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ACI Committee Reports, Guides, Standard Practices, and Com-

mentaries are intended for guidance in designing, planning,

executing, or inspecting construction, and in preparing speci-
fications. Reference to these documents shall not be made in
the Project Documents. If items found in these documents are
desired to be part of the Project Documents, they should be
phrased in mandatory language and incorporated into the Proj-
ect Documents.

ACI Standard
Preparation of Notation for Concrete (ACI 104-71)
(Revised 1982) Reapproved 1997
Reported by ACI Committee 104 *




Indicates how symbols shall be selected to represent quantities or terms.

Principal symbols are upper and lower case Roman letters and Greek lower case
letters. Roman lower case letters are used as subscripts and Greek upper case
letters are reserved for mathematics.
Keywords: coding; concretes; definitions; nomenclature; notation; prestressed
concrete; reinforced concrete; structural analysis; structural design; symbols;

PREPARATION OF NOTATION Construction of symbols

Scope The preparation of a symbol to represent a
All symbols used in defining any aspect of con- given quantity shall be conducted in the follow-
crete construction shall be prepared using the ing manner.
guide outlined in Table 1. (a) The leading or main letter of the symbol
shall be selected from Table 1 based on

(a) Roman capital letters (dimensions: force, force (e) Indices

times length, area, area to a power, tempera- ' = compression
1. Moments, shears, normal forces, concentrated (f) Subscripts
loads, total loads Roman lower case letters may be used fol-
2. Area, first and second moments of area lowing the main symbol as required. Defini-
3. Strain moduli (exception to dimensions) tions assigned to subscripts include but are
4. Temperature not limited to those listed below:
- - - -
(b) Roman lower case letters (dimensions: length,
length per time to a power, force per unit
length, area, or volume, except where used as sub-
1. Unit moments, shears, normal forces, loads
2. Linear dimensions (length, width, thickness,
etc. )
3. Unit strengths, stresses
4. Velocity, acceleration, frequency
_ - . -5. Descriptive letters (subscripts)
(c) Greek upper case letters
Reserved for mathematics
(d) Greek 1 ower case letters (dimensionless)
1. Coefficients and dimensionless ratios
Compatibility between ACI and CEB symbology for stresses
2. Strains to be achieved in the future.
3. Angles
4. Specific gravity (ratio of densities)
5. Variable stresses (exception, CEB usage only) 1
*.ACI 104 has been maintained by Committee 116 since 1981.
Copyright 1980, American Concrete Institute. All Rights reserved, including the Adopted as a standard of the American Concrete Institute in accordance with the
making of copies, unless permission, in writing, is obtained from the copyright Institutes standardization procedures. Revised by the Expedited Standardization
proprietors. Procedure effective January 1, 1982.


consideration of the dimensions of the appearing in Table 1 are used, a clear

quantity under consideration. written definition of their meaning shall be
(b) An index representing compression shall given.
be added to symbols representing geometri-
cal quantities if required. (d) The sign of a computed stress is given by
(c) Descriptive subscripts may be selected as + (plus) for tension and - (minus) for
desired. When subscripts other than those compression.

The following commentary and appendices, while not a

part of ACI 104-71, will assist the user in applying the
standard and selecting notation which conforms to selec-
tions made by ACI committees, based on the standard.
Commentary on A ppl
ication of
Standard Notation

