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International Congress on Advances in Welding Science and Technology for

Construction, Energy and Transportation Systems (AWST - 2011)

24-25 October 2011, Antalya, Turkey

The Effects of Weld Pass Width Variations on Mechanical and

Microstructural Properties of 10CrMo9-10 (P22) Steels
E. Kaplana, T. Atcb
MTA elik malat Montaj ve Tesisat A.., Turkey
ekaplan@cimtas.com.tr, btatici@cimtas.com.tr


In energy plants, materials resistant to high temperatures transportation of the same to the job-site and the second
and with high creep resistance are used as material for part is the combination of these materials at job-site. In
the pipe to be exposed to pressurized vapor in high both of these production parts, the quality requirements
temperatures. For welding of these materials, special defined under the design standards and specifications
welding consumables and welding procedures suitable must be met and all welds must be completed by the pre-
for welding operations are used. These welding defined deadlines.
procedures are prepared to ensure the completion of the
welding operations as fast as possible for the purpose of The obligation to fulfill the desired quality requirements
meeting the customer requirements on a timely basis and by the pre-defined deadlines forces the manufacturers to
in the desired quality. implement certain practices that would increase the
In this study, the restrictions applicable for the weld pass production speed. While steps are taken to increase the
width has been removed in order to support the reduction production speed, it is also compulsory to prove that
of the production period in the welding of 10CrMo9-10 quality requirements are met and so at each such step, the
(P22) steel pipe materials resistant to high temperatures properties of the materials expected to be effected from
and in this way, it has been ensured that each welding the relevant operations must be questioned. In this study,
layer is filled with a single weld pass and finally the recommendations made in the various literature for
mechanical and micro-structural properties of the weld welding of 10CrMo9-10 (P22) steel involving the
pass width recommended in the literature and of the limitation of the weaving width of the electrode-welding
welded experimental parts have been compared. are not followed, and each layer is completed in a single
Keywords: Steels resistant to high temperatures, pass; and the associated mechanical and micro-structural
10CrMo9-10, P22, wild pass width, microstructure, test results are compared with those obtained by normal
mechanical properties welding procedures. The welding of test pipes are
carried-out in flat position.

1. Introduction
2. Welding of 10CrMo9-10 (P22) steel
In parallel to the increasing energy demand in the world, resistant to high temperatures
the number of plants generating energy by means of the
movement of hot vapor is always increasing and new
10CrMo9-10 (P22) steel material resistant to high
plants are designed and built continuously; hence,
temperatures is designated as a material that could be
practices involving the use of materials having good
welded on certain conditions. Pre-heating must be
resistance to high temperatures and high creep properties
performed to prevent hardening because of rapid cooling
and combined with the welded production methods are
and the temperature between the passes must be
increasing rapidly. The ever increasing international
maintained under a certain value in order to prevent
competition demands the reduction of the construction
strength losses. Electrodes having low hydrogen levels
periods and the competitive advantages became highly
are used due to the possibility of post-welding hydrogen
related to the production speeds.
cracks. Post-weld heat treatment is performed to remove
the internal stresses occurring in the weld fill material
In the construction of energy plants generating energy by
and in heat affected zone (HAZ) due to the crystalline
heat, there are two parts involving welded production
structure of the phases created.
methods. The first part consists of the completion of
Since the effect of weld pass widths on the mechanical
welding operations on the pipes and pressurized
properties of the material is the subject of this study, the
containers which shall be performed at shop and
heat input during the welding operation has great between the passes is more in number in the multi pass
importance. The concept of heat input is defined in EN welding method, the total time of the single layer single
Standard for Arc welding of ferritic steels; EN 1011-2 pass method is very much shorter as compared to the
[1] and it is stated that the weld pass width should not standard procedure.
exceed the diameter of electrode nucleus by more than
three times in the manual arc welding (MMA, 111) in
order to guarantee that the heat input does not exceed the
acceptable level. The scope of the standard EN 1011-2
includes the materials grouped from group 1 to group 7
as defined in the standard EN 15608: System Standard
for Material Grouping [2]. 10CrMo9-10 (P22) steel as
the subject of this study is included in group 5.2 of EN Figure 2 (a) Weld pass distribution according to the multi
15608 Standard due to its 2.25% chromium content and layer and multi pass standard welding procedure (b) Weld
pass distribution in the single layer -single pass method
1% molybdenum content; therefore recommendations
made under the EN 1011-2 Standard applies to this
material. During the welding procedure, the preliminary annealing
rules defined in the EN 12952-5 Standard [3] was taken
into account and after the welding procedure, the heat
3. Comparison of the Welding Conditions treatment durations and temperatures defined in the same
standard was taken into account. Accordingly, the
In the studies, two sets of experimental welding material preliminary annealing temperature of 100oC was
welded and 10CrM09-10 (P22) steel were used. Each set maintained during the welding procedure and after the
consists of two pipes with a diameter of 6 inches, welding procedure, tension removal and temper
thickness of 18.26 mm and length of 150 mm and has treatment at 720oC was performed. The duration periods
been formed by identical welding grooves shaped as 60o in the heat treatment for stress relief and temper was
V (Figure 1). determined as 4 hours in both procedures by taking into
account the possible repair requirements in the
production processes and for the purpose of using the
procedures in actual production processes. During the
welding operations, the temperature between the passes
was set as 250oC and was never exceeded.

