion by Flow down Steep Eq. 3.

Slopes by W. L. Peirson, J. Figlus, The relationship presented in Eq. 1 can be expressed in more

S. E. Pells, and R. J. Cox general terms as

September 2008, Vol. 134, No. 9, pp. 13701375. dm = Kq2/3S7/9 5

DOI: 10.1061/ASCE0733-94292008134:91370

where K is a coefficient which, as shown above, reflects the inte-

J. A. Kells, Ph.D., P.Eng., M.ASCE 1 gration of such parameters as stone-specific gravity, stone mass

1

Prof., Dept. of Civil and Geological Engineering, Univ. of porosity, angle of internal friction of the stone material, particle

Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Dr., Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5A9. roughness, and the coefficient in the Strickler-type relationship

for Mannings n i.e., Eq. 2. In the work reported by Smith and

Kells 1995, which draws considerably on earlier work described

The discusser found the authors paper to be an interesting con- in Smith and Murray 1975, it was found that the value of K is

tribution to the Journal and to the advancement of the use of 1.8 for initial stone movement, 1.5 for initial failure of the stone

stone in the design of steeply sloping channels. The discusser and mass which thereafter heals itself provided that a sufficient

various associates have also carried out some studies on the sta- amount of stone material has been placed at the crest of the

bility of stone on steep slopes, which is the primary focus of this slope, and 1.2 for ultimate failure of the stone-paved slope. Here,

discussion. initial stone movement refers to the point at which a single stone

Smith and Kells 1995 present the development of a semi- is removed from the stone layer and transported to the bottom of

empirical relationship for the median size of stone required for the slope, initial failure is the point at which temporary exposure

stability in a two-dimensional open channel flow of the underlying slope material occurs e.g., exposure of the filter

Table 1. Calculation of K Values from Eq. 5 Using the Authors Data the stability of the individual stones comprising the layer.

dm SG qtot,fail S On the assumption that the authors values of qtot,fail shown in

mm m3 / s / m m/m K their Table 2 reflect the unit discharge on the slope at the failure

condition not fully defined in the paper for randomly placed

76 2.29 0.118 0.20 1.10

stone, the discusser has determined the corresponding K values

76 0.084 0.30 1.01 from Eq. 5 using the authors data as shown in Table 1. As

76 0.054 0.40 1.08 indicated, the K values for the authors data are substantially less

109 2.37 0.233 0.20 1.01 than those given in Smith and Kells 1995, regardless of whether

109 0.156 0.30 0.96 one compares to Smith and Kellss initial K = 1.5 or ultimate

109 0.156 0.40 0.77 K = 1.2 failure conditions. This finding suggests that the findings

94 2.64 0.194 0.20 0.98 of Smith and Kells are more conservative than those given by the

94 0.183 0.30 0.74 authors. Of course, the differences in stone-specific gravity must

94 0.161 0.40 0.65 be considered, but this difference does not explain the difference

between the findings based on the authors data and those of

Smith and Kells. Moreover, the slope dependency that is evident

layer, and ultimate failure is when permanent exposure of some on the basis of the authors data was not observed in the work of

or all of the underlying slope material or filter layer takes place. Smith and Kells.

The discharge used in the analysis was the total discharge over Interestingly, for large slope values e.g., 0.40 m / m, the find-

the crest. The stone material was uniformly graded for all but one ings of Smith and Kells 1995 more or less agree with those of

test and no difference was detected in this regard and was clas- Peirson and Cameron 2006 for the ultimate failure condition cf.

sified as semirounded in shape. Fig. 4 in Peirson and Cameron 2006, but are less conservative for

Smith and Kells 1995 indicate that the discharge required for lower slopes for the same failure condition. Inclusive of some

ultimate failure was 2550% or more than that required to pro- margin of safety, Smith and Kells 1995 suggest that K = 1.8 in

duce initial failure. The larger increase in discharge was required Eq. 5 is a reasonably appropriate value for design purposes.

for the flat gradient tests i.e., S = 4% to 7% of Smith and Murray

1975. That a smaller increase in the discharge beyond the initial

failure condition was required to produce ultimate failure for the References

larger slope tested by Kells and Smith i.e., S = 20% is in accor-

dance with the authors findings about the reduced ductility of Abt, S. R., Thornton, C. I., Gallegos, H. A., and Ullman, C. M. 2008.

the armor instability processes with increasing armor slope. Round-shaped riprap stabilization in overtopping flow. J. Hydraul.

Although the work of Smith and Murray 1975 was based on Eng., 1348, 10351041.

Fathalla, A. M., and Kells, J. A. 1999. Stability of rock linings in steep

flat-gradient slopes ranging in value between 4% and 7%, Smith

channels. Proc., 14th Hydrotechnical Engineering Specialty Conf.,

and Kells 1995 subsequently showed that the same stability re-

CSCE, Regina, SK, Canada, Vol. II, 185194.

lationship could be applied on much steeper slopes of up to 20%.

Peirson, W. L., and Cameron, S. 2006. Design of rock riprap protection

They concluded in an inferential way that the applicability of the to prevent erosion by water flows down steep slopes. J. Hydraul.

same stability relationship, which was essentially developed on Eng., 13210, 11101114.

the basis of a flat sloping channel as implied by the use of Shields Smith, C. D., and Kells, J. A. 1995. Stability of riprap channel linings

stability parameter, was due to the increased interparticle forces on steep gradients. Proc., 12th Canadian Hydrotechnical Conf.,

that occur between the stones placed on a steep slope. Fathalla CSCE, Regina, SK, Canada, Vol. 1, 317326.

and Kells 1999 studied slopes as high as 35%, although they Smith, C. D., and Murray, D. G. 1975. Cobble lined drop structures.

developed a somewhat different relationship from that given in Can. J. Civ. Eng., 24, 437446.

Eq. 1. Among others, however, they concluded that it is impor- Stephenson, D. 1979. Rockfill in hydraulic engineering, Elsevier, New

tant to consider the stability of the stone layer rather than simply York.

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