Need for standard notation common ACI-CEB notation was continuously explored but
A symbol is here defined as a short grouping of letters appeared unlikely until about 1969, since the CEB notation
and numerals to represent a written definition of some had already been adopted by several countries for use in
engineering concept. Thus, A s is commonly used to define their national building codes. However, at the 13th biennial
the cross-sectional area of reinforcing steel. The body of meeting of the CEB, held at Scheveningen, Netherlands, in
symbols used by an engineering discipline is further defined September 1969, discussions of a common ACI-CEB
as the notation for that discipline. The sole function of a Standard for notation were held. Extensive discussions were
notation is to serve as a form of shorthand to aid in the conducted jointly by ACI 104 and CEB VII and also the
communication of ideas among members of the discipline. A general assembly discussed notation during two meetings.
good notation then is one which best serves its masters. The point was repeatedly made that several major codes,
Hallmarks of a good notation are lack of ambiguity in including the ACI, the CEB, the British, the Scandinavian,
determining the meaning of any given symbol, consistency of and others, were soon to appear in new editions and that the
construction of symbols, and a common use of the notation Scheveningen meeting represented the last chance to arrive
by all members of the discipline. at a common standard for perhaps decades. During the
Prior to the adoption of ACI Standard 104 in 1971, the discussions numerous compromises were made and a pro-
notation for concrete in use in United States practice was the posed standard was developed. The standard was adopted
product of random evolution and not systematic planning. As by the CEB general assembly contingent upon its acceptance
a result, a single symbol was often used to represent a by the ACI. The standard was then presented to ACI
multiplicity of disparate concepts in a number of cases. For membership vote and adopted as an ACI standard in 1971.
example, the symbol D was used to represent dead loads, bar The new standard for preparation of notation for concrete
diameter, column diameter, and wall length. Also a number thus became the first universal standard in any profession.
of slightly different definitions of the same basic concept The logic of the system described in Table 1 of the
were represented by a single symbol, such as t to represent standard lies in the selection of the leading letter of a symbol
many kinds of thickness. With the rapid development of new based on a consideration of the units of the physical quantity
knowledge and the corresponding continual need for new involved. One exception occurs in the case of strain moduli.
symbols, the need for a consistent method for the con- The symbols E and G are retained for Youngs modulus and
struction and definition of symbols was apparent. the shear modulus since these are now universally in use.
In the 1977 Code, the subscript u has been reserved for One divergence between CEB and ACI usage is the retention
load effects (shear force, bending moment) computed from by CEB of sigma and tau for normal and shear stresses.
factored loads. The subscript n is used for nominal strength A detailed description of the usage of each Roman and
which is the strength calculated using the nominal values of Greek letter based upon the standard is given in Appendix A.
fc, fy, etc., and the standard calculation procedures. Definitions which are not italicized were jointly adopted.
Italicized definitions have been adopted by ACI.
Appendix B is a listing of the notation used in ACI
Development of standard notation Standard 3 18.
Recognizing the need for a standard, the Technical Activi-
ties Committee of ACI organized Committee 104, Notation,
in 1964. Initially, the committee examined the notation*
prepared by Commission VII, Notation and Terminology, of
the Comite Europeen du Beton (European Concrete Com- References
mittee) to see if it could be adopted in toto since one of the 1. International Recommendations for the Design and
goals was the attainment of a universal standard. However, Construction of Concrete Structures, Comite Europeen du
the first version of the notation prepared by CEB VII was felt Beton/Federation Intemationale de la Precontrainte, Paris,
to be unacceptable since it involved the use of a large number 1970. (English translation, Cement and Concrete Associa-
of sub- and superscripts and Greek letters. Hence, it was tion, London, 1970, 80 pp.)
necessary for ACI 104 to develop an independent notation 2. Vanderbilt, M. D., Notation-The Case for a New
which was, however, modeled as closely as possible on that System, ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 65, No. 5, May
of the CEB. The first version of the ACI 104. notation was 1968, pp. 357-361.
published in the May 1968 ACI JOURNAL.2 3. Bases for Design of Structures: Notations, General
Close liaison between ACI 104 and CEB VII was main- Symbols, (IS0 3898-1976), International Standards Organi-
tained by having several persons serve simultaneously as zation/American National Standards Institute, New York, .
members of each committee. The possibility of arriving at a 1976, 4 pp.