4. Test Results

In the welding procedure tests performed for comparison

Figure 1 Welding Groove Detail
purposes according to EN 15614:1 Standard [4], the
tensile, hot tensile, notch impact toughness and hardness
The first experimental part was welded by electric arc
of the welded samples were measured and the samples
welding on TIG root weld according to the standard
were examined by taking micro-structural images. The
10CRMo9-10 (P22) welding procedures included in
lowest acceptable tensile strength value defined for
imta literature and oscillation up to 3 times of the
10CrM09-10 (P22) material in the EN 10216-2 Standard
electrode nucleus was allowed in each electrode pass.
is 480 MPa and the lowest acceptable notch impact
The second experimental part was welded with the
toughness at the room temperature is 40 J. The chemical
highest possible pass widths by using the pass width
compositions for base and filler materials are given in
equivalent to the width of the necessary welding layer to
table 1.
ensure that each welding layer consists of a single pass in
line with the preliminary welding procedure specification Table 1 Base Metal and Filler Metals Chemical Compositions
provided to the welder. In the tests, when the heat input
values for the part where the single layer was welded in Base and Filler Metals Chemical Compositions
single pass and the heat input value for the welded by C Si Mn Cr Mo
using the standard procedure were compared, in the final 10CrMo9-10 (P22)
pass having the highest oscillation, the heat input of the 0.10 0.25 0.52 2.22 0.92
Base Metal
single layer - single pass method reached to EN ISO 21952-B W 62
approximately 4 times of the heat input consisting of 2C1M Filler Metal 0.09 0.60 0.60 2.50 1.00
welding by using the standard procedure. While the (TIG)
welding arc time in the standard procedure was 1 hour E1EN 1599 E CrMo 2 B 42
and 40 minutes, it lasted 1 hour and 20 minutes in the 0.06 0.30 0.70 2.30 1.10
H5 Filler Metal (MMA)
single layer single pass method. Since the heat waiting
International Congress on Advances in Welding Science and Technology for
Construction, Energy and Transportation Systems (AWST - 2011)
24-25 October 2011, Antalya, Turkey
values at the cap side were similar to each other in both
In the tensile tests, the samples tested at the room procedures.
temperature fractured from the area that is exposed to
welding and to heat and the tensile test results shown in
table 2 were obtained. Accordingly, it was determined
that sufficient tensile strength values were achieved when
both welding procedures were applied.