A ppe ndice s
Typical notation for reinforced concrete cross sec-
tions is shown in Fig. 1.
Capital Roman letters
A = area
B = h
C = torsional constant
D = dead load
E = modulus of elasticity; earthquake load
F = force; load; liquid pressure
G = modulus of shear
H = lateral force; lateral earth pressure
I = moment of inertia Strains
J = Beam
K = any coefficient with proper dimensions
L = live load
M = bending moment
N = normal force
0 = (VOID)
P = prestressing force; axial load
Q =
R =
S = first moment of an area; internal forces; load effects
T = torsional moment; temperature Isolated
U = required strength
V = shear force T- beam
W = wind load
X = reactions or forces in general, parallel to axis x
Y = reactions or forces in general, parallel to axis y
Z = reactions or forces in general, parallel to axis z
Lower case Roman letters
a = deflection; distance; depth of rectangular
stress block
b width Column
c = distance from compression fiber to neutral axis
d = effective depth; diameter (see also h) F i g . I - Typical notation for reinforced concrete cross
e = eccentricity, base of Napierian logarithms sections
(mathematical usage)
f = unit strength or stress (f C for concrete in com-
pression, fr for concrete in tension, andfs for steel)
= acceleration due to gravity Lower case Greek letters
g Alpha
h = total depth; thickness; diameter angle; ratio; coefficient
i = Beta angle; ratio; coefficient
j = Gamma specific gravity; ratio
k = any coefficient with proper dimensions Delta coefficient; coefficient of variation
1 =
span; length of member or element Epsilon strain
m = bending moment per unit length Zeta coefficient
n = unit normal force; number Eta (VOID)
o = (VOID) Theta rotation
(VOID) Iota (VOID)
p = (VOID)
q = Kappa
r = radius of gyration Lambda slenderness ratio; coefficient
s = standard deviation; spacing Mu coefficient of friction
t = time; unit torsional moment per unit length Nu Poissons ratio
u = Xi coefficient
v = shear; stress Omicron (VOID)
w = crack width; total load per unit length or area Pi reserved for mathematics, 3.14159
x = coordinate Rho geometrical ratio of reinforcement
y = coordinate
z = coordinate; reinforcement distribution factor
normal stress (CEB only)
*Italicized words indicate ACI usage.
All other definitions are common ACI-CEB-FIP usage. shear or transverse stress (CEB only)
A blank space indicates an unassigned letter. Upsilon v = (VOID)
Void indicates the letter shall not be used. Phi = strength reduction factor; creep coeficient

Chi X = (VOID) t= transversal; torsion; tension; total; tubing; time

Psi = u = unsupported; factored load effect at ultimate
= reinforcing strength index V = shear; vertical
W = wind; wire; web; wall I
Subscripts X = axial direction
Y = axial direction; yield
b = bond; bar; beam; balanced z = axial direction
c = concrete; column; compression; critical 0 , 1 , 2 . . . = particular values of quantities
d = design; dead load
e = effective; elastic Subscripts formed from abbreviations
f = flange; flexure; friction; fatigue bal = balanced
g = gross cr = cracked, critical
h = horizontal; hook; hoop max = maximum
i = initial min = minimum
j = sp = spiral
k = characteristic vert = vertical
1 = longitudinal; live load
m = average values; moment Subscripts for loads
n = number; net; nominal d = dead load
o = a particular value of a quantity 1 = live load
p = prestress; pile eq = earthquake
q = h = earth pressure
r = tensile rupture te = temperature; creep; shrinkage; prestrain effects
s = steel; slab wl = wind load


Reproduced below, in separate lists, is the notation given below contain English units since they appear in
selected for Building Code Requirements for Rein- empirical equations.
forced Concrete (ACI 3 18-83) and for the Com- The notation used in the code and commentary
mentary on the Code. These lists should be useful to follows ACI Standard for Preparation of Notation for
committees and other authors in selecting notation for Concrete (ACI 104-71, Revised 1982) with very few ex-
their use. Note that while ACI 3 18-83, and all preced- ceptions and also follows the principles adopted by the
ing discussion, is independent of any system of units such Comite Euro-International du Beton.
as metric, English, etc., many of the symbols

a = depth of equivalent rectangular stress block as in. Chapter 18

defined in Section 10.2.7. Chapters 10 and 12 A ch = cross-sectional area of a structural member mea-
a = shear span, distance between concentrated load sured out-to-out of transverse reinforcement, sq
and face of support. Chapter 11 in. Appendix A
a = maximum deflection under test load of member A CP = area of concrete section, resisting shear, of an
relative to a line joining the ends of the span, or individual pier or horizontal wall segment, sq in.
of the free end of a cantilever relative to its sup- Appendix A
port, in. Chapter 20 A cv = net area of concrete section bounded by web
A = effective tension area of concrete surrounding the thickness and length of section in the direction of
flexural tension reinforcement and having the same shear force considered, sq in. Appendix A
centroid as that reinforcement, divided by the = area of reinforcement in bracket or corbel resist-
number of bars or wires, sq in. When the flexural
reinforcement consists of different bar or wire sizes Chapter 11
the numbers of bars or wires shall be computed = gross area of section, sq in. Chapters 9, 10, 11,
as the total area of reinforcement divided by the 14, and Appendixes A and B
area of the largest bar or wire used. Chapter 10 A h
= area of shear reinforcement parallel to flexural
A = area of that part of cross section between flexural tension reinforcement, sq in. Chapter 11
tension face and center of gravity of gross sec- = minimum cross-sectional area within a joint in a
tion, sq in. Chapter 18 plane parallel to the axis of the reinforcement
Ab = area of an individual bar, sq in. Chapter 12 generating the shear in the joint. Where a girder
AC = area of core of spirally reinforced compression frames into to a support of larger width, effective
member measured to outside diameter of spiral, width of the joint shall be assumed not to exceed
sq in. Chapter 10 the width plus the overall depth of the joint, sq in.
AC = area of concrete section resisting shear transfer. Appendix A
Chapter 11 = area of reinforcement in bracket or corbel resist-
AC = area of contact surface being investigated for ing tensile force Nuc, sq in. Chapter 11
horizontal shear, sq in. Chapter 17 = total area of longitudinal reinforcement to resist -
AC = area of concrete at cross section considered, sq torsion, sq in. Chapter 11