Table 2 Results of the tensile test performed at the room

Figure 3 Distribution of the hardness values obtained from the
Tensile Strength samples at the welding area, HAZ and primary material area
Welding Procedure
Standard Procedure 515.9
Cap side Hardness Profile (HV10) After Post Weld Heat
Single layer single pass
522.7 Treatment
For both welding procedures, hot tension test was 250

performed at a temperature of 450oC and the results

Hardness Value (HV10)

shown in table 3 were obtained. EN 10216-2 Standard 150 Wide Weave Cap
[5] defines the lower limit for the tensile strength in case 100 Standard Weave Cap
of high temperatures and with respect to the steels
resistant to high temperatures and but odes not provide
any limit for the yield strength. In the hot tensile tests 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
performed, the samples fractured from outside of the Location
welding area and of the area exposed to heat.
Figure 4 Hardness distribution at the cap side after post weld
Table 3 - Results of the tensile strength test performed at 450 C heat treatment
Welding Procedure Tensile Strength
(MPa) at 450C
Standard Procedure 421.6 Root Side Hardness Profile (HV10) After Post Weld Heat
Single layer single pass 425.5 Treatment
Hardness Value (HV10)


Charpy impact toughness test showed that the Charpy 150 Wide Weave Root
Standard Weave Root
impact toughness at the room temperature of the welding 100
area and of the areas exposed to heat are similar to each
other in both procedures and are also higher than the 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

standard requirement (table 4). Location

Table 4 Results of the notch impact toughness test (Charpy) Figure 5 Hardness distribution at the root side after post weld
performed at room temperature heat treatment
Impact toughness at the HAZ Impact
Weld Metal (J) (at room Toughness (J) (at
temperature) room temperature)
The hardness values before the post weld heat treatment
Standard were measured in order to examine the reasons for this
142 288
Procedure hardness difference observed at the root side and
Single layer hardness profiles were determined.
single pass 155 286
Cap Side Hardness Profile (HV10) Before Post Weld Heat

In the hardness screenings performed on the welding

Hardness Value (HV10)

sections for both procedures, the graphics in figure 4 was 300
obtained according to the measurements made in Vickers 200
Wide Weave Cap
Standard Weave Cap
10 kg scale and in line with the hardness profile given in 100
figure 3 and no hardness values that are out the
acceptable values under the EN 15614-1 Standard was 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

determined. The hardness values at the root side of the Location

part welded with the standard procedure were measured

Figure 6 Hardness distribution at the cap side before the post
as 40 HV10 higher at the welding area and at HAZ as weld heat treatment (as-welded condition)
compared to the part welded with the single layer single
pass method. It was also observed that the hardness
Root Side Hardness Profile (HV10) Before Post Weld Heat

Hardness Value


Wide Weave Root

Standard Weave Root

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Figure 7 Hardness distribution at the root direction before the

post weld heat treatment (as-welded condition)

While there are no considerable differences in the

average hardness values at the cap direction for both
procedures also before the post weld heat treatment, the
hardness values of approximately 40 HV10 observed at
the root direction after the stress relief were observed at
this area also before the stress relieving.

When the weld metal and HAZ of 10CrMo9-10 steel

were examined, a ferritic and bainitic structure was
observed (Figure 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b).

Figure 9a and 9b Images of the heat affected zone with different

magnification levels

5. Results and Discussion

As a result of the welding procedures and tests

performed, standard welding procedure and the
procedure applied with the single layer single pass
method were compared and destructive and non-
destructive test results were obtained.

As a result of the non-destructive tests which were

performed with radiographic method for the welding
procedures made with both methods, no discontinuity
that could be defined as a welding defect was observed.

In the tensile tests among the destructive tests, the

fracture occurred in the tensile samples at an area outside
of the welding area and of HAZ for both welding
procedures. The tensile strength values were higher than
the minimum requirement for the material.