area of prestressed reinforcement in tension zone, IO, 12, 13, and Appendix B
sq in. Chapters 11 and 18 d distance from extreme compression fiber to cen-
area of nonprestressed tension reinforcement, sq troid of nonprestressed tension reinforcement, in,
in. Chapters 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 18 Chapter 18
area of compression reinforcement, sq in. Chap- d distance from extreme compression fiber to cen-
ters 8, 9, and 18 troid of longitudinal tension reinforcement, but need
total cross-sectional area of transverse reinforce- not be less than 0.80h for prestressed members,
ment (including cross-ties) within spacing s and in. (For circular sections, d need not be less than
perpendicular to dimension hc Appendix A the distance from extreme compression fiber to
total area of longitudinal reinforcement, (bars or centroid of tension reinforcement in opposite half
steel shapes), sq in. Chapter 10 of member). Chapter 11
area of structural steel shape, pipe, or tubing in d distance from extreme compression fiber to cen-
a composite section, sq in. Chapter 10 troid of tension reinforcement for entire composite
area of one leg. of a closed stirrup resisting tor- section, in. Chapter 17
sion within a distance s, sq in. Chapter 11 d effective depth of section. Appendix A
d distance from extreme compression fiber to cen-
area of shear reinforcement within a distance s, troid of compression reinforcement, in. Chapters
or area of shear reinforcement perpendicular to
9 and 18
flexural tension reinforcement within a distance s nominal diameter of bar, wire, or prestressing
for deep flexural members, sq in. Chapters 11,
strand, in. Chapters 7 and 12
12, and Appendix B
nominal diameter of bar, in. Chapter 3 and Ap-
total cross-sectional area of shear reinforcement
pendix A
within spacing s and perpendicular to longitudinal
thickness of concrete cover measured from ex-
axis of structural member, sq in. Appendix A
treme tension fiber to center of bar or wire lo-
area of shear-friction reinforcement, sq in. Chap-
cated closest thereto, in. Chapter 10
ter 11
diameter of pile at footing base. Chapter 15
area of shear reinforcement parallel to flexural
distance from extreme compression fiber to cen-
tension reinforcement within a distance s2, sq in.
troid of prestressed reinforcement. Chapter 18.
Chapter 11
distance from extreme tension fiber to centroid of
area of an individual wire to be developed or
tension reinforcement in. Chapter 9
spliced, sq in. Chapter 12
dead loads, or related internal moments and
loaded area. Chapter 10 and Appendix B
forces. Chapters 9, 18, and 20
maximum area of the portion of the supporting
base of Napierian logarithms. Chapter 18
surface that is geometrically similar to and con-
load effects of earthquake, or related internal mo-
centric with the loaded area. Chapter 10 and Ap-
ments and forces. Chapter 9 and Appendix A
pendix B
modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi. See Sec-
width of compression face of member, in. Chap-
tion 8.51. Chapters 8, 9, 10, 19, and Appendix
ters 8, 9, 10, 11, 18, and Appendix B
effective compressive flange width of a structural
modulus of elasticity of beam concrete. Chapter
member, in. Appendix A
perimeter of critical section for slabs and footings, modulus of elasticity of column concrete. Chapter
in. Chapter 11 and Appendix B
width of that part of cross section containing the
modulus of elasticity of slab concrete. Chapter 13
closed stirrups resisting torsion. Chapter 11
flexural stiffness of compression member. See Eq.
width of cross section at contact surface being
(10-10) and (10-11). Chapter 10
investigated for horizontal shear. Chapter 17
modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, psi. See
web width, or diameter of circular section, in.
Section 85.2 or 8.5.3. Chapters 8, 10, and Ap-
Chapters 11, 12, and Appendix B
pendix B
distance from extreme compression fiber to neu-
specified compressive strength of concrete, psi.
tral axis, in. Chapter 10
Chapters 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 18, 19, and Ap-
size of rectangular or equivalent rectangular col-
pendixes A and B
umn, capital, or bracket measured in the direction
required average compressive strength of con-
of the span for which moments are being deter-
crete used as the basis for selection of concrete
mined, in. Chapters 11 and 13
proportions, psi. Chapter 4
c2 size of rectangular or equivalent rectangular col-
square root of specified compressive strength of
umn, capital, or bracket measured transverse to
concrete, psi. Chapters 9, 11, 12, 15, 18, 19, and
the direction of the span for which moments are
Appendix B
being determined, in. Chapters 11 and 13
compressive strength of concrete at time of initial
cross-sectional constant to define torsional prop-
prestress, psi. Chapter 18
erties. See Eq. (13-7) Chapter 13
square root of compressive strength of concrete
a factor relating actual moment diagram to an
at time of initial prestress, psi. Chapter 18
equivalent uniform moment diagram. Chapter 10
average splitting tensile strength of lightweight
factor relating shear and torsional stress proper-
aggregate concrete, psi. Chapters 4, 9, 11, 12,
ties. Chapter 11
and Appendix B
b wd stress due to unfactored dead load, at extreme
fiber of sectionwhere tensile stress is caused by
d distance from extreme compression fiber to cen- externally applied loads, psi. Chapter 11
troid of tension reinforcement: in. Chapters 7, 8, compressive stress in concrete (after allowance


for all prestress losses) at centroid of cross sec- flection. Chapter 9

tion resisting externally applied loads or at junc- = moment of inertia of gross concrete section about
tion of web and flange when the centroid lies within centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement. Chap-
the flange, psi. (In a composite member, fpc is re- ters 9 and 10
sultant compressive stress at centroid of com- = moment of inertia about centroidal axis of gross
posite section, or at junction of web and flange section of slab
when the centroid lies within the flange, due to
both prestress and moments resisted by precast and t. Chapter 13
member acting alone). Chapter 11 = moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroi-
average compressive stress in concrete due to dal axis of member cross section. Chapter 10
effective prestress force only (after allowance for = moment of inertia of structural. steel shape, pipe,
all prestress losses), psi. Chapter 18 or tubing about centroidal axis of composite
compressive stress in concrete due to effective member cross section. Chapter 10
prestress forces only (after allowance for all pres- = effective length factor for compression members.
tress losses) at extreme fiber of section where Chapter 10
tensile stress is caused by externally applied loads, = effective length factor. Chapter 14
psi. Chapter 11 = wobble friction coefficient per foot of prestressing
stress in prestressed reinforcement at nominal tendon, Chapter 18
strength. See text for units. Chapters 12 and 18 = flexural stiffness of beam; moment per unit rota-
specified tensile strength of prestressing tendons, tion. Chapter 13
psi. Chapters 11 and 18 = flexural stiffness of column; moment per unit ro-
specified yield strength of prestressing tendons, tation. Chapter 13
psi. Chapter 18 = flexural stiffness of slab; moment per unit rota-
modulus of rupture of concrete, psi. Chapters 9 tion. Chapter 13
and 18 = torsional stiffness of torsional member; moment
calculated stress in reinforcement at service loads, per unit rotation. Chapter 13
ksi. Chapter 10 = span length of beam or one-way slab, as defined
permissible tensile stress in reinforcement, psi. in Section 8.7; clear projection of cantilever, in.
Appendix B Chapter 9
effective stress in prestressed reinforcement (after = length of span of two-way flat plates in direction
allowance for all prestress losses). See text for parallel to that of the reinforcement being deter-
units. Chapters 12 and 18 mined, in. See Eq. (18-8). Chapter 18
fi specified yield strength of nonprestressed rein- = additional embedment length at support or at point
forcement, psi. Chapters 3, 7, 8, 9, IO, 11, 12, of inflection, in. Chapter 12
18, 19, and Appendixes A and B = vertical distance between supports, in. Chapter
specified yield strength of transverse reinforce- 14
ment, psi. Appendix A = development length, in. Chapters 7,12, and Appen-
dix A
loads due to weight and pressures of fluids with = development length of standard hook in tension,
well-defined densities and controllable maximum measured from critical section to outside end of
heights, or related internal moments and forces. hook (straight embedment length between critical
Chapter 9 section and start of hook [point of tangency] plus
overall thickness of member, in. Chapters 9, 10, radius of bend and one bar diameter), in.
11, 12, 13, 14, 18, 20, and Appendix A
thickness of shell or folded plate, in. Chapter 19 = development length for a bar with a standard hook
cross-sectional dimension of column core mea- as defined in Eq. (A-5). Appendix A
sured center-to-center of confining reinforcement. = basic development length of standard hook in
Appendix A tension, in. Chapter 12
total depth of shearhead cross section, in. Chap- = clear span for positive moment or shear and av-
ter 11 erage of adjacent clear spans for negative mo-
total height of wall from base to top, in. Chapter ment. Chapter 8
11 = clear span measured face-to-face of supports,
height of entire wall (diaphragm) or of the seg- Chapter 11
ment of wall (diaphragm) considered. Appendix A = length of clear span in long direction of two-way
loads due to weight and pressure of soil, water construction, measured face-to-face of supports
in soil, or other materials, or related internal mo- in slabs without beams and face-to-face of beams
ments and forces. Chapter 9 or other supports in other cases. Chapter 9
moment of inertia of section resisting externally = length of clear span in direction that moments are
applied factored loads. Chapter 11 being determined, measured face-to-face of sup-
moment of inertia about centroidal axis of gross ports. Chapter 13
section of beam as defined in Section 13.2.4. = minimum length, measured from joint face along
Chapter 13 axis of structural member, over which transverse
moment of inertia of gross section of column. reinforcement must be provided, in. Appendix A
Chapter 13 = span of member under load test (shorter span of
moment of inertia of cracked section transformed flat slabs and of slabs supported on four sides).
to concrete. Chapter 9 Span of member, except as provided in Section
effective moment of inertia for computation of de- 20.4.9, is distance between centers of supports