Hot tensile test was performed at temperature of 450oC

and fracture in the sample parts taken from the welding
Figure 8a and 8b Images of the weld metal with different made by both procedures occurred at an area outside of
magnification levels the welding area and HAZ for both welding procedures.
The tensile strength values were higher than the
minimum requirement for the material.
International Congress on Advances in Welding Science and Technology for
Construction, Energy and Transportation Systems (AWST - 2011)
24-25 October 2011, Antalya, Turkey
Materials in the quality of 10CrMo9-10 (P22) are those working speed. Further studies to be performed after this
materials operating at high temperature and pressure in study at this field will examine the welding procedures in
the energy plants. As it is expected that the toughness the different welding positions and for the different
values of the material in the quality of 10CrMo9-10 material thicknesses and it would be really practical to
(P22) would rise with the increasing of temperature very examine the possibilities regarding the application of the
much like in other steel alloys, the Charpy impact single layer single pass procedures in production
toughness test is not critical for this material at the processes and the possible means to obtain the
working temperatures. In the tests, the Charpy impact mechanical properties necessary for each of the welding
toughness was measured and compared in the tests positions.
performed at the room temperature. The toughness
values obtained after the tests are higher than the value References
defined in the relevant standard for the welding area and
for HAZ. [1] EN 1011-2: Welding - Recommendations for Welding of
Metallic Materials - Part 2: Arc Welding Of Ferritic Steels,
In the hardness screenings made alongside the welding 2001.
sections, no important difference was observed between [2] EN 15608: Welding-Guidelines for A Metallic Materials
the welding cap side hardness values in the section of Grouping System, 2005.
welding made by both procedures. When the hardness
values of root sides were compared, it was observed that [3] EN 12952-5: Water tube boilers and auxiliary installations Part
5 Workmanship and construction of pressure parts of the
at the weld metal and at HAZ, the sample from the boilers
standard procedure was harder by 40 HV10 than the
sample welded by the single layer single pass method. [4] EN 15614-1: Specification and qualification of welding
These values are the values obtained after the stress procedures for metallic materials - Welding procedure test Part
1: Arc and gas welding of steels and arc welding of nickel and
relieving to be made due to the procedural requirements nickel alloys (Amd.1 2008), 2008.
and standard requirements for the P22 material. For the
purpose of examining the reasons for this difference in [5] EN 10216-2: Non alloy and alloy steel tubes with specified
the hardness values, the hardness values for the same elevated temperature properties, 2007.
parts before the stress relieving were compared and it [6] King, Benjamin, Welding and Post Weld Heat Treatment of
was determined that approximate hardness difference of 2.25%Cr-1%Mo steel, 2005, New South Wales.
40 HV10 at the given areas existed also before the stress http://ro.uow.edu.au/
relieving. On the basis of this data, it was concluded for
the welding procedure applied with single layer single
method that the lower passes at the cap direction were
softened because of the tempering performed after each
pass applied on top of them due to the high heat input
and due to the application of upper passes aimed to cover
all of the welding section. The reason why a similar
situation was not observed in the standard procedure is
based on the fact that weld passes performed with narrow
oscillations would temper only the two passes beneath
and that the passes of the standard procedure at the root
side have lesser tempering cycles as compared to the
single layer single pass procedure.

In the microstructural examinations performed after the

welding and stress relieving, a ferritic and bainitic
structure was observed. In the steels containing %2.25Cr
and %1Mo, the microstructure expected at the weld
metal and at HAZ is ferritic-bainitic and residual
austenite and carbide precipitations are expected [6].

When the results of destructive and non-destructive tests

were examined, it was determined that the material in the
quality of 10CrMo9-10 (P22) could be used in both
welding procedures under the design conditions. The
procedure defined as single layer single pass which
involves welding each welding layer only in a single pass
in the width of the welding groove at the relevant area
might bring considerable advantages in terms of the