or clear distance between supports plus depth of = factored axial load normal to cross section oc-
member, whichever is smaller, in. Chapter 20
= unsupported length of compression member. positive for compression, negative for tension, and
Chapter 10 to include effects of tension due to creep and
= length of shearhead arm from centroid of con- shrinkage. Chapter 11
centrated load or reaction, in. Chapter 11 = factored tensile force applied at top of bracket or
= horizontal length of wall, in. Chapter 11 corbel acting simultaneously with Vu, to be taken
= length of entire wall (diaphragm) or a segment of as positive for tension. Chapter 11
wall (diaphragm) considered in direction of shear Pb = nominal axial load strength at balanced strain
force. Appendix A conditions. See Section 10.3.2. Chapters 9 and
= length of prestressing tendon element from jack- 10
ing end to any point x, ft. See Eq. (18-l) and (18- = critical load. See Eq. (1 O-9). Chapter 10
2). Chapter 18 = nominal axial load strength at given eccentricity.
= length of span in direction that moments are being Chapters 9 and 10
determined, measured center-to-center of sup- P, = nominal axial load strength at zero eccentricity.
ports. Chapter 13 Chapter 10
= prestressing tendon force at jacking end. Chapter
to-center of supports. See also Sections 18
and Chapter 13 P
= live loads, or related internal moments and forces. Chapters 9 and 10
Chapters 9, 18, and 20 = nominal axial load strength of wall designed by
= design moment. Appendix B Section 14.4. Chapter 14
= maximum moment in member at stage deflection = prestressing tendon force at any point x. Chapter
is computed. Chapter 9 18
= factored moment to be used for design of com- r = radius of gyration of cross section of a compres-
pression member. Chapter 10 sion member. Chapter 10
= cracking moment. See Section Chapter 9 S = standard deviation, psi. Chapter 4
= moment causing flexural cracking at section due S = spacing of shear or torsion reinforcement in di-
rection parallel to longitudinal reinforcement, in.
Chapter 11 Chapter 11
= modified moment. Chapter 11 S = spacing of stirrups or ties, in. Chapter 12
= maximum factored moment at section due to ex- S = spacing of transverse reinforcement measured
ternally applied loads. Chapter 11 along the longitudinal axis of the structural mem-
= total factored static moment. Chapter 13 be r.. in. A ppe ndix A
= nominal moment strength at section, in.-lb Chap- S = spacing of shear reinforcement in direction par-
ter 12 allel to longitudinal reinforcement, in. Appendix B
= maximum spacing of transverse reinforcement, in.
= required plastic moment strength of shearhead Appendix A
cross section. Chapter 11 S W
= spacing of wire to be developed or spliced, in.
= portion of slab moment balanced by support mo- Chapter 12
ment. Appendix A = spacing of vertical reinforcement in wall, in.
= factored moment at section. Chapter 11 Chapter 11
= moment resistance contributed by shearhead re- 52 = spacing of shear or torsion reinforcement in di-
inforcement. Chapter 11 rection perpendicular to longitudinal reinforce-
= value of smaller factored end moment on ment-or spacing of horizontal reinforcement in
compression member due to the loads that result wall, in. Chapter 11
in no appreciable sidesway, calculated by con- T = cumulative effects of temperature, creep, shrink-
ventional elastic frame analysis, positive if mem- age, and differential settlement. Chapter 9
ber is bent in single curvature, negative if bent in = nominal torsional moment strength provided by
double curvature. Chapter 10 concrete. Chapter 11
= value of larger factored end moment on compres- = nominal torsional moment strength. Chapter 11
sion member due to loads that result in no ap- = nominal torsional moment strength provided by
preciable sidesway, calculated by conventional torsion reinforcement. See Section
elastic frame analysis. Chapter 10 Chapter 11
= value of larger factored end moment on compres- = factored torsional moment at section. Chapter 11
sion member due to loads that result in appre- = required strength to resist factored loads or re-
ciable sidesway calculated by conventional elas- lated internal moments and forces. Chapter 9
tic frame analysis. Chapter 10 = design shear stress. Appendix B
= modular ratio of elasticity. Appendix B. = permissible shear stress carried by concrete, psi.
= Es/Ec Chapter 11 and Appendix B
= design axial load normal to cross section occur- vh = permissible horizontal shear stress, psi. Appen-
ring simultaneously with V; to be taken as posi- dix B
tive for compression, negative for tension, and to = design shear force at section. Appendix B
include effects of tension due to creep and =; nominal shear strength provided by concrete.
shrinkage. Appendix B Chapters 8, 11, and Appendix A
= tensile force in concrete due to unfactored dead = nominal shear strength provided by concrete when
load plus live load (D + L). Chapter 18 diagonal cracking results from combined shear and


moment. Chapter 11 average value of all for all beams on edges of a

nominal shear strength provided by concrete when panel. Chapter 9
diagonal cracking results from excessive principal
tensile stress in web. Chapter 11 ter 13
Kf shear force at section due to unfactored dead load.
Chapter 11 Chapter 11
design shear force determined from Section ratio of stiffness of shearhead arm to surrounding
A.7.1.1 or A.7.1.2. Appendix A
factored shear force at section due to externally Chapter 11
applied loads occurring simultaneously with Mmax.
Chapter 11
V nominal shear strength. Chapter 11 and Appen- ratio of clear spans in long to short direction of
dix A two-way slabs. Chapter 9
nominal horizontal shear strength. Chapter 17 ratio of long side to short side of footing. Chapter
vertical component of effective prestress force at 15
section. Chapter 11 Pa ratio of dead load per unit area to live load per
nominal shear strength provided by shear rein- unit area (in each case without load factors).
forcement. Chapter 11 Chapter 13
factored shear force at section. Chapters 11, 12, ratio of area of reinforcement cut off to total area
and 17, and Appendix A of tension reinforcement at section. Chapter 12
WC weight of concrete, lb per cu ft. Chapters 8 and ratio of long side to short side of concentrated
9 load or reaction area. Chapter 11 and Appen-
factored dead load per unit area. Chapter 13 dix B
factored live load per unit area. Chapter 13 absolute value of ratio of maximum factored dead
factored load per unit length of beam or per unit load moment to maximum factored total load mo-
area of slab. Chapter 8 ment, always positive. Chapter 10
factored load per unit area. Chapter 13 ratio of length of continuous edges to total perim-
wind load, or related internal moments and eter of a slab panel. Chapter 9
forces. Chapter 9 ratio of torsional stiffness of edge beam section
shorter overall dimension of rectangular part of to flexural stiffness of a width of slab equal to span
cross section. Chapters 11 and 13. length of beam, center-to-center of supports.
shorter center-to-center dimension of closed rec- Chapter 13
tangular stirrup. Chapter 11
longer overall dimension of rectangular part of
cross section. Chapters 11 and 13
factor defined in Sections Chapters 8 and
distance from centroidal axis of gross section, ne-
glecting reinforcement, to extreme fiber in ten-
factor defined in Section Chapter 18
sion. Chapters 9 and 11
fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by
longer center-to-center dimension of closed rec- flexure at slab-column connections. See Section
tangular stirrup. Chapter 11 Chapters 11 and 13
quantity limiting distribution of flexural reinforce- YP factor for type of prestressing tendon. Chapter 18
ment. See Section 10.6. Chapter 10 0.40 for fpy,/fpu not less than 0.85
angle between inclined stirrups and longitudinal
axis of member. Chapter 11 and Appendix B fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by ec-
total angular change of prestressing tendon pro- centricity of shear at slab-column connections. See
file in radians from tendon jacking end to any point Section 11 .12.2.3. Chapter 11
x. Chapter 18
ratio of flexural stiffness of beam section to flex- 66 moment magnification factor for frames braced
ural stiffness of a width of slab bounded laterally (delta) against sidesway, to reflect effects of member
by centerlines of adjacent panels (if any) on each curvature between ends of compression member.
side of the beam. Chapters 9 and 13 Chapter I0
moment magnification factor for frames not braced
against sidesway, to reflect lateral drift resulting
from lateral and gravity loads. Chapter 10
ratio of flexural stiffness of columns above and
s . factor defined by Eq. (13-5). See Section 13.6.10.
below the slab to combined flexural stiffness of
Chapter 13
the slabs and beams at a joint taken in the di-
number of identical arms of shearhead Chap-
rection of the span for which moments are being
ter 11
determined. Chapter 13
multiplier for additional long-time deflection as de-
fined in Section 9.52.5. Chapter 9
correction factor related to unit weight of con-
coefficient defining the relative contribution of crete. Chapter 11
concrete strength to wall strength. See Eq. (A-6) coefficient of friction. See Section Chap-
Appendix A ter 11
angle between shear-friction reinforcement and curvature friction coefficient. Chapter 18
shear plane. Chapter 11 time-dependent factor for sustained load. See

Section Chapter 9 ume of core (out-to-out spirals) of a spirally rein-

ratio of nonprestressed tension reinforcement.
forced compression member. Chapter 10
Chapters 8, 10, 11, 18, and Appendixes A and B
Ps ratio of volume of spiral reinforcement to the core
As /bd.
volume confined by the spiral reinforcement
ratio of nonprestressed compression reinforce-
(measured out-to-out). Appendix A
ment. Chapter 8
Asv/Acv; where Asv is the projection on A, of area
of distributed shear reinforcement crossing the
P reinforcement ratio for nonprestressed compres-
plane of A,,. Appendix A
sion reinforcement, A's/bd. Chapter 9
As/bwd. Chapter 11
P ratio of compression reinforcement. Chapter 18
strength reduction factor. See Section 9.3. Chap-
A's/ bd.
ters 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, and Appen-
reinforcement ratio producing balanced strain
dix A
conditions. See Section 10.3.2. Chapters 8 and
strength reduction factor. See Section B.2.1. Ap-
ratio of total reinforcement area to cross-sectional pendix B
area of column. Appendix A
ratio of horizontal shear reinforcement area to
gross concrete area of vertical section. Chap-
ter 11
ratio of vertical shear reinforcement area to gross reinforcement indices for flanged sections com-
concrete area of horizontal section. Chapter 11
ratio of distributed shear reinforcement on a plane the web width, and reinforcement area shall be
perpendicular to plane of A,. Appendix A that required to develop compressive strength of
ratio of prestressed reinforcement. Chapter 18 web only. Chapter 18
xx2y torsional section properties. See Section
A p s /bd.
ratio of volume of spiral reinforcement to total vol- and Chapter 11